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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040712/signal-uncertainty-and-conflict-in-phylogenomic-data-for-a-diverse-lineage-of-microbial-eukaryotes-diatoms-bacillariophyta
#1
Matthew B Parks, Norman J Wickett, Andrew J Alverson
Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) are a species-rich group of eukaryotic microbes diverse in morphology, ecology, and metabolism. Previous reconstructions of the diatom phylogeny based on one or a few genes have resulted in inconsistent resolution or low support for critical nodes. We applied phylogenetic paralog pruning techniques to a dataset of 94 diatom genomes and transcriptomes to infer perennially difficult species relationships, using concatenation and summary-coalescent methods to reconstruct species trees from datasets spanning a wide range of thresholds for taxon and column occupancy in gene alignments...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989764/modelling-personality-plasticity-and-predictability-in-shelter-dogs
#2
Conor Goold, Ruth C Newberry
Behavioural assessments of shelter dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) typically comprise standardized test batteries conducted at one time point, but test batteries have shown inconsistent predictive validity. Longitudinal behavioural assessments offer an alternative. We modelled longitudinal observational data on shelter dog behaviour using the framework of behavioural reaction norms, partitioning variance into personality (i.e. inter-individual differences in behaviour), plasticity (i.e. inter-individual differences in average behaviour) and predictability (i...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945319/the-association-between-theory-of-mind-executive-function-and-the-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Catherine R G Jones, Emily Simonoff, Gillian Baird, Andrew Pickles, Anita J S Marsden, Jenifer Tregay, Francesca Happé, Tony Charman
It has been strongly argued that atypical cognitive processes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) contribute to the expression of behavioural symptoms. Comprehensive investigation of these claims has been limited by small and unrepresentative sample sizes and the absence of wide-ranging task batteries. The current study investigated the cognitive abilities of 100 adolescents with ASD (mean age = 15 years 6 months), using 10 tasks to measure the domains of theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF). We used structural equation modelling as a statistically robust way of exploring the associations between cognition and parent-reported measures of social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs)...
September 25, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930706/giving-voice-to-the-voiceless-the-colorado-response-to-unrepresented-patients
#4
Deb Bennett-Woods, Jean Abbott, Jacqueline J Glover
Medical decision making on behalf of unrepresented patients is one of the most challenging ethical issues faced in clinical practice. The legal environment surrounding these patients is equally complex. This article describes the efforts of a small coalition of interested healthcare professionals to address the issue in Colorado. A brief history of the effort is presented, along with discussion of the legal, ethical, practical, and political dimensions that arose in Colorado's effort to address decision making for unrepresented patients through an extension of the existing Colorado Medical Treatment Decision Act (CRS 15-18)...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918564/mri-combined-with-pet-ct-of-different-tracers-to-improve-the-accuracy-of-glioma-diagnosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Yihan Yang, Mike Z He, Tao Li, Xuejun Yang
Based on studies focusing on positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of glioma, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the pros and cons and the accuracy of different examinations. PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched. The search was conducted until April 2017. Two reviewers independently conducted the literature search according to the criteria set initially. Based on the exclusion criteria, 15 articles are included in this study...
September 16, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912590/the-importance-of-simulated-lung-fluid-slf-extractions-for-a-more-relevant-evaluation-of-the-oxidative-potential-of-particulate-matter
#6
Aude Calas, Gaëlle Uzu, Jean M F Martins, Didier Voisin, Lorenzo Spadini, Thomas Lacroix, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Particulate matter (PM) induces oxidative stress in vivo, leading to adverse health effects. Oxidative potential (OP) of PM is increasingly studied as a relevant metric for health impact (instead of PM mass concentration) as much of the ambient particle mass do not contribute to PM toxicity. Several assays have been developed to quantify PM oxidative potential and a widely used one is the acellular dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. However in such assays, particles are usually extracted with methanol or Milli-Q water which is unrepresentative of physiological conditions...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900236/india-plate-angular-velocity-and-contemporary-deformation-rates-from-continuous-gps-measurements-from-1996-to-2015
#7
Sridevi Jade, T S Shrungeshwara, Kireet Kumar, Pallabee Choudhury, Rakesh K Dumka, Harsh Bhu
We estimate a new angular velocity for the India plate and contemporary deformation rates in the plate interior and along its seismically active margins from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from 1996 to 2015 at 70 continuous and 3 episodic stations. A new India-ITRF2008 angular velocity is estimated from 30 GPS sites, which include stations from western and eastern regions of the plate interior that were unrepresented or only sparsely sampled in previous studies. Our newly estimated India-ITRF2008 Euler pole is located significantly closer to the plate with ~3% higher angular velocity than all previous estimates and thus predicts more rapid variations in rates and directions along the plate boundaries...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895526/molecular-testing-for-lynch-syndrome-in-people-with-colorectal-cancer-systematic-reviews-and-economic-evaluation
#8
Tristan Snowsill, Helen Coelho, Nicola Huxley, Tracey Jones-Hughes, Simon Briscoe, Ian M Frayling, Chris Hyde
BACKGROUND: Inherited mutations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair (MMR) genes lead to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), gynaecological cancers and other cancers, known as Lynch syndrome (LS). Risk-reducing interventions can be offered to individuals with known LS-causing mutations. The mutations can be identified by comprehensive testing of the MMR genes, but this would be prohibitively expensive in the general population. Tumour-based tests - microsatellite instability (MSI) and MMR immunohistochemistry (IHC) - are used in CRC patients to identify individuals at high risk of LS for genetic testing...
