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female genital

Melissa J Brown, Damian Satterthwaite-Phillips
BACKGROUND: It is a wide-spread assumption about footbinding that footbound girls and women were more of an economic burden on their families than those never bound. It is often presumed that government policies and missionary campaigns ended footbinding. METHODS/ OBJECTIVES: We use regression and log-likelihood tests, with bootstrapping for confirmation, to analyze which of a series of ethnographically and historically hypothesized variables significantly correlate with footbinding...
2018: PloS One
Laurent Abramowitz, Jean Lacau Saint Guily, Micheline Moyal-Barracco, Christine Bergeron, Hélène Borne, André Dahlab, Xavier Bresse, Mathieu Uhart, Charlotte Cancalon, Laura Catella, Stève Bénard
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection is now known to be responsible for almost all cervical cancers, and for a substantial fraction of Head and Neck cancers (HNCs). However, comprehensive epidemiological and economic data is lacking in France, especially for rarer potentially HPV-related cancers, which include anal, vulvar and vaginal cancers. Using the national comprehensive database of French public and private hospital information (PMSI), we assessed prevalence and incidence of patients with in-hospital diagnosis for potentially HPV-related cancers in 2013, and estimated costs related to their management over a 3-year period after diagnosis in France...
2018: PloS One
M Villarroel-Torrico, K Montaño, P Flores-Arispe, E Jeannot, A Flores-León, N Cossio, C Valencia-Rivero, A Salcedo-Meneses, M Jiménez-Velasco, R Castro-Soto, G Gétaz-Jiménez, H Bermúdez-Paredes, H Wolff, L Gétaz
Objective: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and herpes type 2 (HSV2) among women in the prison of San Sebastian in Cochabamba (Bolivia). Material and methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study including a standardized questionnaire to assess socio-demographics characteristics and risk factors (sexual practices and exposure to blood); and serological tests for syphilis, HSV2, VIH, and HBV...
May 2018: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
Evelyn Sakeah, Cornelius Debpuur, Abraham Rexford Oduro, Paul Welaga, Raymond Aborigo, James Kotuah Sakeah, Cheryl A Moyer
BACKGROUND: Globally, three million girls are at risk of female genital mutilation (FGM) and an estimated 200 million girls and women in the world have undergone FGM. While the overall prevalence of FGM in Ghana is 4%, studies have shown that the overall prevalence in the Upper East Region is 38%, with Bawku municipality recording the highest at 82%. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional design with a quantitative approach: a survey with women of reproductive age (15-49)...
September 18, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Cevdet Adigüzel, Yılmaz Baş, Mehmet Deniz Erhan, Maimuna Abdi Gelle
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common sociocultural practice in many communities in Africa. Unfortunately, what females are forced to accept because they are helpless, in order to be an individual in social life and in the country they live in, is an important health issue that is not only harmful to the human body but also against human rights. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the wishes, knowledge and attitude of Somali women regarding FMG/C...
September 18, 2018: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
M Efrat, A Stein, H Pinkas, H Breitbart, R Unger, R Birk
BACKGROUND: Sperm capacitation is essential for proper fertilization and is associated with increased sperm hyperactivity (HA) and acrosome reaction (AR). For successful fertilization, AR timing is critical; accordingly, early spontaneous AR may not facilitate fertilization. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) possesses antioxidant properties which affect sperm capacitation. The association between PON1, semen parameters, and capacitation is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To study PON1 activity in relation to human sperm hyperactivity and AR...
