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Grant Lewison, Ajay Aggarwal, Philip Roe, Henrik Møller, Charlotte Chamberlain, Richard Sullivan
Objective We wished to explore how UK national newspapers had covered the creation and operation of the Cancer Drugs Fund from 2010 to 2015. This was introduced to provide cancer patients in England with access to drugs not appraised or approved by the National Institute for health and Care Excellence. Design We sought stories in nine newspapers from the Factiva database, and copied their salient details to a spreadsheet. They were categorised by whether they were supportive or critical of the Cancer Drugs Fund and their main arguments, which drugs they mentioned and for which cancers...
September 13, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Amy E Maas, Leocadio Blanco-Bercial, Ali Lo, Ann M Tarrant, Emma Timmins-Schiffman
The diel vertical migration of zooplankton is a process during which individuals spend the night in surface waters and retreat to depth during the daytime, with substantial implications for carbon transport and the ecology of midwater ecosystems. The physiological consequences of this daily pattern have, however, been poorly studied beyond investigations of speed and the energetic cost of swimming. Many other processes are likely influenced, such as fuel use, energetic trade-offs, underlying diel (circadian) rhythms, and antioxidant responses...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Gunn Grande, Christine Rowland, Bernard van den Berg, Barbara Hanratty
BACKGROUND: Family carers provide vital support for patients towards end-of-life, but caregiving has considerable impact on carers' own health. The scale of this problem is unknown, as previous research has involved unrepresentative samples or failed to fully capture caregiving close to death. AIM: To quantify level of psychological morbidity and general health among a census sample of carers of people with cancer at end-of-life, compared to population reference data...
August 21, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Munir H Buhaya
This image represents a physician unilaterally completing a do-not-resuscitate order for an unrepresented patient.
August 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Golnaz Sadjadieh, Thomas Engstrøm, Dan Eik Høfsten, Steffen Helqvist, Lars Køber, Frants Pedersen, Peter Nørkjær Laursen, Hedvig Bille Andersson, Lars Nepper-Christensen, Peter Clemmensen, Rikke Sørensen, Erik Jørgensen, Kari Saunamäki, Hans-Henrik Tilsted, Henning Kelbæk, Lene Holmvang
Most studies reporting bleedings in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are reports from clinical trials, which may be unrepresentative of incidences in real-life. In this study, we investigated 1-year bleeding and mortality incidences in an unselected STEMI population, and compared participants with nonparticipants of a randomized all-comer clinical trial (The Third DANish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients with STEMI (DANAMI-3)). Hospital charts were read and bleedings classified according to thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria in 2,490 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention in a single, large, and tertiary heart center...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Wei Du, Xi Zhu, Yuanchen Chen, Weijian Liu, Wei Wang, Guofeng Shen, Shu Tao, James J Jetter
Residential combustion emission contributes significantly to ambient and indoor air pollution in China; however, this pollution source is poorly characterized and often overlooked in national pollution control policies. Few studies, and even fewer field-based investigations, have evaluated pollutant emissions from indoor biomass burning. One significant feature of Chinese household biofuel stoves is that many are built on site. In this study, 112 tests were conducted to investigate pollutant emission factors and variations for 11 fuel-stove combinations in actual use in the field...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Laura A Langner, Frank F Furstenberg
Objective: Many studies reveal a gender gap in spousal care during late life. However, this gap could be an artifact of methodological limitations (small and unrepresentative cross-sectional samples). Using a data set that overcomes these limitations, we re-examine the question of gender differences in spousal care and housework adjustment when a serious illness occurs. Method: We use biannual waves between 2001 and 2015 of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study and growth-curve analyses...
August 2, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Annegreet van Opbroek, Hakim C Achterberg, Meike W Vernooij, Marleen de Bruijne
Many medical image segmentation methods are based on supervised classification of voxels. Such methods generally perform well when provided with a training set that is representative of the test images to segment. However, problems may arise when training and test data follow different distributions, for example due to differences in scanners, scanning protocols, or patient groups. Under such conditions, weighting training images according to distribution similarity has been shown to greatly improve performance...
July 25, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
E C Long, S L Lönn, J Sundquist, K Sundquist, K S Kendler
PURPOSE: The substantial literature showing that offspring of parents with alcohol use disorder (AUD) is at increased risk for externalizing psychopathology rarely examines the differential effects of parental and offspring sex. This literature also has other important limitations, such as modest sample sizes and use of unrepresentative samples. Using a large, nationwide Swedish sample, we aim to investigate the roles of parental and offspring sex in externalizing psychopathology among offspring with parental AUD...
July 17, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Chelsea Wallis
Australia's intermittent attempts to legalise euthanasia are typically fraught with brief, polarised, and often sensationalised, public debate. Yet beyond the sensitive arguments in favour and in opposition of reform, the practical antecedents of change that may determine Australia's genuine aptitude to enact reforms have been largely neglected. Phronetic legal inquiry thus offers insights into the euthanasia law reform experience, using Australian and international case comparisons to examine covert power dynamics, cultural discourses, and social and institutional structures that affect the practices of the legislature...
