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placental cytokines in human pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161055/maternal-type-1-diabetes-activates-stress-response-in-early-placenta
#1
Martin Gauster, Alejandro Majali-Martinez, Sabine Maninger, Elisabeth Gutschi, Patrick H Greimel, Marina Ivanisevic, Josip Djelmis, Gernot Desoye, Ursula Hiden
INTRODUCTION: Human pregnancy and in particular the first trimester, is a period highly susceptible towards adverse insults such as oxidative stress, which may lead to inadequate embryonic and feto-placental development. Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammatory signals. In pregnancy, diabetes elevates the risk for early pregnancy loss, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, pathologies that origin from early placental maldevelopment...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115513/proton-pump-inhibitors-decrease-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-and-soluble-endoglin-secretion-decrease-hypertension-and-rescue-endothelial-dysfunction
#2
Kenji Onda, Stephen Tong, Sally Beard, Natalie Binder, Masanaga Muto, Sevvandi N Senadheera, Laura Parry, Mark Dilworth, Lewis Renshall, Fiona Brownfoot, Roxanne Hastie, Laura Tuohey, Kirsten Palmer, Toshihiko Hirano, Masahito Ikawa, Tu'uhevaha Kaitu'u-Lino, Natalie J Hannan
Preeclampsia is a severe complication of pregnancy. Antiangiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin are secreted in excess from the placenta, causing hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and multiorgan injury. Oxidative stress and vascular inflammation exacerbate the endothelial injury. A drug that can block these pathophysiological steps would be an attractive treatment option. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are safe in pregnancy where they are prescribed for gastric reflux...
March 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097431/placental-dapk1-and-autophagy-marker-lc3b-ii-are-dysregulated-by-tnf-%C3%AE-in-a-gestational-age-dependent-manner
#3
Andreas Prokesch, Astrid Blaschitz, Tamara Bauer, Gerit Moser, Ursula Hiden, Julianna Zadora, Ralf Dechend, Florian Herse, Martin Gauster
Autophagy, a cell-survival process responsible for degradation of protein aggregates and damaged organelles, is increasingly recognized as another mechanism essential for human placentation. A substantial body of experiments suggests inflammation and oxidative stress as the underlying stimuli for altered placental autophagy, giving rise to placenta dysfunction and pregnancy pathologies. Here, the hypothesis is tested whether or not pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are able to influence the expression profile of autophagy genes in human first-trimester villous placenta...
January 17, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956621/expression-of-kir2ds1-by-decidual-natural-killer-cells-increases-their-ability-to-control-placental-hcmv-infection
#4
Ângela C Crespo, Jack L Strominger, Tamara Tilburgs
The combination of the activating killer cell Ig-like receptor 2DS1 (KIR2DS1) expressed by maternal decidual natural killer cells (dNK) and the presence of its ligand, the HLA-C allotype HLA-C2, expressed by fetal trophoblasts, reduces the risk of developing pregnancy complications. However, no molecular or cellular mechanism explains this genetic correlation. Here we demonstrate that KIR2DS1+ dNK acquired higher cytotoxic function than KIR2DS1- dNK when exposed to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected decidual stromal cells (DSC), particularly when DSCs express HLA-C2...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939894/review-fetal-maternal-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-implications-for-complications-of-pregnancies
#5
REVIEW
Stefanie Adam, Omar Elfeky, Vyjayanthi Kinhal, Suchismita Dutta, Andrew Lai, Nanthini Jayabalan, Zarin Nuzhat, Carlos Palma, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
The maternal physiology experiences numerous changes during pregnancy which are essential in controlling and maintaining maternal metabolic adaptations and fetal development. The human placenta is an organ that serves as the primary interface between the maternal and fetal circulation, thereby supplying the fetus with nutrients, blood and oxygen through the umbilical cord. During gestation, the placenta continuously releases several molecules into maternal circulation, including hormones, proteins, RNA and DNA...
