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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140285/chitosan-cyclodextrin-tpp-nanoparticles-loaded-with-quercetin-as-novel-bacterial-quorum-sensing-inhibitors
#1
Hao Thanh Nguyen, Francisco M Goycoolea
The widespread emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has highlighted the urgent need of alternative therapeutic approaches for human and animal health. Targeting virulence factors that are controlled by bacterial quorum sensing (QS), seems a promising approach. The aims of this study were to generate novel nanoparticles (NPs) composed of chitosan (CS), sulfo-butyl-ether-β-cyclodextrin (Captisol(®)) and/or pentasodium tripolyphosphate using ionotropic gelation technique, and to evaluate their potential capacity to arrest QS in bacteria...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138537/development-of-novel-ultrashort-antimicrobial-peptide-nanoparticles-with-potent-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activities-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#2
Ammar Almaaytah, Gubran Khalil Mohammed, Ahmad Abualhaijaa, Qosay Al-Balas
Conventional antibiotics are facing strong microbial resistance that has recently reached critical levels. This situation is leading to significantly reduced therapeutic potential of a huge proportion of antimicrobial agents currently used in clinical settings. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could provide the medical community with an alternative strategy to traditional antibiotics for combating microbial resistance. However, the development of AMPs into clinically useful antibiotics is hampered by their relatively low stability, toxicity, and high manufacturing costs...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138116/in-silico-identification-of-genes-involved-in-chronic-metabolic-acidosis
#3
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Adeel Malik, Sameera F M AlBasri, Mohd A Beg
AIMS: Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) refers to increased plasma acidity due to disturbed acid-base equilibrium in human body. CMA leads to many dysfunctions including disorders of intestinal metabolism and barrier functions. The human body responds to these intestinal dysfunctions by creating a compensatory mechanism at genomic level in intestinal epithelial cells. This study was to identify the molecular pathways involved in metabolic dysfunction and compensatory adaptations in intestinal epithelium during CMA...
November 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133804/antennal-transcriptome-analysis-and-expression-profiles-of-olfactory-genes-in-anoplophora-chinensis
#4
Jingzhen Wang, Ping Hu, Peng Gao, Jing Tao, Youqing Luo
Olfaction in insects is essential for host identification, mating and oviposition, in which olfactory proteins are responsible for chemical signaling. Here, we determined the transcriptomes of male and female adult antennae of Anoplophora chinensis, the citrus longhorned beetle. Among 59,357 unigenes in the antennal assembly, we identified 46 odorant-binding proteins, 16 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 44 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors, 23 ionotropic receptors, and 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128589/formulation-and-statistical-optimization-of-gastric-floating-alginate-oil-chitosan-capsules-loading-procyanidins-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluations
#5
Rencai Chen, Xiaomin Guo, Xuecong Liu, Haiming Cui, Rui Wang, Jing Han
The aim of the present work was to develop gastric floating capsules containing oil-entrapped beads loading procyanidins. The floating beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate, CaCl2 and chitosan. The effect of three independent parameters (concentration of sodium alginate, CaCl2 and chitosan) on entrapment efficiency were analyzed by Box-Behnken design. The floating beads were evaluated for surface morphology, particle size, density, entrapment efficiency, buoyancy, release behavior in vitro and floating ability in vivo...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122714/diethanolamine-modified-pectin-based-core-shell-composites-as-dual-working-gastroretentive-drug-cargo
#6
Hriday Bera, Sanoj Kumar
The current study aimed at developing diethonolamine-modified high-methoxyl pectin (DMP)-alginate (ALG) based core-shell composites for controlled intragastric delivery of metformin HCl (MFM) by combined approach of floating and bioadhesion. DMP with degree of amidation of 48.72% was initially accomplished and characterized by FTIR, DSC and XRD analyses. MFM-loaded core matrices were then fabricated by ionotropic gelation technique employing zinc acetate as cross-linker. The core matrices were further coated by fenugreek gum (FG)-ALG gel membrane via diffusion-controlled interfacial complexation method...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121639/a-subset-of-sweet-sensing-neurons-identified-by-ir56d-are-necessary-and-sufficient-for-fatty-acid-taste
#7
John M Tauber, Elizabeth B Brown, Yuanyuan Li, Maria E Yurgel, Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding...
