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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525982/blood-meal-induced-regulation-of-the-chemosensory-gene-repertoire-in-the-southern-house-mosquito
#1
Tanvi Taparia, Rickard Ignell, Sharon Rose Hill
BACKGROUND: The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is one of the most prevalent vectors of lymphatic filariasis and flavivirus-induced encephalitis. Its vectorial capacity is directly affected by its reproductive feeding behaviors, such as host seeking, blood feeding, resting, and egg laying. In mosquitoes, these gonotrophic behaviors are odor-mediated and regulated following blood feeding. Immediately after a blood meal, female mosquitoes show reduced olfactory responsiveness and flight activity, as they enter a resting state...
May 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521126/structural-and-functional-architecture-of-ampa-type-glutamate-receptors-and-their-auxiliary-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Ingo H Greger, Jake F Watson, Stuart G Cull-Candy
AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ion channels that together with other ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the NMDA and kainate receptors, mediate a majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Whereas NMDA receptors gate channels with slow kinetics, responsible primarily for generating long-term synaptic potentiation and depression, AMPARs are the main fast transduction elements at synapses and are critical for the expression of plasticity. The kinetic and conductance properties of AMPARs are laid down during their biogenesis and are regulated by post-transcriptional RNA editing, splice variation, post-translational modification, and subunit composition...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516893/design-of-electrohydrodynamic-sprayed-polyethylene-glycol-hydrogel-microspheres-for-cell-encapsulation
#3
Anisa S Qayyum, Era Jain, Grant Kolar, Yonghyun Kim, Scott A Sell, Silviya P Zustiak
Electrohydrodynamic spraying (EHS) has recently gained popularity for microencapsulation of cells for applications in cell delivery and tissue engineering. Some of the polymers compatible with EHS are alginate, chitosan, and other similar natural polymers, which are subject to ionotropic or physical gelation. It is desirable to further extend the use of the EHS technique beyond such polymers for wider biofabrication applications. Here, building upon our previous work of making PEG microspheres via EHS, we utilized the principles of EHS to fabricate cell-laden polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel microspheres...
May 18, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507080/divergent-roles-of-a-peripheral-transmembrane-segment-in-ampa-and-nmda-receptors
#4
Johansen B Amin, Catherine L Salussolia, Kelvin Chan, Michael C Regan, Jian Dai, Huan-Xiang Zhou, Hiro Furukawa, Mark E Bowen, Lonnie P Wollmuth
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), including AMPA receptor (AMPAR) and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subtypes, are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate signaling at the majority of excitatory synapses in the nervous system. The iGluR pore domain is structurally and evolutionarily related to an inverted two-transmembrane K(+) channel. Peripheral to the pore domain in eukaryotic iGluRs is an additional transmembrane helix, the M4 segment, which interacts with the pore domain of a neighboring subunit. In AMPARs, the integrity of the alignment of a specific face of M4 with the adjacent pore domain is essential for receptor oligomerization...
May 15, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495860/p2x7-receptor-crosstalk-regulates-atp-induced-pannexin-1-internalization
#5
Andrew K J Boyce, Leigh A Swayne
In the nervous system, extracellular ATP levels transiently increase in physiological and pathophysiological circumstances, effecting key signalling pathways in plasticity and inflammation through purinergic receptors. Pannexin 1 (Panx1) forms ion and metabolite-permeable channels that mediate ATP release and are particularly enriched in the nervous system. Our recent study demonstrated that elevation of extracellular ATP triggers Panx1 internalization in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Notably, this effect was sensitive to inhibition of ionotropic P2X7 purinergic receptors (P2X7Rs)...
May 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475556/high-concentrations-of-tranexamic-acid-inhibit-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors
#6
Irene Lecker, Dian-Shi Wang, Kirusanthy Kaneshwaran, C David Mazer, Beverley A Orser
BACKGROUND: The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is structurally similar to the amino acid glycine and may cause seizures and myoclonus by acting as a competitive antagonist of glycine receptors. Glycine is an obligatory co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Thus, it is plausible that tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors by acting as a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site. The aim of this study was to determine whether tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors, as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors...
May 5, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472657/structural-bases-of-desensitization-in-ampa-receptor-auxiliary-subunit-complexes
#7
Edward C Twomey, Maria V Yelshanskaya, Robert A Grassucci, Joachim Frank, Alexander I Sobolevsky
Fast excitatory neurotransmission is mediated by AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs). AMPARs, localized at post-synaptic densities, are regulated by transmembrane auxiliary subunits that modulate AMPAR assembly, trafficking, gating, and pharmacology. Aberrancies in AMPAR-mediated signaling are associated with numerous neurological disorders. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of an AMPAR in complex with the auxiliary subunit GSG1L in the closed and desensitized states. GSG1L favors the AMPAR desensitized state, where channel closure is facilitated by profound structural rearrangements in the AMPAR extracellular domain, with ligand-binding domain dimers losing their local 2-fold rotational symmetry...
