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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150979/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-lesions-have-a-greater-impact-than-mammillothalamic-tract-lesions-on-the-extended-hippocampal-system
#1
Brook A L Perry, Stephanie A Mercer, Sophie C Barnett, Jungah Lee, John C Dalrymple-Alford
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), mammillary bodies and their interconnecting fiber tract, the mammillothalamic tract (MTT), are important components of an extended hippocampal circuit for episodic memory. In humans, damage to the MTT or ATN in many disorders is associated with severe anterograde amnesia and it is assumed that their influence on memory is functionally equivalent. The relative influence of these two structures on memory has not, however, been assessed explicitly. Here, a direct comparison found that only ATN lesions impaired spatial reference memory in rats...
November 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150879/modification-of-the-lipid-profile-and-antioxidant-status-of-the-blood-plasma-of-turkey-hens-fed-mixtures-with-raw-or-extruded-linseed
#2
A Czech, K Ognik, M Laszewska, E Cholewińska, A Stępniowska
The aim of the study was to determine the most beneficial proportion of raw linseed in complete feed mixtures for turkey hens on the basis of lipid and redox indicators in the blood. In experiment 1, the turkey hens received the complete mixture with 2%, 4% or 6% linseed. On the basis of the results obtained in experiment 1, we selected the most effective proportion of linseed, which was given to the birds in the group receiving a 4% linseed additive. In experiment 2, the birds were fed mixtures with a 4% addition of raw or extruded linseed...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150808/monitoring-enzymatic-degradation-of-emerging-contaminants-using-a-chip-based-robotic-nano-esi-ms-tool
#3
Lara F Stadlmair, Thomas Letzel, Johanna Graßmann
Up to now, knowledge of enzymes capable of degrading various contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) is limited, which is especially due to the lack of rapid screening methods. Thus, a miniaturized high-throughput setup using a chip-based robotic nanoelectrospray ionization system coupled to mass spectrometry has been developed to rapidly screen enzymatic reactions with environmentally relevant CECs. Three laccases, two tyrosinases, and two peroxidases were studied for their ability to transform ten pharmaceuticals and benzotriazole...
November 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150762/seasonal-influence-on-adherence-to-and-effects-of-an-interval-walking-training-program-on-sedentary-female-college-students-in-japan
#4
Aiko Tanabe, Shizue Masuki, Ken-Ichi Nemoto, Hiroshi Nose
Habitual exercise training is recommended to young people for their health promotion, but adherence may be influenced by atmospheric temperature (T a ) if performed outdoors. We compared the adherence to and the effects of a home-based interval walking training (IWT) program on sedentary female college students between winter and summer. For summer training over 176 days, 48 subjects (18-22 years old) were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CNTsummer, n = 24), which maintained a sedentary lifestyle as before, and the IWT group (IWTsummer, n = 24), which performed IWT while energy expenditure was monitored by accelerometry...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150752/women-s-reproductive-health-in-sociocultural-context
#5
EDITORIAL
Yael Benyamini, Irina Todorova
PURPOSE: The special issue on Women's Reproductive Health in Cultural Context covers multiple dimensions of women's reproductive health and how it might be shaped by cultural meanings, social and gender inequities, and power differentials, employing a variety of methodological approaches. On the one hand, it aims to bring to the forefront the conversation about how women's health is uniquely experienced and constructed in local settings, and on the other hand, it aims to draw broader conclusions from a perspective of interconnectedness of women and the shared issues that they face...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150709/simultaneous-detection-of-nadph-consumption-and-h2o2-production-using-the-ampliflu%C3%A2-red-assay-for-screening-of-p450-activities-and-uncoupling
#6
Lisa K Morlock, Dominique Böttcher, Uwe T Bornscheuer
Cytochrome P450s belong to a large and diverse group of heme-containing enzymes. These monooxygenases catalyze the incorporation of a single atom of molecular oxygen into their substrate. In contrast to most other enzymes, the activity of P450 enzymes is not only dependent on substrate and cofactor availability and reaction conditions, but also depends on the coupling efficiency of the catalytic cycle itself. Through the electron transfer from NAD(P)H to the heme-center of the P450, the enzyme becomes activated and binds oxygen...
