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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766811/p2x7-receptor-associated-programmed-cell-death-in-the-pathophysiology-of-hemorrhagic-stroke
#1
Hengli Zhao, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Hemorrhagic stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sudden rupture of cerebral blood vessels, and cell death is widely believed to occur after exposure to blood metabolites or subsequently damaged cells. Recently, programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of stroke. However, the detailed mechanisms of these novel kinds of cell death are still unclear. The P2X7 receptor, previously known for its cytotoxic activity, is an ATP-gated, non-selective cation channel that belongs to the family of ionotropic P2X receptors...
May 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766392/excessive-glutamate-stimulation-impairs-ace2-activity-through-adam17-mediated-shedding-in-cultured-cortical-neurons
#2
Jiaxi Xu, Srinivas Sriramula, Eric Lazartigues
The excitotoxicity of glutamate plays an important role in the progression of various neurological disorders via participating in inflammation and neuronal damage. In this study, we identified the role of excessive glutamate stimulation in the modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2), a critical component in the compensatory axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In primary cultured cortical neurons, high concentration of glutamate (100 µM) significantly reduced the enzymatic activity of ACE2...
May 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764972/separate-functional-properties-of-nmdars-regulate-distinct-aspects-of-spatial-cognition
#3
Erin M Sanders, Akua O Nyarko-Odoom, Kevin Zhao, Michael Nguyen, Hong Hong Liao, Matthew Keith, Jane Pyon, Alyssa Kozma, Mohima Sanyal, Daniel G McHail, Theodore C Dumas
N -methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at excitatory synapses are central to activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. NMDARs act as ionotropic and metabotropic receptors by elevating postsynaptic calcium concentrations and by direct intracellular protein signaling. In the forebrain, these properties are controlled largely by the auxiliary GluN2 subunits, GluN2A and GluN2B. While calcium conductance through NMDAR channels and intracellular protein signaling make separate contributions to synaptic plasticity, it is not known if these properties individually influence learning and memory...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764453/ampa-ergic-regulation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-levels-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#4
Jane C Hettinger, Hyo Lee, Guojun Bu, David M Holtzman, John R Cirrito
BACKGROUND: Extracellular aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into toxic multimers is a key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Aβ aggregation is concentration-dependent, with higher concentrations of Aβ much more likely to form toxic species. The processes that regulate extracellular levels of Aβ therefore stand to directly affect AD pathology onset. Studies from our lab and others have demonstrated that synaptic activity is a critical regulator of Aβ production through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754475/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-4-rgs4-controls-morphine-reward-by-glutamate-receptor-activation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-the-mouse-brain
#5
Juhwan Kim, Sueun Lee, Sohi Kang, Tae-Il Jeon, Man-Jong Kang, Tae-Hoon Lee, Yong Sik Kim, Key-Sun Kim, Heh-In Im, Changjong Moon
Crosstalk between G-protein signaling and glutamatergic transmission within the brain reward circuits is critical for long-term emotional effects (depression and anxiety), cravings, and negative withdrawal symptoms associated with opioid addiction. A previous study showed that Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) may be implicated in opiate action in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the mechanism of the NAc-specific RGS4 actions that induce the behavioral responses to opiates remains largely unknown...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753415/early-effects-of-16-o-radiation-on-neuronal-morphology-and-cognition-in-a-murine-model
#6
Hannah Carr, Tyler C Alexander, Thomas Groves, Frederico Kiffer, Jing Wang, Elvin Price, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
Astronauts exposed to high linear energy transfer radiation may experience cognitive injury. The pathogenesis of this injury is unknown but may involve glutamate receptors or modifications to dendritic structure and/or dendritic spine density and morphology. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, where it acts on ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors located at the presynaptic terminal and in the postsynaptic membrane at synapses in the hippocampus. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission, and changes in spine structure and dendrite morphology are thought to be morphological correlates of altered brain function associated with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751234/pyridinyl-and-pyridazinyl-3-6-diazabicyclo-3-1-1-heptane-anilines-novel-selective-ligands-with-subnanomolar-affinity-for-%C3%AE-4-%C3%AE-2-nach-receptors
#7
Francesco Deligia, Gabriele Murineddu, Cecilia Gotti, Giulio Ragusa, Francesca Fasoli, Miriam Sciaccaluga, Simona Plutino, Sergio Fucile, Giovanni Loriga, Battistina Asproni, Gerard A Pinna
The cholinergic pathways in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals and humans are important for cognitive and behavioural functions. Until a few years ago, it was thought that the key molecules transducing the cholinergic message were the metabotropic muscarinic receptors, but it is now known that ionotropic neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) are also involved. Based on recent studies, we prepared a small library of novel 3-substituted-3,6-diazabicyclo [3.1.1]heptanes, whose binding activity and functionality have been assayed...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746395/a-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-assay-for-determination-of-perampanel-and-concomitant-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-plasma-of-patients-with-epilepsy-compared-with-a-fluorescent-hplc-assay
#8
Ugo de Grazia, Annachiara D'Urso, Federica Ranzato, Valentina De Riva, Giorgia Contarato, Giuseppe Billo, Francesco Perini, Elisabetta Galloni
BACKGROUND: Perampanel is a novel non-competitive selective antagonist at the postsynaptic ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor, approved as an adjunctive agent for the treatment of partial-onset seizure with or without secondary generalization and for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizure in patients with epilepsy who are at least 12 years of age. Limited information is available about the clinical utility of therapeutic drug monitoring of perampanel and therapeutic ranges are so far not established...
