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human pregnancy

Anja Stajnko, Ingrid Falnoga, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Marta Jagodic, Mladen Krsnik, Alfred B Kobal, Marija Prezelj, Lijana Kononenko, Milena Horvat
BACKGROUND: Urine cadmium (Cd) and renal function biomarkers, mostly analysed in urine spot samples, are well established biomarkers of occupational exposure. Their use and associations at low environmental level are common, but have recently been questioned, particularly in terms of physiological variability and normalisation bias in the case of urine spot samples. AIM: To determine the appropriateness of spot urine and/or blood Cd exposure biomarkers and their relationships with renal function biomarkers at low levels of exposure...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Sheryl de Lacey
Perspectives on the status of human embryos and whether they should be discarded differ globally. Some countries protect embryos in law while in other countries embryos 'die' or 'succumb' in assisted reproductive technology clinics on a daily basis. This study analyses interview data drawn from a larger qualitative study conducted in South Australia from 2004-2007. 21 women and 12 of 21 partners were interviewed about the decision they made to discard their embryos. The analysis reported here sought to examine the ways in which women constructed and experienced the decision to discard embryos...
October 22, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Bassem Refaat, Jawwad Ahmad, Shakir Idris, Fadi Fayez Kamfar, Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi, Sarah Abdullah Batwa, Faizah Ahmed Malibary
This is a prospective observational study that measures the expression of vitamin D (VD) metabolising and signalling molecules and Ca(2+) sensing receptor (CaSR) in human Fallopian tube (FT) during the menstrual cycle and ectopic pregnancy (EP). Fresh FTs were obtained during total abdominal hysterectomy at the follicular (n = 16) and midluteal (n = 16) phases. