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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454225/js-k-promotes-apoptosis-by-inducing-ros-production-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#1
Mingning Qiu, Lieqian Chen, Guobin Tan, Longzhi Ke, Sai Zhang, Hege Chen, Jianjun Liu
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemical species that alter redox status, and are responsible for inducing carcinogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of the glutathione S transferase-activated nitric oxide donor prodrug, JS-K, on ROS accumulation and on proliferation and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Cell proliferation and apoptosis, ROS accumulation and the activation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway were measured. The results demonstrated that JS-K may inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and induce ROS accumulation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454181/demonstration-of-a-highly-efficient-terahertz-flat-lens-employing-tri-layer-metasurfaces
#2
Chun-Chieh Chang, Daniel Headland, Derek Abbott, Withawat Withayachumnankul, Hou-Tong Chen
We demonstrate a terahertz flat lens based on tri-layer metasurfaces allowing for broadband linear polarization conversion, where the phase can be tuned through a full 2π range by tailoring the geometry of the subwavelength resonators. The lens functionality is realized by arranging these resonators to create a parabolic spatial phase profile. The fabricated 124-μm-thick device is characterized by scanning the beam profile and cross section, showing diffraction-limited focusing and ∼68% overall efficiency at the operating frequency of 400 GHz...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454178/optical-nyquist-pulse-generation-by-using-a-dual-electrode-mach-zehnder-modulator
#3
Nobuhide Yokota, Ryo Igarashi, Hiroshi Yasaka
We demonstrate a simple and efficient optical Nyquist pulse generation by using a dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) driven by a combination of fundamental and second-harmonic RF signals. The method is based on a raised-cosine-shaped time filter and time lens created in the MZM under operation conditions given by a simple equation. Optical Nyquist pulses with a roll-off factor of 0.52 and intrinsic conversion efficiency of 37% are experimentally confirmed. Numerical analyses indicate that the roll-off factor can be moderately controlled down to ∼0...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454167/nanofilm-induced-spectral-tuning-of-third-harmonic-generation
#4
Stephen C Warren-Smith, Mario Chemnitz, Henrik Schneidewind, Roman Kostecki, Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Tanya M Monro, Markus A Schmidt
Intermodal third-harmonic generation using waveguides is an effective frequency conversion process due to the combination of long interaction lengths and strong modal confinement. Here we introduce the concept of tuning the third harmonic phase-matching condition via the use of dielectric nanofilms located on an open waveguide core. We experimentally demonstrate that tantalum oxide nanofilms coated onto the core of an exposed core fiber allow tuning the third harmonic wavelength over 30 nm, as confirmed by qualitative simulations...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454152/88-conversion-efficiency-with-an-atomic-spin-wave-mediated-mode-selection
#5
Jinxian Guo, L Q Chen, Peiyu Yang, Zhengjun Li, Yuan Wu, Xiaotian Feng, Chun-Hua Yuan, Z Y Ou, Weiping Zhang
In studying quantum correlation and quantum memory of continuous variables of light fields and atoms, a crucial step is the retrieval of the quantum fields by converting an atomic spin wave to light, and retrieval efficiency is a crucial parameter. In this Letter, we implement a double-pass Raman scheme in Rb87 by incorporating coherent feedback. We find that the transfer efficiency from an atomic spin wave, which is generated from a Raman process in a high gain regime, to light fields is enhanced by the double-pass scheme as compared to the commonly used single-pass scheme...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454131/uni-directional-wavelength-conversion-in-silicon-using-four-wave-mixing-driven-by-cross-polarized-pumps
#6
Bryn A Bell, Chunle Xiong, David Marpaung, Colin J McKinstrie, Benjamin J Eggleton
We demonstrate optical frequency conversion between telecom wavelengths using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering powered by two pump pulses polarized on orthogonal axes of a silicon waveguide. This allows conversion in a single frequency direction while, with co-polarized pumps, the signal is redshifted or blueshifted with similar efficiency. Our approach exploits the birefringence of the waveguide and its effect on the phase matching of the four-wave mixing process. The blue or red direction can be selected by the input polarization of the signal, and 20 dB extinction ratios are observed with the unintended direction...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454125/polarization-dependent-intermodal-four-wave-mixing-in-a-birefringent-multimode-photonic-crystal-fiber
#7
Jinhui Yuan, Zhe Kang, Feng Li, Guiyao Zhou, Xinzhu Sang, Qiang Wu, Binbin Yan, Xian Zhou, Kangping Zhong, Liang Wang, Kuiru Wang, Chongxiu Yu, Chao Lu, Hwa Yaw Tam, P K A Wai
In this Letter, polarization-dependent intermodal four-wave mixing (FWM) is demonstrated experimentally in a birefringent multimode photonic crystal fiber (BM-PCF) designed and fabricated in-house. Femtosecond pump pulses at wavelengths ∼800  nm polarized along one of the principal axes of the BM-PCF are coupled into a normal dispersion region away from the zero-dispersion wavelengths of the fundamental guided mode of the BM-PCF. Anti-Stokes and Stokes waves are generated in the 2nd guided mode at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, respectively...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454091/heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-hnrnp-l-promotes-dna-damage-induced-cell-apoptosis-by-enhancing-the-translation-of-p53
#8
Ji-Young Seo, Do-Yeon Kim, Seong-Hoon Kim, Hyo-Jin Kim, Hye Guk Ryu, Juhyun Lee, Kyung-Ha Lee, Kyong-Tai Kim
The tumor suppressor p53 is an essential gene in the induction of cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. p53 protein is induced under cellular stress, blocking cell cycle progression and inducing DNA repair. Under DNA damage conditions, it has been reported that post-transcriptional regulation of p53 mRNA contributes to the increase in p53 protein level. Here we demonstrate that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) L enhances p53 mRNA translation. We found that hnRNP L is increased and binds to the 5'UTR of p53 mRNA in response to DNA damage...
