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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214986/astrocyte-sodium-signalling-and-panglial-spread-of-sodium-signals-in-brain-white-matter
#1
Behrouz Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Evelyn L Hammel, Karl W Kafitz, Christine R Rose
In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187828/molecular-characterization-and-expression-pattern-of-three-gaba-receptor-like-subunits-in-the-small-brown-planthopper-laodelphax-striatellus-hemiptera-delphacidae
#2
Qi Wei, Shun-Fan Wu, Cong-Fen Gao
Ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel receptors mediate rapid inhibitory neurotransmission in vertebrates and invertebrates. GABA receptors are well known to be the molecular targets of synthetic insecticides or parasiticides. Three GABA receptor-like subunits, LsLCCH3, LsGRD and LS8916, of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), a major insect pest of crop systems in East Asia, had been identified and characterized in this study. All three genes were cloned using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187311/candidate-chemosensory-genes-identified-in-the-endoparasitoid-meteorus-pulchricornis-hymenoptera-braconidae-by-antennal-transcriptome-analysis
#3
Sheng Sheng, Cheng-Wu Liao, Yu Zheng, Yu Zhou, Yan Xu, Wen-Miao Song, Peng He, Jian Zhang, Fu-An Wu
Meteorus pulchricornis is an endoparasitoid wasp which attacks the larvae of various lepidopteran pests. We present the first antennal transcriptome dataset for M. pulchricornis. A total of 48,845,072 clean reads were obtained and 34,967 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 15,458 unigenes showed a significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and cluster of orthologous groups (COG) analyses were used to classify the functions of M...
January 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186717/gating-motions-and-stationary-gating-properties-of-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-computation-meets-electrophysiology
#4
Huan-Xiang Zhou
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels essential to all aspects of brain function, including higher order processes such as learning and memory. For decades, electrophysiology was the primary means for characterizing the function of iGluRs and gaining mechanistic insight. Since the turn of the century, structures of isolated water-soluble domains and transmembrane-domain-containing constructs have provided the basis for formulating mechanistic hypotheses. Because these structures only represent sparse, often incomplete snapshots during iGluR activation, significant gaps in knowledge remain regarding structures, energetics, and dynamics of key substates along the functional processes...
February 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181188/atorvastatin-promotes-cytotoxicity-and-reduces-migration-and-proliferation-of-human-a172-glioma-cells
#5
Karen A Oliveira, Tharine Dal-Cim, Flávia G Lopes, Fabiana K Ludka, Cláudia B Nedel, Carla I Tasca
Malignant gliomas have resistance mechanisms to chemotherapy that enable tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness. Alternative therapies in cancer treatment, as statins, have been suggested to decrease proliferation, inhibit cell migration, and induce cell death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin (ATOR) on cell viability, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy in A172 human glioma cells. Temozolomide (TMZ), a chemotherapic used to glioma treatment, was tested as a comparison to cytotoxic effects on gliomas...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180184/a-gain-of-function-mutation-in-the-grik2-gene-causes-neurodevelopmental-deficits
#6
Yomayra F Guzmán, Keri Ramsey, Jacob R Stolz, David W Craig, Mathew J Huentelman, Vinodh Narayanan, Geoffrey T Swanson
OBJECTIVE: To identify inherited or de novo mutations associated with a suite of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in a 10-year-old patient displaying ataxia, motor and speech delay, and intellectual disability. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing of the proband and her parents. A pathogenic gene variant was identified as damaging based on sequence conservation, gene function, and association with disorders having similar phenotypic profiles. Functional characterization of the mutated protein was performed in vitro using a heterologous expression system...
February 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173961/a-screen-for-modulators-reveals-that-orexin-a-rapidly-stimulates-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-expression-and-release-in-hypothalamic-cell-culture
#7
Antonieta Cote-Vélez, Anabel Martínez Báez, Leticia Lezama, Rosa María Uribe, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Jean-Louis Charli
In the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus, hypophysiotropic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons integrate metabolic information and control the activity of the thyroid axis. Additional populations of TRH neurons reside in various hypothalamic areas, with poorly defined connections and functions, albeit there is evidence that some may be related to energy balance. To establish extracellular modulators of TRH hypothalamic neurons activity, we performed a screen of neurotransmitters effects in hypothalamic cultures...
February 2, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167075/inhibition-of-the-nmda-and-ampa-receptor-channels-by-antidepressants-and-antipsychotics
#8
Oleg I Barygin, Elina I Nagaeva, Denis B Tikhonov, Darya A Belinskaya, Nina P Vanchakova, Natalia N Shestakova
It is known that some antidepressants and antipsychotics directly inhibit NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. In this study we systematically studied action of seven drugs (Fluoxetine, Citalopram, Desipramine, Amitriptyline, Atomoxetine, Chlorpromazine, and Clozapine) on NMDA receptors and Ca(2+)-permeable and -impermeable AMPA receptors in rat brain neurons by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Except for weak effect of fluoxetine, all drugs were virtually inactive against Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptors...
