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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817708/timing-and-extent-of-finger-force-enslaving-during-a-dynamic-force-task-cannot-be-explained-by-emg-activity-patterns
#1
Mojtaba Mirakhorlo, Huub Maas, DirkJan H E J Veeger
Finger enslaving is defined as the inability of the fingers to move or to produce force independently. Such finger enslaving has predominantly been investigated for isometric force tasks. The aim of this study was to assess whether the extent of force enslaving is dependent on relative finger movements. Ten right-handed subjects (22-30 years) flexed the index finger while counteracting constant resistance forces (4, 6 and 8 N) orthogonal to the fingertip. The other, non-instructed fingers were held in extension...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816914/congenital-hypotonia-in-toddlerhood
#2
Naomi Steiner, Alcy Torres, Arathi Reddy, Marilyn Augustyn
David is a 22-month-old boy who is new to your practice. He recently moved from a rural area in the Midwest. His father is in the United States Air Force, and his mother works as a full-time homemaker. Their household includes 5 older siblings. The family moves every year because of the father's Air Force placement.David was born full-term in Virginia, with no reported pregnancy complications and no alcohol, tobacco, or drug exposure. He was delivered vaginally, with Apgar scores of 7 and 9, respectively and no respiratory issues...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814032/studying-the-implementation-of-iterative-impedance-control-for-assistive-hand-rehabilitation-using-an-exoskeleton
#3
T Martineau, R Vaidyanathan
A positive training synergy can be obtained when two individuals attempt to learn the same motor task while mechanically coupled to one another. In this paper, we have studied how mimicking this interaction through impedance control can be exploited to improve assistance delivered by hand exoskeleton devices during rehabilitation. In this context, the machine and user take complementary roles akin to two coupled individuals. We present the derivation of a dynamic model of the human hand for the purpose of controller development for new hand exoskeleton platforms...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807512/non-linear-finite-element-model-to-assess-the-effect-of-tendon-forces-on-the-foot-ankle-complex
#4
Enrique Morales-Orcajo, Thales R Souza, Javier Bayod, Estevam Barbosa de Las Casas
A three-dimensional foot finite element model with actual geometry and non-linear behavior of tendons is presented. The model is intended for analysis of the lower limb tendon forces effect in the inner foot structure. The geometry of the model was obtained from computational tomographies and magnetic resonance images. Tendon tissue was characterized with the first order Ogden material model based on experimental data from human foot tendons. Kinetic data was employed to set the load conditions. After model validation, a force sensitivity study of the five major foot extrinsic tendons was conducted to evaluate the function of each tendon...
August 11, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771525/the-role-of-physique-strength-and-endurance-in-the-achievements-of-elite-climbers
#5
Mariusz Ozimek, Robert Rokowski, Paweł Draga, Vladimir Ljakh, Tadeusz Ambroży, Marcin Krawczyk, Tomasz Ręgwelski, Arkadiusz Stanula, Karol Görner, Adam Jurczak, Dariusz Mucha
PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study is to determine the principal somatic and motor determinants for elite climbers. METHODS: Twenty climbers were examined [age: 28.5±6.1 years].The runners were divided into two groups based on their climbing level, according to the International Rock Climbing Research Association (IRCRA). Elite climbers represented a 8b-8c Rotpunkt (RP) climbing level (n = 6), and advanced climbers represented an 7c+-8a RP level (n = 14). The following measurements were assessed: height, weight, lean body mass, upper limb length, arm span, and forearm, arm, thigh and calf circumference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768344/determining-bilateral-strength-imbalances-in-youth-basketball-athletes
#6
Christopher Thomas, Paul Comfort, Thomas Dos'Santos, Paul A Jones
The aims of this study were: 1) to compare the strongest (D) and weakest (ND) limbs in determining muscle strength asymmetry (MSA) ratios among various muscle strength qualities and 2) to determine the relationships among various muscle strength qualities. 17 youth male basketball athletes (age=17.5±0.8 years; height=187.1±9.4 cm; body mass=81.4±10.1 kg) participated in this study. Knee flexor and extensor strength at 60°·s(-1) was assessed for both limbs with the use of isokinetic dynamometry. Other tests involved single-leg hop (SLH), countermovement jump (CMJ) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP)...
