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female genital

Zhiyu Li, Qi Wu, Junlong Song, Yimin Zhang, Shan Zhu, Shengrong Sun
Breast cancer survivors are at an increased risk of second primary cancers, and the risk factors for the latter may have clinical significance. The aims of our study were to evaluate the incidences and risk factors of second primary female genital cancers (corpus uteri, cervix uteri plus ovary) in a large cohort of breast cancer survivors. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we examined the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and risk factors for second primary female genital cancers observed between 2000 and 2014...
March 19, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Eshan U Patel, Charlotte A Gaydos, Zoe R Packman, Thomas C Quinn, Aaron A R Tobian
Background: The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in the United States is poorly defined. Methods: Males and females aged 18-59 years who participated in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and provided a urine specimen were tested for TV infection (n = 4057). Participants were also examined for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Aisha Nazli, Sara Dizzell, Muhammad Atif Zahoor, Victor H Ferreira, Jessica Kafka, Matthew William Woods, Michel Ouellet, Ali A Ashkar, Michel J Tremblay, Dawn Me Bowdish, Charu Kaushic
More than 40% of HIV infections occur via female reproductive tract (FRT) through heterosexual transmission. Epithelial cells that line the female genital mucosa are the first line of defense against HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted pathogens. These sentient cells recognize and respond to external stimuli by induction of a range of carefully balanced innate immune responses. Previously, we have shown that in response to HIV-1 gp120, the genital epithelial cells (GECs) from upper reproductive tract induce an inflammatory response that may facilitate HIV-1 translocation and infection...
March 19, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Marjan Waterloos, Tom Claeys, Maxime Sempels, Erik Van Laecke, Piet Hoebeke, Anne-Françoise Spinoit
The adrenogenital syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder in which an enzyme defect in the steroid pathway leads to excessive prenatal exposure of androgens. In the female fetus, masculinization of the external genitalia is observed. Surgery aims for functional and aesthetical reconstruction. Many techniques have been described. A video of our modified pull-through reconstruction technique is hereby presented. A retrospective descriptive database was created with patients who underwent genitoplasty for a CAH-associated genital condition...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Suman K Paine, Analabha Basu, Rajib Gon Choudhury, Basudev Bhattacharya, Sidhartha Chatterjee, Chandra Bhattacharya
AIM: Genital tuberculosis (GTB) is a potent contributor to irreversible damage to the reproductive system and infertility in females. As no gold standard diagnostic tool is yet available, clinical suspicion and relatively insensitive approaches such as histopathology, laparoscopy and hysterosalpingogram are currently critical determinants in the diagnosis of GTB. Although a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay using endometrial tissue seems promising, sampling does require an invasive procedure...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Dorit Schöller, Marieke Hölting, Diana Stefanescu, Helen Burow, Birgitt Schönfisch, Katharina Rall, Florin-Andrei Taran, Grigoris F Grimbizis, Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo, Sara Y Brucker
PURPOSE: Several classification systems for female genital tract anomalies exist but are of limited use in clinical practice. We, therefore, assessed the applicability and ease of use of the new ESHRE/ESGE classification, using only patient records. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center, proof-of-principle study systematically analyzed the surgical reports and other hospital records of 920 inpatients and outpatients treated for confirmed female genital tract congenital malformations at a major German university hospital during 2003-2013...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
I Nikas, A Hapfelmeier, M Mollenhauer, D Angermeier, M Bettstetter, R Götz, M Schmidmayr, V Seifert-Klauss, A Muckenhuber, U Schenck, Gregor Weirich
Pathogenic microbes may colonize the female genital tract via sexual transmission and cause health issues like inflammation or malignancy, summarized as sexually transmitted disease (STD). A major representative of such pathogens is Trichomonas vaginalis (T.v.), whose role in the etiology of cervical cancer remains elusive. Traditional morphologic screening of cervical smears is able to detect T.v., although its identification may be complicated by look-alikes such as degenerated granulocytes and basal cells...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Thomas W Gaither, Mohannad A Awad, Gregory P Murphy, Ian Metzler, Thomas Sanford, Michael L Eisenberg, Siobhan Sutcliffe, E Charles Osterberg, Benjamin N Breyer
BACKGROUND: Bicycle riding has become an increasingly popular mode of transportation and exercise, especially among women, and previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between cycling and sexual dysfunction, albeit using non-validated questionnaires. AIM: We aimed to explore the relationship between cycling and sexual and urinary dysfunction. METHODS: Cyclists were recruited to complete a survey through Facebook advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs across 5 English-speaking countries...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Piera Valenti, Luigi Rosa, Daniela Capobianco, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Elisa Schiavi, Antimo Cutone, Rosalba Paesano, Paola Mastromarino
The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yufei Chen, Yannick L Traore, Sidi Yang, Julie Lajoie, Keith R Fowke, Daniel W Rickey, Emmanuel A Ho
Evidence suggests that women who are naturally resistant to HIV infection exhibit low baseline immune activation at the female genital tract (FGT). This "immune quiescent" state is associated with lower expression of T-cell activation markers, reduced levels of gene transcription and pro-inflammatory cytokine or chemokine production involved in HIV infection while maintaining an intact immune response against pathogens. Therefore, if this unique immune quiescent state can be pharmacologically induced locally, it will provide an excellent women-oriented strategy against HIV infection To our knowledge, this is the first research article evaluating in vivo, an innovative trackable implant that can provide controlled delivery of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to successfully attenuate vaginal T lymphocyte activation and inflammation in a rabbit model as a potential strategy to induce an "immune quiescent" state within the FGT for the prevention of HIV infection...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Kamil Pohlodek, Peter Jáni, Iveta Mečiarová
A granular cell tumor (GCT), is a rare soft tissue tumor which may occur throughout the body, usually in the head and neck, skin or subcutaneous tissues of the trunk and upper extremities, and female genital region. A total of 5-8% of all cases of GCTs occur in the breast. GCT of the breast may mimic breast cancer both clinically and radiologically. GCTs are usually benign and solitary; however, approximately 2% occur as malignant tumors. Benign GCTs are treated with wide local excision and are associated with a good prognosis...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Samuel Kimani, Bettina Shell-Duncan
Purpose of Review: Female genital cutting/mutilation (FGM/C) performed by health care professionals (medicalization) and reduced severity of cutting have been advanced as strategies for minimizing health risks, sparking acrimonious ongoing debates. This study summarizes key debates and critically assesses supporting evidence. Recent Findings: While medicalization is concentrated in Africa, health professionals worldwide have faced requests to perform FGM/C. Whether medicalization is hindering the decline of FGM/C is unclear...