November 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150627/high-efficiency-backward-four-wave-mixing-by-quantum-interference
#7
Zi-Yu Liu, Jian-Ting Xiao, Jia-Kang Lin, Jun-Jie Wu, Jz-Yuan Juo, Chin-Yao Cheng, Yong-Fan Chen
Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based four-wave mixing (FWM) in a resonant four-level double-Λ system has a maximum conversion efficiency (CE) of 25% due to spontaneous emission. Herein, we demonstrate that spontaneous emission can be considerably suppressed by arranging the applied laser beams in a backward configuration. With the backward double-Λ FWM scheme, we observe a CE of 63% in cold rubidium atoms with an optical depth (OD) of 48. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of a CE exceeding the conversion limit in resonant FWM processes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150614/spatial-regulation-of-contractility-by-neuralized-and-bearded-during-furrow-invagination-in-drosophila
#8
Gantas Perez-Mockus, Khalil Mazouni, Vanessa Roca, Giulia Corradi, Vito Conte, François Schweisguth
Embryo-scale morphogenesis arises from patterned mechanical forces. During Drosophila gastrulation, actomyosin contractility drives apical constriction in ventral cells, leading to furrow formation and mesoderm invagination. It remains unclear whether and how mechanical properties of the ectoderm influence this process. Here, we show that Neuralized (Neur), an E3 ubiquitin ligase active in the mesoderm, regulates collective apical constriction and furrow formation. Conversely, the Bearded (Brd) proteins antagonize maternal Neur and lower medial-apical contractility in the ectoderm: in Brd-mutant embryos, the ventral furrow invaginates properly but rapidly unfolds as medial MyoII levels increase in the ectoderm...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150502/hyperthermophilic-carbamate-kinase-stability-and-anabolic-in-vitro-activity-at-alkaline-ph
#9
James E Hennessy, Melissa J Latter, Somayeh Fazelinejad, Amy Philbrook, Daniel M Bartkus, Hye-Kyung Kim, Hideki Onagi, John G Oakeshott, Colin Scott, Apostolos Alissandratos, Christopher J Easton
Carbamate kinases catalyze the conversion of carbamate to carbamoyl phosphate, which is readily transformed into other compounds. Carbamate forms spontaneously from ammonia and carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions, so the kinases have potential for sequestrative utilization of the latter compounds. Here, we compare seven carbamate kinases from mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sources. In addition to the known enzymes from Enterococcus faecalis and Pyrococcus furiosus, the previously unreported enzymes from the hyperthermophiles Thermococcus sibiricus and Thermococcus barophilus, the thermophiles Fervidobacterium nodosum and Thermosipho melanesiensis, and the mesophile Clostridium tetani, were all expressed recombinantly, each in high yield...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150499/understanding-functional-roles-of-native-pentose-specific-transporters-for-activating-dormant-pentose-metabolism-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#10
Seunghyun Ryu, Cong T Trinh
Pentoses including xylose and arabinose are the second-most prevalent sugars of lignocellulosic biomass that can be harnessed for biological conversion. Although Yarrowia lipolytica has emerged as a promising industrial microorganism for production of high-value chemicals and biofuels, its native pentose metabolism is poorly understood. Our previous study demonstrated that Y. lipolytica (ATCC MYA-2613) has endogenous enzymes for D-xylose assimilation, but inefficient xylitol dehydrogenase causes Y. lipolytica to assimilate xylose poorly...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150403/the-cortisol-reactivity-threshold-model-direction-of-trait-rumination-and-cortisol-reactivity-association-varies-with-stressor-severity
#11
Suzanne Vrshek-Schallhorn, Bradley M Avery, Maria Ditcheva, Vaibhav R Sapuram
Various internalizing risk factors predict, in separate studies, both augmented and reduced cortisol responding to lab-induced stress. Stressor severity appears key: We tested whether heightened trait-like internalizing risk (here, trait rumination) predicts heightened cortisol reactivity under modest objective stress, but conversely predicts reduced reactivity under more robust objective stress. Thus, we hypothesized that trait rumination would interact with a curvilinear (quadratic) function of stress severity to predict cortisol reactivity...
November 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149758/oligotrophy-as-a-major-driver-of-mercury-bioaccumulation-in-medium-to-high-trophic-level-consumers-a-marine-ecosystem-comparative-study
#12
Tiphaine Chouvelon, Pierre Cresson, Marc Bouchoucha, Christophe Brach-Papa, Paco Bustamante, Sylvette Crochet, Françoise Marco-Miralles, Bastien Thomas, Joël Knoery
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant of environmental concern. Numerous factors influencing its bioaccumulation in marine organisms have already been described at both individual and species levels (e.g., size or age, habitat, trophic level). However, few studies have compared the trophic characteristics of ecosystems to explain underlying mechanisms of differences in Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification among food webs and systems. The present study aimed at investigating the potential primary role of the trophic status of systems on Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification in temperate marine food webs, as shown by their medium-to high-trophic level consumers...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149742/stability-of-heavy-metals-in-soil-washing-residue-with-and-without-biochar-addition-under-accelerated-ageing
#13
Zhengtao Shen, Deyi Hou, Bin Zhao, Wendi Xu, Yong Sik Ok, Nanthi S Bolan, Daniel S Alessi
Soil washing residue (SWR), which typically concentrates the washed toxic metals and is comprised of high contents of clay particles, may pose risks to the surrounding environment. This study aims to simulate accelerated ageing to assess the stability of selected metals (Cd(2+) (132mg/kg), Cu(2+) (248mg/kg) and Pb(2+) (3470mg/kg)) in a SWR (89.68% of clay) with and without biochar treatment. The soil was incubated under constant moisture and wet-dry cycles (accelerated ageing), respectively, and the mobility and fractions of heavy metals in the soils with and without biochar treatment were examined...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149725/a-method-for-the-design-of-ultrasonic-devices-for-scanning-acoustic-microscopy-using-impulsive-signals
#14
Mototaka Arakawa, Hiroshi Kanai, Kazuo Ishikawa, Ryo Nagaoka, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshifumi Saijo
Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) using impulsive signals is useful for characterization of biological tissues and cells. The operating center frequency of an ultrasonic device strongly depends on the performance characteristics of the device if the measurement is conducted by using impulsive signals. In this paper, a method for the design of ultrasonic devices for SAM using impulsive signals was developed. A new plane-wave model was introduced to calculate frequency characteristics of loss of ultrasonic devices by taking into account the conversion loss at the ultrasonic transducer, the transmission loss at the acoustic anti-reflection coating, and the propagation loss in the couplant...
