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placental cytokines in human pregnancy

C K Hughes, M M Xie, S R McCoski, A D Ealy
Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h...
September 13, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Judit Bassols, Matteo Serino, Gemma Carreras-Badosa, Rémy Burcelin, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Abel Lopez-Bermejo, José-Manuel Fernandez-Real
BACKGROUND: The human microbiota is a modulator of the immune system. Variations in the placental microbiota could be related with pregnancy disorders. We profiled the placental microbiota and microbiome in women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and studied its relation to maternal metabolism and placental expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: Placental microbiota and microbiome and expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10, TIMP3, ITGAX, and MRC1MR) were analyzed in placentas from women with GDM and from control women...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Iman Hassan, Anjana M Kumar, Hae-Ryung Park, Lawrence H Lash, Rita Loch-Caruso
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental pollutant associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in humans. TCE intoxication is primarily through its biotransformation to bioactive metabolites, including S-(1, 2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC). TCE induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver and kidney. Although the placenta is capable of xenobiotic metabolism, and oxidative stress and inflammation in placenta have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, TCE toxicity in the placenta remains poorly understood...
August 3, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Ankur Sharma, Solomon Conteh, Jean Langhorne, Patrick E Duffy
Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups...
2016: PloS One
Lara Lehtoranta, Olli Vuolteenaho, Jukka Laine, Lauri Polari, Eeva Ekholm, Juha Räsänen
INTRODUCTION: Human type 1 diabetic pregnancy is associated with placental structural and hemodynamic abnormalities. We hypothesized that in rat fetuses of hyperglycemic dams, placental and fetal blood flow velocity waveforms demonstrate compromised hemodynamics when compared to control fetuses, and these hemodynamic parameters correlate with placental structural abnormalities at near term gestation. METHODS: Streptozotocin-induced maternal hyperglycemia group comprised 10 dams with 107 fetuses and the control group 20 dams with 219 fetuses...
August 2016: Placenta
Koumei Shirasuna, Hiroki Takano, Kotomi Seno, Ayaka Ohtsu, Tadayoshi Karasawa, Masafumi Takahashi, Akihide Ohkuchi, Hirotada Suzuki, Shigeki Matsubara, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama
Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals...
August 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
G J Burton, H W Yung, A J Murray
Placental stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of complications of pregnancy, including growth restriction and pre-eclampsia. Initially, attention focused on oxidative stress, but recently mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress have been identified. Complex molecular interactions exist among these different forms of stress, making it unlikely that any occurs in isolation. In part, this is due to close physiological connections between the two organelles principally involved, mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mediated through Ca(2+) signalling...
April 4, 2016: Placenta
Jayasri Basu, Enyonam Agamasu, Bolek Bendek, Carolyn M Salafia, Aruna Mishra, Nerys Benfield, Priya Prasad, Magdy Mikhail
OBJECTIVE: Placental tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cell signaling protein. During pregnancy, TNF-α induces synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which allows cytotrophoblasts to reach the spiral arteries deeper within the uterine decidua. TNF-α also augments apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells surrounding these arteries. In this study, chorionic villi TNF-α protein expression throughout normal human gestation were investigated. METHODS: Placental chorionic villi tissues obtained from elective surgical terminations of pregnancy and from uncomplicated term births were assayed using EIA kits (Cayman Chemicals, Ann Arbor, MI, Item # 589201)...
December 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Komal Kedia, Stephen F Smith, Andrew H Wright, Justin M Barnes, H Dennis Tolley, M Sean Esplin, Steven W Graves
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal death. Its cause is still debated but there is general agreement that the placenta plays a central role. Perhaps the most commonly proposed contributors to PE include placental hypoxia, oxidative stress, and increased proinflammatory cytokines. How the placenta responds to these abnormalities has been considered but not as part of a comprehensive analysis of low-molecular-weight biomolecules and their responses to these accepted PE conditions...
August 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Frederick Schatz, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Sefa Arlier, Umit A Kayisli, Charles J Lockwood
BACKGROUND: Human pregnancy requires robust hemostasis to prevent hemorrhage during extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion of the decidualized endometrium, modification of spiral arteries and post-partum processes. However, decidual hemorrhage (abruption) can occur throughout pregnancy from poorly transformed spiral arteries, causing fetal death or spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), or it can promote the aberrant placentation observed in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia; all leading causes of perinatal or maternal morbidity and mortality...
June 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Karen Racicot, Ja Young Kwon, Paulomi Aldo, Vikki Abrahams, Ayman El-Guindy, Roberto Romero, Gil Mor
PROBLEM: Preterm birth (PTB) affects approximately 12% of pregnancies and at least 50% of cases have no known risk factors. We hypothesize that subclinical viral infections of the placenta are a factor sensitizing women to intrauterine bacterial infection. Specifically, we propose that viral-induced placental IFN-β inhibition results in a robust inflammatory response to low concentrations of bacteria. METHODS: Human trophoblast SW.71, C57BL/6, and interferon (IFN) receptor knockout animals were used to determine IFN function...