September 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875280/metastases-to-the-parathyroid-glands-a-comprehensive-literature-review-of-127-reported-cases
#9
REVIEW
Justin L Bauer, Sherwin Toluie, Lester D R Thompson
Metastases to the head and neck organs are uncommon, potentially representing the initial presentation of an occult malignancy. Single case reports and small series report metastases to the parathyroid gland, but there is no large review of the literature on secondary tumors involving the parathyroid glands. A review of the English literature between 1950 and 2017 was performed of all metastases or secondary involvement of the parathyroid glands. One hundred and twenty-seven cases of metastatic tumors were reported, although potentially significantly unrepresented in autopsy series (parathyroid glands are not routinely examined) and due to reporting bias...
September 5, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819790/contemplative-meditation-and-neuroscience-prospects-for-mental-health
#10
Denis Larrivee, Luis Echarte
Numerous studies show that personal spirituality developed through prayer positively influences mental health. Phenomenological and neuroscientific studies of mindfulness, an Eastern meditative prayer form, reveal significant health benefits now yielding important insights useful for guiding treatment of psychological disorders. By contrast, and despite its practice for millennia, Christian meditation is largely unrepresented in studies of clinical efficacy. Resemblances between mindfulness and disciplinary acts in Christian meditation taken from the ancient Greek practice of askesis suggest that Christian meditation will prove similarly beneficial; furthermore, psychological and neuroscientific studies suggest that its retention of a dialogical and transcendent praxis will additionally benefit social and existential psychotherapy...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810522/unrepresented-community-odour-impact-improving-engagement-strategies
#11
J E Hayes, R M Fisher, R J Stevenson, C Mannebeck, R M Stuetz
Complaints for odour causing industry continue to increase in numeracy and severity. One assessment approach using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O), has been used primarily to identify priority odourants within a standardised panel. We investigated the variation of response between participants of average and high olfactory sensitivity, and discovered that current GC-MS/O methodologies do not represent the entirety of community odour impact. Based on these results we constructed a Biosolids Processing Odour Wheel followed by a Community Odour Wheel for use by untrained community members and site operators...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759621/identification-of-novel-antibody-reactive-detection-sites-for-comprehensive-gluten-monitoring
#12
Niels Röckendorf, Barbara Meckelein, Katharina A Scherf, Kathrin Schalk, Peter Koehler, Andreas Frey
Certain cereals like wheat, rye or barley contain gluten, a protein mixture that can trigger celiac disease (CD). To make gluten-free diets available for affected individuals the gluten content of foodstuff must be monitored. For this purpose, antibody-based assays exist which rely on the recognition of certain linear gluten sequence motifs. Yet, not all CD-active gluten constituents and fragments formed during food processing/fermentation may be covered by those tests. In this study, we therefore assayed the coverage of reportedly CD-active gluten components by currently available detection antibodies and determined the antibody-inducing capacity of wheat gluten constituents in order to provide novel diagnostic targets for comprehensive gluten quantitation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752955/fibrobacter-communities-in-the-gastrointestinal-tracts-of-diverse-hindgut-fermenting-herbivores-are-distinct-from-those-of-the-rumen
#13
Anthony P Neumann, Caroline A McCormick, Garret Suen
The genus Fibrobacter contains cellulolytic bacteria originally isolated from the rumen. Culture-independent investigations have since identified Fibrobacter populations in the gastrointestinal tracts of numerous hindgut-fermenting herbivores, but their physiology is poorly characterized due to few representative axenic cultures. To test the hypothesis that novel Fibrobacter diversity exists in hindgut fermenters, we performed culturing and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing on samples collected from phylogenetically diverse herbivorous hosts...
