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Louise J Carden, Pooja Saini, Claire Seddon, Megan Watkins, Peter James Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Shame is increasingly implicated in the development and maintenance of several psychological problems including psychosis. The aim of the current paper was to review the research literature concerning the relationship between shame and the psychosis continuum, examining the nature and direction of this relationship. METHOD: Systematic searches of databases PsycINFO, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science (from the earliest available database date until November 2016) were undertaken to identify papers that examined the relationship between shame and psychosis or psychotic experiences...
November 14, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Pandora Pound, Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga
BACKGROUND: The pharmaceutical industry is in the midst of a productivity crisis and rates of translation from bench to bedside are dismal. Patients are being let down by the current system of drug discovery; of the several 1000 diseases that affect humans, only a minority have any approved treatments and many of these cause adverse reactions in humans. A predominant reason for the poor rate of translation from bench to bedside is generally held to be the failure of preclinical animal models to predict clinical efficacy and safety...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Kevin P Blaine, Irene Cortés-Puch, Junfeng Sun, Dong Wang, Steven B Solomon, Jing Feng, Mark T Gladwin, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro, Swati Basu, Andreas Perlegas, Kamille West, Harvey G Klein, Charles Natanson
BACKGROUND: Storage temperature is a critical factor for maintaining red-blood cell (RBC) viability, especially during prolonged cold storage. The target range of 1 to 6°C was established decades ago and may no longer be optimal for current blood-banking practices. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Human and canine RBCs were collected under standard conditions and stored in precision-controlled refrigerators at 2°C, 4°C, or 6°C. RESULTS: During 42-day storage, human and canine RBCs showed progressive increases in supernatant non-transferrin-bound iron, cell-free hemoglobin, base deficit, and lactate levels that were overall greater at 6°C and 4°C than at 2°C...
November 1, 2018: Transfusion
Christopher W Drapeau, Jennifer D Lockman, Melinda M Moore, Julie Cerel
BACKGROUND: Although suicide loss has been associated with several negative outcomes, numerous studies have shown that loss survivors can experience posttraumatic growth (PTG) following the suicide loss of a significant other. However, few studies have explored the mechanisms of such growth. AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of PTG among a sample of adult suicide loss survivors and to explore whether the amount of time since the suicide loss moderated the relation between self-reported coping and PTG...
October 30, 2018: Crisis
Aravind Ganesh, Ramon Luengo-Fernandez, Rose M Wharton, Peter M Rothwell
OBJECTIVE: To compare how 3 common representations (ordinal vs dichotomized as 0-1/2-6 or 0-2/3-6) of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)-a commonly used trial outcome measure-relate to long-term outcomes, and quantify trial ineligibility rates based on premorbid mRS. METHODS: In consecutive patients with ischemic stroke in a population-based, prospective, cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002-2014), we related 3-month mRS to 1-year and 5-year disability and death (logistic regressions), and health/social care costs (generalized linear model), adjusted for age/sex, and compared goodness-of-fit values (C statistic, mean absolute error)...
November 20, 2018: Neurology
Nicholas Kavish, Q John Fu, Michael G Vaughn, Zhengmin Qian, Brian B Boutwell
Despite the prior linkages of low resting heart rate to antisocial behavior broadly defined, less work has been done examining possible associations between heart rate to psychopathic traits. The small body of research on the topic that has been conducted so far seems to suggest an inverse relationship between the two constructs. A smaller number of studies has found the opposite result, however, and some of the previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes and unrepresentative samples. The current study attempts to help clarify the relationship between resting heart rate and psychopathic traits in a large, nationally representative sample (analytical N ranged from 14,173-14,220) using an alternative measure of psychopathic traits that is less focused on antisocial processes, and rooted in personality traits...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Brandy M Mechling, Nancy R Ahern, Ruthanne Palumbo
PROBLEM: Opioid use disorder (OUD) has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Children of parents with OUD are an unrepresented population, who often suffer consequences from their parent's substance abuse disorder. Such children may incur numerous psychosocial and physical losses. Without intervention, they are more likely to be diagnosed with a mental illness and/or substance use disorder (SUD). METHODS: This paper examines the experiences of children of parents with OUD using Boss's theory of ambiguous loss (AL) as a lens...
October 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
Claire Easthall, Natalie Taylor, Debi Bhattacharya
OBJECTIVES: To identify barriers to medication adherence in patients prescribed medicines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and map these to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), to produce a conceptual framework for developing a questionnaire-based medication adherence tool. METHODS: A scoping review of barriers to medication adherence in long-term conditions was conducted to generate an initial pool of barriers. After preliminary mapping to the TDF, these barriers were presented to two focus groups of patients prescribed medicines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (n = 14) to stimulate discussion...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Brian H Willis, Dyuti Coomar, Mohammed Baragilly
BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis may produce estimates that are unrepresentative of a test's performance in practice. Tailored meta-analysis (TMA) circumvents this by deriving an applicable region for the practice and selecting the studies compatible with the region. It requires the test positive rate, r and prevalence, p being estimated for the setting but previous studies have assumed their independence. The aim is to investigate the effects a correlation between r and p has on estimating the applicable region and how this affects TMA...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
David C Reardon
The abortion advocacy group Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (ANSIRH) has published over twenty papers based on a case series of women taking part in their Turnaway Study. Following the lead of ANSIRH news releases, major media outlets have described these results as proof that (a) most women who have abortions are glad they did, (b) there is no evidence of negative mental health effects following abortion, and (c) the only women really suffering are those who are being denied late-term abortions due to legal restrictions based on gestational age...