December 5, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932441/trophoblast-cells-inhibit-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-and-enhance-apoptosis-through-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-mediated-pathways
#6
Guillermina Calo, Florencia Sabbione, Daiana Vota, Daniel Paparini, Rosanna Ramhorst, Analía Trevani, Claudia Pérez Leirós
STUDY QUESTION: Do human trophoblast cells modulate neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and neutrophil apoptosis through mechanisms involving vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Trophoblast cells inhibited NET formation and ROS synthesis and enhanced neutrophil apoptosis through VIP-mediated pathways in a model of maternal-placental interaction. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Immune homeostasis maintenance at the maternal-placental interface is mostly coordinated by trophoblast cells...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871471/endocan-expression-is-increased-in-the-placenta-from-obese-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Padma Murthi, Ramona Sarkis, Ratana Lim, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, Anita Pratt, Stella Liong, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Endocan, a member of the proteoglycan family, is involved in a wide range of diseases including obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of (i) maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on placental endocan expression; and (ii) endocan knockdown on markers of inflammation. METHODS: Endocan mRNA and protein expression was determined in human placenta from (i) lean and obese and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) pregnant women (n = 10 patients per group); and (ii) women with GDM and BMI-matched NGT women (n = 40 patients per group)...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871461/nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-nfat-regulates-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-secretion-sflt-1-from-human-placenta
#8
Louie Ye, Amy Gratton, Natalie J Hannan, Ping Cannon, Minh Deo, Kirsten R Palmer, Stephen Tong, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Fiona C Brownfoot
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia is a serious complication affecting 5-8% of pregnancies. Central to its pathogenesis is placental hypoxia and inflammation which leads to secretion of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1). sFlt-1 causes widespread endothelial dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms regulating sFlt-1 production remain poorly understood. Recently, a binding site for the nuclear factor activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor has been found on fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT-1) promoter...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806983/the-protective-effect-of-apolipoprotein-in-models-of-trophoblast-invasion-and-preeclampsia
#9
Francesca Charlton, Gabriele Bobek, Tim Stait-Gardner, William S Price, Katrina M Mirabito Colafella, Bei Xu, Angela Makris, Kerry-Anne Rye, Annemarie Hennessy
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. It is associated with abnormal placentation via poor placental invasion of the uterine vasculature by trophoblast cells, leading to poor placental perfusion, oxidative stress, and inflammation, all of which are implicated in its pathogenesis. A dyslipidemia characterized by low plasma levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and elevated triglycerides has been described in preeclampsia. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), a constituent of HDL is an anti-inflammatory agent...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760748/the-local-and-systemic-immune-response-to-intrauterine-lps-in-the-prepartum-mouse
#10
Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Bronwen R Herbert, Renyi Hua, Simon N Waddington, David A MacIntyre, Philip R Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
Inflammation plays a key role in human term and preterm labor (PTL). Intrauterine LPS has been widely used to model inflammation-induced complications of pregnancy, including PTL. It has been shown to induce an intense myometrial inflammatory cell infiltration, but the role of LPS-induced inflammatory cell activation in labor onset and fetal demise is unclear. We investigated this using a mouse model of PTL, where an intrauterine injection of 10 μg of LPS (serotype 0111:B4) was given at E16 of CD1 mouse pregnancy...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743526/activities-for-leptin-in-bovine-trophoblast-cells
#11
C K Hughes, M M Xie, S R McCoski, A D Ealy
Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490741/gestational-diabetes-is-associated-with-changes-in-placental-microbiota-and-microbiome
#12
Judit Bassols, Matteo Serino, Gemma Carreras-Badosa, Rémy Burcelin, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Abel Lopez-Bermejo, José-Manuel Fernandez-Real
BACKGROUND: The human microbiota is a modulator of the immune system. Variations in the placental microbiota could be related with pregnancy disorders. We profiled the placental microbiota and microbiome in women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and studied its relation to maternal metabolism and placental expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: Placental microbiota and microbiome and expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10, TIMP3, ITGAX, and MRC1MR) were analyzed in placentas from women with GDM and from control women...
December 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488030/reactive-oxygen-stimulation-of-interleukin-6-release-in-the-human-trophoblast-cell-line-htr-8-svneo-by-the-trichlorethylene-metabolite-s-1-2-dichloro-l-cysteine
#13
Iman Hassan, Anjana M Kumar, Hae-Ryung Park, Lawrence H Lash, Rita Loch-Caruso
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental pollutant associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in humans. TCE intoxication is primarily through its biotransformation to bioactive metabolites, including S-(1, 2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC). TCE induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver and kidney. Although the placenta is capable of xenobiotic metabolism, and oxidative stress and inflammation in placenta have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, TCE toxicity in the placenta remains poorly understood...
