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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400953/maternal-mortality-as-a-millennium-development-goal-of-the-united-nations-a-systematic-assessment-and-analysis-of-available-data-in-threshold-countries-using-indonesia-as-example
#1
Evelyn Reinke, Supriyatiningsih, Jörg Haier
BACKGROUND: In 2015 the proposed period ended for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the United Nations targeting to lower maternal mortality worldwide by ~ 75%. 99% of these cases appear in developing and threshold countries; but reports mostly rely on incomplete or unrepresentative data. Using Indonesia as example, currently available data sets for maternal mortality were systematically reviewed. METHODS: Besides analysis of international and national data resources, a systematic review was carried out according to Cochrane methodology to identify all data and assessments regarding maternal mortality...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352274/spatial-variation-of-leaf-optical-properties-in-a-boreal-forest-is-influenced-by-species-and-light-environment
#2
Jon Atherton, Beñat Olascoaga, Luis Alonso, Albert Porcar-Castell
Leaf Optical Properties (LOPs) convey information relating to temporally dynamic photosynthetic activity and biochemistry. LOPs are also sensitive to variability in anatomically related traits such as Specific Leaf Area (SLA), via the interplay of intra-leaf light scattering and absorption processes. Therefore, variability in such traits, which may demonstrate little plasticity over time, potentially disrupts remote sensing estimates of photosynthesis or biochemistry across space. To help to disentangle the various factors that contribute to the variability of LOPs, we defined baseline variation as variation in LOPs that occurs across space, but not time...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350853/impacts-of-120-years-of-fertilizer-addition-on-a-temperate-grassland-ecosystem
#3
Jonathan Kidd, Peter Manning, Janet Simkin, Simon Peacock, Elizabeth Stockdale
The widespread application of fertilizers has greatly influenced many processes and properties of agroecosystems, and agricultural fertilization is expected to increase even further in the future. To date, most research on fertilizer impacts has used short-term studies, which may be unrepresentative of long-term responses, thus hindering our capacity to predict long-term impacts. Here, we examined the effects of long-term fertilizer addition on key ecosystem properties in a long-term grassland experiment (Palace Leas Hay Meadow) in which farmyard manure (FYM) and inorganic fertilizer treatments have been applied consistently for 120 years in order to characterize the experimental site more fully and compare ecosystem responses with those observed at other long-term and short-term experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334132/maximum-likelihood-estimation-and-em-algorithm-of-copas-like-selection-model-for-publication-bias-correction
#4
Jing Ning, Yong Chen, Jin Piao
Publication bias occurs when the published research results are systematically unrepresentative of the population of studies that have been conducted, and is a potential threat to meaningful meta-analysis. The Copas selection model provides a flexible framework for correcting estimates and offers considerable insight into the publication bias. However, maximizing the observed likelihood under the Copas selection model is challenging because the observed data contain very little information on the latent variable...
February 25, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333973/reported-reasons-for-breakdown-of-marriage-and-cohabitation-in-britain-findings-from-the-third-national-survey-of-sexual-attitudes-and-lifestyles-natsal-3
#5
Kirsten Gravningen, Kirstin R Mitchell, Kaye Wellings, Anne M Johnson, Rebecca Geary, Kyle G Jones, Soazig Clifton, Bob Erens, Michelle Lu, Chenchit Chayachinda, Nigel Field, Pam Sonnenberg, Catherine H Mercer
OBJECTIVES: Breakdown of marriage and cohabitation is common in Western countries and is costly for individuals and society. Most research on reasons for breakdown has focused on marriages ending in divorce and/or have used data unrepresentative of the population. We present prevalence estimates of, and differences in, reported reasons for recent breakdown of marriages and cohabitations in Britain. METHODS: Descriptive analyses of data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16-74 years) undertaken 2010-2012, using computer-assisted personal interviewing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302922/covariation-of-peptide-abundances-accurately-reflects-protein-concentration-differences
#6
Bo Zhang, Mohammad Pirmoradian, Roman Zubarev, Lukas Käll
Most implementations of mass spectrometry-based proteomics involve enzymatic digestion of proteins, expanding the analysis to multiple proteolytic peptides for each protein. Currently, there is no consensus of how to summarize peptides' abundances to protein concentrations, and such efforts are complicated by the fact that error control is normally applied to the identification process, and do not directly control errors linking peptide abundance measures to protein concentration. Peptides resulting from suboptimal digestion or being partially modified are not representative of the protein concentration...
