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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663021/-willingness-to-participate-in-group-beneficial-dementia-research
#1
M Haupt, M Jänner
BACKGROUND: With the fourth Act on the amendment of pharmaceutical legal and other regulations it became law in Germany from the beginning of 2017 that under certain conditions, pharmaceutical research will be allowed with persons incapable of giving consent, even if this research may only be beneficial to other sufferers of the same disease, i. e. group beneficial research. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a semistructured, non-representative survey among psychiatric patients and their relatives...
April 16, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615385/health-related-internet-use-by-children-and-adolescents-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Eunhee Park, Misol Kwon
BACKGROUND: The internet is widely used by children and adolescents, who generally have a high level of competency with technology. Thus, the internet has become a great resource for supporting youth self-care and health-related services. However, few studies have explored adolescents' internet use for health-related matters. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the phenomenon of children and adolescents' health-related internet use and to identify gaps in the research...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611259/the-sea-as-deathtrap-comment-on-a-paper-by-miller-and-wiens
#3
Geerat J Vermeij, Richard K Grosberg, Charles R Marshall, Ryosuke Motani
Miller & Wiens (2017) claim that low marine as compared with terrestrial diversity results from more frequent extinctions and insufficient time for diversification in marine clades. Their data on marine amniotes are unrepresentative of marine diversity, their analysis of clade dynamics is flawed, and they ignore previously proposed explanations for the diversity difference.
April 2, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610375/the-impact-of-earth-system-feedbacks-on-carbon-budgets-and-climate-response
#4
Jason A Lowe, Daniel Bernie
A number of studies have examined the size of the allowable global cumulative carbon budget compatible with limiting twenty-first century global average temperature rise to below 2°C and below 1.5°C relative to pre-industrial levels. These estimates of cumulative emissions have a number of uncertainties including those associated with the climate sensitivity and the global carbon cycle. Although the IPCC fifth assessment report contained information on a range of Earth system feedbacks, such as carbon released by thawing of permafrost or methane production by wetlands as a result of climate change, the impact of many of these Earth system processes on the allowable carbon budgets remains to be quantified...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568719/wind-driven-erosion-and-exposure-potential-at-mars-2020-rover-candidate-landing-sites
#5
Matthew Chojnacki, Maria Banks, Anna Urso
Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars' history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations...
February 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565799/colorado-s-new-proxy-law-moving-from-statute-to-guidelines
#6
Jacqueline J Glover, Deb Bennett-Woods, Jean Abbott
In 2016, the Colorado legislature passed an amendment to Colorado's medical proxy law that established a process for the appointment of a physician to act as proxy decision maker of last resort for an unrepresented patient (Colorado HB 16-1101: Medical Decisions For Unrepresented Patients). The legislative process brought together a diverse set of stakeholders, not all of whom supported the legislation. Following passage of the statutory amendment, the Colorado Collaborative for Unrepresented Patients (CCUP), a group of advocates responsible for initiating the legislative process, coordinated a unique effort to engage these stakeholders in the creation of a set of voluntary guidelines to assist facilities and individual careproviders in the implementation of policies and procedures enabled by the statute...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504452/witnesses-memory-for-events-and-faces-under-elevated-levels-of-intoxication
#7
Christopher M Altman, Nadja Schreiber Compo, Dawn McQuiston, Angelica V Hagsand, Jiselle Cervera
Research on alcohol and witness memory has burgeoned over the last decade. However, most studies have tested participants at relatively low breath alcohol concentration (BAC) levels, unrepresentative of those encountered by officers in the field. To examine how higher intoxication levels might impair witness memory for events and faces, the current research tested participants' ability to recall a mock crime at elevated BAC levels (>.08%). The BAC levels of bar patrons (N = 138) were recorded before witnessing a video-taped mock crime...
March 4, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477612/individual-level-factors-related-to-better-mental-health-outcomes-following-child-maltreatment-among-adolescents
#8
Kristene Cheung, Tamara Taillieu, Sarah Turner, Janique Fortier, Jitender Sareen, Harriet L MacMillan, Michael H Boyle, Tracie O Afifi
Research on factors associated with good mental health following child maltreatment is often based on unrepresentative adult samples. To address these limitations, the current study investigated the relationship between individual-level factors and overall mental health status among adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment in a representative sample. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) compute the prevalence of mental health indicators by child maltreatment types, 2) estimate the prevalence of overall good, moderate, and poor mental health by child maltreatment types; and 3) examine the relationship between individual-level factors and overall mental health status of adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment...
February 22, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468890/a-systematic-review-of-the-traits-and-cognitions-associated-with-use-of-and-belief-in-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-cam
#9
Niall Galbraith, Tim Moss, Victoria Galbraith, Satvinder Purewal
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is widespread despite the controversy over its effectiveness. Although previous reviews have examined the demographics and attitudes of CAM users, there is no existing review on the traits or cognitions which characterise either CAM users or those who believe in CAM effectiveness. The current systematic review set out to address these gaps in the literature by applying a narrative synthesis. A bibliographic search and manual searches were undertaken and key authors were contacted...