August 3, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467392/heterologous-infection-of-pregnant-mice-induces-low-birth-weight-and-modifies-offspring-susceptibility-to-malaria
#14
Ankur Sharma, Solomon Conteh, Jean Langhorne, Patrick E Duffy
Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452438/placental-structural-abnormalities-have-detrimental-hemodynamic-consequences-in-a-rat-model-of-maternal-hyperglycemia
#15
Lara Lehtoranta, Olli Vuolteenaho, Jukka Laine, Lauri Polari, Eeva Ekholm, Juha Räsänen
INTRODUCTION: Human type 1 diabetic pregnancy is associated with placental structural and hemodynamic abnormalities. We hypothesized that in rat fetuses of hyperglycemic dams, placental and fetal blood flow velocity waveforms demonstrate compromised hemodynamics when compared to control fetuses, and these hemodynamic parameters correlate with placental structural abnormalities at near term gestation. METHODS: Streptozotocin-induced maternal hyperglycemia group comprised 10 dams with 107 fetuses and the control group 20 dams with 219 fetuses...
August 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300134/palmitic-acid-induces-interleukin-1%C3%AE-secretion-via-nlrp3-inflammasomes-and-inflammatory-responses-through-ros-production-in-human-placental-cells
#16
Koumei Shirasuna, Hiroki Takano, Kotomi Seno, Ayaka Ohtsu, Tadayoshi Karasawa, Masafumi Takahashi, Akihide Ohkuchi, Hirotada Suzuki, Shigeki Matsubara, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama
Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals...
August 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091649/mitochondrial-endoplasmic-reticulum-interactions-in-the-trophoblast-stress-and-senescence
#17
G J Burton, H W Yung, A J Murray
Placental stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of complications of pregnancy, including growth restriction and pre-eclampsia. Initially, attention focused on oxidative stress, but recently mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress have been identified. Complex molecular interactions exist among these different forms of stress, making it unlikely that any occurs in isolation. In part, this is due to close physiological connections between the two organelles principally involved, mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mediated through Ca(2+) signalling...
April 4, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988271/placental-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-protein-expression-during-normal-human-gestation
#18
Jayasri Basu, Enyonam Agamasu, Bolek Bendek, Carolyn M Salafia, Aruna Mishra, Nerys Benfield, Priya Prasad, Magdy Mikhail
OBJECTIVE: Placental tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cell signaling protein. During pregnancy, TNF-α induces synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which allows cytotrophoblasts to reach the spiral arteries deeper within the uterine decidua. TNF-α also augments apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells surrounding these arteries. In this study, chorionic villi TNF-α protein expression throughout normal human gestation were investigated. METHODS: Placental chorionic villi tissues obtained from elective surgical terminations of pregnancy and from uncomplicated term births were assayed using EIA kits (Cayman Chemicals, Ann Arbor, MI, Item # 589201)...
December 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26970495/global-omics-evaluation-of-human-placental-responses-to%C3%A2-preeclamptic-conditions
#19
Komal Kedia, Stephen F Smith, Andrew H Wright, Justin M Barnes, H Dennis Tolley, M Sean Esplin, Steven W Graves
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal death. Its cause is still debated but there is general agreement that the placenta plays a central role. Perhaps the most commonly proposed contributors to PE include placental hypoxia, oxidative stress, and increased proinflammatory cytokines. How the placenta responds to these abnormalities has been considered but not as part of a comprehensive analysis of low-molecular-weight biomolecules and their responses to these accepted PE conditions...
August 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912000/the-role-of-decidual-cells-in-uterine-hemostasis-menstruation-inflammation-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-abnormal-uterine-bleeding
#20
REVIEW
Frederick Schatz, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Sefa Arlier, Umit A Kayisli, Charles J Lockwood
BACKGROUND: Human pregnancy requires robust hemostasis to prevent hemorrhage during extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion of the decidualized endometrium, modification of spiral arteries and post-partum processes. However, decidual hemorrhage (abruption) can occur throughout pregnancy from poorly transformed spiral arteries, causing fetal death or spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), or it can promote the aberrant placentation observed in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia; all leading causes of perinatal or maternal morbidity and mortality...
June 2016: Human Reproduction Update
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