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human pregnancy

Nayla J Bushaqer, Nawal M Dayoub, Khalsa K AlHattali, Hisham A Ayyoub, Samaher S AlFaraj, Samar N Hassan
OBJECTIVE: To compare follicular reduction prior to human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) trigger and coasting in terms of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS) reduction, pregnancy, and cancellation rates in in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles. METHODS:  This study was designed as a prospective study. The setting was the IVF unit at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 39 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles, who were at risk of OHSS, 20 were put into a coasting group and 19 had follicular reduction instead...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Nancy D Campbell
Using the ethical and legal concept of shared responsibility for healthy births, this article considers social, cultural, and historical contexts in which medicalization and criminalization have worked in tandem to widen surveillance in ways that intensify scrutiny of women's lives under the guise of child protection, bringing women who are pregnant, postpartum, or parenting under criminal justice control. Although pregnant and postpartum women are prime candidates for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), the expanding carceral system has not prioritized drug treatment or reproductive justice...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Yudi Geng, Qiaohong Lai, Yang Xun, Lei Jin
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors causing a premature rise in luteinizing hormone among high ovarian responders undergoing the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol. METHODS: The present retrospective study included healthy women undergoing fresh cycles using a fixed GnRH antagonist protocol with a predicted high response and antral follicle count (AFC) of at least 15 at the Reproductive Medicine Center of Tongji Hospital, China, between January 1 and December 31, 2016...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Cheryl Q E Lee, Margherita Turco, Lucy Gardner, Benjamin Simons, Myriam Hemberger, Ashley Moffett
During pregnancy the trophoblast cells of the placenta are the only fetal cells in direct contact with maternal blood and decidua. Their functions include transport of nutrients and oxygen, secretion of pregnancy hormones, remodelling the uterine arteries, and communicating with maternal cells. Despite the importance of trophoblast cells in placental development and successful pregnancy, little is known about the identity, location and differentiation of human trophoblast progenitors. We identify a proliferative trophoblast niche at the base of the cytotrophoblast cell columns in first trimester placentas that is characterised by integrin α2 (ITGA2) expression...
March 14, 2018: Development
Ji Young Lee, Hyun Mi Kim, Mi Ju Kim, Hyun-Hwa Cha, Won Joon Seong
OBJECTIVE: To compare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in placentas between spontaneous preterm birth and preeclampsia pregnancies. RESULTS: Placental samples matched for gestational age were obtained from 20 cases of spontaneous preterm births and 19 cases of preeclampsia. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from placenta tissue and the 3'UTR region of HLA-G was amplified via polymerase chain reaction...
March 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Sabrina L Roberti, Romina Higa, Verónica White, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson, Alicia Jawerbaum
STUDY QUESTION: What are the consequences of inhibiting mTOR, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and PPARδ pathways in the early post-implantation period on decidual function, embryo viability and feto-placental growth in the rat? SUMMARY ANSWER: mTOR inhibition from day 7 to day 9 of pregnancy in rats caused decidual PPARγ and PPARδ upregulation on day 9 of pregnancy and resulted in embryo resorption by day 14 of pregnancy...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Kathrine Vauvert R Hviid, Sara Sofia Malchau, Anja Pinborg, Henriette Svarre Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of monozygotic twins (MZT) after ART appears to be higher than the incidence after spontaneous conceptions contradicting the aim of ART to avoid multiple pregnancies because of the associated risks. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim was to study the frequency of MZT after IVF and ICSI and how it is influenced by the day of embryo transfer, maternal age, zona pellucida manipulation, controlled ovarian stimulation, stimulation protocol, culture media and embryo quality...
March 12, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Norita Hussein, Stephen F Weng, Joe Kai, Jos Kleijnen, Nadeem Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Globally, about five per cent of children are born with congenital or genetic disorders. The most common autosomal recessive conditions are thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease, with higher carrier rates in specific patient populations. Identifying and counselling couples at genetic risk of the conditions before pregnancy enables them to make fully informed reproductive decisions, with some of these choices not being available if genetic counselling is only offered in an antenatal setting...
March 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael Tchirikov, Erich Saling, Gauri Bapayeva, Michael Bucher, Oliver Thews, Gregor Seliger
In the first case, the AA and glucose were infused through a perinatal port system into the umbilical vein at 30 weeks' gestation due to severe IUGR. The patient received daily hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO, 100% O2 ) with 1.4 atmospheres absolute for 50 min for 7 days. At 31+4  weeks' gestation, the patient gave birth spontaneously to a newborn weighing 1378 g, pH 7.33, APGAR score 4/6/intubation. In follow-up examinations at 5 years of age, the boy was doing well without any neurological disturbance or developmental delay...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Elizabeth G Raymond, Tara Shochet, Hillary Bracken
OBJECTIVES: To summarize data on the accuracy and acceptability of a strategy for identifying ongoing pregnancy after medical abortion treatment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test (LSPT). STUDY DESIGN: We searched PubMed to identify studies that evaluated the use of a single post-treatment LSPT for detection of ongoing pregnancy after treatment with mifepristone and misoprostol. We extracted, assessed, and summarized data from each study. RESULTS: We found 10 studies that evaluated 6 LSPTs with human chorionic gonadotropin detection thresholds of 1000, 1500, or 2000 mIU/ml...
