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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#1
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077092/phylogenetic-analysis-of-ionotropic-l-glutamate-receptor-genes-in-the-bilateria-with-special-notes-on-aplysia-californica
#2
Justin B Greer, Sawsan Khuri, Lynne A Fieber
BACKGROUND: The neurotransmitter L-Glutamate (L-Glu) acting at ionotropic L-Glu receptors (iGluR) conveys fast excitatory signal transmission in the nervous systems of all animals. iGluR-dependent neurotransmission is a key component of the synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. During learning, two subtypes of iGluR, α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), are dynamically regulated postsynaptically in vertebrates...
January 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073836/ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-activate-cell-signaling-in-response-to-glutamate-in-schwann-cells
#3
Wendy M Campana, Elisabetta Mantuano, Pardis Azmoon, Kenneth Henry, Michael A Banki, John H Kim, Donald P Pizzo, Steven L Gonias
In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) demonstrate surveillance activity, detecting injury and undergoing trans-differentiation to support repair. SC receptors that detect peripheral nervous system injury remain incompletely understood. We used RT-PCR to profile ionotropic glutamate receptor expression in cultured SCs. We identified subunits required for assembly of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors (NMDA-R), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, and kainate receptors...
January 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067294/variant-ionotropic-receptors-in-the-malaria-vector-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae-tuned-to-amines-and-carboxylic-acids
#4
R Jason Pitts, Stephen L Derryberry, Zhiwei Zhang, Laurence J Zwiebel
The principal Afrotropical human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, remains a significant threat to global health. A critical component in the transmission of malaria is the ability of An. gambiae females to detect and respond to human-derived chemical kairomones in their search for blood meal hosts. The basis for host odor responses resides in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that express chemoreceptors encoded by large gene families, including the odorant receptors (ORs) and the variant ionotropic receptors (IRs)...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065671/glutamine-triggers-long-lasting-increase-in-striatal-network-activity-in-vitro
#5
Wiebke Fleischer, Stephan Theiss, Alfons Schnitzler, Olga Sergeeva
Accumulation of ammonium and glutamine in blood and brain is a key factor in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) - a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by various cognitive and motor deficits. MRI imaging identified abnormalities notably in the basal ganglia of HE patients, including its major input station, the striatum. While neurotoxic effects of ammonia have been extensively studied, glutamine is primarily perceived as "detoxified" form of ammonia. We applied ammonium and glutamine to striatal and cortical cells from newborn rats cultured on microelectrode arrays...
January 6, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059141/the-molecular-sensory-machinery-of-a-chagas-disease-vector-expression-changes-through-imaginal-moult-and-sexually-dimorphic-features
#6
Jose Manuel Latorre-Estivalis, Hugh M Robertson, Kimberly K O Walden, Jerônimo Ruiz, Leilane Oliveira Gonçalves, Alessandra A Guarneri, Marcelo Gustavo Lorenzo
The triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus is a main vector of Chagas disease, which affects several million people, mostly in Latin-America. Host searching, pheromone communication, and microclimatic preferences are aspects of its behaviour that depend on multimodal sensory inputs. The molecular bases of these sensory processes are largely unknown. The expression levels of genes transcribed in antennae were compared between 5(th) instar larvae, and female and male adults by means of RNA-Seq. The antennae of R. prolixus showed increased expression of several chemosensory-related genes in imaginal bugs, while both sexes had similar expression patterns for most target genes...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058465/fish-oil-supplementation-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-alleviates-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats-submitted-to-repeated-lipopolysaccharide
#7
Ruili Dang, Xueyuan Zhou, Mimi Tang, Pengfei Xu, Xiaoxue Gong, Yuanyuan Liu, Hongxiao Jiao, Pei Jiang
PURPOSE: Depression is frequently associated with inflammation, whereas omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) primarily found in fish oil possess anti-inflammatory properties. Although converging studies suggest an antidepressant effect of PUFAs, there is limited evidence directly linking the neuro-immune modulating features of PUFAs to the antidepressant actions. METHODS: Therefore, we assessed the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on behavioral changes, inflammatory cytokine expression and oxidative reactions in frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats following repeated peripheral immune challenge by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 2 weeks (500 μg/kg every other day)...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051046/typhoid-perforation-post-operative-intensive-care-unit-care-and-outcome
#8
Mukaila Oyegbade Akinwale, Arinola A Sanusi, Oluwaseun K Adebayo
BACKGROUND: Typhoid perforation ileitis is a serious complication of typhoid fever, a common and unfortunate health problem in a resource-poor country like Nigeria. Following bowel perforation, treatment is usually by simple closure or bowel resection and anastomosis after adequate aggressive fluid resuscitation and electrolyte correction. Postoperatively, some of these patients do require management in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) on account of sepsis or septic shock and to improve survival...
