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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447295/progress-toward-national-estimates-of-police-use-of-force
#1
Joel H Garner, Matthew J Hickman, Ronald W Malega, Christopher D Maxwell
This research builds on three decades of effort to produce national estimates of the amount and rate of force used by law enforcement officers in the United States. Prior efforts to produce national estimates have suffered from poor and inconsistent measurements of force, small and unrepresentative samples, low survey and/or item response rates, and disparate reporting of rates of force. The present study employs data from a nationally representative survey of state and local law enforcement agencies that has a high survey response rate as well as a relatively high rate of reporting uses of force...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438162/serum-glucose-and-insulin-and-risk-of-cancers-of-the-breast-endometrium-and-ovary-in-postmenopausal-women
#2
Geoffrey C Kabat, Mimi Y Kim, Dorothy S Lane, Oleg Zaslavsky, Gloria Y F Ho, Juhua Luo, Wanda K Nicholson, Rowan T Chlebowski, Wendy E Barrington, Mara Z Vitolins, Xiaochen Lin, Simin Liu, Thomas E Rohan
Limited evidence suggests that hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the risk of breast, endometrial, and, possibly, ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the association of serum glucose and insulin with risk of these cancers in postmenopausal women, while taking into account potential confounding and modifying factors. We studied 21 103 women with fasting baseline insulin and glucose measurements in a subsample of the Women's Health Initiative. The subsample was composed of four studies within Women's Health Initiative with different selection and sampling strategies...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432628/the-relationship-between-preclinical-grading-and-usmle-scores-in-us-allopathic-medical-schools
#3
Seungjun Kim, Paul George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pass/fail preclinical grading is associated with improved student well-being. Studies do not demonstrate differences in United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores after adopting pass/fail grading, but were conducted at unrepresentative, highly selective institutions, and average scores increased overall during the study periods. We investigated the effect of preclinical grading on USMLE scores across 96 US medical schools. METHODS: Preclinical grading systems were identified with the 2017 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Admissions Requirements...
February 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400644/why-do-we-persist-with-teaching-students-in-antagonistic-unrepresentative-learning-environments
#4
Paul Worley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390870/medical-decision-making-for-adults-who-lack-decision-making-capacity-and-a-surrogate-state-of-the-science
#5
Hyejin Kim, Mi-Kyung Song
BACKGROUND: Adults who lack decision-making capacity and a surrogate ("unbefriended" adults) are a vulnerable, voiceless population in health care. But little is known about this population, including how medical decisions are made for these individuals. OBJECTIVE: This integrative review was to examine what is known about unbefriended adults and identify gaps in the literature. METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched using 4 keywords: "unbefriended," "unrepresented patients," "adult orphans," and "incapacitated patients without surrogates...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329544/the-importance-of-drug-checking-outside-the-context-of-nightlife-in-slovenia
#6
Matej Sande, Simona Šabić
BACKGROUND: The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the implementation of the drug checking service in Slovenia and to obtain the opinion of users included in harm reduction programmes for high-risk drug users and of drug users in nightlife settings on drug checking, the reasons for drug checking, and their attitude towards adulterants in the drugs that they use. METHODS: The two final unrepresentative research samples included 102 respondents from harm reduction programmes and 554 respondents from the online sample...
January 12, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314030/residues-in-the-analyst-of-the-patient-s-symbiotic-connection-at-a-somatic-level-unrepresented-states-in-the-patient-and-analyst
#7
Geraldine Godsil
This paper discusses the residues of a somatic countertransference that revealed its meaning several years after apparently successful analytic work had ended. Psychoanalytic and Jungian analytic ideas on primitive communication, dissociation and enactment are explored in the working through of a shared respiratory symptom between patient and analyst. Growth in the analyst was necessary so that the patient's communication at a somatic level could be understood. Bleger's concept that both the patient's and analyst's body are part of the setting was central in the working through...
February 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298306/dna-recovery-from-wild-chimpanzee-tools
#8
Fiona A Stewart, Alexander K Piel, Lydia Luncz, Joanna Osborn, Yingying Li, Beatrice H Hahn, Michael Haslam
Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby extraction of DNA from non-invasively collected samples allows researchers to reconstruct behaviour without ever directly observing individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288162/retrospective-consent-in-a-neonatal-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Nils T Songstad, Calum T Roberts, Brett J Manley, Louise S Owen, Peter G Davis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The requirement for prospective consent in clinical trials in acute settings may result in samples unrepresentative of the study population, potentially altering study findings. However, using retrospective consent may raise ethical issues. We assessed whether using retrospective consent affected recruitment, participant characteristics, and outcomes within a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial, which compared nasal high flow (nHF) with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for primary respiratory support in preterm infants...