February 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163685/ionotropic-p2x-atp-receptor-channels-mediate-purinergic-signaling-in-mouse-odontoblasts
#9
Yuta Shiozaki, Masaki Sato, Maki Kimura, Toru Sato, Masakazu Tazaki, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
ATP modulates various functions in the dental pulp cells, such as intercellular communication and neurotransmission between odontoblasts and neurons, proliferation of dental pulp cells, and odontoblast differentiation. However, functional expression patterns and their biophysical properties of ionotropic ATP (P2X) receptors (P2X1-P2X7) in odontoblasts were still unclear. We examined these properties of P2X receptors in mouse odontoblasts by patch-clamp recordings. K(+)-ATP, nonselective P2X receptor agonist, induced inward currents in odontoblasts in a concentration-dependent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153485/loop-f-of-the-%C3%AE-subunit-determines-the-pharmacologic-profile-of-novel-competitive-inhibitors-of-gabaa-receptors
#10
Balázs Mihalik, Adrienn Pálvölgyi, Ferenc Bogár, Katalin Megyeri, István Ling, József Barkóczy, Ferenc Bartha, Tamás A Martinek, István Gacsályi, Ferenc A Antoni
The neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) has a fundamental role in CNS function and ionotropic (GABAA) receptors that mediate many of the actions of GABA are important therapeutic targets. This study reports the mechanism of action of novel GABAA antagonists based on a tricyclic oxazolo-2,3-benzodiazepine scaffold. These compounds are orthosteric antagonists of GABA on heteropentameric GABAA receptors of αxβ2γ2 configuration expressed in HEK293 cells. In silico modelling predicted that the test compounds docked in the GABA binding-pocket and would interact with amino-acid residues in the α- and β-subunit interface that are known to be important for the binding of GABA...
January 31, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152579/5htr3a-driven-gfp-labels-immature-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#11
Thomas E Finger, Dianna L Bartel, Nicole Shultz, Noah B Goodson, Charles Greer
The ionotropic serotonin receptor, 5-HT3 , is expressed by many developing neurons within the central nervous system. Since the olfactory epithelium continues to generate new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) throughout life, we investigated the possibility that 5-HT3 is expressed in the adult epithelium. Using a transgenic mouse in which the promoter for the 5-HT3a subunit drives expression of GFP, we assessed the expression of this marker in the olfactory epithelium of adult mice. Both the native 5-HT3a mRNA and GFP are expressed within globose basal cells of the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelium in adult mice...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150741/antennal-transcriptomes-of-three-tortricid-moths-reveal-putative-conserved-chemosensory-receptors-for-social-and-habitat-olfactory-cues
#12
Francisco Gonzalez, Peter Witzgall, William B Walker
Insects use chemical signals to find mates, food and oviposition sites. The main chemoreceptor gene families comprise odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). Understanding the evolution of these receptors as well as their function will assist in advancing our knowledge of how chemical stimuli are perceived and may consequently lead to the development of new insect management strategies. Tortricid moths are important pests in horticulture, forestry and agriculture around the globe...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146602/pharmacological-characterization-of-the-excitatory-cys-loop-gaba-receptor-family-in-c-elegans
#13
Georgina C B Nicholl, Ali K Jawad, Robert Weymouth, Haoming Zhang, Asim A Beg
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ionotropic GABA receptors are evolutionarily conserved proteins that mediate cellular and network inhibition in both vertebrates and invertebrates. A unique class of excitatory GABA receptors has been identified in several nematode species. Despite well-characterized functions in C. elegans, little is known about the pharmacology of the excitatory GABA receptors EXP-1 and LGC-35. Using a panel of compounds that differentially activate and modulate ionotropic GABA receptors, we investigated the agonist binding site and allosteric modulation of EXP-1 and LGC-35...
