Read by QxMD icon Read


E C Long, S L Lönn, J Sundquist, K Sundquist, K S Kendler
PURPOSE: The substantial literature showing that offspring of parents with alcohol use disorder (AUD) is at increased risk for externalizing psychopathology rarely examines the differential effects of parental and offspring sex. This literature also has other important limitations, such as modest sample sizes and use of unrepresentative samples. Using a large, nationwide Swedish sample, we aim to investigate the roles of parental and offspring sex in externalizing psychopathology among offspring with parental AUD...
July 17, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Chelsea Wallis
Australia's intermittent attempts to legalise euthanasia are typically fraught with brief, polarised, and often sensationalised, public debate. Yet beyond the sensitive arguments in favour and in opposition of reform, the practical antecedents of change that may determine Australia's genuine aptitude to enact reforms have been largely neglected. Phronetic legal inquiry thus offers insights into the euthanasia law reform experience, using Australian and international case comparisons to examine covert power dynamics, cultural discourses, and social and institutional structures that affect the practices of the legislature...
April 2018: Journal of Law and Medicine
Fredric J Janzen, Luke A Hoekstra, Ronald J Brooks, David M Carroll, J Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L Greene, John B Iverson, Jacqueline D Litzgus, Edwin D Michael, Steven G Parren, Willem M Roosenburg, Gabriel F Strain, John K Tucker, Gordon R Ultsch
Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long-term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate-altered phenology using long-term studies (10-36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles ( Chelydra , Chrysemys , Kinosternon , Malaclemys , Sternotherus , and Trachemys )...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Dennis A Smith, Robert A B van Waterschoot, Neil J Parrott, Andrés Olivares-Morales, Thierry Lavé, Malcolm Rowland
Target concentration is typically not considered in drug discovery. However, if targets are expressed at relatively high concentrations and compounds have high affinity, such that most of the drug is bound to its target, in vitro screens can give unreliable information on compound affinity. In vivo, a similar situation will generate pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles that deviate greatly from those normally expected, owing to target binding affecting drug distribution and clearance. Such target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) effects on small molecules have received little attention and might only become apparent during clinical trials, with the potential for data misinterpretation...
June 18, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
William O'Donohue, Caroline Cummings, Brendan Willis
The rate of false allegations has been a topic of research spanning back to as early as the 1970s. Studies have often relied on data gathered by Child Protective Services workers and court administrators. Some researchers have also used hypothetical scenarios to estimate rates. However, given the plethora of sampling methods, there is a large variation in estimated rates of false allegations of sexual abuse depending on the data source and context of the allegation. Additionally, methodological problems such as unclear or invalid criteria used to judge truth or falsity of an allegation, unrepresentative samples, and ignoring important contextual variables such as the stage at which an allegation is made, currently all render the determination of actual rates of false child sexual abuse allegations to be unknown...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
J-M Darves-Bornoz
In the title of this text, by somatic disorders we mean those physical illnesses clearly related to a non-psychiatric medical field, frequently termed psychosomatic illnesses and somatoform disorders. For forty years, a trend of thought has focused with pertinence on the psychological peculiarities in patients with severe somatic diseases. Moreover, causality was often supposed in the regularly mentioned association between personality features and somatoform disorders. However, the revival of the study of the earlier field of relationships between mind and body by Briquet, Charcot, Janet and Freud in his first period has led to the reassessment of the meaning of these observations...
June 8, 2018: L'Encéphale
Robert Blasiak, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Colette C C Wabnitz, Emma Sundström, Henrik Österblom
Who owns ocean biodiversity? This is an increasingly relevant question, given the legal uncertainties associated with the use of genetic resources from areas beyond national jurisdiction, which cover half of the Earth's surface. We accessed 38 million records of genetic sequences associated with patents and created a database of 12,998 sequences extracted from 862 marine species. We identified >1600 sequences from 91 species associated with deep-sea and hydrothermal vent systems, reflecting commercial interest in organisms from remote ocean areas, as well as a capacity to collect and use the genes of such species...
June 2018: Science Advances
Angus D Macleod, Rachel Henery, Paul C Nwajiugo, Nicholas W Scott, Robert Caslake, Carl E Counsell
OBJECTIVE: To describe, and explore heterogeneity in, age at onset/diagnosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) and compare mean age at onset/diagnosis in incidence studies with that in general PD research studies. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies of PD incidence. We meta-analysed mean age at onset/diagnosis and age-stratum-specific incidence rates. We compared age-specific incidence rates in screening studies in the elderly with whole-population studies. We collated mean ages at onset/diagnosis in clinical studies of PD in five journals July-December 2016...
May 31, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Maksymilian Gajda, Małgorzata Kowalska, Jan E Zejda
The appropriate level of the society's health-oriented knowledge is essential for improving the effectiveness of actions to reduce the number of new cases and deaths caused by cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the role of web-based educational campaigns in the field of cancer prevention in Poland. From 14.05.2015 to 13.11.2016 readers of Polish scientific websites were invited to participate in the "PORINA" prospective interventional study. A total of 1118 volunteers (unrepresentative sample) were recruited and randomized (interventional and control groups)...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Seyed Hossein Hejazi, Amado Salvador Peña, Hamid Asadzadeh-Aghdaei, Kamran Rostami, Umberto Volta, Mohammad Reza Zali
BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some patients with coeliac disease (CD) present with severe symptoms and small intestinal mucosal damages while others present with milder symptoms and no frank enteropathy. There is no study to assess the associated factors with mild/severe symptoms and enteropathy. The terminologies like latent, silent and potential are difficult to use and are unrepresentative. In the present study we describe coeliac disease's phenotypes based on HLA haplotypes, IL8 production and past infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T...