September 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753234/manipulative-interventions-for-reducing-pulled-elbow-in-young-children
#7
REVIEW
Marjolein Krul, Johannes C van der Wouden, Emma J Kruithof, Lisette Wa van Suijlekom-Smit, Bart W Koes
BACKGROUND: Pulled elbow (nursemaid's elbow) is a common injury in young children. It often results from a sudden pull on the arm, usually by an adult or taller person, which pulls the radius through the annular ligament, resulting in subluxation (partial dislocation) of the radial head. It can also be caused by a fall or twist. The child experiences sudden acute pain and loss of function in the affected arm. Pulled elbow is usually treated by manual reduction of the subluxed radial head...
July 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740437/the-larynx-ruler-to-measure-height-and-profile-of-vocal-folds-a-proof-of-concept
#8
Gauthier Desuter, Benjamin Mertens, Alain Delchambre, Julie van Lith-Bijl, Peter Paul van Benthem, Elisabeth Sjögren
INTRODUCTION: Glottic leakage during phonation is a direct consequence of unilateral vocal fold (VF) paralysis. This air leakage can be in the horizontal plane and in the vertical plane. Presently, there is no easily applicable medical device allowing noninvasive, office-based measurement of the relative vertical position of the VFs. The larynx ruler (LR) is a laser-based measuring device that could meet the previously stated need, using a flexible endoscope. This study represents a proof of concept regarding the use of the LR in assessing VF relative positions in the vertical plane...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736791/control-of-standing-balance-at-leaning-postures-with-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Musa L Audu, Brooke M Odle, Ronald J Triolo
This study systematically explored the potential of applying feedback control of functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) for stabilizing various erect and leaning standing postures after spinal cord injury (SCI). Perturbations ranging from 2 to 6% body weight were applied to two subjects with motor complete thoracic level SCI who were proficient at standing with implanted multichannel neural stimulators to activate the ankle, knee, hip and trunk muscles. The subjects stood with four different postures: erect, forward, forward-right and forward-left...
July 24, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735746/parallel-inhibitory-and-excitatory-trigemino-facial-feedback-circuitry-for-reflexive-vibrissa-movement
#10
Marie-Andrée Bellavance, Jun Takatoh, Jinghao Lu, Maxime Demers, David Kleinfeld, Fan Wang, Martin Deschênes
Animals employ active touch to optimize the acuity of their tactile sensors. Prior experimental results and models lead to the hypothesis that sensory inputs are used in a recurrent manner to tune the position of the sensors. A combination of electrophysiology, intersectional genetic viral labeling and manipulation, and classical tracing allowed us to identify second-order sensorimotor loops that control vibrissa movements by rodents. Facial motoneurons that drive intrinsic muscles to protract the vibrissae receive a short latency inhibitory input, followed by synaptic excitation, from neurons located in the oralis division of the trigeminal sensory complex...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730946/contribution-of-upper-limb-muscles-to-two-different-gripping-styles-in-elite-indoor-tug-of-war-athletes
#11
Wen-Tzu Tang, Wei-Chih Liao, Hsin-Min Lee
To investigate characteristic upper limb muscle use between two common tug of war (TOW) gripping styles, 20 elite athletes from two high school TOW teams were recruited. Under conditioned attack pulling (with 90% maximal force) on a tug machine, participants used their own habitual gripping style to pull for five 15-s trials. Force and kinematic measurements showed a significantly better force performance and higher centre-of-gravity tilting angle with the gripping style one than with the gripping style two (GS2) (both p < 0...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728077/comparison-of-spinal-stability-following-motor-control-and-general-exercises-in-nonspecific-chronic-low-back-pain-patients
#12
MohammadBagher Shamsi, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Aliashraf Jamshidi, Navid Arjmand, Farshid Ghezelbash
BACKGROUND: Motor control exercise was claimed to improve spinal stability in patients with chronic non-specific back pain, but to investigate the effectiveness of this exercise, other outcome measures have been used rather than spinal stability itself. The aim of our study is to assess motor control exercise effects on spinal stability using a biomechanical model. METHODS: Fifty-one patients were assigned to either motor control or general exercises. Before and after trainings, participants were tested for spinal stability at seven isometric tasks...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718924/preliminary-study-of-a-novel-puborectalis-like-artificial-anal-sphincter
#13
Wentian Jin, Guozheng Yan, Hao Wu, Shan Lu, Zerun Zhou
Artificial anal sphincter (AAS) is an in situ implanted device that acts as a treatment for fecal incontinence regardless of etiology by augmenting the incompetent sphincteric structures. However, AAS is impeded from becoming a valid therapy by its high rate of ischemic complication and malfunction. This article presents an original puborectalis-like artificial anal sphincter (PAAS) that features a low risk of ischemia necrosis and rectal perception remodeling. The device retains continence by reproducing the action, including the pulling and angulating the rectum, of the puborectalis muscle, which forms the anorectal angle and reduces the required clamping pressure...