April 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454039/land-cover-change-during-a-period-of-extensive-landscape-restoration-in-ningxia-hui-autonomous-region-china
#9
Angela M Cadavid Restrepo, Yu Rong Yang, Nicholas A S Hamm, Darren J Gray, Tamsin S Barnes, Gail M Williams, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães, Donald P McManus, Danhuai Guo, Archie C A Clements
Environmental change has been a topic of great interest over the last century due to its potential impact on ecosystem services that are fundamental for sustainable development and human well-being. Here, we assess and quantify the spatial and temporal variation in land cover in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), China. With high-resolution (30m) imagery from Landsat 4/5-TM and 8-OLI for the entire region, land cover maps of the region were created to explore local land cover changes in a spatially explicit way...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454038/long-term-variations-measurement-of-electromagnetic-field-exposures-in-alcal%C3%A3-de-henares-spain
#10
R Sánchez-Montero, C Alén-Cordero, P L López-Espí, J M Rigelsford, F Aguilera-Benavente, J Alpuente-Hermosilla
Electromagnetic radiowave exposure is a major concern in most countries due to possible adverse health effects. Over the last 10years, many technological changes (digital television, mobile technologies, wireless networks…) have led to variations in the electromagnetic field (EMF) levels. A large number of studies devoted to the analysis of EMF levels with personal dosimeters or computer models of the exposure of mobile stations have been conducted. However, the study of the exposure values, taking into account all the existing sources, and their evolution in a wide area, using measurements, has rarely been performed...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453986/facilitating-smallholder-tree-farming-in-fragmented-tropical-landscapes-challenges-and-potentials-for-sustainable-land-management
#11
Syed Ajijur Rahman, Terry Sunderland, James M Roshetko, John Robert Healey
Under changing land use in tropical Asia, there is evidence of forest product diversification through implementation of tree-based farming by smallholders. This paper assesses in two locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh, current land use conditions from the perspective of smallholder farmers, the factors that facilitate their adoption of tree farming, and the potential of landscape-scale approaches to foster sustainable land management. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisals, focus group discussions, field observations, semi-structured interviews of farm households and key informant interviews of state agricultural officers...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453984/functional-and-genetic-evidence-that-nucleoside-transport-is-highly-conserved-in-leishmania-species-implications-for-pyrimidine-based-chemotherapy
#12
Khalid J H Alzahrani, Juma A M Ali, Anthonius A Eze, Wan Limm Looi, Daniel N A Tagoe, Darren J Creek, Michael P Barrett, Harry P de Koning
Leishmania pyrimidine salvage is replete with opportunities for therapeutic intervention with enzyme inhibitors or antimetabolites. Their uptake into cells depends upon specific transporters; therefore it is essential to establish whether various Leishmania species possess similar pyrimidine transporters capable of drug uptake. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of pyrimidine transport in L. major and L. mexicana. In both species, two transporters for uridine/adenosine were detected, one of which also transported uracil and the antimetabolites 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and 5F,2'deoxyuridine (5F,2'dUrd), and was designated uridine-uracil transporter 1 (UUT1); the other transporter mediated uptake of adenosine, uridine, 5F,2'dUrd and thymidine and was designated Nucleoside Transporter 1 (NT1)...
April 20, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453908/sexual-dysfunction-in-subjects-treated-with-inhibitors-of-5%C3%AE-reductase-for-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-a-comprehensive-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
G Corona, G Tirabassi, D Santi, E Maseroli, M Gacci, M Dicuio, A Sforza, E Mannucci, M Maggi
Despite their efficacy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, the popularity of inhibitors of 5α-reductase (5ARIs) is limited by their association with adverse sexual side effects. The aim of this study was to review and meta-analyze currently available randomized clinical trials evaluating the rate of sexual side effects in men treated with 5ARIs. An extensive Medline Embase and Cochrane search was performed including the following words: 'finasteride', 'dutasteride', 'benign prostatic hyperplasia'...
April 28, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453803/does-cervical-lymph-node-recurrence-after-oesophagectomy-or-definitive-chemoradiotherapy-for-thoracic-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-benefit-from-salvage-treatment
#14
Xiaoli Yuan, Jiahua Lv, Hang Dong, Jiuhui Wang
A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Does cervical lymph node recurrence after oesophagectomy or definitive chemoradiotherapy for thoracic oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma benefit from salvage treatment?' Altogether, 659 articles were found using the reported search, of which 8 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date, country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these articles were tabulated...