August 2018: Linacre Quarterly
Aaron J Wirsing, Thomas P Quinn, Curry J Cunningham, Jennifer R Adams, Apryle D Craig, Lisette P Waits
The interaction between brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) and Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.) is important to the population dynamics of both species and a celebrated example of consumer-mediated nutrient transport. Yet, much of the site-specific information we have about the bears in this relationship comes from observations at a few highly visible but unrepresentative locations and a small number of radio-telemetry studies. Consequently, our understanding of brown bear abundance and behavior at more cryptic locations where they commonly feed on salmon, including small spawning streams, remains limited...
September 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Christian Füllgrabe, Brian C J Moore
The ability to process binaural temporal fine structure (TFS) information, which influences the perception of speech in spatially distributed soundscapes, declines with increasing hearing loss and age. Because of the relatively small sample sizes used in previous studies, and the population-unrepresentative distribution of hearing loss and ages within study samples, it has been difficult to determine the relative and combined contributions of hearing loss and age. The aim of this study was to survey published and unpublished studies that assessed binaural TFS sensitivity using the TFS-low frequency (LF) test...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Steven H Cooper
Play in the context of the patient's sense of absence, loss, and compromised capacities for symbolization can be a link between unsymbolized experience and greater capacities for representation. Winnicott's concepts of play evolved as one of the ways that analysts translate unconscious and unrepresented experience. For many patients who have experienced absence, the analyst and the analytic setting are subjected to the patient's unconscious efforts to destroy and negate meaning and relatedness. For the analyst to be "used" as an object to be destroyed and to survive destruction, he must become a subject in the mind of the patient and in his own mind as analyst within the intersubjective field...
August 2018: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Mark N Read, Kieran Alden, Jon Timmis, Paul S Andrews
Computational and mathematical modelling has become a valuable tool for investigating biological systems. Modelling enables prediction of how biological components interact to deliver system-level properties and extrapolation of biological system performance to contexts and experimental conditions where this is unknown. A model's value hinges on knowing that it faithfully represents the biology under the contexts of use, or clearly ascertaining otherwise and thus motivating further model refinement. These qualities are evaluated through calibration, typically formulated as identifying model parameter values that align model and biological behaviours as measured through a metric applied to both...
September 18, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Grant Lewison, Ajay Aggarwal, Philip Roe, Henrik Møller, Charlotte Chamberlain, Richard Sullivan
Objective We wished to explore how UK national newspapers had covered the creation and operation of the Cancer Drugs Fund from 2010 to 2015. This was introduced to provide cancer patients in England with access to drugs not appraised or approved by the National Institute for health and Care Excellence. Design We sought stories in nine newspapers from the Factiva database, and copied their salient details to a spreadsheet. They were categorised by whether they were supportive or critical of the Cancer Drugs Fund and their main arguments, which drugs they mentioned and for which cancers...
October 2018: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Amy E Maas, Leocadio Blanco-Bercial, Ali Lo, Ann M Tarrant, Emma Timmins-Schiffman
The diel vertical migration of zooplankton is a process during which individuals spend the night in surface waters and retreat to depth during the daytime, with substantial implications for carbon transport and the ecology of midwater ecosystems. The physiological consequences of this daily pattern have, however, been poorly studied beyond investigations of speed and the energetic cost of swimming. Many other processes are likely influenced, such as fuel use, energetic trade-offs, underlying diel (circadian) rhythms, and antioxidant responses...
August 2018: Biological Bulletin
Gunn Grande, Christine Rowland, Bernard van den Berg, Barbara Hanratty
BACKGROUND: Family carers provide vital support for patients towards end-of-life, but caregiving has considerable impact on carers' own health. The scale of this problem is unknown, as previous research has involved unrepresentative samples or failed to fully capture caregiving close to death. AIM: To quantify level of psychological morbidity and general health among a census sample of carers of people with cancer at end-of-life, compared to population reference data...
August 21, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Munir H Buhaya
This image represents a physician unilaterally completing a do-not-resuscitate order for an unrepresented patient.
August 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Golnaz Sadjadieh, Thomas Engstrøm, Dan Eik Høfsten, Steffen Helqvist, Lars Køber, Frants Pedersen, Peter Nørkjær Laursen, Hedvig Bille Andersson, Lars Nepper-Christensen, Peter Clemmensen, Rikke Sørensen, Erik Jørgensen, Kari Saunamäki, Hans-Henrik Tilsted, Henning Kelbæk, Lene Holmvang
Most studies reporting bleedings in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are reports from clinical trials, which may be unrepresentative of incidences in real-life. In this study, we investigated 1-year bleeding and mortality incidences in an unselected STEMI population, and compared participants with nonparticipants of a randomized all-comer clinical trial (The Third DANish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients with STEMI (DANAMI-3)). Hospital charts were read and bleedings classified according to thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria in 2,490 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention in a single, large, and tertiary heart center...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Wei Du, Xi Zhu, Yuanchen Chen, Weijian Liu, Wei Wang, Guofeng Shen, Shu Tao, James J Jetter
Residential combustion emission contributes significantly to ambient and indoor air pollution in China; however, this pollution source is poorly characterized and often overlooked in national pollution control policies. Few studies, and even fewer field-based investigations, have evaluated pollutant emissions from indoor biomass burning. One significant feature of Chinese household biofuel stoves is that many are built on site. In this study, 112 tests were conducted to investigate pollutant emission factors and variations for 11 fuel-stove combinations in actual use in the field...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
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