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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796309/formulation-characterization-and-stability-assessment-of-a-food-derived-tripeptide-leucine-lysine-proline-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles
#1
Minna K Danish, Giuliana Vozza, Hugh J Byrne, Jesus M Frias, Sinéad M Ryan
The chicken- or fish-derived tripeptide, leucine-lysine-proline (LKP), inhibits the angiotensin converting enzyme and may be used as an alternative treatment for prehypertension. However, it has low permeation across the small intestine. The formulation of LKP into a nanoparticle (NP) has the potential to address this issue. LKP-loaded NPs were produced using an ionotropic gelation technique, using chitosan (CL113). Following optimization of unloaded NPs, a mixture amount design was constructed using variable concentration of CL113 and tripolyphosphate at a fixed LKP concentration...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791385/sigma-1-receptor-activation-ameliorates-anxiety-like-behavior-through-nr2a-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model-submitted-to-single-prolonged-stress
#2
Li-Li Ji, Jun-Bo Peng, Chang-Hai Fu, Lei Tong, Zhen-Yu Wang
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the σ-1 receptor (σ‑1R) possesses neuroprotective effects and is a potential novel therapeutic target for certain psychiatric diseases, including post‑traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accompanied with anxiety disorder. It has been reported that σ‑1R agonist treatment could be modulated by the brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway. However, it remains unclear whether BDNF and its upstream regulator are mechanistically involved in the therapeutic effect of σ‑1R in PTSD...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768144/the-c-terminal-domain-of-zdhhc2-contains-distinct-sorting-signals-that-regulate-intracellular-localisation-in-neurons-and-neuroendocrine-cells
#3
Christine Salaun, Louise Ritchie, Jennifer Greaves, Trevor J Bushell, Luke H Chamberlain
The S-acyltransferase zDHHC2 mediates dynamic S-acylation of PSD95 and AKAP79/150, which impacts synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors. zDHHC2 is responsive to synaptic activity and catalyses the increased S-acylation of PSD95 that occurs following action potential blockade or application of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. These treatments have been proposed to increase plasma membrane delivery of zDHHC2 via an endosomal cycling pathway, enhancing substrate accessibility. To generate an improved understanding of zDHHC2 trafficking and how this might be regulated by neuronal activity, we searched for intramolecular signals that regulate enzyme localisation...
July 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763772/ph-responsive-chitosan-nanoparticles-from-a-novel-twin-chain-anionic-amphiphile-for-controlled-and-targeted-delivery-of-vancomycin
#4
Rahul S Kalhapure, Mahantesh Jadhav, Sanjeev Rambharose, Chunderika Mocktar, Sanil Singh, Jwala Renukuntla, Thirumala Govender
The design and synthesis of novel pH-responsive nanoantibiotics is an emerging research area to address the antibiotic resistance crisis. The purpose of this study was therefore to synthesize a new anionic gemini surfactant (AGS) that could result in the formulation of pH-responsive chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. The coupling of oleic acid with 2,2-dimethyl-5,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxane and subsequent deprotection followed by a reaction with succinic anhydride and sodium bicarbonate yielded AGS...
July 24, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758580/chromosomal-micro-aberration-in-a-saudi-family-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#5
Muhammad Imran Naseer, Adeel G Chaudhary, Sameera Sogaty, Mahmood Rasool, Sajjad Karim, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Fehmida Bibi, Peter Natesan Pushparaj, Hussein A Algahtani, Mohammad H Al-Qahtani
Epilepsy is genetically complex neurological disorder affecting millions of people of the world. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a most common epilepsy syndromes that starts in the teen age group commonly between ages 12 and 18, and lasts into adulthood. Out of 14 people with epilepsy one suffer with JME. Myoclonic seizures and muscle twitching or uncontrolled jerking are the most common type of seizure in the people suffering with JME. To observe the novel CNVs involved in JME we investigated a Saudi family with nine siblings with one male and one female affected members...
July 31, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756307/identification-and-comparison-of-candidate-odorant-receptor-genes-in-the-olfactory-and-non-olfactory-organs-of-holotrichia-oblita-faldermann-by-transcriptome-analysis
#6
Kebin Li, Hongshuang Wei, Changlong Shu, Shuai Zhang, Yazhong Cao, Chen Luo, Jiao Yin
A sophisticated olfactory system is part of the explanation for the prominence of insects among animals because of the essential roles of the olfactory system in foraging, host seeking, mating, ovipositing and avoiding toxic substances. In this study, we sequenced and analysed the transcriptomes of olfactory tissue (antennae) and non-olfactory tissue (legs) of the scarab beetle, Holotrichia oblita Faldermann, which is a serious underground pest in China. We obtained approximately 80.2 million 150bp reads that were assembled into 61,038 unigenes with an average length of 890bp...
