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placental cytokines in human pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30154799/human-innate-lymphoid-cells-their-functional-and-cellular-interactions-in-decidua
#1
REVIEW
Paola Vacca, Chiara Vitale, Enrico Munari, Marco Antonio Cassatella, Maria Cristina Mingari, Lorenzo Moretta
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are developmentally related cell subsets that play a major role in innate defenses against pathogens, in lymphoid organogenesis and in tissue remodeling. The best characterized ILC are natural killer (NK) cells. They are detectable in decidua in the early phases of pregnancy. During the first trimester, NK cells represent up to 50% of decidua lymphocytes. Differently from peripheral blood (PB) NK cells, decidual NK (dNK) cells are poorly cytolytic, and, instead of IFNγ, they release cytokines/chemokines that induce neo-angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and placentation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114628/hyperglycemia-induces-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-human-chorionic-villous
#2
Simone Corrêa-Silva, Aline P Alencar, Jusciele B Moreli, Alexandre U Borbely, Larissa de S Lima, Cristóforo Scavone, Débora C Damasceno, Marilza V C Rudge, Estela Bevilacqua, Iracema M P Calderon
This study was based on the hypothesis that IL-1β and its central regulator, the inflammasome, may play a role in the inflammatory condition exhibited by placental tissues from mothers with different gestational hyperglycemia levels. Pregnant women were classified according to the glycemic reference as non-diabetic (n = 15), mild gestational hyperglycemia (n = 15), gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 15) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 15). We investigated levels of pro-inflammatory factors in maternal plasma and placental tissues (by ELISA or immunohistochemistry) and, NFKB activity (by electrophoretic mobility shift assay) and inflammasome protein expression (by Western blot) in chorionic villous...
August 13, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051151/phosphodiesterase-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-preeclampsia-what-is-new
#3
REVIEW
Anne Brandolt Larré, Fernando Sontag, Débora Montenegro Pasin, Nathália Paludo, Rayssa Ruszkowski do Amaral, Bartira Ercília Pinheiro da Costa, Carlos Eduardo Poli-de-Figueiredo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present study intends to review the possibility of using phosphodiesterase inhibitors as a treatment option for preeclampsia, addressing potential risks and benefits. RECENT FINDINGS: Preeclampsia is the most common hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, often responsible for severe maternal and fetal complications, which can lead to early pregnancy termination and death. Despite the numerous studies, its pathophysiology is still unclear, although it seems to involve a multiplicity of complex factors related to angiogenesis, ineffective vasodilation, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction...
July 26, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996695/alteration-in-uterine-protease-activated-receptor-2-expression-in-preterm-birth-induced-experimentally-in-brp-39-null-mutant-mice
#4
Ja Yun Jang, Yi Seul Kim, Yu Mi Han, So Young Kang, Jung-Sun Kim
Breast regression protein 39 (Brp-39) is a mouse homolog of human Chitinase 3-like 1, which belongs to the 18-glycosyl-hydrolase family and plays a role in inflammatory reaction and tissue remodeling. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Brp-39 in a mouse model of preterm birth. Pregnant wild-type (WT) or Brp-39(-/-) mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at embryonic day 15. Pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for 24 hours after LPS injection. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were performed to analyze messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of cytokines and contraction-associated proteins in uterine and/or placental tissue after LPS injection...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988451/association-of-interleukin-10-methylation-levels-with-gestational-diabetes-in-a-taiwanese-population
#5
Jessica Kang, Chien-Nan Lee, Hung-Yuan Li, Kai-Han Hsu, Shu-Huei Wang, Shin-Yu Lin
Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy, which is also associated with future metabolic diseases in both patients and their offspring. The mechanisms underlying this condition remain largely unknown and may be partly related to epigenetics. The aim of this study was to compare the methylation levels of the cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in pregnant women and their fetuses under both hyperglycemic and euglycemic environments, as those levels may be a clue to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of GDM...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973353/adiponectin-regulates-glycogen-metabolism-at-the-human-fetal-maternal-interface
