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Joseph M Obeid, Nolan A Wages, Yinin Hu, Donna H Deacon, Craig L Slingluff
INTRODUCTION: Infiltration of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by CD8(+) T lymphocytes predicts improved patient survival; however, heterogeneity of intratumoral localization complicates this assessment. Strategies for tumor sampling may not accurately represent the whole tumor. We hypothesized that sampling strategies may alter the identification of tumors with high CD8 density and affect the prognostic significance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three primary NSCLC tumors were immunohistochemically stained for CD8 and were assessed using automated software with eight different sampling strategies or the whole tumor...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Jiandong Yang, Fujun Shen, Rong Hou, Yang Da
BACKGROUND: A major function of the captive panda population is to preserve the genetic diversity of wild panda populations in their natural habitats. Understanding the genetic composition of the captive panda population in terms of genetic contributions from the wild panda populations provides necessary knowledge for breeding plans to preserve the genetic diversity of the wild panda populations. RESULTS: The genetic contributions from different wild populations to the captive panda population were highly unbalanced, with Qionglai accounting for 52...
October 3, 2016: BMC Genetics
Herbert Rakatansky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Holger L Kern, Elizabeth A Stuart, Jennifer Hill, Donald P Green
Randomized experiments are considered the gold standard for causal inference, as they can provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects for the experimental participants. However, researchers and policymakers are often interested in using a specific experiment to inform decisions about other target populations. In education research, increasing attention is being paid to the potential lack of generalizability of randomized experiments, as the experimental participants may be unrepresentative of the target population of interest...
2016: Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness
Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Evangelos Pafilis, Suzanna E Lewis, Mark P Schildhauer, Ramona L Walls, Christopher J Mungall
BACKGROUND: The Environment Ontology (ENVO; ), first described in 2013, is a resource and research target for the semantically controlled description of environmental entities. The ontology's initial aim was the representation of the biomes, environmental features, and environmental materials pertinent to genomic and microbiome-related investigations. However, the need for environmental semantics is common to a multitude of fields, and ENVO's use has steadily grown since its initial description...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Endre Koritar
This paper explores how standard analytic technique may result in a repetition of past traumatic experiences in the transference and countertransference analytic situation. Relaxation and elasticity of technique can lead to re-integration of previously fragmented ego functions, and in remembering and re-experiencing of previously repressed symbolic representations of fragmenting past traumatic experiences, resulting in neocatharsis and working through, thus healing wounds and scars sustained in self development...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Robert J Robbins, Leonard Krishtalka, John C Wooley
BACKGROUND: Efforts to harmonize genomic data standards used by the biodiversity and metagenomic research communities have shown that prokaryotic data cannot be understood or represented in a traditional, classical biological context for conceptual reasons, not technical ones. RESULTS: Biology, like physics, has a fundamental duality-the classical macroscale eukaryotic realm vs. the quantum microscale microbial realm-with the two realms differing profoundly, and counter-intuitively, from one another...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Shannon M Smith, Jennifer S Gewandter, Rachel A Kitt, John D Markman, Janet A Vaughan, Penney Cowan, Ernest A Kopecky, Richard Malamut, Alesia Sadosky, Leslie Tive, Dennis C Turk, Robert H Dworkin
: Barriers to clinical trial recruitment can delay study completion, potentially resulting in increased costs and an unrepresentative sample. In the current study of 150 participants with chronic pain, we used a computerized adaptive choice-based conjoint (ACBC) survey that included 8 characteristics that may affect enrollment in pharmacologic pain treatment trials (i.e., treatment allocation; frequency of pain ratings; treatment administration method; current medications; number of study visits; availability of evening and weekend visits; invasiveness of laboratory procedures; payment)...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Fábio Suzart de Albuquerque, Paul Beier
Given species inventories of all sites in a planning area, integer programming or heuristic algorithms can prioritize sites in terms of the site's complementary value, that is, the ability of the site to complement (add unrepresented species to) other sites prioritized for conservation. The utility of these procedures is limited because distributions of species are typically available only as coarse atlases or range maps, whereas conservation planners need to prioritize relatively small sites. If such coarse-resolution information can be used to identify small sites that efficiently represent species (i...
June 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Abigail R A Aiken, Sonya Borrero, Lisa S Callegari, Christine Dehlendorf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Adriana De Palma, Stefan Abrahamczyk, Marcelo A Aizen, Matthias Albrecht, Yves Basset, Adam Bates, Robin J Blake, Céline Boutin, Rob Bugter, Stuart Connop, Leopoldo Cruz-López, Saul A Cunningham, Ben Darvill, Tim Diekötter, Silvia Dorn, Nicola Downing, Martin H Entling, Nina Farwig, Antonio Felicioli, Steven J Fonte, Robert Fowler, Markus Franzén, Dave Goulson, Ingo Grass, Mick E Hanley, Stephen D Hendrix, Farina Herrmann, Felix Herzog, Andrea Holzschuh, Birgit Jauker, Michael Kessler, M E Knight, Andreas Kruess, Patrick Lavelle, Violette Le Féon, Pia Lentini, Louise A Malone, Jon Marshall, Eliana Martínez Pachón, Quinn S McFrederick, Carolina L Morales, Sonja Mudri-Stojnic, Guiomar Nates-Parra, Sven G Nilsson, Erik Öckinger, Lynne Osgathorpe, Alejandro Parra-H, Carlos A Peres, Anna S Persson, Theodora Petanidou, Katja Poveda, Eileen F Power, Marino Quaranta, Carolina Quintero, Romina Rader, Miriam H Richards, T'ai Roulston, Laurent Rousseau, Jonathan P Sadler, Ulrika Samnegård, Nancy A Schellhorn, Christof Schüepp, Oliver Schweiger, Allan H Smith-Pardo, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Jane C Stout, Rebecca K Tonietto, Teja Tscharntke, Jason M Tylianakis, Hans A F Verboven, Carlos H Vergara, Jort Verhulst, Catrin Westphal, Hyung Joo Yoon, Andy Purvis
Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically unrepresentative; most data are from North America and Western Europe, overrepresenting bumblebees and raising concerns that model results may not be generalizable to other regions and taxa. To assess whether the geographic and taxonomic biases of data could undermine effectiveness of models for conservation policy, we have collated from the published literature a global dataset of bee diversity at sites facing land-use change and intensification, and assess whether bee responses to these pressures vary across 11 regions (Western, Northern, Eastern and Southern Europe; North, Central and South America; Australia and New Zealand; South East Asia; Middle and Southern Africa) and between bumblebees and other bees...