November 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117570/oxytocin-modulates-nociception-as-an-agonist-of-pain-sensing-trpv1
#8
Yelena Nersesyan, Lusine Demirkhanyan, Deny Cabezas-Bratesco, Victoria Oakes, Ricardo Kusuda, Tyler Dawson, Xiaohui Sun, Chike Cao, Alejandro Martin Cohen, Bharath Chelluboina, Krishna Kumar Veeravalli, Katharina Zimmermann, Carmen Domene, Sebastian Brauchi, Eleonora Zakharian
Oxytocin is a hormone with various actions. Oxytocin-containing parvocellular neurons project to the brainstem and spinal cord. Oxytocin release from these neurons suppresses nociception of inflammatory pain, the molecular mechanism of which remains unclear. Here, we report that the noxious stimulus receptor TRPV1 is an ionotropic oxytocin receptor. Oxytocin elicits TRPV1 activity in native and heterologous expression systems, regardless of the presence of the classical oxytocin receptor. In TRPV1 knockout mice, DRG neurons exhibit reduced oxytocin sensitivity relative to controls, and oxytocin injections significantly attenuate capsaicin-induced nociception in in vivo experiments...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117258/lung-epithelial-response-to-cigarette-smoke-and-modulation-by-the-nicotinic-alpha-7-receptor
#9
Lorise C Gahring, Elizabeth J Myers, Diane M Dunn, Robert B Weiss, Scott W Rogers
Cigarette smoking (CS) is a principal contributor to a spectrum of devastating lung diseases whose occurrence and severity may vary between individuals and not appear for decades after prolonged use. One explanation for the variability and delay in disease onset is that nicotine, the addictive component of CS, acts through the ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha7 (α7) to modulate anti-inflammatory protection. In this study we measured the impact α7 signaling has on the mouse distal lung response to side-stream CS exposure for mice of the control genotype (α7G) and those in which the α7-receptor signaling mechanisms are restricted by point mutation (α7E260A:G)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117230/two-color-one-photon-uncaging-of-glutamate-and-gaba
#10
Stefan Passlick, Paul F Kramer, Matthew T Richers, John T Williams, Graham C R Ellis-Davies
Neuronal cells receive a variety of excitatory and inhibitory signals which they process to generate an output signal. In order to study the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory receptors with exogenously applied transmitters in the same preparation, two caging chromophores attached to glutamate and GABA were developed that were selectively photolyzed by different wavelengths of light. This technique has the advantage that the biologically inactive caged compound can be applied at equilibrium prior to the near instantaneous release of the transmitters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116075/-differential-alternative-splicing-in-brain-regions-of-rats-selected-for-aggressive-behavior
#11
V N Babenko, A O Bragin, I V Chadaeva, A L Markel, Y L Orlov
Profiles of alternative mRNA isoforms have been determined in three brain regions of rats from an aggressive and a tame line selected for 74 generations. Among 2319 genes with alternatively spliced exons, approximately 84% were confirmed by analyzing public databases. Based on Gene Ontology-guided clustering of alternatively spliced genes, it has been found that the sample was enriched in synapse-specific genes (FDR < 10^(-17)). Patterns of gene expression in the brains of animals with genetically determined high or low aggression were more frequently found to differ in the use of alternatively spliced exons than in animals environmentally conditioned for increased or lowered propensity to aggression...
September 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114923/histamine-modulates-spinal-motoneurons-and-locomotor-circuits
#12
Tamara Coslovich, Michele R Brumley, Giuseppe D'Angelo, Alberto Della Mora, Hillary E Swann, Fulvia Ortolani, Giuliano Taccola
Spinal motoneurons and locomotor networks are regulated by monoamines, among which, the contribution of histamine has yet to be fully addressed. The present study investigates histaminergic regulation of spinal activity, combining intra- and extracellular electrophysiological recordings from neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro preparations. Histamine dose-dependently and reversibly generated motoneuron depolarization and action potential firing. Histamine (20 µM) halved the area of dorsal root reflexes and always depolarized motoneurons...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114569/cholinergic-receptor-alterations-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-spinal-cord-injured-rat
#13
R Chinthu, T R Anju, C S Paulose
Many areas of the cerebral cortex process sensory information or coordinate motor output necessary for control of movement. Disturbances in cortical cholinergic system can affect locomotor coordination. Spinal cord injury causes severe motor impairment and disturbances in cholinergic signalling can aggravate the situation. Considering the impact of cortical cholinergic firing in locomotion, we focussed the study in understanding the cholinergic alterations in cerebral cortex during spinal cord injury. The gene expression of key enzymes in cholinergic pathway - acetylcholine esterase and choline acetyl transferase showed significant upregulation in the cerebral cortex of spinal cord injured group compared to control with the fold increase in expression of acetylcholine esterase prominently higher than cholineacetyl transferase...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114074/glutamatergic-transmission-to-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-neurons-is-differentially-regulated-by-estradiol-through-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-adult-female-mice
#14
Luhong Wang, Laura L Burger, Megan L Greenwald-Yarnell, Martin G Myers, Suzanne M Moenter