#6
Fabien Duval, Esther Dos Santos, Benoit Maury, Valérie Serazin, Khadija Fathallah, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
Throughout the entire first trimester of pregnancy, fetal growth is sustained by endometrial secretions, i.e histiotrophic nutrition. Endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) accumulate and secrete a variety of nutritive molecules which are absorbed by trophoblastic cells and transmitted to the fetus. Glycogen appears to have a critical role in the early stages of fetal development, since infertile women have low endometrial glycogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glycogen metabolism and trafficking at the fetal-maternal interface have not yet been characterized...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956865/macrophages-are-a-source-of-il-17-in-the-human-placenta
#7
Oleg Pavlov, Aleksandr Selutin, Oksana Pavlova, Sergei Selkov
PROBLEM: To determine if placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells) can synthesize and secrete cytokines of the IL-17 family throughout pregnancy and to reveal the patterns of cytokine expression in early and late gestation. METHODS OF STUDY: Macrophages were isolated from the first-trimester and term placental villous tissues from normal pregnancies. Basal and stimulated intracellular production of IL-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F as well as IL-17A secretion was quantified by flow cytometry and cytometric bead array, respectively...
June 29, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748248/bromodomain-protein-brd4-is-increased-in-human-placentas-from-women-with-early-onset-preeclampsia
#8
Stella Liong, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
Preeclampsia affects 5% of all pregnancies and is a serious disorder of pregnancy, characterised by high maternal blood pressure, placental hypoxia, fluid retention (oedema) and proteinuria. Women with preeclampsia are associated with exaggerated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1). Studies in non-gestational tissues have described the bromodomain (BRD) and extraterminal family of proteins, in particular BRD4 to play a critical role in propagating inflammation and is currently a therapeutic target for treating cancer, lung inflammation and asthma...
June 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717225/experimental-zika-virus-infection-in-the-pregnant-common-marmoset-induces-spontaneous-fetal-loss-and-neurodevelopmental-abnormalities
#9
Maxim Seferovic, Claudia Sánchez-San Martín, Suzette D Tardif, Julienne Rutherford, Eumenia C C Castro, Tony Li, Vida L Hodara, Laura M Parodi, Luis Giavedoni, Donna Layne-Colon, Manasi Tamhankar, Shigeo Yagi, Calla Martyn, Kevin Reyes, Melissa A Suter, Kjersti M Aagaard, Charles Y Chiu, Jean L Patterson
During its most recent outbreak across the Americas, Zika virus (ZIKV) was surprisingly shown to cause fetal loss and congenital malformations in acutely and chronically infected pregnant women. However, understanding the underlying pathogenesis of ZIKV congenital disease has been hampered by a lack of relevant in vivo experimental models. Here we present a candidate New World monkey model of ZIKV infection in pregnant marmosets that faithfully recapitulates human disease. ZIKV inoculation at the human-equivalent of early gestation caused an asymptomatic seroconversion, induction of type I/II interferon-associated genes and proinflammatory cytokines, and persistent viremia and viruria...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579271/interleukin-34-is-present-at-the-fetal-maternal-interface-and-induces-immunoregulatory-macrophages-of-a-decidual-phenotype-in-vitro
#10
R Lindau, R B Mehta, G E Lash, G Papapavlou, R Boij, G Berg, M C Jenmalm, J Ernerudh, J Svensson-Arvelund
STUDY QUESTION: Is the newly discovered cytokine interleukin (IL)-34 expressed at the human fetal-maternal interface in order to influence polarization of monocytes into macrophages of a decidual immunoregulatory phenotype? SUMMARY ANSWER: IL-34 was found to be present at the fetal-maternal interface, in both fetal placenta and maternal decidua, and it was able to polarize monocytes into macrophages of a decidual phenotype. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: IL-34 was shown to bind to the same receptor as macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), which has an important immunomodulatory role at the fetal-maternal interface, for example by polarizing decidual macrophages to an M2-like regulatory phenotype...