May 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468816/novel-mutations-in-synaptic-transmission-genes-suppress-neuronal-hyperexcitation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Katherine A McCulloch, Yingchuan B Qi, Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Yishi Jin, Salvatore J Cherra
Acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (AChR) regulate neural circuit activity in multiple contexts. In humans, mutations in ionotropic acetylcholine receptor (iAChR) genes can cause neurological disorders, including myasthenia gravis and epilepsy. In C. elegans, iAChRs play multiple roles in the locomotor circuit. The cholinergic motor neurons express an ACR-2-containing pentameric acetylcholine receptor (ACR-2R) comprised of ACR-2, ACR-3, ACR-12, UNC-38, and UNC-63 subunits. A gain-of-function mutation in the non-alpha subunit gene acr-2 (acr-2(gf)) causes defective locomotion as well as spontaneous convulsions...
May 3, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460028/evolutionary-history-of-chemosensory-related-gene-families-across-the-arthropoda
#9
Seong-Il Eyun, Ho Young Soh, Marijan Posavi, James B Munro, Daniel S T Hughes, Shwetha C Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C Worley, Donna M Muzny, Eun-Ok Park, Joana C Silva, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards, Carol Eunmi Lee
Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive dataset. In particular, odorant receptors (ORs) were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459140/dynamical-differences-of-hemoglobin-and-the-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-in-different-states-revealed-by-a-new-dynamics-alignment-method
#10
Dror Tobi
A new algorithm for comparison of protein dynamics is presented. Compared protein structures are superposed and their modes of motions are calculated using the Anisotropic Network Model. The obtained modes are aligned using the dynamic programming algorithm of Needleman and Wunsch, commonly used for sequence alignment. Dynamical comparison of Hemoglobin in the T and R2 states reveals that the dynamics of the allosteric effector 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate binding site is different in the two states. These differences can contribute to the selectivity of the effector to the T state...
April 29, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459106/functional-assessment-of-the-nmda-receptor-variant-glun2a-r586k
#11
Katie F M Marwick, Peter Parker, Paul Skehel, Giles Hardingham, David J A Wyllie
Background: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic glutamate receptor that has important roles in synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity. Recently, a large number of rare genetic variants have been found in NMDAR subunits in people with neurodevelopmental disorders, and also in healthy individuals. One such is the GluN2A(R586K) variant, found in a person with intellectual disability. Identifying the functional consequences, if any, of such variants allows their potential contribution to pathogenesis to be assessed...
March 17, 2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458288/neuropharmacological-study-of-atp-receptors-especially-in-the-relationship-between-glia-and-pain
#12
Kazuhide Inoue
 A growing body of evidence indicates that extracellular ATP released or leaked from nonexcitable cells as well as neurons plays important roles in the regulation of neuronal and glial functions in the entire body through ATP receptors. ATP receptors (ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors) are the most abundant receptor families in living organisms. In the central nervous system, these receptors participate in the synaptic transmission and intercellular communications between neurons and glia. The glia cells are classified into three types: astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; and microglia...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457974/a-novel-nmda-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-that-acts-via-the-transmembrane-domain
#13
Tzu-Ming Wang, Brandon M Brown, Lunbin Deng, Benjamin D Sellers, Patrick J Lupardus, Heidi J A Wallweber, Amy Gustafson, Evera Wong, Matthew Volgraf, Jacob B Schwarz, David H Hackos, Jesse E Hanson
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are key nervous system drug targets. While diverse pharmacological tools have yielded insight into iGluR extracellular domain function, less is known about molecular mechanisms underlying the ion conduction gating process within the transmembrane domain (TMD). We have discovered a novel NMDAR positive allosteric modulator (PAM), GNE-9278, with a unique binding site on the extracellular surface of the TMD. Mutation of a single residue near the Lurcher motif on GluN1 M3 can convert GNE-9278 modulation from positive to negative, and replacing three AMPAR pre-M1 residues with corresponding NMDAR residues can confer GNE-9278 sensitivity to AMPARs...
April 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457033/clinical-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-exertional-heat-stroke-among-paratroopers-in-agra-india
#14
Rajesh Deshwal, Dhirendra Tiwari, Raj Singh
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical profile, biochemical parameters and outcome in a series of 78 patients of heat stroke admitted and treated in a military hospital in India. METHODS: This was a prospective study in a military hospital. A total of 78 patients of exertional heat stroke admitted and treated over more than 2 years are reported. Cooling measures started immediately on site of occurrence, carried on during evacuation and in hospital, IV normal saline initiated, clinical symptoms and signs were noted...