2018: Current Sexual Health Reports
Sara Johnsdotter
Purpose of Review: The purpose of this review was to explore current research on the impact of migration on issues related to female genital cutting and sexuality. Recent Findings: There is growing evidence that migration results in a broad opposition to female genital cutting among concerned migrant groups in western countries. In addition, after migration, affected women live in the midst of a dominant discourse categorizing them as "mutilated" and sexually disfigured...
2018: Current Sexual Health Reports
Ai Shimizu, Toshihiko Hoashi, Kasho Kataoka, Noriko Shirakawa, Nobuko Mayumi, Yoko Funasaka, Hidehisa Saeki
Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an uncommon, distinct type of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Here we present two cases of VC, one arising from the lower leg and the other from genital skin. Case 1, a female patient, aged 95 years, had a brownish verrucous plaque on her right lower leg. Histopathologically, epithelial tumor cells grew pushing the stroma, while the basement membrane was intact. No prominent cellular atypia or hyperchromatin was found. Case 2, a male patient, aged 53 years, had a verrucous plaque at the border between his scrotum and inner aspect of his thigh...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Adel Hussein Elduma
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation or female circumcision (FGM) is a serious health problem in Sudan. This procedure is harmful to women and causes many complications during pregnancy and childbirth. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the female genital mutilation (FGM) and its associated factors in Sudan. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS - UNICEF) was used in this research. The survey was carried out in 2014 and included women aged between 14 - 49 years...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Paloma Del C Monroig-Bosque, Ekene I Okoye
Mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital defects of the female genital system that arise from abnormal embryological development of the Mullerian ducts. Septate uterus is the most common, resulting from incomplete resorption of the medial septum after fusion of the Mullerian ducts. Two main types of septate uterus exist, including septa that extend completely or partially from the uterine fundus to the cervical os. The combination of a uterine septum with a double cervix has been previously described; however, in most cases the septum was complete...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Ivan Mañero, Trinidad Labanca
BACKGROUND: Clitoral reconstruction after genital mutilation is a feasible and effective strategy to reduce clitoral pain, improve sexual pleasure, and restore vulvar appearance. TECHNIQUE: We describe a novel surgical technique for clitorolabial reconstruction using a vaginal graft. EXPERIENCE: We present a series of 32 consecutive women who underwent this procedure at Iván Mañero Clinic, Barcelona, Spain, and were prospectively followed...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Xiao-Yu Yu, Fei Fu, Wen-Na Kong, Qian-Kun Xuan, Dong-Hua Wen, Xiao-Qing Chen, Yong-Ming He, Li-Hua He, Jian Guo, Ai-Ping Zhou, Yang-Hong Xi, Li-Jun Ni, Yu-Feng Yao, Wen-Juan Wu
Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans often co-colonize the female genital tract, and under certain conditions induce mucosal inflammation. The role of the interaction between the two organisms in candidal vaginitis is not known. In this study, we found that co-infection with S. agalactiae significantly attenuated the hyphal development of C. albicans , and that EFG1 -Hwp1 signal pathway of C. albicans was involved in this process. In a mouse model of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), the fungal burden and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α showed a increase on co-infection with S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nina V Palkola, Sari H Pakkanen, Oskari Heikinheimo, Jussi M Kantele, Anu Kantele
Mucosal antibodies constitute the first line of adaptive immune defence against invaders in the female genital tract (FGT), yet the sequence of events leading to their production is surprisingly poorly characterized. We explored the induction of pathogen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) as a response to an acute infection in the upper FGT. We recruited 12 patients undergoing surgery due to an upper FGT infection (7/12 blood culture positive, 5/12 negative) and six healthy controls. Pathogens were sampled during surgery and PBMC collected in the acute phase of the disease (days 7-10)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Beáta Gavurová, Boris Popesko, Janusz K Grabara, Samuel Koróny
AIM: Access to primary health care is highly connected to the prevention of cancer mortality, since the risk factors threatening health can be early identified. The aim of this paper is, firstly, to explore similarity within and between the regions of the Slovak Republic and cancer mortality patterns, and secondly, to reveal if similar regions are characterised by the similar access to health care or risk factors occurrence. METHODS: Data on deaths by sex, type of cancer death and region from 1996 to 2014 is provided by the National Health Information Centre of Slovakia...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
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