September 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750346/relationship-and-community-factors-related-to-better-mental-health-following-child-maltreatment-among-adolescents
#14
Kristene Cheung, Tamara Taillieu, Sarah Turner, Janique Fortier, Jitender Sareen, Harriet L MacMillan, Michael H Boyle, Tracie O Afifi
Research on factors associated with good mental health following child maltreatment is often based on unrepresentative samples and focuses on individual-level factors. To address these gaps, the present study examined the association between relationship- and community-level factors and overall mental health status among adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment in a representative sample. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey of Adolescents (NCS-A; n=10,148; data collection 2001-2004); a large, cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 13-17 years from the United States...
July 24, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734268/dna-barcoding-allows-identification-of-european-fanniidae-diptera-of-forensic-interest
#15
Andrzej Grzywacz, Dominika Wyborska, Marcin Piwczyński
In forensic entomology practice, species identification is a prerequisite for any further analysis of collected material. Although morphology-based taxonomy may be hindered by a range of factors, these are not obstacles for a molecular identification approach, so-called DNA barcoding. The Fanniidae are a dipteran family that is attracted to and breeds in decomposing animal carrion and dead human bodies. However, morphological identification of fanniids, both at adult and immature stages, is considered to be difficult, particularly for non-experts...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723970/barriers-and-facilitators-of-hiv-vaccine-and-prevention-study-participation-among-young-black-msm-and-transwomen-in-new-york-city
#16
Sharise Richardson, Pich Seekaew, Beryl Koblin, Tasha Vazquez, Vijay Nandi, Hong-Van Tieu
BACKGROUND: Black men who have sex with men (MSM), and Transwomen (TW) shoulder disproportionate burden of HIV. However, they are unrepresented in HIV vaccine trials. We investigated the perceptions of that factors associated with HIV vaccine trials participation among Black MSM and TW in New York. METHODS: Self-administered online questionnaires were administered to 18-29 years of NYC residents who identified as Black MSM and TW, assessing demographics, awareness and willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, barriers and facilitators associated with willingness, and sexual behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719743/machine-learning-on-signal-to-noise-ratios-improves-peptide-array-design-in-samdi-mass-spectrometry
#17
Albert Y Xue, Lindsey C Szymczak, Milan Mrksich, Neda Bagheri
Emerging peptide array technologies are able to profile molecular activities within cell lysates. However, the structural diversity of peptides leads to inherent differences in peptide signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). These complex effects can lead to potentially unrepresentative signal intensities and can bias subsequent analyses. Within mass spectrometry-based peptide technologies, the relation between a peptide's amino acid sequence and S/N remains largely nonquantitative. To address this challenge, we present a method to quantify and analyze mass spectrometry S/N of two peptide arrays, and we use this analysis to portray quality of data and to design future arrays for SAMDI mass spectrometry...
September 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668988/blowfly-puparia-in-a-hermetic-container-survival-under-decreasing-oxygen-conditions
#18
Anna Mądra-Bielewicz, Katarzyna Frątczak-Łagiewska, Szymon Matuszewski
Despite widely accepted standards for sampling and preservation of insect evidence, unrepresentative samples or improperly preserved evidence are encountered frequently in forensic investigations. Here, we report the results of laboratory studies on the survival of Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) intra-puparial forms in hermetic containers, which were stimulated by a recent case. It is demonstrated that the survival of blowfly intra-puparial forms inside airtight containers is dependent on container volume, number of puparia inside, and their age...
July 1, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639356/bias-in-protected-area-location-and-its-effects-on-long-term-aspirations-of-biodiversity-conventions
#19
Oscar Venter, Ainhoa Magrach, Nick Outram, Carissa Joy Klein, Moreno Di Marco, James E M Watson
To contribute to the aspirations of recent international biodiversity conventions, protected areas (PAs) must be strategically located, and not simply established on economically marginal lands as they have in the past. With refined international commitments under the Convention of Biodiversity to target protected areas in places of 'importance to biodiversity', this may now be the case. Here we analyze location biases in PAs globally over both historic (pre-2004) and recent time periods. Discouragingly, we find that both old and new protected areas are not targeting places with high concentration of threatened vertebrate species...
June 21, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578291/feasibility-of-bidirectional-text-messages-in-evaluating-a-text-based-nutrition-education-program-for-low-income-parents-results-from-the-text2bhealthy-program
#20
Stephanie K Grutzmacher, Ashley L Munger, Katherine E Speirs, Lindsey A Zemeir, Kate C Richard, Laryessa Worthington
Text messages are increasingly used in the delivery of health education programs. One appealing aspect of this approach is the possibility of remotely collecting participant data to use in program tailoring or evaluation. The purpose of the present study is to test the feasibility of using text messages to collect participant data. Using data from 33 texted evaluation questions sent through the Text2BHealthy nutrition education program for low-income parents (n=108-1521) response rates under different incentive and prompting strategies were examined...
October 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
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