April 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Lei-Lei Wang, Yang Yu, Hong-Bo Guan, Chong Qiao
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (HU-MSC) transplantation on reversing preeclampsia (PE) symptoms in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat PE model. METHODS: Human umbilical cord MSCs were detected, isolated, and cultured. Human umbilical cord MSC transplantation was conducted. Expressions of inflammatory cytokines in serum and placental tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Changes in inflammatory cytokines, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), laminin receptor 1 (LR1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP-9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in placental tissue were recorded by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
August 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Lei Zhao, Qianqian Shao, Yun Zhang, Lin Zhang, Ying He, Lijie Wang, Beihua Kong, Xun Qu
Maternal immune adaptation is required for a successful pregnancy to avoid rejection of the fetal-placental unit. Dendritic cells within the decidual microenvironment lock in a tolerogenic profile. However, how these tolerogenic DCs are induced and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that human extravillous trophoblasts redirect the monocyte-to-DC transition and induce regulatory dendritic cells. DCs differentiated from blood monocytes in the presence of human extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo displayed a DC-SIGN(+)CD14(+)CD1a(-) phenotype, similar with decidual DCs...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jinghua Zhou, Jianyun Zhang, Feixue Li, Jing Liu
Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8)...
May 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Gendie E Lash, Hedele Pitman, Hannah L Morgan, Barbara A Innes, Chinedu N Agwu, Judith N Bulmer
Successful remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries is essential for a complication-free pregnancy and is best described in terms of its morphologic features. The molecular mediators and cellular sources of spiral artery remodeling are not known, although a role for uterine leukocytes has been proposed. Immunohistochemical assessment of placental bed biopsies demonstrated uterine NK cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes in the wall and adventitia of spiral arteries at different stages of remodeling, regardless of the presence of extravillous trophoblast cells...
August 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Elif Kervancioglu Demirci, Lois A Salamonsen, Martin Gauster
Embryo implantation and subsequent placentation require a fine balanced fetal-maternal cross-talk of hormones, cytokines and chemokines. Amongst the group of chemokines, CX3CL1 (also known as fractalkine) has recently attracted attention in the field of reproductive research. It exists both as membrane-bound and soluble isoforms. On the basis of current experimental evidence, fractalkine is suggested to regulate adhesion and migration processes in fetal-maternal interaction at different stages of human pregnancy...
March 3, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Leena Kadam, Chandni Jain, D Randall Armant, Sascha Drewlo
The proper establishment and organogenesis of the placenta is crucial for intrauterine fetal growth and development. Endometrial invasion by the extravillous trophoblast cells, as well as formation of the syncytiotrophoblast (STB), are of vital importance for placental function. Trophoblast migration and invasion is often compared to tumor metastasis, which uses many of the same molecular mechanisms. However, unlike cancer cells, both initiation and the extent of trophoblast invasion are tightly regulated by feto-maternal cross-talk, which when perturbed, results in a wide range of abnormalities...
March 3, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Caterina Licini, Giovanni Tossetta, Chiara Avellini, Pasquapina Ciarmela, Teresa Lorenzi, Paolo Toti, Rosaria Gesuita, Chiara Voltolini, Felice Petraglia, Mario Castellucci, Daniela Marzioni
Chorioamnionitis is an acute inflammatory reaction associated with the premature rupture of the fetal membranes. It is caused mainly by invasion of bacteria from the vaginal tract that can penetrate the intact membranes and invade the amnion cavity and the decidua. Tight junctions (TJs) and adherent junctions (AJs) are intercellular junctions crucial for epithelia adhesion and permeability regulation in a wide variety of tissues and organs. Our aim is to investigate if TJ and AJ molecules are involved in human chorioamnionitis...
July 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Natascha Köstlin, Kathrin Hofstädter, Anna-Lena Ostermeir, Bärbel Spring, Anja Leiber, Susanne Haen, Harald Abele, Peter Bauer, Jürgen Pollheimer, Dominik Hartl, Christian F Poets, Christian Gille
Tolerance induction toward the semiallogeneic fetus is crucial to enable a successful pregnancy; its failure is associated with abortion or preterm delivery. Skewing T cell differentiation toward a Th2-dominated phenotype seems to be pivotal in maternal immune adaption, yet underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are innate immune cells that mediate T cell suppression and are increased in cord blood of healthy newborns and in peripheral blood of pregnant women...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Kristen L Alexander, Camilo A Mejia, Clinton Jordan, Michael B Nelson, Brian M Howell, Cameron M Jones, Paul R Reynolds, Juan A Arroyo
PROBLEM: Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a receptor implicated in the modulation of inflammation. Inflammation has been associated with pregnancy pathologies including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our objective was to examine placental RAGE expression in PE, IUGR, and GDM complications. METHOD OF STUDY: Human placental tissues were obtained for RAGE determination using Q-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot...
February 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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