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Toxic dose

Xiao-Meng Zhang, Fan Li, Bing Zhang, Xiao-Fen Chen, Jing-Zhu Piao
The common Aconitum herbs in clinical application mainly include Aconiti Radix(Chuanwu), Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu) and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia(Fuzi), all of which have toxicity. Therefore, the safety of using Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum herbs has become an hot topic in clinical controversy. Based on the data-mining methods, this study explored the characteristics and causes of adverse drug reactions/events (ADR/ADE) of the Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum, in order to provide pharmacovigilance and rational drug use suggestions for clinical application...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Xiao-Meng Zhang, Zhi-Jian Lin, Fan Li, Bing Zhang, Xiao-Xin Guo, Le Yang
Based on the relation of efficacy and toxicity, this study mined the dosage rules and characteristics of Aconitum herbs in oral prescriptions from 48 traditional ancient books from Eastern Han dynasty to Qing dynasty, to provide the basis for strengthening the clinical risk pharmacovigilance. In the 48 traditional ancient books, 4 521 prescriptions with clear daily oral dosage were included to establish a database. SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistics and analysis of the daily dosage characteristics with different kinds of herbs, indications, dose forms, processing, use in special population, and other aspects...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Tetsuo Saito, Ryo Toya, Tomohiko Matsuyama, Satoshi Ninomura, Natsuo Oya
PURPOSE: As predictors of hematologic toxicity (HT) after palliative radiotherapy (RT) have been studied insufficiently, we explored predictors of leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia attributable to palliative RT. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed patients with various solid tumors who had received palliative RT at our institution. Excluded from our study were patients who had undergone chemotherapy from one month before to one month after the start of RT...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Xue Zhang, Dong Lan, Shuhua Ning, Liwen Ruan
PURPOSE: Skin cancer is one of the cancers responsible for significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. The treatment options for skin cancer are limited and associated with significant toxicity. Therefore, researches have been directed towards exploring molecules that could prove beneficial in the treatment of this disease. Lactucopicrin is an important sesquiterpene lactone with important pharmacological potential. METHODS: In the present study the anticancer effects of lactucopicrin against human skin SKMEL-5 cancer cell line were investigated...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Vassilis Kouloulias, Evridiki Patriki, Eftychia Mosa, Kalliopi Platoni, John Georgakopoulos, Anna Zygogianni, Maria Dilvoi, George Patatoukas, Christos Antypas, Christina Armpilia, Nikolaos Trogkanis, Eyfrosini Kypraiou, Stella Nikoloudi, George Giannakouras, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, John Kouvaris
PURPOSE: To evaluate in an observational way the clinical impact of a hypofractionated irradiation schedule in patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Forty elderly patients (24 men/16 women) diagnosed with unresectable stage IIIb/IV NSCLC unfit for chemotherapy, were treated with once-a-week hypofractionation schedule. All patients had a poor performance status. A dose of 255 Gy in 3 weekly fractions was prescribed while a 3D conformal technique (3D-CRT) was used for irradiation...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Hussaina Banu, N Renuka, S M Faheem, Raees Ismail, Vinita Singh, Zahra Saadatmand, Saad Sultan Khan, Kavya Narayanan, Alma Raheem, Kumpati Premkumar, Geetha Vasanthakumar
Recently, several attempts have been made to use the phytopharmaceuticals from plant extracts as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents for the biomimetic synthesis of various metal nanoparticles conjugated to the phytopharmaceuticals. These biogenic metal nanoparticles are non-toxic and can be used as contrast agents, drug delivery vehicles and photothermal agents for cancer therapy. Herein, we report the synthesis of both silver and gold nanoparticles using the pollen extract of Phoenix dactylifera (Date Palm), characterization using UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, quantitation of phytochemicals capping the nanoparticles using Folin - Ciocalteu's method, cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, cancer cell death analysis using fluorescent microscopy, and modulation of expression of the pro-apoptotic p53 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins...
March 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Chenxue Jiang, Shuiyun Han, Wucheng Chen, Xiaozhen Ying, He Wu, Yaoyao Zhu, Guodong Shi, Xiaojiang Sun, Yaping Xu
Background: and purpose: This retrospective study aimed to investigate the feasibility of shrinking field radiotherapy during chemoradiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods: Ninety-seven patients with stage III NSCLC who achieved a good response to chemoradiation were analyzed. Computed tomography was performed after 40-50 Gy dose radiation to evaluate curative effect. Patients in the shrinking field group underwent resimulation CT scans and shrinking field radiotherapy...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Chen Xiong, Yan-Zhao Wu, Yu Zhang, Zi-Xiao Wu, Xue-Yan Chen, Ping Jiang, Hui-Cai Guo, Ke-Rang Xie, Ke-Xin Wang, Su-Wen Su
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and broad-spectrum anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent, but dose-dependent cardiotoxic side effects limit its clinical application. This toxicity is closely associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) radical during DOX metabolism. The present study investigated the effects of Berberine (Ber) on DOX-induced acute cardiac injury in a rat model and analysed its mechanism in cardiomyocytes in vitro . Serum creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased in the DOX group compared with the control group...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jessica Da Gama Duarte, Sagun Parakh, Miles C Andrews, Katherine Woods, Anupama Pasam, Candani Tutuka, Simone Ostrouska, Jonathan M Blackburn, Andreas Behren, Jonathan Cebon
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma. The first ICI to demonstrate clinical benefit, ipilimumab, targets cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4); however, the long-term overall survival is just 22%. More than 40 years ago intralesional (IL) bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), a living attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis , was found to induce tumor regression by stimulating cell-mediated immunity following a localized and self-limiting infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Asra Parveen, Vijaykumar B Malashetty, Bhagavanraju Mantripragada, Manjunath S Yalagatti, Venkataraman Abbaraju, Raghunandan Deshpande
Gold nanoparticles offer a great promise in clinical research. Despite various applications of the metal nanoparticles it is challenging to implement in vivo in clinical applications . This aspect is deprived of understanding the biological mechanisms that occurs in the cells. In this report we have evaluated application of AuNP on the safety profile at different doses (100, 200, and 500 μg/kg Bwt/day) on intravenous administration in rats regularly for 28 days. The study was performed based on the OECD test guideline 407...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Michael L Maitland, Sarina Piha-Paul, Gerald Falchook, Razelle Kurzrock, Ly Nguyen, Linda Janisch, Sanja Karovic, Mark McKee, Elizabeth Hoening, Shekman Wong, Wijith Munasinghe, Joann Palma, Cherrie Donawho, Guinan K Lian, Peter Ansell, Mark J Ratain, David Hong
BACKGROUND: Ilorasertib (ABT-348) inhibits Aurora and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) kinases. Patients with advanced solid tumours participated in a phase 1 dose-escalation trial to profile the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ilorasertib. METHODS: Ilorasertib monotherapy was administered at 10-180 mg orally once daily (Arm I, n = 23), 40-340 mg orally twice daily (Arm II, n = 28), or 8-32 mg intravenously once daily (Arm III, n = 7), on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle...
March 19, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Jia Ning, XinYue Cui, XiangNan Kong, YiFei Tang, Riana Wulandari, Lu Chen, Sebas Wesseling, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
In the present study, a risk assessment of plant food supplements (PFS), traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and herbal teas containing alkenylbenzenes was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. The levels of alkenylbenzenes in botanical preparations collected on the Chinese market were quantified and the combined estimated daily intake (EDI) was determined using dose additivity. The combined EDI values obtained assuming equal potency of all alkenylbenzenes detected in the PFS, TCM and herbal teas were 0...
March 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Meenakshi Ravichandran, Steffen Priebe, Giovanna Grigolon, Leonid Rozanov, Marco Groth, Beate Laube, Reinhard Guthke, Matthias Platzer, Kim Zarse, Michael Ristow
Whether and how regulation of genes and pathways contributes to physiological aging is topic of intense scientific debate. By performing an RNA expression-based screen for genes downregulated during aging of three different species, we identified glycine-C-acetyltransferase (GCAT, EC Impairing gcat expression promotes the lifespan of C. elegans by interfering with threonine catabolism to promote methylglyoxal (MGO; CAS 78-98-8) formation in an amine oxidase-dependent manner. MGO is a reactive dicarbonyl inducing diabetic complications in mammals by causing oxidative stress and damaging cellular components, including proteins...