September 17, 2018: Andrology
Penelope C Kahn, Dennis D Cao, Mercedes Burns, Sarah L Boyer
Nuptial gifts are material donations given from male to female before or during copulation and are subject to sexual selection in a wide variety of taxa. The harvestman genus Leiobunum has emerged as a model system for understanding the evolution of reproductive morphology and behavior, as transitions between solicitous and antagonistic modes of courtship have occurred multiple times within the lineage and are correlated with convergence in genital morphology. We analyzed the free amino acid content of nuptial gift secretions from five species of Leiobunum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
July 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Miguel García-Villarino, Isolina Riaño-Galán, Ana Cristina Rodriguez-Dehli, Esther Vizcaíno, Joan O Grimalt, Adonina Tardón, Ana Fernández-Somoano
BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD) is a measure of in utero exposure to hormonally active agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and AGD. METHODS: POP levels were measured in pregnant women, and the AGD was recorded in 43 offspring at 18 months. We used linear regression models to analyze the association between maternal POP exposure and offspring AGD. We defined the anogenital index (AGI) as AGD divided by weight at 18 months (AGI = AGD / weight at 18 months [mm/kg]) and included this variable in the regression models...
September 13, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Miroslav L Djordjevic
The current management of female to male (FTM) gender confirmation surgery is based on the advances in neo phalloplasty, perioperative care and the knowledge of the female genital anatomy, as well as the changes that occur to this anatomy with preoperative hormonal changes in transgender population. Reconstruction of the neophallus is one of the most difficult elements in surgical treatment of female transsexuals. While there is a variety of available surgical techniques, their results are not equally acceptable to all patients...
August 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Kentaro M Tanaka, Yoshitaka Kamimura, Aya Takahashi
Mechanical incompatibility of male and female genitalia is common in animals with internal fertilization. However, our knowledge regarding the precise mechanisms is limited. One key question regards the susceptibility of the match between male and female genitalia to morphological modification. To address this issue, we generated six different second-chromosome introgression lines possessing partially Drosophila mauritiana-like genital morphology in multiple structures in D. simulans background. Three of the six introgression males showed elevated mobility at some stages during copulation with D...
September 10, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Guillaume Le Baut, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Guillaume Bouguen, Jean-Marc Gornet, Carmen Stefanescu, Aurélien Amiot, David Laharie, Romain Altwegg, Mathurin Fumery, Caroline Trang, Lucine Vuitton, Marion Simon, Cyrielle Gilletta de Saint Joseph, Stéphane Nahon, Ludovic Caillo, Emilie Del Tedesco, Laurianne Plastaras, Alexandre Aubourg, Guillaume Pineton de Chambrun, Philippe Seksik, Stéphanie Viennot
BACKGROUND: Genital fistulas represent a devastating complication of Crohn's disease. Only studies with small sample sizes have evaluated the efficacy of anti-TNF therapy for this complication. AIMS: To assess the efficacy of anti-TNF therapy for genital fistulas complicating Crohn's disease and to identify predictive factors associated with clinical response at 1 year. METHODS: Consecutive patients treated with anti-TNF therapy for genital fistulas complicating Crohn's disease from 1999 to 2016 in 19 French centres from the Groupe d'Etude Therapeutique des Affections Inflammatoires du tube Digestif were included in a retrospective cohort study...
September 7, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Malin Jordal, Anna Wahlberg
Due to migration, health care needs in relation to female genital cutting (FGC) are increasingly emerging in European health care contexts, with Sweden being no exception. Recent estimates suggest that up to 38 000 girls and women with some form of FGC are living in Sweden, the majority from Somalia. Despite receiving high numbers of immigrants from FGC practising countries, health care services in many European countries seem largely unprepared in caring for circumcised patients. This literature review aims to identify challenges involved in providing quality care for circumcised women in Sweden...
October 2018: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
Aaron D Coleman, Janeen L Arbuckle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abnormal development of the uterus, cervix, and proximal 2/3 of the vagina results in Müllerian duct anomalies. Because of the close embryologic relationship between the developing female genital and urinary tracts, abnormalities of the urinary tract often accompany Müllerian duct anomalies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current gold standard-imaging modality in the evaluation of the anomalies of the female reproductive tract. This article discusses the imaging evaluation of Müllerian duct and accompanying urinary tract anomalies with a particular focus on the MRI findings...