October 2016: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039451/high-throughput-proteome-analysis-reveals-targeted-trpm8-degradation-in-prostate-cancer
#9
Swapna Asuthkar, Lusine Demirkhanyan, Samuel Robert Mueting, Alejandro Cohen, Eleonora Zakharian
The Ca2+-permeable ion channel TRPM8 is a hallmark of the prostate epithelium. We recently discovered that TRPM8 is an ionotropic testosterone receptor. This finding suggested that testosterone-induced TRPM8 activity regulates Ca2+ homeostasis in the prostate epithelium. Since androgens are significantly implicated in prostate cancer development, the role of the novel testosterone receptor TRPM8 in cancer was assessed in our study. Although TRPM8 mRNA levels increase at the early prostate cancer stages, we found that it is not proportionally translated into TRPM8 protein levels...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034824/development-of-chitosan-nanocapsules-for-the-controlled-release-of-hexaconazole
#10
Neetu Chauhan, Neeraj Dilbaghi, Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar, Ki-Hyun Kim, Sandeep Kumar
Accelerated use of pesticides in cutting edge agriculture prompted us to explore smart nanoformulations to subside the consumption of these perilous chemicals. Polymer nanocapsules carrying a fungicide, hexaconazole were developed through ionotropic gelation method utilizing chitosan and tripolyphosphate (TPP). The nanocapsules were characterized by photon correlation spectroscope (PCS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscope. Nanocapsules were optimized for size and high encapsulation efficiency using central composite design (CCD) software...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028122/evolution-of-chemosensory-gene-families-in-arthropods-insight-from-the-first-inclusive-comparative-transcriptome-analysis-across-spider-appendages
#11
Joel Vizueta, Cristina Frías-López, Nuria Macías-Hernández, Miquel A Arnedo, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, Julio Rozas
Unlike hexapods and vertebrates, in chelicerates, knowledge of the specific molecules involved in chemoreception comes exclusively from the comparative analysis of genome sequences. Indeed, the genomes of mites, ticks and spiders contain several genes encoding homologs of some insect membrane receptors and small soluble chemosensory proteins. Here, we conducted for the first time a comprehensive comparative RNA-Seq analysis across different body structures of a chelicerate: the nocturnal wandering hunter spider Dysdera silvatica Schmidt 1981...
December 27, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027456/immunohistochemical-localization-of-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-the-rat-red-nucleus
#12
Zehra Minbay, Sema Serter Kocoglu, Duygu Gok Yurtseven, Ozhan Eyigor
In this study, we aimed to determine the presence as well as the diverse distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptor subunits in the rat red nucleus. Using adult Sprague-Dawley rats as the experimental animals, immunohistochemistry was performed on 30 µm thick coronal brain sections with antibodies against α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (GluA1-4), kainate (GluK1, GluK2/3, and GluK5), and NMDA (GluN1 and GluN2A) receptor subunits. The results showed that all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in the red nucleus...