February 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456646/monoolein-alginate-beads-as-a-platform-to-promote-adenosine-cutaneous-localization-and-wound-healing
#15
Wing Y Ng, Amanda Migotto, Thamyres Soares Ferreira, Luciana B Lopes
Alginate beads containing the polar lipid monoolein were developed as a strategy to manage wet wounds by providing improved uptake of excess exudate while releasing adenosine locally for promotion of healing. To obtain monoolein-containing beads, the lipid was mixed with almond oil (2:1w/w), and emulsified within the alginate aqueous dispersion, followed by ionotropic gelation in CaCl2 solution. Compared to alginate-only, monoolein-alginate systems were 1.44-fold larger, their swelling ability was 1.40-fold higher and adenosine cumulative release was approximately 1...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455372/regulation-of-neuromuscular-junction-organization-by-rab2-and-its-effector-ica69-in-drosophila
#16
Bhagaban Mallik, Manish Kumar Dwivedi, Zeeshan Mushtaq, Manisha Kumari, Praveen Kumar Verma, Vimlesh Kumar
Mechanisms underlying synaptic differentiation, which involves neuronal membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling, are not completely understood. We performed a targeted RNAi-mediated screen of Drosophila BAR-domain proteins and identified islet cell autoantigen 69 kDa (dICA69) as one of the key regulators of morphological differentiation of larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We show that Drosophila ICA69 colocalizes with α-Spectrin at the NMJ. The conserved N-BAR domain of dICA69 deforms liposomes in vitro Full length and ICAC but not the N-BAR domain of dICA69 induces filopodia in cultured cells...
April 28, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450542/neuronal-chloride-regulation-via-kcc2-is-modulated-through-a-gabab-receptor-protein-complex
#17
Rebecca Wright, Sarah E Newey, Andrei Ilie, Winnie Wefelmeyer, Joseph V Raimondo, Rachel Ginham, R A Jeffrey Mcllhinney, Colin J Akerman
GABAB receptors are G-protein coupled receptors that mediate inhibitory synaptic actions through a series of downstream target proteins. It is increasingly appreciated that the GABAB receptor forms part of larger signalling complexes, which enable the receptor to mediate multiple different effects within neurons. Here we report that GABAB receptors can physically associate with the potassium-chloride cotransporter protein, KCC2, which sets the driving force for the chloride permeable ionotropic GABAA receptor in mature neurons...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440188/trp-channels-as-novel-targets-for-endogenous-ligands-focus-on-endocannabinoids-and-nociceptive-signalling
#18
Maksim V Storozhuk, Alexander V Zholos
The endocannabinoid system is gaining steadily increasing research interest as its important role in the regulation of many fundamental physiological processes becomes more and more evident. One area which received particularly significant attention concerns targeting the endocannabinoid system as a useful strategy in pain control, especially in refractory, difficult to treat cases of chronic pain. Apart from the classical targets of cannabinoids, the CB1 and CB2 receptors, several members of the large TRP family of Ca2+-permeable cation channels have been designated as "ionotropic cannabinoid receptors" to highlight their role in cannabinoid signalling...
April 24, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436626/-the-role-of-central-cholinergic-system-in-epilepsy
#19
Ying Wang, Yi Wang, Zhong Chen
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, which is not only related to the imbalance between excitatory glutamic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic neurons, but also related to abnormal central cholinergic regulation. This article summarizes the scientific background and experimental data about cholinergic dysfunction in epilepsy from both cellular and network levels, further discusses the exact role of cholinergic system in epilepsy. In the cellular level, several types of epilepsy are believed to be associated with aberrant metabotropic muscarinic receptors in several different brain areas, while the mutations of ionotropic nicotinic receptors have been reported to result in a specific type of epilepsy-autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433171/gellan-gum-based-physical-hydrogels-incorporating-highly-valuable-endogen-molecules-and-associating-bmp-2-as-bone-formation-platforms
#20
Rita López-Cebral, Ana Civantos, Viviana Ramos, Begoña Seijo, José Luis López-Lacomba, José Vicente Sanz-Casado, Alejandro Sanchez
Physical hydrogels have been designed for a double purpose: as growth factor delivery systems and as scaffolds to support cell colonization and formation of new bone. Specifically, the polysaccharide gellan gum and the ubiquitous endogenous molecules chondroitin, albumin and spermidine have been used as exclusive components of these hydrogels. The mild ionotropic gelation technique was used to preserve the bioactivity of the selected growth factor, rhBMP-2. In vitro tests demonstrated the effective delivery of rhBMP-2 in its bioactive form...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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