2016: Scientific Reports
Peter Lanbeck, Gunnel Ragnarson Tennvall, Fredrik Resman
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been widely introduced in hospitals as a response to increasing antimicrobial resistance. Although such programs are commonly used, the long-term effects on antimicrobial resistance as well as societal economics are uncertain. METHODS: We performed a cost analysis of an antimicrobial stewardship program introduced in Malmö, Sweden in 20 weeks 2013 compared with a corresponding control period in 2012. All direct costs and opportunity costs related to the stewardship intervention were calculated for both periods...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Pina Antinucci
In this paper, I propose a psychoanalytic reading of some of the writings of Amelia Rosselli, a trilingual poet who, at the age of seven, lost her father Carlo, who was persecuted and murdered by Mussolini's regime. History and her history conflate into personal and collective trauma which defies human possibilities to work through and mourn. Rosselli's work testifies to such predicament of the human subject of the 20th century, his/her dislocation, alienation and internal irreconcilable divisions. In particular I examine Diary in three tongues, which is the most autobiographical of her works and a self-analytic piece, written after the conclusion of her second analysis...
July 20, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
Kayonda Hubert Ngamaba
BACKGROUND: Maximising the happiness and life satisfaction [i.e. subjective well-being (SWB)] of citizens is a fundamental goal of international governmental organizations' policies. In order to decide what policies should be pursued in order to improve SWB there is a need to identify what the key drivers of SWB are. However, to date most studies have been conducted in unrepresentative samples of largely 'developed' nations. METHODS: Data from the latest World Value Survey (2010-14) and gathered 85 070 respondents from 59 countries (Age 1-99 years, Mean = 42, SD = 16...
July 17, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Sagar M Utturkar, W Nathan Cude, Michael S Robeson, Zamin K Yang, Dawn M Klingeman, Miriam L Land, Steve L Allman, Tse-Yuan S Lu, Steven D Brown, Christopher W Schadt, Mircea Podar, Mitchel J Doktycz, Dale A Pelletier
UNLABELLED: Bacterial endophytes that colonize Populus trees contribute to nutrient acquisition, prime immunity responses, and directly or indirectly increase both above- and below-ground biomasses. Endophytes are embedded within plant material, so physical separation and isolation are difficult tasks. Application of culture-independent methods, such as metagenome or bacterial transcriptome sequencing, has been limited due to the predominance of DNA from the plant biomass. Here, we describe a modified differential and density gradient centrifugation-based protocol for the separation of endophytic bacteria from Populus roots...
September 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jayne K Hanford, Mathew S Crowther, Dieter F Hochuli
Biodiversity offset schemes are globally popular policy tools for balancing the competing demands of conservation and development. Trading currencies for losses and gains in biodiversity value at development and credit sites are usually based on several vegetation attributes combined to give a simple score (multi-metric), but are rarely validated prior to implementation. Inaccurate biodiversity trading currencies have the serious potential to accelerate global biodiversity loss through unrepresentative trades of losses and gains...
June 30, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Simon Noble
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) comprising deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus, confers a significant symptom burden in the supportive care setting, and yet is often unrecognized. Its management remains challenging because the clinical trials informing practice recruited patients that are largely unrepresentative of the advanced disease populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent years have seen several developments in the management of VTE including new oral anticoagulants, an appreciation of the patient's experience of VTE, and the importance of considering other comorbidities in ensuring an individualized approach to VTE treatment...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Helen I McDonald, Catriona Shaw, Sara L Thomas, Kathryn E Mansfield, Laurie A Tomlinson, Dorothea Nitsch
Research regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) using routinely collected data presents particular challenges. The availability, consistency, and quality of renal data in electronic health records has changed over time with developments in policy, practice incentives, clinical knowledge, and associated guideline changes. Epidemiologic research may be affected by patchy data resulting in an unrepresentative sample, selection bias, misclassification, and confounding by factors associated with testing for and recognition of reduced kidney function...
June 15, 2016: Kidney International
Maarten Kruijver
Several problems in forensic genetics require a representative model of a forensic DNA database. Obtaining an accurate representation of the offender database can be difficult, since databases typically contain groups of persons with unregistered ethnic origins in unknown proportions. We propose to estimate the allele frequencies of the subpopulations comprising the offender database and their proportions from the database itself using a latent variable approach. We present a model for which parameters can be estimated using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm...
April 1, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Ben Baumberg Geiger, George MacKerron
There are surprisingly few discussions of the link between wellbeing and alcohol, and few empirical studies to underpin them. Policymakers have therefore typically considered negative wellbeing impacts while ignoring positive ones, used gross overestimates of positive impacts via a naïve 'consumer surplus' approach, or ignored wellbeing completely. We examine an alternative subjective wellbeing method for investigating alcohol and wellbeing, using fixed effects analyses of the associations between drinking and wellbeing within two different types of data...
May 2016: Social Science & Medicine
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