July 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747388/neuronal-p2x7-receptors-revisited-do-they-really-exist
#7
Peter Illes, Tahir Muhammad Khan, Patrizia Rubini
P2X7 receptors (Rs) constitute a subclass of ATP-sensitive ionotropic receptors (P2X1-P2X7). P2X7Rs have many distinguishing features, mostly based on their long intracellular C terminus regulating trafficking to the cell membrane, protein-protein interactions, and post-translational modification. Their C-terminal tail is especially important in enabling the transition from the nonselective ion channel mode to a membrane pore allowing the passage of large molecules. There is an ongoing dispute on the existence of neuronal P2X7Rs with consequences for our knowledge on their involvement in neuroinflammation, aggravating stroke, temporal lobe epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and various neurodegenerative diseases...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746887/optimization-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-hydrogels-beads-generated-by-an-anionic-surfactant-micelle-templating-for-cationic-dye-uptake-swelling-sorption-and-reusability-studies
#8
Tayeb Benhalima, Hafida Ferfera-Harrar, Djahida Lerari
Carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels beads were synthesized by ionotropic gelation in Al(3+) solutions with or without sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant as a pore-forming micelle templating and NaCl as porogen agent. FTIR spectroscopy and EDX analysis evidenced the formation of hydrogels. The morphology observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed rough porous surfaces. The swelling properties in various media were studied. The addition of SDS optimized the capacity and initial rate of swelling...
July 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743063/glutamate-pathways-of-the-beta-cell-and-the-control-of-insulin-secretion
#9
REVIEW
Pierre Maechler
Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in response to circulating glucose, thereby maintaining euglycemia. Inside the beta-cell, glucose is transformed into intracellular signals stimulating exocytosis. While calcium is an obligatory messenger, this ion is not sufficient to promote the full secretory response. Accordingly, glucose metabolism produces the additive factor glutamate that participates to an amplifying pathway of the calcium signal. Although intracellular glutamate potentiates insulin secretion, extracellular glutamate may activate ionotropic receptors...
July 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738307/pharmacological-characterization-and-binding-modes-of-novel-racemic-and-optically-active-phenylalanine-based-antagonists-of-ampa-receptors
#10
Ewa Szymańska, Birgitte Nielsen, Tommy N Johansen, Ana Maria Cuñado Moral, Darryl S Pickering, Katarzyna Szczepańska, Anna Mickowska, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz
In order to map out molecular determinants for the competitive blockade of AMPA receptor subtypes, a series of racemic aryl-substituted phenylalanines was synthesized and pharmacologically characterized in vitro at native rat ionotropic glutamate receptors. Most of the compounds showed micromolar affinity and preference for AMPA receptors. Individual stereoisomers of selected compounds were further evaluated at recombinant homomeric rat GluA2 and GluA3 receptors. The most potent compound, (-)-2-amino-3-(6-chloro-2',5'-dihydroxy-5-nitro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)propanoic acid, the expected R-isomer showing Ki of 1...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737761/glutamate-receptor-like-channels-are-essential-for-chemotaxis-and-reproduction-in-mosses
#11
Carlos Ortiz-Ramírez, Erwan Michard, Alexander A Simon, Daniel S C Damineli, Marcela Hernández-Coronado, Jörg D Becker, José A Feijó
Glutamate receptors are well characterized channels that mediate cell-to-cell communication during neurotransmission in animals. Nevertheless, information regarding their functional role in organisms without nervous systems is still limited. In plants, Glutamate Receptor-like (GLR) genes have been implicated in defence against pathogens, reproduction, control of stomata aperture and light signal transduction(1-5). However, the numerous GLR genes present in angiosperm genomes (20 to 70)(6) has prevented the observation of strong phenotypes in loss-of-function mutants...
July 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737760/channel-opening-and-gating-mechanism-in-ampa-subtype-glutamate-receptors
#12
Edward C Twomey, Maria V Yelshanskaya, Robert A Grassucci, Joachim Frank, Alexander I Sobolevsky
AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission throughout the central nervous system. Gated by the neurotransmitter glutamate, AMPA receptors are critical for synaptic strength and dysregulation of AMPA receptor-mediated signalling is linked to numerous neurological diseases. Here, we use cryo-electron microscopy to solve the structures of AMPA receptor-auxiliary subunit complexes in the apo, antagonist and agonist-bound states and elucidate the iris-like mechanism of ion channel opening...
