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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735441/pathology-of-neuroendocrine-tumours-of-the-female-genital-tract
#1
REVIEW
Brooke E Howitt, Paul Kelly, W Glenn McCluggage
Neuroendocrine tumours are uncommon or rare at all sites in the female genital tract. The 2014 World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the endometrium, cervix, vagina and vulva has been updated with adoption of the terms low-grade neuroendocrine tumour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the endometrium and cervix, high-grade neoplasms are much more prevalent than low-grade and are more common in the cervix than the corpus. In the ovary, low-grade tumours are more common than high-grade carcinomas and the term carcinoid tumour is still used in WHO 2014...
September 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731868/inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumors-of-the-female-genital-tract-are-under-recognized-a-low-threshold-for-alk-immunohistochemistry-is-required
#2
Justine L Pickett, Angela Chou, Juliana A Andrici, Adele Clarkson, Loretta Sioson, Amy Sheen, Jessica Reagh, Fedaa Najdawi, Yoomee Kim, Denise Riley, Jayne Maidens, David Nevell, Kirsten McIlroy, Susan Valmadre, Greg Gard, Russell Hogg, John Turchini, Gregory Robertson, Michael Friedlander, Anthony J Gill
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the female genital tract is under-recognized. We investigated the prevalence of ALK-positive IMT in lesions previously diagnosed as gynecologic smooth muscle tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ALK was performed on tissue microarrays of unselected tumors resected from 2009 to 2013. Three of 1176 (0.26%) "leiomyomas" and 1 of 44 (2.3%) "leiomyosarcomas" were ALK IHC positive, confirmed translocated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and therefore more appropriately classified as IMT...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730269/emergence-of-candida-glabrata-in-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-should-be-attributed-to-selective-pressure-or-virulence-ability
#3
Sandra Sayuri Nakamura-Vasconcelos, Adriana Fiorini, Pamela Delvas Zanni, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Janine Ribeiro Godoy, Adriana Araújo Almeida-Apolonio, Marcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski
PURPOSE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most frequent female genital disorders and Candida glabrata is the second most common agent. Current study was aimed to study the susceptibility to antifungal agents of C. glabrata isolated from vaginal samples and some virulence attributes in order to better understand why this species is emerging as the main VVC agents. METHODS: A total of 60 C. glabrata vaginal isolates were included in this study. Firstly they were screened by susceptibility tests to antifungal agents...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727134/biological-markers-with-potential-clinical-value-in-endometrial-cancer-review-of-the-literature
#4
Nadia Taoussi, Ali Alghamdi, Konrad Futyma, Tomasz Rechberger
Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract encountered in western countries, making it the fourth most common cancer in women. The incidence of uterine cancer is on the rise throughout the developed world where diagnosis is increasingly observed among younger patients. With regard to this, attention has been focused on conducting more studies to achieve a better understanding of the molecular genetics related to endometrial carcinogenesis. Over the years, EC has been classified into two broad histopathological subtypes based on the mechanism of development, and we can therefore observe specific biomarkers related to the respective subtype...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724558/molecular-diagnostics-update-for-the-emerging-if-not-already-widespread-sexually-transmitted-infection-agent-mycoplasma-genitalium-just-about-ready-for-prime-time
#5
Erik Munson
Mycoplasma genitalium is an important and emerging agent of sexually-transmitted infection in both females and males, carrying the potential for post-infection genital tract sequelae. Past efforts to identify this organism on a routine basis, which were problematic due to the fastidious nature of the bacterium and its antigenic intricacies, have recently become supplemented by molecular diagnostics. A number of these assays is available commercially. This mini-review describes the format and performance indices of a number of M...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723709/delivering-prep-to-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-implementation-science-frontier
#6
Dvora L Joseph Davey, Linda-Gail Bekker, Pamina Gorbach, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
: HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum periods remains high despite increased access to and initiation of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, maternal seroconversion during pregnancy and breastfeeding remains a source of significant paediatric HIV infection in the region. In order to curb vertical HIV transmission, HIV acquisition during pregnancy and lactation must significantly decline. Biological and behavioural factors contribute to high HIV incidence, including hormonal changes that alter genital mucosal surfaces, and frequent condomless sex with HIV-infected partners or partners of unknown serostatus...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720448/the-feminization-of-hpv-how-science-politics-economics-and-gender-norms-shaped-u-s-hpv-vaccine-implementation
#7
Ellen M Daley, Cheryl A Vamos, Erika L Thompson, Gregory D Zimet, Zeev Rosberger, Laura Merrell, Nolan S Kline
Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause a number of anogenital cancers (i.e., cervical, penile, anal, vaginal, vulvar) and genital warts. A decade ago, the HPV vaccine was approved, and has been shown to be a public health achievement that can reduce the morbidity and mortality for HPV-associated diseases. Yet, the mistaken over-identification of HPV as a female-specific disease has resulted in the feminization of HPV and HPV vaccines. In this critical review, we trace the evolution of the intersection of science, politics, economics and gender norms during the original HPV vaccine approval, marketing era, and implementation...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718602/-sexual-function-and-clitoral-reconstruction-after-female-genital-mutilation
#8
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli, Patrick Petignat
Evidence on sexual function of women living with female genital mutilation (FGM) and on clitoral reconstruction after FGM is limited. Such surgery is performed in case of chronic clitoral pain, clitoral dyspareunia or for female identity reasons. In this article we summarize the anatomical, psychosexual and sociocultural factors that influence sexual function of women with FGM and the available data on clitoral reconstruction. Surgical resection of the fibrous tissue around the clitoris, with eventual excision of painful post-traumatic neuromas, could improve pain and sexual function...