May 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453792/triple-valve-surgery-through-a-less-invasive-approach-early-and-mid-term-results
#15
Petar Risteski, Nadejda Monsefi, Aleksandra Miskovic, Tanja Josic, Sherife Bala, Razan Salem, Andreas Zierer, Anton Moritz
OBJECTIVES: A partial upper sternotomy has become established as a less invasive approach mainly for single and double valve surgery. This report evaluates the clinical outcomes of triple valve surgery performed through a partial upper sternotomy. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 37 consecutive patients (28 men, 76%) who underwent triple valve surgery through a partial upper sternotomy between 2005 and 2015. The patients' mean age was 67 ± 17 years; 27 (73%) were in New York Heart Association Class III or IV...
May 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453784/detection-of-wtegfr-amplification-and-egfrviii-mutation-in-csf-derived-extracellular-vesicles-of-glioblastoma-patients
#16
Javier M Figueroa, Johan Skog, Johnny Akers, Hongying Li, Ricardo Komotar, Randy Jensen, Florian Ringel, Isaac Yang, Steven Kalkanis, Reid Thompson, Lori LoGuidice, Emily Berghoff, Andrew Parsa, Linda Liau, William Curry, Daniel Cahill, Chetan Bettegowda, Frederick F Lang, E Antonio Chiocca, John Henson, Ryan Kim, Xandra Breakefield, Clark Chen, Karen Messer, Fred Hochberg, Bob S Carter
Background: RNA within extracellular vesicles (EVs) have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for patients with cancer, and are identified in a variety of biofluids. Glioblastomas (GBMs) release EVs containing RNA into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here we describe a multi-institutional study of RNA extracted from CSF-derived EVs of GBM patients, for the presence of tumor-associated amplifications and mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods: CSF and matching tumor tissue were obtained from patients undergoing resection of GBMs...
April 27, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453782/sempi-a-genome-based-secondary-metabolite-prediction-and-identification-web-server
#17
Paul F Zierep, Natàlia Padilla, Dimitar G Yonchev, Kiran K Telukunta, Dennis Klementz, Stefan Günther
The secondary metabolism of bacteria, fungi and plants yields a vast number of bioactive substances. The constantly increasing amount of published genomic data provides the opportunity for an efficient identification of gene clusters by genome mining. Conversely, for many natural products with resolved structures, the encoding gene clusters have not been identified yet. Even though genome mining tools have become significantly more efficient in the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, structural elucidation of the actual secondary metabolite is still challenging, especially due to as yet unpredictable post-modifications...
April 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453723/gtp-binding-regulates-cellular-localization-of-parkinso%C3%A5-s-disease-associated-lrrk2
#18
Marian Blanca Ramírez, Antonio Jesús Lara Ordóñez, Elena Fdez, Jesús Madero-Pérez, Adriano Gonnelli, Matthieu Drouyer, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Jean-Marc Taymans, Luigi Bubacco, Elisa Greggio, Sabine Hilfiker
Mutations in LRRK2 comprise the most common cause of familial Parkinsońs disease (PD), and sequence variants modify risk for sporadic PD. Previous studies indicate that LRRK2 interacts with microtubules and alters microtubule-mediated vesicular transport processes. However, the molecular determinants within LRRK2 required for such interactions have remained unknown. Here we report that most pathogenic LRRK2 mutants cause relocalization of LRRK2 to filamentous structures which colocalize with a subset of microtubules, and an identical relocalization is seen upon pharmacological LRRK2 kinase inhibition...
April 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453659/udp-glucuronosyltransferase-ugt-2b-subfamily-interspecies-differences-in-carnivores
#19
Takamitsu Kondo, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Yusuke K Kawai, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yoko Mitani, Kei Nomyama, Shinsuke Tanabe, Mayumi Ishizuka
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are among the most important xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes that conjugate a wide range of chemicals. Previous studies showed that Felidae and Pinnipedia species have very low UGT activities toward some phenolic compounds because of the UGT1A6 pseudogene and small numbers of UGT1A isozymes. In addition to the UGT1As, UGT2Bs isozymes also conjugate various endogenous (e.g., estrogens, androgens, and bile acids) and exogenous compounds (opioids, NSAIDs, and environmental pollutants)...
April 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453521/soy-moratorium-impacts-on-soybean-and-deforestation-dynamics-in-mato-grosso-brazil
#20
Jude H Kastens, J Christopher Brown, Alexandre Camargo Coutinho, Christopher R Bishop, Júlio César D M Esquerdo
Previous research has established the usefulness of remotely sensed vegetation index (VI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to characterize the spatial dynamics of agriculture in the state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. With these data it has become possible to track MT agriculture, which accounts for ~85% of Brazilian Amazon soy production, across periods of several years. Annual land cover (LC) maps support investigation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of agriculture as they relate to forest cover and governance and policy efforts to lower deforestation rates...
2017: PloS One
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