May 9, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740343/identification-of-chemosensory-genes-based-on-the-transcriptomic-analysis-of-six-different-chemosensory-organs-in-spodoptera-exigua
#9
Ya-Nan Zhang, Jia-Li Qian, Ji-Wei Xu, Xiu-Yun Zhu, Meng-Ya Li, Xiao-Xue Xu, Chun-Xiang Liu, Tao Xue, Liang Sun
Insects have a complex chemosensory system that accurately perceives external chemicals and plays a pivotal role in many insect life activities. Thus, the study of the chemosensory mechanism has become an important research topic in entomology. Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major agricultural polyphagous pest that causes significant agricultural economic losses worldwide. However, except for a few genes that have been discovered, its olfactory and gustatory mechanisms remain uncertain...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738887/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-enrichment-of-genes-associated-with-auditory-system-in-swimbladder-of-channel-catfish
#10
Yujia Yang, Xiaozhu Wang, Yang Liu, Qiang Fu, Changxu Tian, Chenglong Wu, Huitong Shi, Zihao Yuan, Suxu Tan, Shikai Liu, Dongya Gao, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
In aquatic organisms, hearing is an important sense for acoustic communications and detection of sound-emitting predators and prey. Channel catfish is a dominant aquaculture species in the United States. As channel catfish can hear sounds of relatively high frequency, it serves as a good model for study auditory mechanisms. In catfishes, Weberian ossicles connect the swimbladder to the inner ear to transfer the forced vibrations and improve hearing ability. In this study, we examined the transcriptional profiles of channel catfish swimbladder and other four tissues (gill, liver, skin, and intestine)...
April 30, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736774/the-cerebellar-gaba-a-r-system-as-a-potential-target-for-treating-alcohol-use-disorder
#11
David J Rossi, Ben D Richardson
In the brain, fast inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated primarily by the ionotropic subtype of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subtype A (GABAA R). It is well established that the brain's GABAA R system mediates many aspects of neurobehavioral responses to alcohol (ethanol; EtOH). Accordingly, in both preclinical studies and some clinical scenarios, pharmacologically targeting the GABAA R system can alter neurobehavioral responses to acute and chronic EtOH consumption. However, many of the well-established interactions of EtOH and the GABAA R system have been identified at concentrations of EtOH ([EtOH]) that would only occur during abusive consumption of EtOH (≥40 mM), and there are still inadequate treatment options for prevention of or recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD, including abuse and dependence)...
May 8, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731628/methyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-quaternary-ammonium-chitosan-conjugate-nanoparticles-vs-macromolecular-soluble-complex
#12
Anna Maria Piras, Angela Fabiano, Federica Chiellini, Ylenia Zambito
Purpose: The present study aimed to compare a novel cyclodextrin-polymer-drug complex in solution with a dispersed supramolecular nanosize system, made of the same complex, for ability to carry dexamethasone (DEX) across excised rat intestine. Results: Methyl-β-cyclodextrin-quaternary ammonium chitosan conjugate (QA-Ch-MCD) was obtained by covalent grafting through a 10-atom spacer. The conjugate was characterized by 1 H-NMR, resulting in 24.4% w/w of MCD content...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727827/analysis-of-the-grapevine-moth-lobesia-botrana-antennal-transcriptome-and-expression-of-odorant-binding-and-chemosensory-proteins
#13
Valentina Rojas, Héctor Jiménez, Rubén Palma-Millanao, Angélica González-González, Juan Machuca, Ricardo Godoy, Ricardo Ceballos, Ana Mutis, Herbert Venthur
The grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, is considered a harmful pest for vineyards in Chile as well as in North America and Europe. Currently, monitoring and control methods of L. botrana are based on its main sex pheromone component, being effective for low population densities. In order to improve control methods, antennal olfactory proteins in moths, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) have been studied as promising targets for the discovery of new potent semiochemicals, which have not been reported for L...