December 29, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238819/biased-estimates-in-mendelian-randomization-studies-conducted-in-unrepresentative-samples
#10
Marcus Munafò, George Davey Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217940/audit-of-oral-histopathology-service-at-a-nigerian-tertiary-institution-over-a-24-year-period
#11
Akindayo O Akinyamoju, Bukola F Adeyemi, Akinyele O Adisa, Chidinma N Okoli
Background: Biopsies are often essential for definitive diagnosis of oro-facial lesions and are a part of oral diagnostic procedures carried out in histopathology laboratories. At present, there is paucity of literature on the audit of oral histopathology services in Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of biopsied oral lesions in a Nigerian tertiary institution. Also to profile the usage of oral pathology service and to identify challenges that may be present in an oral histodiagnostic service...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213056/a-random-categorization-model-for-hierarchical-taxonomies
#12
Guido D'Amico, Raul Rabadan, Matthew Kleban
A taxonomy is a standardized framework to classify and organize items into categories. Hierarchical taxonomies are ubiquitous, ranging from the classification of organisms to the file system on a computer. Characterizing the typical distribution of items within taxonomic categories is an important question with applications in many disciplines. Ecologists have long sought to account for the patterns observed in species-abundance distributions (the number of individuals per species found in some sample), and computer scientists study the distribution of files per directory...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172701/the-protection-of-unrepresented-patients-in-emergency-care-research
#13
Linus Broström, Mats Johansson
In emergency care research, it may be the case that neither informed consent nor surrogate consent is possible. In order to nonetheless allow for such research, codes and regulations of research ethics have increasingly incorporated provisions regarding this specific situation. The protection that those provisions offer need to be better understood. This article addresses in what ways they protect individuals, and especially the extent to which the suggested protection compensates for the loss of surrogate consent...
November 27, 2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170567/predicting-ecological-responses-in-a-changing-ocean-the-effects-of-future-climate-uncertainty
#14
REVIEW
Jennifer J Freer, Julian C Partridge, Geraint A Tarling, Martin A Collins, Martin J Genner
Predicting how species will respond to climate change is a growing field in marine ecology, yet knowledge of how to incorporate the uncertainty from future climate data into these predictions remains a significant challenge. To help overcome it, this review separates climate uncertainty into its three components (scenario uncertainty, model uncertainty, and internal model variability) and identifies four criteria that constitute a thorough interpretation of an ecological response to climate change in relation to these parts (awareness, access, incorporation, communication)...
2018: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150247/the-adoption-of-a-one-day-donor-assessment-model-in-a-living-kidney-donor-transplant-program-a-quality-improvement-project
#15
Judi M Graham, Aisling E Courtney
BACKGROUND: Survival of kidney transplants and their recipients is significantly better after living donor than after deceased donor transplantation. However, historically, Northern Ireland has had a low rate of living donor kidney transplantation. The length and complexity of donor evaluation has been one of the main factors contributing to this pattern. STUDY DESIGN: Quality improvement project. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: All people in Northern Ireland expressing an interest in becoming a living kidney donor between 2010 and 2015...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114855/panel%C3%A2-report-ipa-congress-buenos-aires-2017-intimacy-las-experiencias-traumaticas-no-representadas-unrepresented-traumatic-experiences
#16
Estela Rubinstein Gloger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040712/signal-uncertainty-and-conflict-in-phylogenomic-data-for-a-diverse-lineage-of-microbial-eukaryotes-diatoms-bacillariophyta
#17
Matthew B Parks, Norman J Wickett, Andrew J Alverson
Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) are a species-rich group of eukaryotic microbes diverse in morphology, ecology, and metabolism. Previous reconstructions of the diatom phylogeny based on one or a few genes have resulted in inconsistent resolution or low support for critical nodes. We applied phylogenetic paralog pruning techniques to a dataset of 94 diatom genomes and transcriptomes to infer perennially difficult species relationships, using concatenation and summary-coalescent methods to reconstruct species trees from datasets spanning a wide range of thresholds for taxon and column occupancy in gene alignments...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989764/modelling-personality-plasticity-and-predictability-in-shelter-dogs
#18
Conor Goold, Ruth C Newberry
Behavioural assessments of shelter dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) typically comprise standardized test batteries conducted at one time point, but test batteries have shown inconsistent predictive validity. Longitudinal behavioural assessments offer an alternative. We modelled longitudinal observational data on shelter dog behaviour using the framework of behavioural reaction norms, partitioning variance into personality (i.e. inter-individual differences in behaviour), plasticity (i.e. inter-individual differences in average behaviour) and predictability (i...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945319/the-association-between-theory-of-mind-executive-function-and-the-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Catherine R G Jones, Emily Simonoff, Gillian Baird, Andrew Pickles, Anita J S Marsden, Jenifer Tregay, Francesca Happé, Tony Charman
It has been strongly argued that atypical cognitive processes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) contribute to the expression of behavioural symptoms. Comprehensive investigation of these claims has been limited by small and unrepresentative sample sizes and the absence of wide-ranging task batteries. The current study investigated the cognitive abilities of 100 adolescents with ASD (mean age = 15 years 6 months), using 10 tasks to measure the domains of theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF). We used structural equation modelling as a statistically robust way of exploring the associations between cognition and parent-reported measures of social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs)...
September 25, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930706/giving-voice-to-the-voiceless-the-colorado-response-to-unrepresented-patients
#20
Deb Bennett-Woods, Jean Abbott, Jacqueline J Glover
Medical decision making on behalf of unrepresented patients is one of the most challenging ethical issues faced in clinical practice. The legal environment surrounding these patients is equally complex. This article describes the efforts of a small coalition of interested healthcare professionals to address the issue in Colorado. A brief history of the effort is presented, along with discussion of the legal, ethical, practical, and political dimensions that arose in Colorado's effort to address decision making for unrepresented patients through an extension of the existing Colorado Medical Treatment Decision Act (CRS 15-18)...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
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