September 6, 2018: Current Urology Reports
Nichola Haddad, Rebecca H Allen, Daria Szkwarko, Michelle Forcier, Cherie Paquette
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) causing nearly all cases of cervical carcinoma and genital condyloma worldwide. While HPV vaccination rates are higher in Rhode Island compared to other states, still 27% of female adolescents are not fully vaccinated. The requirement for parental consent for vaccination administration poses a barrier to HPV vaccine uptake and hinders adolescent autonomy. This requirement lies in stark contrast to the goals of the Family Planning Title X Program, which provides all adolescents with access to contraception and STI prevention and treatment without parental consent...
September 4, 2018: Rhode Island Medical Journal
M Larsabal, S Ly, E Sbidian, M Moyal-Barracco, J-N Dauendorffer, N Dupin, M A Richard, O Chosidow, M Beylot-Barry
BACKGROUND: Genital psoriasis is often under-recognised. OBJECTIVE: To assess instantaneous prevalence of genital psoriasis, describe its clinical features, association with a subtype of psoriasis and its impact on general and sexual quality of life (QOL). METHODS: GENIPSO is a prospective study conducted by private and hospital-based dermatologists:consecutive inclusion of patients consulting for extra-genital psoriasis;capture of clinical features of psoriasis and genital psoriasis;distribution of QOL and sexual health questionnaires to patients...
September 6, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Nasser Keikha, Mahdieh Shafaghat, Seyed Mohamad Mousavia, Mahdiyeh Moudi, Farshid Keshavarzi
Background and Purpose: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections in female genital organs, which is caused by Candida species. Candida albicans is the causative agent of more than 80% of infections, and the role of non- Candida strains in the disease etiology is less prominent. The expansion of Azoles resistance among C. albicans strains is considered an important medical problem. According to previous studies, Vitex agnus-castus (vitex) has some antimicrobial effects...
March 2018: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
R R Bayoumi, S van der Poel, E Z El Samani, J Boivin
The World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank have identified infertility as a global public health issue. Since the 1980s, WHO has advocated for a focus on prevention, especially where the burden of prevalence is highest, specifically in women from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of the two studies presented here is to demonstrate a process to enhance implementation efforts in fertility awareness programmes that could assist in preventing some forms of infertility, and increase understanding of factors that could result in fertility problems...
August 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
Kristen Stearns, Antoun Al Khabbaz
Congenital Mullerian duct anomalies are conditions involving the female genital tract. Cases of complex Mullerian duct anomalies with involvement of the renal system are rare. Occasionally, these cases can be associated with obstetrical complications. Cervical prolapse infrequently complicates pregnancy, and an association between uterine malformations and cervical prolapse has not been cited in the literature. We describe the case of a primigravid patient at 38 weeks of gestation noted to have cervical prolapse during evaluation for preeclampsia and labor induction...
2018: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Du-Min Go, Sang-Ho Woo, Su-Hyung Lee, Soo-Whan Kwon, Dong-Hee Chung, Soong-Hee Youn, Eun Jung, Dae-Yong Kim
A 13-year-old female scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) died after progressive anorexia, weight loss, and depression. The necropsy showed that the retroperitoneum was compressed by a large white-to-tan uterine mass and on several sections of the mass, the uterine wall was markedly thickened because of ill-defined transmural tumor tissue. Metastatic nodules were detected in the omentum, mesentery, diaphragm, and lung. The genital tract and pulmonary and abdominal nodules exhibited highly pleomorphic sarcoma...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
A Saad Abdalla, Anita Lazarevska, Mohammed Murwan Omer, Elizabeth Tan, Amira Asaad, Sharlini Sathananthan
The most common sites of invasive breast cancer metastasis are the lungs, liver, bones and brain. Less frequent sites include the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, spleen, thyroid, adrenals, kidneys, heart and female genital tract. The uterus is reported as a rare site for metastasis, and even more so for an isolated metastasis. Other sites of extra-genital sources for uterine metastases include the colon, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, lung, cutaneous melanoma, urinary bladder and thyroid. The rarity of breast cancer metastasis to the uterine cervix could be explained by the fact that the cervix has a small blood supply and an afferent lymph drainage system alone...
July 2018: Chirurgia
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