February 1, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144144/thermosensitive-hydrogel-based-on-chitosan-and-its-derivatives-containing-medicated-nanoparticles-for-transcorneal-administration-of-5-fluorouracil
#14
Angela Fabiano, Ranieri Bizzarri, Ylenia Zambito
A thermosensitive ophthalmic hydrogel (TSOH) - fluid at 4°C (instillation temperature), semisolid at 35°C (eye temperature), which coupled the dosing accuracy and administration ease of eyedrops with the increased ocular bioavailability of a hydrogel - was prepared by gelling a chitosan hydrochloride (ChHCl) solution (27.8 mg/mL) medicated with 1.25 mg/mL 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with β-glycerophosphate 0.8 mg/mL. Polymer mixtures, where Ch was partially (10%, 15%, or 20%) replaced by quaternary ammonium-chitosan conjugates (QA-Ch) or thiolated derivatives thereof, were also used to modulate 5-FU-release properties of TSOH...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143398/a-noninvasive-optical-approach-for-assessing-chloride-extrusion-activity-of-the-k-cl-cotransporter-kcc2-in-neuronal-cells
#15
Anastasia Ludwig, Claudio Rivera, Pavel Uvarov
BACKGROUND: Cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) are indispensable for maintaining chloride homeostasis in multiple cell types, but K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 is the only CCC member with an exclusively neuronal expression in mammals. KCC2 is critical for rendering fast hyperpolarizing responses of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors in adult neurons, for neuronal migration in the developing central nervous system, and for the formation and maintenance of small dendritic protrusions-dendritic spines...
January 31, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137743/genomic-features-of-the-damselfly-calopteryx-splendens-representing-a-sister-clade-to-most-insect-orders
#16
Panagiotis Ioannidis, Felipe A Simao, Robert M Waterhouse, Mosè Manni, Mathieu Seppey, Hugh M Robertson, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Evgeny M Zdobnov
Insects comprise the most diverse and successful animal group with over one million described species that are found in almost every terrestrial and limnic habitat, with many being used as important models in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary research. Genome sequencing projects have greatly expanded the sampling of species from many insect orders, but genomic resources for species of certain insect lineages have remained relatively limited to date. To address this paucity, we sequenced the genome of the banded demoiselle, Calopteryx splendens, a damselfly (Odonata: Zygoptera) belonging to Palaeoptera, the clade containing the first winged insects...
January 30, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137700/effects-on-breathing-of-agonists-to-%C3%AE-opioid-or-gabaa-receptors-dialyzed-into-the-ventral-respiratory-column-of-awake-and-sleeping-goats
#17
Thomas M Langer, Suzanne E Neumueller, Emma Crumley, Nicholas J Burgraff, Sawan Talwar, Matthew R Hodges, Lawrence Pan, Hubert V Forster
Pulmonary ventilation (V̇I) in awake and sleeping goats does not change when antagonists to several excitatory G protein-coupled receptors are dialyzed unilaterally into the ventral respiratory column (VRC). Concomitant changes in excitatory neuromodulators in the effluent mock cerebral spinal fluid (mCSF) suggest neuromodulatory compensation. Herein, we studied neuromodulatory compensation during dialysis of agonists to inhibitory G protein-coupled or ionotropic receptors into the VRC. Microtubules were implanted into the VRC of goats for dialysis of mCSF mixed with agonists to either μ-opioid (DAMGO) or GABAA (muscimol) receptors...
January 27, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132660/grin3b-missense-mutation-as-an-inherited-risk-factor-for-schizophrenia-whole-exome-sequencing-in-a-family-with-a-familiar-history-of-psychotic-disorders
#18
Tobias Hornig, Björn Grüning, Kousik Kundu, Torsten Houwaart, Rolf Backofen, Knut Biber, Claus Normann
Glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a glutamate-gated ionotropic cation channel that is composed of several subunits and modulated by a glycine binding site. Many forms of synaptic plasticity depend on the influx of calcium ions through NMDA receptors, and NMDA receptor dysfunction has been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in a family with a strong history of psychotic disorders over three generations...
30, 2017: Genetics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126851/functional-evaluation-of-a-de-novo-grin2a-mutation-identified-in-a-patient-with-profound-global-developmental-delay-and-refractory-epilepsy
#19
Wenjuan Chen, Anel Tankovic, Pieter B Burger, Hirofumi Kusumoto, Stephen F Traynelis, Hongjie Yuan
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a ligand-gated ionotropic glutamate receptor, plays important roles in normal brain development and a wide range of neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Here, we evaluate for the first time the functional properties of a de novo GRIN2A missense mutation (p.M817V) in the pre-M4 linker in a child with profound global developmental delay and refractory epilepsy. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the mutant GluN2A(M817V)-containing receptors showed enhanced agonist potency, reduced sensitivity to endogenous negative inhibitors (Mg2+, proton, and zinc), prolonged synaptic-like response time course, increased single channel mean open time, and increased channel open probability...
January 26, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120724/neuromodulation-of-spinal-locomotor-networks-in-rodents
#20
Manuel Díaz-Ríos, Pierre A Guertin, Marla Rivera-Oliver
BACKGROUND: The basic motor patterns driving rhythmic limb movements during walking are generated by networks of neurons called central pattern generators (CPGs). Within motor control systems, neuromodulators are necessary for proper and efficient CPG function because they induce or regulate essential components of spinal network activity, including firing parameters of CPG neurons and network synaptic strength, allowing the network to change/adapt and sometimes to even become functional...
January 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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