November 2, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149683/online-sexual-solicitation-by-adults-and-peers-results-from-a-population-based-german-sample
#15
Halina Sklenarova, Anja Schulz, Petya Schuhmann, Michael Osterheider, Janina Neutze
Prevalence of Internet use among adolescents is high, but little is known about the online sexual activities of German adolescents. This study aimed to describe the 12-month prevalence of German adolescents' online sexual experiences with a focus on Online Sexual Solicitation (OSS, subjectively negative online sexual experiences with a peer or any sexual online experience, positive or negative, with an adult). A sample of male and female adolescents aged 14-17 (N=2238) was recruited using online survey panel...
November 14, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149662/in-ovo-transformation-of-two-emerging-flame-retardants-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica
#16
Nathalie Briels, Mari E Løseth, Tomasz M Ciesielski, Govindan Malarvannan, Giulia Poma, Sara A Kjærvik, Alexis Léon, Ronan Cariou, Adrian Covaci, Veerle L B Jaspers
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) are two chlorinated, alternative flame retardants that have been found in wild birds and bird eggs. Little is known about the fate and effect of these compounds in birds, especially during the vulnerable stages of embryonic development. To investigate the ability of birds to biotransform these compounds, an in ovo exposure experiment with Japanese quail eggs was performed. Quail eggs were injected in the yolk sac with 1000ng/g egg of TDCIPP (2...
November 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149594/conversion-of-bim-bh3-from-activator-to-inhibitor-of-bak-through-structure-based-design
#17
Jason M Brouwer, Ping Lan, Angus D Cowan, Jonathan P Bernardini, Richard W Birkinshaw, Mark F van Delft, Brad E Sleebs, Adeline Y Robin, Ahmad Wardak, Iris K Tan, Boris Reljic, Erinna F Lee, W Douglas Fairlie, Melissa J Call, Brian J Smith, Grant Dewson, Guillaume Lessene, Peter M Colman, Peter E Czabotar
Certain BH3-only proteins transiently bind and activate Bak and Bax, initiating their oligomerization and the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane, a pivotal step in the mitochondrial pathway to apoptosis. Here we describe the first crystal structures of an activator BH3 peptide bound to Bak and illustrate their use in the design of BH3 derivatives capable of inhibiting human Bak on mitochondria. These BH3 derivatives compete for the activation site at the canonical groove, are the first engineered inhibitors of Bak activation, and support the role of key conformational transitions associated with Bak activation...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149460/the-impact-of-a-prolonged-stay-in-the-icu-on-patients-fundamental-care-needs
#18
Claire Minton, Lesley Batten, Annette Huntington
AIM: To explore patients', families', and health professionals' experiences of a long-stay patient in an intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: The fast-paced technologically driven intensive care unit environment, designed for a short patient stay, supports the provision of complex physiologically-focused care for those with life-threatening illnesses. Long stay patients with pronounced fundamental care needs fall outside predicted patient pathways, and nurses can find caring for these patients challenging...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149427/the-impact-of-the-national-bowel-screening-program-in-the-netherlands-on-detection-and-treatment-of-endoscopically-unresectable-benign-polyps
#19
C C M Marres, C J Buskens, E Schriever, P C M Verbeek, M W Mundt, W A Bemelman, A W H van de Ven
BACKGROUND: In January 2014, a national bowel cancer screening program started in the Netherlands. The program is being implemented in phases until 2019. Due to this program, an increase in patients referred for a colorectal resection for benign, but endoscopically unresectable polyps, is expected. So far, most resections are performed according to oncological principles despite no pre-operative histological diagnosis of malignancy. The aim of this study was to analyze the increase in referred patients during the first year of the screening program and to compare pathological results and clinical outcome of resections of patients undergoing resection for benign polyps before and after implementation of screening...
November 17, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149320/organic-scintillator-for-real-time-neutron-dosimetry
#20
Kyle A Beyer, Angela Di Fulvio, Liliana Stolarczyk, Wiktor Parol, Natalia Mojzeszek, Renata Kopéc, Shaun D Clarke, Sara A Pozzi
We developed a radiation detector based on an organic scintillator for spectrometry and dosimetry of out-of-field secondary neutrons from clinical proton beams. The detector consists of an EJ-299-34 crystalline organic scintillator, coupled by fiber optic cable to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Proof of concept measurements were taken with 137Cs and 252Cf, and corresponding simulations were performed in MCNPX-PoliMi. Despite its small size, the detector is able to discriminate between neutron and gamma-rays via pulse shape discrimination...
November 15, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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