May 18, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Teeratas Kijpornyongpan, Stephen J Mondo, Kerrie Barry, Laura Sandor, Juna Lee, Anna Lipzen, Jasmyn Pangilinan, Kurt LaButti, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat, Igor V Grigoriev, Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime
Ustilaginomycotina is home to a broad array of fungi including important plant pathogens collectively called smut fungi. Smuts are biotrophs that produce characteristic perennating propagules called teliospores, one of which, Ustilago maydis, is a model genetic organism. Broad exploration of smut biology has been hampered by limited phylogenetic resolution of Ustilaginiomycotina as well as an overall lack of genomic data for members of this subphylum. In this study, we sequenced eight Ustilaginomycotina genomes from previously unrepresented lineages, deciphered ordinal-level phylogenetic relationships for the subphylum, and performed comparative analyses...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Bryan A Killingsworth, Huiming Bao, Issaku E Kohl
Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO4 2- ) sulfur and oxygen isotope variations reflect their controls such as SO4 2- reduction and reoxidation, and source mixing. However, unconstrained temporal variability of riverine SO4 2- isotope compositions due to short sampling durations may lead to mischaracterization of SO4 2- sources, particularly for the pyrite-derived sulfate load. We measured the sulfur and triple-oxygen isotopes (δ34 S, δ18 O, and Δ'17 O) of Mississippi River SO4 2- with biweekly sampling between 2009 and 2013 to test isotopic variability and constrain sources...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jacqueline J Glover, Deb Bennett-Woods, Jean Abbott
In 2016, the Colorado legislature passed an amendment to Colorado's medical proxy law that established a process for the appointment of a physician to act as proxy decision maker of last resort for an unrepresented patient (Colorado HB 16-1101: Medical Decisions For Unrepresented Patients). The legislative process brought together a diverse set of stakeholders, not all of whom supported the legislation. Following passage of the statutory amendment, the Colorado Collaborative for Unrepresented Patients (CCUP), a group of advocates responsible for initiating the legislative process, coordinated a unique effort to engage these stakeholders in the creation of a set of voluntary guidelines to assist facilities and individual careproviders in the implementation of policies and procedures enabled by the statute...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Kendra E Hinton, Benjamin B Lahey, Victoria Villalta-Gil, Brian D Boyd, Benjamin C Yvernault, Katherine B Werts, Andrew J Plassard, Brooks Applegate, Neil D Woodward, Bennett A Landman, David H Zald
Go/no-go tasks are widely used to index cognitive control. This construct has been linked to white matter microstructure in a circuit connecting the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and pre-supplementary motor area. However, the specificity of this association has not been tested. A general factor of white matter has been identified that is related to processing speed. Given the strong processing speed component in successful performance on the go/no-go task, this general factor could contribute to task performance, but the general factor has often not been accounted for in past studies of cognitive control...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jessie J Wong, Nev Jones, Christine Timko, Keith Humphreys
Objective: The current paper reviews the English-language research on exclusion criteria in bipolar disorder treatment trials and discusses how study samples compare to the general bipolar patient population. Methods: & Results: Across 8 identified studies of exclusion criteria and their impact, between 55% and 96% of people with bipolar disorder would be excluded from treatment research. The number of exclusion criteria varies across bipolar disorder treatment research, with one study estimate of a median of 7 criteria used across studies...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
M Haupt, M Jänner
BACKGROUND: With the fourth Act on the amendment of pharmaceutical legal and other regulations it became law in Germany from the beginning of 2017 that under certain conditions, pharmaceutical research will be allowed with persons incapable of giving consent, even if this research may only be beneficial to other sufferers of the same disease, i. e. group beneficial research. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a semistructured, non-representative survey among psychiatric patients and their relatives...
April 16, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Eunhee Park, Misol Kwon
BACKGROUND: The internet is widely used by children and adolescents, who generally have a high level of competency with technology. Thus, the internet has become a great resource for supporting youth self-care and health-related services. However, few studies have explored adolescents' internet use for health-related matters. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the phenomenon of children and adolescents' health-related internet use and to identify gaps in the research...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Geerat J Vermeij, Richard K Grosberg, Charles R Marshall, Ryosuke Motani
Miller & Wiens (2017) claim that low marine as compared with terrestrial diversity results from more frequent extinctions and insufficient time for diversification in marine clades. Their data on marine amniotes are unrepresentative of marine diversity, their analysis of clade dynamics is flawed, and they ignore previously proposed explanations for the diversity difference.
June 2018: Ecology Letters
Jason A Lowe, Daniel Bernie
A number of studies have examined the size of the allowable global cumulative carbon budget compatible with limiting twenty-first century global average temperature rise to below 2°C and below 1.5°C relative to pre-industrial levels. These estimates of cumulative emissions have a number of uncertainties including those associated with the climate sensitivity and the global carbon cycle. Although the IPCC fifth assessment report contained information on a range of Earth system feedbacks, such as carbon released by thawing of permafrost or methane production by wetlands as a result of climate change, the impact of many of these Earth system processes on the allowable carbon budgets remains to be quantified...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Matthew Chojnacki, Maria Banks, Anna Urso
Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars' history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations...
February 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"