February 22, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447295/progress-toward-national-estimates-of-police-use-of-force
#10
Joel H Garner, Matthew J Hickman, Ronald W Malega, Christopher D Maxwell
This research builds on three decades of effort to produce national estimates of the amount and rate of force used by law enforcement officers in the United States. Prior efforts to produce national estimates have suffered from poor and inconsistent measurements of force, small and unrepresentative samples, low survey and/or item response rates, and disparate reporting of rates of force. The present study employs data from a nationally representative survey of state and local law enforcement agencies that has a high survey response rate as well as a relatively high rate of reporting uses of force...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438162/serum-glucose-and-insulin-and-risk-of-cancers-of-the-breast-endometrium-and-ovary-in-postmenopausal-women
#11
Geoffrey C Kabat, Mimi Y Kim, Dorothy S Lane, Oleg Zaslavsky, Gloria Y F Ho, Juhua Luo, Wanda K Nicholson, Rowan T Chlebowski, Wendy E Barrington, Mara Z Vitolins, Xiaochen Lin, Simin Liu, Thomas E Rohan
Limited evidence suggests that hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the risk of breast, endometrial, and, possibly, ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the association of serum glucose and insulin with risk of these cancers in postmenopausal women, while taking into account potential confounding and modifying factors. We studied 21 103 women with fasting baseline insulin and glucose measurements in a subsample of the Women's Health Initiative. The subsample was composed of four studies within Women's Health Initiative with different selection and sampling strategies...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432628/the-relationship-between-preclinical-grading-and-usmle-scores-in-us-allopathic-medical-schools
#12
Seungjun Kim, Paul George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pass/fail preclinical grading is associated with improved student well-being. Studies do not demonstrate differences in United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores after adopting pass/fail grading, but were conducted at unrepresentative, highly selective institutions, and average scores increased overall during the study periods. We investigated the effect of preclinical grading on USMLE scores across 96 US medical schools. METHODS: Preclinical grading systems were identified with the 2017 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Admissions Requirements...
February 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400644/why-do-we-persist-with-teaching-students-in-antagonistic-unrepresentative-learning-environments
#13
Paul Worley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390870/medical-decision-making-for-adults-who-lack-decision-making-capacity-and-a-surrogate-state-of-the-science
#14
Hyejin Kim, Mi-Kyung Song
BACKGROUND: Adults who lack decision-making capacity and a surrogate ("unbefriended" adults) are a vulnerable, voiceless population in health care. But little is known about this population, including how medical decisions are made for these individuals. OBJECTIVE: This integrative review was to examine what is known about unbefriended adults and identify gaps in the literature. METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched using 4 keywords: "unbefriended," "unrepresented patients," "adult orphans," and "incapacitated patients without surrogates...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329544/the-importance-of-drug-checking-outside-the-context-of-nightlife-in-slovenia
#15
Matej Sande, Simona Šabić
BACKGROUND: The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the implementation of the drug checking service in Slovenia and to obtain the opinion of users included in harm reduction programmes for high-risk drug users and of drug users in nightlife settings on drug checking, the reasons for drug checking, and their attitude towards adulterants in the drugs that they use. METHODS: The two final unrepresentative research samples included 102 respondents from harm reduction programmes and 554 respondents from the online sample...
January 12, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314030/residues-in-the-analyst-of-the-patient-s-symbiotic-connection-at-a-somatic-level-unrepresented-states-in-the-patient-and-analyst
#16
Geraldine Godsil
This paper discusses the residues of a somatic countertransference that revealed its meaning several years after apparently successful analytic work had ended. Psychoanalytic and Jungian analytic ideas on primitive communication, dissociation and enactment are explored in the working through of a shared respiratory symptom between patient and analyst. Growth in the analyst was necessary so that the patient's communication at a somatic level could be understood. Bleger's concept that both the patient's and analyst's body are part of the setting was central in the working through...
February 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298306/dna-recovery-from-wild-chimpanzee-tools
#17
Fiona A Stewart, Alexander K Piel, Lydia Luncz, Joanna Osborn, Yingying Li, Beatrice H Hahn, Michael Haslam
Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby extraction of DNA from non-invasively collected samples allows researchers to reconstruct behaviour without ever directly observing individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288162/retrospective-consent-in-a-neonatal-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Nils T Songstad, Calum T Roberts, Brett J Manley, Louise S Owen, Peter G Davis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The requirement for prospective consent in clinical trials in acute settings may result in samples unrepresentative of the study population, potentially altering study findings. However, using retrospective consent may raise ethical issues. We assessed whether using retrospective consent affected recruitment, participant characteristics, and outcomes within a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial, which compared nasal high flow (nHF) with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for primary respiratory support in preterm infants...
January 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238819/biased-estimates-in-mendelian-randomization-studies-conducted-in-unrepresentative-samples
#19
Marcus Munafò, George Davey Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217940/audit-of-oral-histopathology-service-at-a-nigerian-tertiary-institution-over-a-24-year-period
#20
Akindayo O Akinyamoju, Bukola F Adeyemi, Akinyele O Adisa, Chidinma N Okoli
Background: Biopsies are often essential for definitive diagnosis of oro-facial lesions and are a part of oral diagnostic procedures carried out in histopathology laboratories. At present, there is paucity of literature on the audit of oral histopathology services in Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of biopsied oral lesions in a Nigerian tertiary institution. Also to profile the usage of oral pathology service and to identify challenges that may be present in an oral histodiagnostic service...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
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