July 18, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664306/axillary-advancement-suture-to-minimize-post-implantation-deformity-in-implant-based-breast-reconstruction
#14
Jun Ho Lee, Chi-Ho Yeo, Kyu-Jin Chung, Taegon Kim
Patients who have undergone implant-based breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy often complain about bulging on the upper flank or inferior axillary area. This is most likely because the subcutaneous tissue layer of the upper flank, which is continuous with the breast tissue, tends to show inferolateral drooping once the subcutaneous tissue becomes loose after eliminating the breast parenchyma. In addition, one of the weaknesses of implant surgery is that implants cannot completely replace the tissue removed during skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM)...
June 29, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634547/kinesiophobia-pain-muscle-functions-and-functional-performances-among-older-persons-with-low-back-pain
#15
Nor Azizah Ishak, Zarina Zahari, Maria Justine
OBJECTIVES: This study aims (1) to determine the association between kinesiophobia and pain, muscle functions, and functional performances and (2) to determine whether kinesiophobia predicts pain, muscle functions, and functional performance among older persons with low back pain (LBP). METHODS: This is a correlational study, involving 63 institutionalized older persons (age = 70.98 ± 7.90 years) diagnosed with LBP. Anthropometric characteristics (BMI) and functional performances (lower limb function, balance and mobility, and hand grip strength) were measured...
2017: Pain Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626320/effects-of-pulling-direction-on-upper-trapezius-and-rhomboid-muscle-activity
#16
Won-Gyu Yoo
[Purpose] This study examined the activation of the rhomboid muscle according to the angle of the arm. [Subjects and Methods] The current study was conducted on 15 healthy males. The participants performed the pulling exercise in 5 conditions. The surface electromyography system was used to measure the muscle activities of the rhomboid and upper trapezius. [Results] The activity of the upper trapezius in condition 5 was significantly increased compared to that in condition 4. The activity of the rhomboid in condition 4 was significantly increased compared to that in conditions 1 and 5...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616723/post-operative-strictures-in-anorectal-malformation-trends-over-15%C3%A2-years
#17
Charlotte Holbrook, Devesh Misra, Indre Zaparackaite, Stewart Cleeve
AIM: For decades, paediatric surgeons have employed the standard posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) approach to deal with patients with anorectal malformations (ARM). In recent years, we noted an apparent increase in the incidence of anal stricture after surgical repair of ARM following the introduction of laparoscopic pull-through and techniques aiming to preserve the internal sphincter-the internal sphincter sparing approach (ISSA). We decided to analyse our data to find out if these new trends had added to the problem of post-operative strictures...
August 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605261/criterion-and-construct-validity-of-an-isometric-mid-thigh-pull-dynamometer-for-assessing-whole-body-strength-in-professional-rugby-league-players
#18
Nick Dobbin, Richard Hunwicks, Ben Jones, Kevin Till, Jamie Highton, Craig Twist
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion and construct validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer to assess whole body strength in professional rugby league players. METHODS: Fifty-six male rugby league players, (33 senior and 23 youth professional players) performed four isometric mid-thigh pull efforts (i.e. two on the dynamometer and two on the force platform) in a randomised and counterbalanced order. RESULTS: Isometric peak force was underestimated (P<0...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601095/reactive-stepping-with-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-in-response-to-forward-directed-perturbations
#19
Alexander J Hunt, Brooke M Odle, Lisa M Lombardo, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
BACKGROUND: Implanted motor system neuroprostheses can be effective at increasing personal mobility of persons paralyzed by spinal cord injuries. However, currently available neural stimulation systems for standing employ patterns of constant activation and are unreactive to changing postural demands. METHODS: In this work, we developed a closed-loop controller for detecting forward-directed body disturbances and initiating a stabilizing step in a person with spinal cord injury...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584714/the-development-of-curvature-in-the-porcine-radioulna
#20
Jess Pantinople, Kyle McCabe, Keith Henderson, Hazel L Richards, Nick Milne
Long bone curvature in animal limbs has long been a subject of interest and much work has explored why long bones should be curved. However, the 'when' and 'how' of curvature development is poorly understood. It has been shown that the rat tibia fails to attain its normal curvature if the action of muscles is removed early in life, but it is not clear if this is because the curvature fails to develop or if the bone becomes straighter without the action of muscles. No studies have examined the development of bone curvature in a normally developing quadruped, so this study tracks the course of curvature formation in the radioulna in a series of growing pigs...
2017: PeerJ
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