March 10, 2018: Contraception
Rabia Latif
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
C L Depoix, F Haegemann, F Debiève, C Hubinont
STUDY QUESTION: Is 8% O2 a better percentage of atmospheric oxygen for long-term cultures of human primary term cytotrophoblasts than the conventional 21% O2 traditionally used in cell culture? SUMMARY ANSWER: Human primary term cytotrophoblasts are able to differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts under both atmospheric oxygen levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cell culture is traditionally done under 21% O2, which is equal to a pO2 of ~160 mm Hg...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Elvira Larqué, Eva Morales, Rosaura Leis, José E Blanco-Carnero
BACKGROUND: To what extent does the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration help to meet the physiological needs of humans is an ongoing subject of debate. Remaining unexposed to the sun to reduce melanoma cancer risk, current lifestyle with less out door activities, and increasing obesity rates, which in turn increases the storage of vitamin D in the adipose tissue, are presumably factors that contribute to the substantial upsurge in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in humans...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Bozidarka L Zaric, Milan Obradovic, Vladan Bajic, Mohamed A Haidara, Milos Jovanovic, Esma R Isenovic
Homocysteine (Hcy) is thiol group containing the amino acid, which naturally occurs in all humans. Hcy is degraded in the body through two metabolic pathways, while a minor part is excreted through kidneys. The chemical reactions that are necessary for degradation of Hcy require the presence of the folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12. Consequently, the level of the total Hcy in the serum is influenced by the presence or absence of these vitamins. An elevated level of the Hcy, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and homocystinuria are connected with occlusive artery disease, especially in the brain, the heart, and the kidney, in addition to venous thrombosis, chronic renal failure, megaloblastic anemia, osteoporosis, depression, Alzheimer's disease, pregnancy problems, and others...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Virginie Chesnais, Alban Ott, Emmanuel Chaplais, Samuel Gabillard, Diego Pallares, Christelle Vauloup-Fellous, Alexandra Benachi, Jean-Marc Costa, Eric Ginoux
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) primary infections of pregnant women can lead to congenital infections of the fetus that could have severe impacts on the health of the newborn. Recent studies have shown that 10-100 billion DNA fragments per milliliter of plasma are circulating cell-free. The study of this DNA has rapidly expanding applications to non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). In this study, we have shown that we can detect viral specific reads in the massively parallel shotgun sequencing (MPSS) NIPT data...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura M Reyes, Charlotte W Usselman, Margie H Davenport, Craig D Steinback
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Hypertension
Tomás Urrego, Blanca Ortiz-Reyes, Adriana L Vanegas-García, Carlos H Muñoz, Luis A González, Gloria Vásquez, José A Gómez-Puerta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of lupus nephritis (LN) is usually based on renal biopsy, which is an invasive technique that involves multiple risks. Therefore, different biomarkers have emerged as alternatives for the diagnosis of LN. Nonetheless, studies regarding urinary biomarkers in Latin American patients are limited. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of urinary transferrin and ceruloplasmin to differentiate patients who have renal involvement from those who do not...
March 9, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
John Jarrell
Historically, the evolutionary origins of menstruation have been based on two theories: the ability to eliminate infectious agents carried to the uterus with spermatozoa and the comparative conservation of energy with menstruation compared to its absence. In the menstruating species, more recent theories have identified spontaneous decidualization as the key adaptive mechanism. Spontaneous decidualization is seen as a mechanism to provide the mother with protection from the invasive characteristics of the embryo...
February 8, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
John J Bromfield, Jason A Rizo, Laila A Ibrahim
The question of 'how does the allogeneic fetus survive gestation in the face of the maternal immune system?' has yet to be definitively answered. Several acceptable mechanisms exist to facilitate survival of the semi-allogeneic fetus in various species; paramount is the immunological separation of maternal and fetal tissues during gestation. However, keen observation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy has noted maternal immune tolerance to paternal-specific antigens. A mechanism by which the maternal immune system tolerates specific paternal antigens expressed on the fetus would be far more beneficial than the previously proposed immune indolence that would leave the mother susceptible to infection...
January 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
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