March 16, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290715/promoting-recovery-oriented-mental-health-nursing-practice-through-consumer-participation-in-mental-health-nursing-education
#7
Brenda Happell, Wanda Bennetts, Jenny Tohotoa, Dianne Wynaden, Chris Platania-Phung
BACKGROUND: Developing recovery-oriented services, and ensuring genuine consumer participation in all aspects of services are central components of contemporary Australian mental health policy. However, attitudes of mental health professionals present a significant barrier. Given the positive impact of education on health professionals' attitudes, particularly when consumers are involved, further exploration of consumer involvement in education is required. AIMS: To enhance understanding of the role consumers can play within mental health nursing education...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272818/a-model-for-integrating-actual-neurotic-or-unrepresented-states-and-symbolized-aspects-of-intrapsychic-conflict
#8
Fredric N Busch
In psychoanalytic theory, the importance of actual neuroses-considered to be devoid of psychic content-diminished as Freud and subsequent analysts focused on unconscious intrapsychic conflict. This paper explores the relationship between actual neurotic and unrepresented states, which are believed to be best addressed through attention to countertransference, intersubjectivity, and enactments rather than interpretation of intrapsychic conflict. Models suggesting how actual neurotic states and symbolized intrapsychic conflict may interact with each other and environmental stressors are described...
January 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265798/the-role-of-a-hospital-ethics-consultation-service-in-decision-making-for-unrepresented-patients
#9
Andrew M Courtwright, Joshua Abrams, Ellen M Robinson
Despite increased calls for hospital ethics committees to serve as default decision-makers about life-sustaining treatment (LST) for unrepresented patients who lack decision-making capacity or a surrogate decision-maker and whose wishes regarding medical care are not known, little is known about how committees currently function in these cases. This was a retrospective cohort study of all ethics committee consultations involving decision-making about LST for unrepresented patients at a large academic hospital from 2007 to 2013...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248429/minimizing-species-extinctions-through-strategic-planning-for-conservation-fencing
#10
Jeremy L Ringma, Brendan Wintle, Richard A Fuller, Diana Fisher, Michael Bode
Conservation fences are an increasingly common management action, particularly for species threatened by invasive predators. However, unlike many conservation actions, fence networks are expanding in an unsystematic manner, generally as a reaction to local funding opportunities or threats. In a gap analysis of Australia's substantial predator exclusion fence network, we found highly uneven protection, with 67% of predator-sensitive species remaining unrepresented. Predator exclusion fences all contain small populations of threatened species, therefore a novel systematic prioritization method for expanding fence networks that explicitly incorporates population viability analysis and minimises expected species' extinctions was developed...
March 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113254/non-contact-pressure-based-sleep-wake-discrimination
#11
Lorcan Walsh, Sean McLoone, Joesph Ronda, Jeanne F Duffy, Charles A Czeisler
Poor sleep is increasingly being recognised as an important prognostic parameter of health. For those with suspected sleep disorders, patients are referred to sleep clinics which guide treatment. However, sleep clinics are not always a viable option due to their high cost, a lack of experienced practitioners, lengthy waiting lists and an unrepresentative sleeping environment. A home-based non-contact sleep/wake monitoring system may be used as a guide for treatment potentially stratifying patients by clinical need or highlighting longitudinal changes in sleep and nocturnal patterns...
October 25, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077846/relaxation-in-technique-leading-to-new-beginnings
#12
Endre Koritar
This paper explores how standard analytic technique may result in a repetition of past traumatic experiences in the transference and countertransference analytic situation. Relaxation and elasticity of technique can lead to re-integration of previously fragmented ego functions, and in remembering and re-experiencing of previously repressed symbolic representations of fragmenting past traumatic experiences, resulting in neocatharsis and working through, thus healing wounds and scars sustained in self development...
December 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073810/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-clinical-review
#13
Ivan Koychev, David Okai
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a disproportionate impact on quality of life and carer burden. Pharmacological treatment is the main approach in dealing with these symptoms, but it is limited by variable efficacy and risk of drug interactions. Non-pharmacological approaches using the cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) model are viable alternatives and in this review paper we summarise the evidence of CBT for three of the most common psychiatric manifestations of PD: depression and anxiety, impulse-control disorders and insomnia...