March 15, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712201/case-of-xanthogranulomatous-oophoritis
#9
Bushra Khan, Aliya Begum Aziz, Rashida Ahmed
Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is characterized by destruction of the tissues of the organ involved and replacement by chronic inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, plasma cells, occasional neutrophils with or without multinucleated or Touton giant cells. Exact aetiology is not known but the theory of infection with organisms like Proteus, E coli, and Bacteroides fragilis is most popular. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract is not common and usually involves the endometrium; however, xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the ovaries is a rare entity...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710294/steroid-hormone-receptors-and-direct-effects-of-steroid-hormones-on-ram-spermatozoa
#10
Silvia Gimeno-Martos, Marta González-Arto, Adriana Casao, Margarita Gallego, Jose A Cebrian-Perez, Teresa Muino Blanco, Rosaura Perez-Pe
This study was based on the assumption that steroid hormones present in the female genital tract may have a rapid effect on ram spermatozoa by interaction with specific surface receptors. We demonstrate the presence of progesterone (PR) and estrogen (ER) receptors in ram spermatozoa, their localization changes during in vitro capacitation and the actions of progesterone (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2) on ram sperm functionality. Immunolocalization assays revealed the presence of PR mainly at the equatorial region of ram spermatozoa...
July 14, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709484/concomitant-female-genital-tuberculosis-and-endometriosis
#11
Jai Bhagwan Sharma, Manu Goyal, Sunesh Kumar, Kallol Kumar Roy, Eshani Sharma, Raksha Arora
AIMS: To demonstrate an association between female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) and endometriosis. METHODS: A total of 16 women who underwent laparoscopy (12 cases) or laparotomy (4 cases) and were found to have female genital tuberculosis and endometriosis were enrolled in this retrospective study. RESULTS: The mean age and parity were 28.2 years and 0.2, respectively. Past history of tuberculosis was present in 75% of the women (pulmonary in 50%)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704504/sanitation-practices-and-perceptions-in-kakuma-refugee-camp-kenya-comparing-the-status-quo-with-a-novel-service-based-approach
#12
Raymond Nyoka, Andrew D Foote, Emily Woods, Hana Lokey, Ciara E O'Reilly, Fred Magumba, Patrick Okello, Eric D Mintz, Nina Marano, Jamae F Morris
Globally, an estimated 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation. Unimproved sanitation increases the risk of morbidity and mortality, especially in protracted refugee situations where sanitation is based on pit latrine use. Once the pit is full, waste remains in the pit, necessitating the construction of a new latrine, straining available land and funding resources. A viable, sustainable solution is needed. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to design, implement, and pilot a novel sanitation system in Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702202/-khoudiadiopia-massiliensis-gen-nov-sp-nov-strain-marseille-p2746t-t-a%C3%A2-new-bacterial-genus-isolated-from-the-female-genital-tract
#13
A Diop, D Raoult, F Fenollar, P-E Fournier
We report the main characteristics of 'Khoudiadiopia massiliensis' gen. nov., sp. nov., strain Marseille-P2746(T) (= CSUR P2746), a new member of the Peptoniphilaceae family isolated from a vaginal swab of a patient suffering from bacterial vaginosis.