March 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Jeeyun Lee, Seung Tae Kim, Sungju Park, Sujin Lee, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Ho Yeong Lim, Hongmo Ahn, Haesook Bok, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Myung Ju Ahn, Won Ki Kang, Young Suk Park
BACKGROUND: Samsung Advance Institute of Technology-301 (SAIT301) is a human immunoglobulin G2 antibody that can specifically target mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (c-MET). This novel antibody has higher priority over hepatocyte growth factors when binding to the Sema domain of c-MET and accelerates the internalization and degradation of c-MET, proving its powerful antitumor activities in intra- as well as extracellular areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SAIT301 was administered intravenously once every 3 weeks in c-MET overexpressed solid tumor patients, focusing on metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) according to common clinical phase I criteria...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Loveth O Linus, Shi-Lei Wang, Ning Shi, Christian Hanson, Yi-Tong Lu, Raphael N Alolga, Qun Liu, Reginald C Njokuocha, Lian-Wen Qi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Parinari kerstingii Engl. extract is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, bronchopneumonia, feverish pains, and breast cancer. However, there have not been any scientific reports regarding the medicinal properties of this plant, and no experiments have been done to ascertain the safety of the extract. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of Parinari kerstingii Engl. extracts as an herbal remedy and to investigate its anti-inflammatory potential in vivo...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Harvey C Quon, Aldrich Ong, Patrick Cheung, William Chu, Hans T Chung, Danny Vesprini, Amit Chowdhury, Dilip Panjwani, Geordi Pang, Renee Korol, Melanie Davidson, Ananth Ravi, Boyd McCurdy, Liying Zhang, Alexandre Mamedov, Andrea Deabreu, Andrew Loblaw
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) regimens differ in time, dose, and fractionation. We completed a multicentre, randomized phase II study to investigate the impact of overall treatment time on quality of life (QOL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Men with low and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to 40 Gy in 5 fractions delivered once per week (QW) vs. every other day (EOD). QOL was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite...
March 15, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Hongliang Zhang, Xiaoqin Zou, Qiuyan Huang, Xiaobin Zhong, Zhenguang Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The herbal medicine Kudingcha has a bitter taste and low bioavailability for lipid reduction. To improve the bioavailability and ameliorate the compliance, we prepared Kudingcha nanoparticles and investigated their effect in hyperlipidaemic rats. In addition, the safety and lipid-lowering mechanism of the Kudingcha nanoparticles were examined. METHODS: Kudingcha nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation and spray-drying. Seventy rats were randomly assigned into eight groups: a normal fat diet group (NF), a high-fat group (HF), a spontaneous recovery group (SR), a Kudingcha group (KDC), a blank nanoparticle group (B-N), and a Kudingcha nanoparticle groups (low, medium and high doses)...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Khushbu Shah, Sudhir Raghavan, Zhanjun Hou, Larry H Matherly, Aleem Gangjee
All clinically used antifolates lack transport selectivity for tumors over normal cells resulting in dose-limiting toxicities. There is growing interest in developing novel tumor-targeted cytotoxic antifolates with selective transport into tumors over normal cells via the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) over the ubiquitously expressed reduced folate carrier (RFC). A lack of X-ray crystal structures or predictive models for PCFT or RFC has hindered structure-aided drug design for PCFT-selective therapeutics...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
María E Alea-Reyes, Oriol Penon, Paula García Calavia, María J Marín, David A Russell, Lluïsa Pérez-García
HYPOTHESIS: Metalloporphyrins are extensively investigated for their ability to form reactive oxygen species and as potent photosensitisers for use in photodynamic therapy. However, their hydrophobicity generally causes solubility issues concerning in vivo delivery due to lack of distribution and low clearance from the body. Immobilising porphyrins on carriers, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), can overcome some of these drawbacks. The mode of assembling the porphyrins to the carrier influences the properties of the resulting drug delivery systems...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
María García-Espiñeira, Lesly Tejeda-Benitez, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Atrazine and Glyphosate are herbicides massively used in agriculture for crop protection. Upon application, they are available to the biota in different ecosystems. The aim of this research was to evaluate the toxicity of Glyphosate and Atrazine based formulations (GBF and ABF, respectively). Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to different concentrations of each single formulation, and to the mixture. Lethality, locomotion, growth, and fertility were measured as endpoints. Effects on gene expression were monitored utilizing green fluorescence protein transgenic strains...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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