July 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736530/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-chemosensory-genes-in-dendrolimus-punctatus-walker
#13
Su-Fang Zhang, Hui-Hui Liu, Xiang-Bo Kong, Hong-Bin Wang, Fu Liu, Zhen Zhang
Dendrolimus punctatus Walker is a serious pest affecting conifers in southern China. As extensive pesticide spraying is currently required to control D. punctatus, new control strategies are urgently needed. Chemosensory genes represent potential molecular targets for development of alternative pest control strategies, and the expression characteristics of these genes provide an indication of their function. To date, little information is available regarding chemosensory genes in D. punctatus or their expression profiles at different development stages and in various tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736172/early-integration-of-temperature-and-humidity-stimuli-in-the-drosophila-brain
#14
Dominic D Frank, Anders Enjin, Genevieve C Jouandet, Emanuela E Zaharieva, Alessia Para, Marcus C Stensmyr, Marco Gallio
The Drosophila antenna contains receptor neurons for mechanical, olfactory, thermal, and humidity stimuli. Neurons expressing the ionotropic receptor IR40a have been implicated in the selection of an appropriate humidity range [1, 2], but although previous work indicates that insect hygroreceptors may be made up by a "triad" of neurons (with a dry-, a cold-, and a humid-air-responding cell [3]), IR40a expression included only cold- and dry-air cells. Here, we report the identification of the humid-responding neuron that completes the hygrosensory triad in the Drosophila antenna...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736042/enhanced-antibacterial-efficacy-of-silver-nanoparticles-immobilized-in-a-chitosan-nanocarrier
#15
Shilpa Sharma
Herein, enhanced bactericidal activity of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) impregnated in chitosan nanocarriers is reported. The chitosan-based nanocarrier system for Ag NPs (Ag NP-Chi NC) was synthesized by ionotropic gelation of Ag NP-chitosan with tripolyphosphate. The nanocarriers were characterized by UV-vis Spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, Selected area electron diffraction pattern and Dynamic light scattering. The NCs exhibited superior antibacterial efficacy against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in comparison to either chitosan or Ag NPs alone...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733972/expression-and-function-of-the-metabotropic-purinergic-p2y-receptor-family-in-experimental-seizure-models-and-patients-with-drug-refractory-epilepsy
#16
Mariana Alves, Rosa Gomez-Villafuertes, Norman Delanty, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Maria Teresa Miras-Portugal, Miguel Diaz Hernandez, David C Henshall, Tobias Engel
OBJECTIVE: ATP is released into the extracellular space during pathologic processes including increased neuronal firing. Once released, ATP acts on P2 receptors including ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors, resulting in changes to glial function and neuronal network excitability. Evidence suggests an involvement of P2Y receptors in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, but there has been no systematic effort to characterize the expression and function of the P2Y receptor family during seizures and in experimental and human epilepsy...
July 21, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733707/angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockers-inhibit-kat-ii-activity-in-the-brain-its-possible-clinical-applications
#17
Izabela Zakrocka, Katarzyna M Targowska-Duda, Artur Wnorowski, Tomasz Kocki, Krzysztof Jóźwiak, Waldemar A Turski
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are one of the most frequently recommended antihypertensive drugs. Apart from their activity towards the circulatory system, ARBs also penetrate the blood-brain barrier and display neuroprotective effects. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan produced by kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) in the brain. Antagonism towards all ionotropic glutamate (GLU) receptors is the main mechanism of KYNA action. An elevated brain level of KYNA is linked with memory impairment and psychotic symptoms...
July 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733356/steady-state-free-ca2-in-astrocytes-is-decreased-by-experience-and-impacts-arteriole-tone
#18
Eslam M F Mehina, Ciaran Murphy-Royal, Grant R Gordon
Astrocytes can control basal synaptic strength and arteriole tone via their resting Ca2+ activity. However, whether resting astrocyte Ca2+ can adjust to a new steady-state level, with an impact on surrounding brain cells, remains unknown. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging in male rat acute brain slices of the somatosensory neocortex, we found that theta burst neural activity produced an unexpected long-lasting reduction in astrocyte free Ca2+ in the soma and endfeet. The drop in intracellular Ca2+ was attenuated by antagonists targeting multiple ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and intracellular cascades involved Ca2+ stores and nitric oxide...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732732/porous-chitosan-beads-of-superior-mechanical-properties-for-the-covalent-immobilization-of-enzymes
#19
Marwa I Wahba
Porous chitosan beads of superior mechanical properties were produced via a two stepped treatment process. First, the chitosan ionotropic gelation solution was supplemented with Na2CO3, which acted as a porogen. Afterwards, the beads were chemically cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. This treatment also caused the produced porous chitosan beads to acquire higher observed activities of immobilized β-d-galactosidase (β-gal). The observed activities of the β-gal immobilized onto the 0.2M and the 0.35M Na2CO3 treated beads were 1...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730825/the-implication-of-ampa-receptor-in-synaptic-plasticity-impairment-and-intellectual-disability-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#20
G-R Cheng, X-Y Li, Y-D Xiang, D Liu, S M McClintock, Y Zeng
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequently inherited form of intellectual disability and prevalent single-gene cause of autism. A priority of FXS research is to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive and social functioning impairments in humans and the FXS mouse model. Glutamate ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs) mediate a majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and are critically important for nearly all aspects of brain function, including neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
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