Estradiol feedback regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and subsequent luteinizing hormone (LH) release. Estradiol acts through estrogen receptor α (ERα)-expressing afferents of GnRH neurons including kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate nuclei, providing homeostatic feedback on episodic GnRH/LH release as well as positive feedback to control ovulation. Ionotropic glutamate receptors are important for estradiol feedback but it is not known where they fit in the circuitry...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109970/dynamics-of-gnrh-neuron-ionotropic-gaba-and-glutamate-synaptic-receptors-are-unchanged-during-estrogen-positive-and-negative-feedback-in-female-mice
#15
Xinhuai Liu, Robert Porteous, Allan E Herbison
Inputs from GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons are suspected to play an important role in regulating the activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. The GnRH neurons exhibit marked plasticity to control the ovarian cycle with circulating estradiol concentrations having profound "feedback" effects on their activity. This includes "negative feedback" responsible for suppressing GnRH neuron activity and "positive feedback" that occurs at mid-cycle to activate the GnRH neurons to generate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109925/saccharification-of-citrus-wastes-by-immobilized-polygalacturonase-in-an-improved-alginate-matrix
#16
Yuly A Ramírez-Tapias, Aldana S Lapasset Laumann, Claudia N Britos, Cintia W Rivero, Jorge A Trelles
Enzyme immobilization using hydrogels is a low-cost and effective system for the degradation of bulk pectin derived from orange industry residues. Polygalacturonases obtained from four different bacterial strains of Streptomyces genus were immobilized in alginate gel and assayed for pectin hydrolysis. The enzyme from Streptomyces halstedii ATCC 10897 proved to be superior and more stable within the alginate matrix. Furthermore, a new strategy to improve alginate bead stability using a mixture of calcium and strontium is reported; this technique allowed enhancing the mechanical properties by combining different amounts of these cations for ionotropic gelation...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109059/loop-f-of-the-gabaa-receptor-alpha-subunit-governs-gaba-potency
#17
Adrienn Pálvölgyi, Krisztina Móricz, Ágnes Pataki, Balázs Mihalik, Gábor Gigler, Katalin Megyeri, Szabolcs Udvari, István Gacsályi, Ferenc A Antoni
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an abundant neurotransmitter in the CNS. GABAergic interneurons orchestrate pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, and thus control learning and memory. Ionotropic receptors for GABA (GABAAR) are heteropentameric complexes of α, β and γ integral membrane-protein subunits forming Cl(-) -channels operated by GABA, which are vital for brain function and are important drug targets. However, knowledge on how GABAAR bind GABA is controversial. Structural biology versus functional modelling combined with site-directed mutagenesis suggest markedly different roles for loop F of the extracellular domain of the α-subunit when complexed with GABA...
November 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106899/vinpocetine-protects-inner-retinal-neurons-with-functional-nmda-glutamate-receptors-against-retinal-ischemia
#18
Lisa Nivison-Smith, Pauline Khoo, Monica L Acosta, Michael Kalloniatis
Retinal ischemia is involved in the pathogenesis of many major vision threatening diseases. Vinpocetine is a natural drug, which has a range of neuroprotective actions against retinal ischemia including modulating cation flow, improving metabolic activity and preventing apoptosis. The exact mechanism behind these actions remains unknown but may involve glutamate receptors, major components of the ischemic cascade. This study examined the effects of vinpocetine in association with specific ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate...
November 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102027/effect-of-novel-allosteric-modulators-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-on-drug-self-administration-and-relapse-a-review-of-preclinical-studies-and-their-clinical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Daniele Caprioli, Zuzana Justinova, Marco Venniro, Yavin Shaham
Results from preclinical rodent studies during the last 20 years implicated glutamate neurotransmission in different brain regions in drug self-administration and rodent models of relapse. These results, along with evidence for drug-induced neuroadaptations in glutamatergic neurons and receptors, suggested that addiction might be treatable by medications that inhibit glutamatergic responses to drugs of abuse, drug-associated cues, and stressors. This idea is supported by findings in rodent and primate models that drug self-administration and relapse are reduced by systemic injections of antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors or metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) or orthosteric agonists of mGluR2/3...
September 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101806/tetrandrine-and-cancer-an-overview-on-the-molecular-approach
#20
REVIEW
Bhagya N, Chandrashekar K R
Tetrandrine has been known in the treatment of tuberculosis, hyperglycemia, negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects on myocardium, malaria, cancer and fever since years together. It has been known that, tetrandrine could modulate multiple signaling molecules such as kinases of cell cycle and rat sarcoma (RAS) pathway along with proteins of tumor suppressor genes, autophagy related, β-catenins, caspases, and death receptors. Moreover, tetrandrine exhibited reversal of drug resistance by modulating P-glyco protein (P-gp) expression levels in different cancers which is an added advantage of this compound compared to other chemotherapy drugs...
November 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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