December 21, 2016: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009293/calcium-release-from-stores-inhibits-girk
#13
Paul F Kramer, John T Williams
Synaptic transmission is mediated by ionotropic and metabotropic receptors that together regulate the rate and pattern of action potential firing. Metabotropic receptors can activate ion channels and modulate other receptors and channels. The present paper examines the interaction between group 1 mGluR-mediated calcium release from stores and GABAB/D2-mediated GIRK currents in rat dopamine neurons of the Substantia Nigra. Transient activation of mGluRs decreased the GIRK current evoked by GABAB and D2 receptors, although less efficaciously for D2...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009283/calcium-imaging-reveals-coordinated-simple-spike-pauses-in-populations-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#14
Jorge E Ramirez, Brandon M Stell
The brain's control of movement is thought to involve coordinated activity between cerebellar Purkinje cells. The results reported here demonstrate that somatic Ca(2+) imaging is a faithful reporter of Na(+)-dependent "simple spike" pauses and enables us to optically record changes in firing rates in populations of Purkinje cells in brain slices and in vivo. This simultaneous calcium imaging of populations of Purkinje cells reveals a striking spatial organization of pauses in Purkinje cell activity between neighboring cells...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008311/cloning-of-the-gabab-receptor-subunits-b1-and-b2-and-their-expression-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-adult-sea-lamprey
#15
Daniel Romaus-Sanjurjo, Blanca Fernández-López, Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Antón Barreiro-Iglesias, María Celina Rodicio
In vertebrates, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory transmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) acting through ionotropic (GABAA) and metabotropic (GABAB) receptors. The GABAB receptor produces a slow inhibition since it activates second messenger systems through the binding and activation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins [G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)]. Lampreys are a key reference to understand molecular evolution in vertebrates. The importance of the GABAB receptor for the modulation of the circuits controlling locomotion and other behaviors has been shown in pharmacological/physiological studies in lampreys...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005385/design-and-synthesis-of-a-series-of-l-trans-4-substituted-prolines-as-selective-antagonists-for-the-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-including-functional-and-x-ray-crystallographic-studies-of-new-subtype-selective-kainic-acid-receptor-subtype-1-gluk1-antagonist
#16
Niels Krogsgaard-Larsen, Claudia G Delgar, Karina Koch, Patricia M G E Brown, Charlotte Møller, Liwei Han, Tri H V Huynh, Stinne W Hansen, Birgitte Nielsen, Derek Bowie, Darryl S Pickering, Jette Sandholm Kastrup, Karla Frydenvang, Lennart Bunch
Ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists are valuable tool compounds for studies of neurological pathways in the central nervous system. On the basis of rational ligand design, a new class of selective antagonists, represented by (2S,4R)-4-(2-carboxyphenoxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (1b), for cloned homomeric kainic acid receptors subtype 1 (GluK1) was attained (Ki = 4 μM). In a functional assay, 1b displayed full antagonist activity with IC50 = 6 ± 2 μM. A crystal structure was obtained of 1b when bound in the ligand binding domain of GluK1...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002633/vta-da-neuron-excitatory-synapses-in-shank3-%C3%AE-ex-4-9-mouse-line
#17
Bariselli Sebastiano, Bellone Camilla
SHANK3 proteins belong to the Shank/ProSAP family, which contain five-conserved domains - the ankyrin (ANK) repeated, the Src homology 3 (SH3), the PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ), the proline-rich and the sterile alpha motif (SAM; Sheng and Kim, 2000). SHANK proteins are located at the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses and indirectly link the metabotropic (mGluRs) and the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluRs: AMPARs, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, and NMDARs, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors) via different domains (Naisbitt et al...
December 21, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995563/feeling-hot-and-cold-thermal-sensation-in-drosophila
#18
REVIEW
Kun Li, Zhefeng Gong
Sensing environmental temperature is crucial for animal life. The model animal, Drosophila melanogaster, can be investigated with a large number of genetic tools, which have greatly facilitated studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of thermal sensing. At the molecular level, a group of proteins, including Transient Receptor Potential channels and ionotropic receptors, have been characterized as potential thermal sensors in both larval and adult Drosophila. At the cellular and circuit levels, peripheral and central thermosensory neurons have been identified...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989650/phenotypic-characterization-of-grm1-crv4-mice-reveals-a-functional-role-for-the-type-1-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-in-bone-mineralization
#19
Ilaria Musante, Deborah Mattinzoli, Lavinia Alexandra Otescu, Simone Bossi, Masami Ikehata, Chiara Gentili, Giuliana Cangemi, Cinzia Gatti, Laura Emionite, Piergiorgio Messa, Roberto Ravazzolo, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Daniela Riccardi, Aldamaria Puliti
Recent increasing evidence supports a role for neuronal type signaling in bone. Specifically glutamate receptors have been found in cells responsible for bone remodeling, namely the osteoblasts and the osteoclasts. While most studies have focused on ionotropic glutamate receptors, the relevance of the metabotropic glutamate signaling in bone is poorly understood. Specifically type 1 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1) receptors are expressed in bone, but the effect of its ablation on skeletal development has never been investigated...
October 27, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988461/divergent-regulatory-roles-of-extracellular-atp-in-the-degranulation-response-of-mouse-bone-marrow-derived-mast-cells
#20
Kazuki Yoshida, Masaaki Ito, Isao Matsuoka
Mast cells (MCs) play a critical role in allergic inflammation. Although purinergic signalling is implicated in the regulation of various immune responses, its role in MC function is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of purinergic signalling in MC degranulation, using mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Notably, BMMCs expressed various functional P2 adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptors, including ionotropic P2X4 and P2X7, involved in the regulation of BMMC degranulation...
February 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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