April 30, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727643/isolation-and-characterization-of-linum-usitatisimum-polysaccharide-to-prepare-mucoadhesive-beads-of-diclofenac-sodium
#14
M Saquib Hasnain, Poonam Rishishwar, Sanjay Rishishwar, Sadath Ali, Amit Kumar Nayak
The present research deals with the usefulness of isolated linseed polysaccharide (LP) as polymeric-blends with an anionic polymer, sodium alginate to prepare ionotropically cross-linking gelled mucoadhesive beads for controlled drug release. From the mature and ripe linseeds (Linum usitatisimum; family Liliaceae), LP was isolated and its colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity were studied. Isolated LP was also characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and 1 H NMR analyses. LP‑calcium alginate beads loaded with diclofenac sodium were formulated via ionotropically crosslinking gelation method using calcium chloride as ionotropic crosslinker...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718139/ion-channels-in-eeg-isolating-channel-dysfunction-in-nmda-receptor-antibody-encephalitis
#15
Mkael Symmonds, Catherine H Moran, M Isabel Leite, Camilla Buckley, Sarosh R Irani, Klaas Enno Stephan, Karl J Friston, Rosalyn J Moran
Neurological and psychiatric practice frequently lack diagnostic probes that can assess mechanisms of neuronal communication non-invasively in humans. In N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody encephalitis, functional molecular assays are particularly important given the presence of NMDA antibodies in healthy populations, the multifarious symptomology and the lack of radiological signs. Recent advances in biophysical modelling techniques suggest that inferring cellular-level properties of neural circuits from macroscopic measures of brain activity is possible...
April 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709295/activation-of-mechanosensitive-transient-receptor-potential-piezo-channels-in-odontoblasts-generates-action-potentials-in-cocultured-isolectin-b-4-negative-medium-sized-trigeminal-ganglion-neurons
#16
Masaki Sato, Kazuhiro Ogura, Maki Kimura, Koichi Nishi, Masayuki Ando, Masakazu Tazaki, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
INTRODUCTION: Various stimuli to the dentin surface elicit dentinal pain by inducing dentinal fluid movement causing cellular deformation in odontoblasts. Although odontoblasts detect deformation by the activation of mechanosensitive ionic channels, it is still unclear whether odontoblasts are capable of establishing neurotransmission with myelinated A delta (Aδ) neurons. Additionally, it is still unclear whether these neurons evoke action potentials by neurotransmitters from odontoblasts to mediate sensory transduction in dentin...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706992/nmda-receptor-subunits-change-after-synaptic-plasticity-induction-and-learning-and-memory-acquisition
#17
REVIEW
María Verónica Baez, Magalí Cecilia Cercato, Diana Alicia Jerusalinsky
NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are crucial in activity-dependent synaptic changes and in learning and memory. NMDARs are composed of two GluN1 essential subunits and two regulatory subunits which define their pharmacological and physiological profile. In CNS structures involved in cognitive functions as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, GluN2A and GluN2B are major regulatory subunits; their expression is dynamic and tightly regulated, but little is known about specific changes after plasticity induction or memory acquisition...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705538/peripheral-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-contribute-to-fos-expression-increase-in-the-spinal-cord-through-antidromic-electrical-stimulation-of-sensory-nerves
#18
Jia-Heng Li, Pei-Yao He, Dan-Ni Fan, Dilinapa Alemujiang, Fu-Quan Huo, Yan Zhao, Dong-Yuan Cao
Previous studies have shown that peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors are involved in the increase in sensitivity of a cutaneous branch of spinal dorsal ramus (CBDR) through antidromic electrical stimulation (ADES) of another CBDR in the adjacent segment. CBDR in the thoracic segments run parallel to each other and no synaptic contact at the periphery is reported. The present study investigated whether the increased sensitivity of peripheral sensory nerves via ADES of a CBDR induced Fos expression changes in the adjacent segments of the spinal cord...
April 26, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705110/development-of-biopolymers-based-interpenetrating-polymeric-network-of-capecitabine-a-drug-delivery-vehicle-to-extend-the-release-of-the-model-drug
#19
Mansi Upadhyay, Sandeep Kumar Reddy Adena, Harsh Vardhan, Sarita K Yadav, Brahmeshwar Mishra
The research aims the development and optimization of capecitabine loaded interpenetrating polymeric network by ionotropic gelation method using polymers locust bean gum and sodium alginate by QbD approach. FMEA was performed to recognize the risks influencing CQAs. BBD was applied to study the effect of factors (polymer ratio, amount of cross-linker and curing time) on responses (particle size, % drug entrapment and % drug release). Polynomial equations and 3-D graphs were plotted to relate between factors and responses...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703329/formulation-development-and-evaluation-of-gastroretentive-floating-beads-with-brucea-javanica-oil-using-ionotropic-gelation-technology
#20
Yue Zhang, Xi-Tong Zhang, Qi Zhang, Bing Wang, Tong Zhang
In the present study, a gastric retention floating system for Brucea javanica oil, composed of alginate and carrageenan, was prepared using ionotropic gelation. Parameters for floatability, drug load, encapsulation efficiency, bead morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo gastric retention were evaluated. The optimized formulation via Box-Behnken design consisted of 1.7% alginate (W/V), 1.02% carrageenan (W/V), 1.4% CaCO3 (W/V), and a gelling bath of pH 0.8. The alginate-carrageenan-Brucea javanica oil beads had a porous structure and exhibited up to 24 h of in vitro floatability with a load capacity of 45%-55% and an encapsulation efficiency of 70%-80%...
April 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
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