April 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236553/progesterone-suppresses-the-lipopolysaccharide-induced-pro-inflammatory-response-in-primary-mononuclear-cells-isolated-from-human-placental-blood
#11
E Preciado-Martínez, G García-Ruíz, P Flores-Espinosa, L Bermejo-Martínez, A Espejel-Nuñez, G Estrada-Gutiérrez, G Razo-Aguilera, M Granados-Cepeda, A C Helguera-Repetto, C Irles, V Zaga-Clavellina
Progesterone is an essential hormone that induces deep immune adaptations favoring pregnancy maintenance. We aimed at evaluating the effects of progesterone on the synthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by mononuclear cells isolated from human placental blood stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, emulating an infection-inflammation environment. Mononuclear cells isolated form human placental blood were obtained from nine women undergoing elective cesarean delivery at term (not in labor), isolated by density gradient sedimentation, cultured and co-stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (500 ng/ml) from Escherichia coli in the presence or not of progesterone (0...
February 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160594/leptin-action-in-normal-and-pathological-pregnancies
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Ayelén Toro, Teresa Vilariño-García, Julieta Maymó, Pilar Guadix, José L Dueñas, Manuel Fernández-Sánchez, Cecilia Varone, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet
Leptin is now considered an important signalling molecule of the reproductive system, as it regulates the production of gonadotrophins, the blastocyst formation and implantation, the normal placentation, as well as the foeto-placental communication. Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted mainly by adipose tissue, and the placenta is the second leptin-producing tissue in humans. Placental leptin is an important cytokine which regulates placental functions in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Leptin seems to play a crucial role during the first stages of pregnancy as it modulates critical processes such as proliferation, protein synthesis, invasion and apoptosis in placental cells...
February 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070722/a-pronounced-uterine-pro-inflammatory-response-at-parturition-is-an-ancient-feature-in-mammals
#13
Victoria L Hansen, Lauren S Faber, Ali A Salehpoor, Robert D Miller
Regulating maternal immunity is necessary for successful human pregnancy. Whether this is needed in mammals with less invasive placentation is subject to debate. Indeed, the short gestation times in marsupials have been hypothesized to be due to a lack of immune regulation during pregnancy. Alternatively, the maternal marsupial immune system may be unstimulated in the absence of a highly invasive placenta. Transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines were found to be overrepresented in the whole uterine transcriptome at terminal pregnancy in the opossum, Monodelphis domestica To investigate this further, immune gene transcripts were quantified throughout opossum gestation...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056235/maternal-effector-t-cells-within-decidua-the-adaptive-immune-response-to-pregnancy
#14
REVIEW
D Lissauer, M D Kilby, P Moss
In human pregnancy the maternal immune system plays a critical role in the regulation of many aspects of human reproduction including implantation, placentation and defence against infection. Interest has been focussed on the role of uterine natural killer cells (uNK) in the maternal decidua whereas effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have received much less attention despite the observation that they represent a major proportion of decidual leucocytes in the latter phase of pregnancy. A range of recent studies have demonstrated that human decidual T cells are highly differentiated, express a range of cytokines and cytotoxic markers, and demonstrate a unique transcriptional profile characterized by high level expression of genes involved in interferon-signalling...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021781/cross-talk-between-adipose-tissue-and-placenta-in-obese-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-pregnancies-via-exosomes
#15
REVIEW
Nanthini Jayabalan, Soumyalekshmi Nair, Zarin Nuzhat, Gregory E Rice, Felipe A Zuñiga, Luis Sobrevia, Andrea Leiva, Carlos Sanhueza, Jaime Agustín Gutiérrez, Martha Lappas, Dilys Jane Freeman, Carlos Salomon
Obesity is an important public health issue worldwide, where it is commonly associated with the development of metabolic disorders, especially insulin resistance (IR). Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Metabolism is a vital process for energy production and the maintenance of essential cellular functions. Excess energy storage is predominantly regulated by the adipose tissue. Primarily made up of adipocytes, adipose tissue acts as the body's major energy reservoir...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994813/a-primary-human-trophoblast-model-to-study-the-effect-of-inflammation-associated-with-maternal-obesity-on-regulation-of-autophagy-in-the-placenta