September 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701899/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-the-nine-valent-hpv-vaccine-in-italy
#14
Francesco Saverio Mennini, Paolo Bonanni, Florence Bianic, Chiara de Waure, Gianluca Baio, Giacomo Plazzotta, Mathieu Uhart, Alessandro Rinaldi, Nathalie Largeron
BACKGROUND: In Italy HPV vaccination with the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil(®)) is offered actively and free of charge to girls aged 12 since 2007. A nine-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9(®)) received the European market authorization in 2015 to protect, with only 2 doses, against around 90% of all HPV positive cancers, over 80% of high-grade precancerous lesions and 90% of genital warts caused by HPV types 6/11. METHODS: A dynamic transmission model simulating the natural history of HPV-infections was calibrated to the Italian setting and used to estimate costs and QALYs associated with vaccination strategies...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700439/genital-rhabdomyoma-of-the-lower-female-genital-tract-a-study-of-12-cases-with-molecular-cytogenetic-findings
#15
J Kenneth Schoolmeester, Deyin Xing, Gary L Keeney, William R Sukov
Of the subtypes of extracardiac rhabdomyoma, genital rhabdomyoma is most uncommon and is occasionally classified as fetal rhabdomyoma due to morphologic similarities. In contrast to other forms of rhabdomyoma, the genetic alterations of genital rhabdomyoma are unknown. The clinical and pathologic findings in 12 cases were reviewed and 2 cases were processed for whole genome copy number analysis by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray. Twelve patients ranged in age from 43 to 65 yr (mean: 50.2 yr). Nine tumors arose in the vagina and 3 in the cervix, with their greatest dimension spanning 0...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700424/uterine-carcinosarcomas-clinical-histopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics
#16
Xiaowei Chen, Rebecca Arend, Diane Hamele-Bena, Ana I Tergas, Melanie Hawver, Guo-Xia Tong, Thomas C Wright, Jason D Wright
Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Müllerian tumors or MMMT) are rare malignant tumors in the female genital tract composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal components. They comprise <5% of all neoplasms in the gynecologic tract and have an aggressive clinical course. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunophenotype and possible histogenesis of carcinosarcomas of the uterus. Sixty-two cases of uterine carcinosarcomas diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 were retrieved from the gynecologic pathology files at Columbia University Medical Center...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699446/slow-decline-in-new-fgm-cases-shows-need-for-more-school-nurses-says-rcn
#17
(no author information available yet)
The RCN has responded to the latest national figures on female genital mutilation (FGM), saying more school nurses are needed to tackle the problem.
July 12, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698755/primary-fallopian-tube-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Meral Rexhepi, Elizabeta Trajkovska, Hysni Ismaili, Florin Besimi, Nagip Rufati
BACKGROUND: Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is a rare tumour of the female genital tract with an incidence of 0.1-1.8% of all genital malignancies, and it is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively, because of its non-specific symptomatology. In most cases, it is an intraoperative finding or a histopathological diagnosis. It is a tumour that histologically and clinically resembles epithelial ovarian cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: We are reporting a case of a 62-year-old, postmenopausal women with primary fallopian tube carcinoma of the right fallopian tube in stage IA...
June 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694157/how-methamphetamine-exposure-during-different-neurodevelopmental-stages-affects-social-behavior-of-adult-rats
#19
Ivana Hrebíčková, Mária Ševčíková, Eva Macúchová, Romana Šlamberová
Social behavior involves complex of different forms of interactions between individuals that is essential for healthy mental and physical development throughout lifespan. Psychostimulants, including methamphetamine (MA), have neurotoxic effect, especially, if they are targeting CNS during its critical periods of development. The present study was aimed on evaluation of changes in social interactions (SI) following scheduled prenatal/neonatal MA treatment in combination with acute application in adulthood. Eight groups of male and eight groups of female rats were tested in adulthood: rats, whose mothers were exposed to MA (5mg/ml/kg) or saline (SA, 1ml/kg) during the first half of gestation (ED 1-11), the second half of gestation (ED 12-22) and neonatal period (PD 1-11)...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693610/gata3-is-a-sensitive-marker-for-primary-genital-extramammary-paget-disease-an-immunohistochemical-study-of-72-cases-with-comparison-to-gross-cystic-disease-fluid-protein-15
#20
Ming Zhao, Lixin Zhou, Li Sun, Yan Song, Yunquan Guo, Xun Zhang, Feng Zhao, Peng Wang, Junqiu Yue, Dongfeng Niu, Zhongwu Li, Xiaozheng Huang, Qiang Kang, Lin Jia, Jinping Lai, Dengfeng Cao
BACKGROUND: GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) has been identified as a sensitive marker for breast carcinoma but its sensitivity in primary genital extramammary Paget diseases (EMPDs) has not been well studied. METHODS: Here we investigated immunohistochemical expression of GATA3 in 72 primary genital EMPDs (35 from female, 37 from male; 45 with intraepithelial disease only, 26 with both intraepithelial disease and invasive adenocarcinoma including 14 also metastasis, 1 with metastatic adenocarcinoma only for study)...
July 10, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
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