January 10, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063324/racial-ethnic-differences-in-electronic-cigarette-knowledge-social-norms-and-risk-perceptions-among-current-and-former-smokers
#14
Monica Webb Hooper, Stephanie K Kolar
Psychosocial factors that may affect electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) initiation or maintenance among racial/ethnic minorities are not well-understood. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and social norms among current and former smokers. Individuals with a tobacco smoking history and an awareness of e-cigarettes (N=285) were recruited from the community from June to August 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, smoking status, and e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and normative beliefs...
December 26, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998257/the-epidemiology-of-teaching-and-training-general-practices-in-england
#15
Eliot L Rees, Simon P Gay, Robert K McKinley
There is no national picture of teaching and training practices or the communities they serve. We aimed to describe the association between general practices' engagement with education and their characteristics, locality and patients' health-status and satisfaction. This data linkage study of all English practices calculated odds ratios for teaching and training status and practice, locality and patient variables. Teaching and training practices are larger than practices which do neither (mean list size (SD) 7074 (3736), 10112 (4934), and 5327 (3368) respectively, p < 0...
November 2016: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975196/economic-studies-in-motor-neurone-disease-a-systematic-methodological-review
#16
REVIEW
Alan Moore, Carolyn A Young, Dyfrig A Hughes
BACKGROUND: Motor neurone disease (MND) is a devastating condition which greatly diminishes patients' quality of life and limits life expectancy. Health technology appraisals of future interventions in MND need robust data on costs and utilities. Existing economic evaluations have been noted to be limited and fraught with challenges. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and critique methodological aspects of all published economic evaluations, cost studies, and utility studies in MND...
April 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845651/non-contact-pressure-based-sleep-wake-discrimination
#17
Lorcan Walsh, Sean McLoone, Joesph Ronda, Jeanne F Duffy, Charles A Czeisler
Poor sleep is increasingly being recognised as an important prognostic parameter of health. For those with suspected sleep disorders, patients are referred to sleep clinics which guide treatment. However, sleep clinics are not always a viable option due to their high cost, a lack of experienced practitioners, lengthy waiting lists and an unrepresentative sleeping environment. A home-based non-contact sleep/wake monitoring system may be used as a guide for treatment potentially stratifying patients by clinical need or highlighting longitudinal changes in sleep and nocturnal patterns...
October 25, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836636/influence-of-bmi-and-dietary-restraint-on-self-selected-portions-of-prepared-meals-in-us-women
#18
David Labbe, Andréas Rytz, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Ciarán G Forde, Nathalie Martin
The rise of obesity prevalence has been attributed in part to an increase in food and beverage portion sizes selected and consumed among overweight and obese consumers. Nevertheless, evidence from observations of adults is mixed and contradictory findings might reflect the use of small or unrepresentative samples. The objective of this study was i) to determine the extent to which BMI and dietary restraint predict self-selected portion sizes for a range of commercially available prepared savoury meals and ii) to consider the importance of these variables relative to two previously established predictors of portion selection, expected satiation and expected liking...
November 9, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813058/resolving-malpractice-claims-after-tort-reform-experience-in-a-self-insured-texas-public-academic-health-system
#19
William M Sage, Molly Colvard Harding, Eric J Thomas
OBJECTIVE: To describe the litigation experience in a state with strict tort reform of a large public university health system that has committed to transparency with patients and families in resolving medical errors. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary data collected from The University of Texas System, which self-insures approximately 6,000 physicians at six health campuses across the state. We obtained internal case management data for all medical malpractice claims closed during 1 year before and 6 recent years following the enactment of state tort reform legislation...
December 2016: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770170/heterogeneity-of-cd8-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-impact-on%C3%A2-patient-prognostic-assessments-and-comparison-of-quantification-by-different-sampling-strategies
#20
Joseph M Obeid, Nolan A Wages, Yinin Hu, Donna H Deacon, Craig L Slingluff
INTRODUCTION: Infiltration of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by CD8(+) T lymphocytes predicts improved patient survival; however, heterogeneity of intratumoral localization complicates this assessment. Strategies for tumor sampling may not accurately represent the whole tumor. We hypothesized that sampling strategies may alter the identification of tumors with high CD8 density and affect the prognostic significance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three primary NSCLC tumors were immunohistochemically stained for CD8 and were assessed using automated software with eight different sampling strategies or the whole tumor...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
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