#16
Bailey Simon, Matthew Bucher, Alina Maloyan
Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes that are likely mediated by compromised placental function that can be attributed to, in part, the dysregulation of autophagy. Aberrant changes in the expression of autophagy regulators in the placentas from obese pregnancies may be regulated by inflammatory processes associated with both obesity and pregnancy. Described here is a protocol for sampling of villous tissue and isolation of villous cytotrophoblasts from the term human placenta for primary cell culture...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962697/pentoxifylline-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-mediators-in-human-second-trimester-placenta-explants
#17
Esther M Speer, Xinhua Lin, Amitasrigowri Murthy, Wei Hou, Shahidul Islam, Nazeeh Hanna
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection and inflammation during pregnancy, which leads to up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin synthesis, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm delivery and other pregnancy complications. Effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to reduce these outcomes are lacking to date. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor which raises intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate and decreases production of pro-inflammatory mediators while enhancing anti-inflammatory cytokines...
October 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947613/activating-transcription-factor-3-is-reduced-in-preeclamptic-placentas-and-negatively-regulates-sflt-1-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-soluble-endoglin-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-placenta
#18
Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Fiona C Brownfoot, Roxanne Hastie, Ashwini Chand, Ping Cannon, Minh Deo, Laura Tuohey, Clare Whitehead, Natalie J Hannan, Stephen Tong
Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication associated with poor placental perfusion and placental hypoxia. Systemic and placental inflammation and elevated placental secretion of the antiangiogenic factors sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1) and sEng (soluble endoglin) are hallmarks of preeclampsia, causing endothelial dysfunction and multiorgan injury. A molecule that links placental hypoxia, inflammation, and antiangiogenic factor release has not been described. ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3) is highly expressed in placenta...
November 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938125/selective-immuno-modulatory-effect-of-prolactin-upon-pro-inflammatory-response-in-human-fetal-membranes
#19
Pilar Flores-Espinosa, Eduardo Preciado-Martínez, Araceli Mejía-Salvador, Gabriela Sedano-González, Luisa Bermejo-Martínez, Adalberto Parra-Covarruvias, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo Vega-Sánchez, Isabel Méndez, Braulio Quesada-Reyna, Andrea Olmos-Ortiz, Veronica Zaga-Clavellina
During pregnancy, prolactin (PRL) is a neuro-immuno-cytokine that contributes actively to the crosstalk between the immune and endocrine systems and, thus, to the creation of an immune-privileged milieu. This work aims to analyze the capacity of PRL to modulate the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory markers associated with labor. Studies were conducted using human fetal membranes at term mounted in a model of two independent chambers. The choriodecidual region was stimulated with 500-ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the amnion and choriodecidual region were co-simulated with different concentrations of PRL that can arise during pregnancy: 250, 500, 1000, and 4000ng/mL...
September 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635072/plgf-enhances-tlr-dependent-inflammatory-responses-in-human-mononuclear-phagocytes
#20
Laura F Newell, Shernan G Holtan, Jane E Yates, Leonardo Pereira, Jeffrey W Tyner, Irina Burd, Grover C Bagby
PROBLEM: Levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) peak during third trimester of pregnancy, a time when women are at increased risk of virus-induced morbidity. We hypothesized PlGF might contribute to an exaggerated inflammatory response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. METHOD OF STUDY: Primary human adult and cord blood CD14+ cells were cultured in the presence of TLR ligands and/or PlGF. RESULTS: PlGF significantly enhanced the magnitude and duration of TNF messenger RNA and protein production by TLR-7/8-activated monocytes, and increased subsequent production of TNF-independent inflammatory cytokines...
October 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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