April 2018: Journal of Law and Medicine
Fredric J Janzen, Luke A Hoekstra, Ronald J Brooks, David M Carroll, J Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L Greene, John B Iverson, Jacqueline D Litzgus, Edwin D Michael, Steven G Parren, Willem M Roosenburg, Gabriel F Strain, John K Tucker, Gordon R Ultsch
Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long-term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate-altered phenology using long-term studies (10-36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles ( Chelydra , Chrysemys , Kinosternon , Malaclemys , Sternotherus , and Trachemys )...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Dennis A Smith, Robert A B van Waterschoot, Neil J Parrott, Andrés Olivares-Morales, Thierry Lavé, Malcolm Rowland
Target concentration is typically not considered in drug discovery. However, if targets are expressed at relatively high concentrations and compounds have high affinity, such that most of the drug is bound to its target, in vitro screens can give unreliable information on compound affinity. In vivo, a similar situation will generate pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles that deviate greatly from those normally expected, owing to target binding affecting drug distribution and clearance. Such target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) effects on small molecules have received little attention and might only become apparent during clinical trials, with the potential for data misinterpretation...
June 19, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
William O'Donohue, Caroline Cummings, Brendan Willis
The rate of false allegations has been a topic of research spanning back to as early as the 1970s. Studies have often relied on data gathered by Child Protective Services workers and court administrators. Some researchers have also used hypothetical scenarios to estimate rates. However, given the plethora of sampling methods, there is a large variation in estimated rates of false allegations of sexual abuse depending on the data source and context of the allegation. Additionally, methodological problems such as unclear or invalid criteria used to judge truth or falsity of an allegation, unrepresentative samples, and ignoring important contextual variables such as the stage at which an allegation is made, currently all render the determination of actual rates of false child sexual abuse allegations to be unknown...
July 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
J-M Darves-Bornoz
In the title of this text, by somatic disorders we mean those physical illnesses clearly related to a non-psychiatric medical field, frequently termed psychosomatic illnesses and somatoform disorders. For forty years, a trend of thought has focused with pertinence on the psychological peculiarities in patients with severe somatic diseases. Moreover, causality was often supposed in the regularly mentioned association between personality features and somatoform disorders. However, the revival of the study of the earlier field of relationships between mind and body by Briquet, Charcot, Janet and Freud in his first period has led to the reassessment of the meaning of these observations...
June 8, 2018: L'Encéphale
Robert Blasiak, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Colette C C Wabnitz, Emma Sundström, Henrik Österblom
Who owns ocean biodiversity? This is an increasingly relevant question, given the legal uncertainties associated with the use of genetic resources from areas beyond national jurisdiction, which cover half of the Earth's surface. We accessed 38 million records of genetic sequences associated with patents and created a database of 12,998 sequences extracted from 862 marine species. We identified >1600 sequences from 91 species associated with deep-sea and hydrothermal vent systems, reflecting commercial interest in organisms from remote ocean areas, as well as a capacity to collect and use the genes of such species...
June 2018: Science Advances
Angus D Macleod, Rachel Henery, Paul C Nwajiugo, Nicholas W Scott, Robert Caslake, Carl E Counsell
OBJECTIVE: To describe, and explore heterogeneity in, age at onset/diagnosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) and compare mean age at onset/diagnosis in incidence studies with that in general PD research studies. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies of PD incidence. We meta-analysed mean age at onset/diagnosis and age-stratum-specific incidence rates. We compared age-specific incidence rates in screening studies in the elderly with whole-population studies. We collated mean ages at onset/diagnosis in clinical studies of PD in five journals July-December 2016...
May 31, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Maksymilian Gajda, Małgorzata Kowalska, Jan E Zejda
The appropriate level of the society's health-oriented knowledge is essential for improving the effectiveness of actions to reduce the number of new cases and deaths caused by cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the role of web-based educational campaigns in the field of cancer prevention in Poland. From 14.05.2015 to 13.11.2016 readers of Polish scientific websites were invited to participate in the "PORINA" prospective interventional study. A total of 1118 volunteers (unrepresentative sample) were recruited and randomized (interventional and control groups)...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Seyed Hossein Hejazi, Amado Salvador Peña, Hamid Asadzadeh-Aghdaei, Kamran Rostami, Umberto Volta, Mohammad Reza Zali
BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some patients with coeliac disease (CD) present with severe symptoms and small intestinal mucosal damages while others present with milder symptoms and no frank enteropathy. There is no study to assess the associated factors with mild/severe symptoms and enteropathy. The terminologies like latent, silent and potential are difficult to use and are unrepresentative. In the present study we describe coeliac disease's phenotypes based on HLA haplotypes, IL8 production and past infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T...
May 18, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Teeratas Kijpornyongpan, Stephen J Mondo, Kerrie Barry, Laura Sandor, Juna Lee, Anna Lipzen, Jasmyn Pangilinan, Kurt LaButti, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat, Igor V Grigoriev, Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime
Ustilaginomycotina is home to a broad array of fungi including important plant pathogens collectively called smut fungi. Smuts are biotrophs that produce characteristic perennating propagules called teliospores, one of which, Ustilago maydis, is a model genetic organism. Broad exploration of smut biology has been hampered by limited phylogenetic resolution of Ustilaginiomycotina as well as an overall lack of genomic data for members of this subphylum. In this study, we sequenced eight Ustilaginomycotina genomes from previously unrepresented lineages, deciphered ordinal-level phylogenetic relationships for the subphylum, and performed comparative analyses...
August 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Bryan A Killingsworth, Huiming Bao, Issaku E Kohl
Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO4 2- ) sulfur and oxygen isotope variations reflect their controls such as SO4 2- reduction and reoxidation, and source mixing. However, unconstrained temporal variability of riverine SO4 2- isotope compositions due to short sampling durations may lead to mischaracterization of SO4 2- sources, particularly for the pyrite-derived sulfate load. We measured the sulfur and triple-oxygen isotopes (δ34 S, δ18 O, and Δ'17 O) of Mississippi River SO4 2- with biweekly sampling between 2009 and 2013 to test isotopic variability and constrain sources...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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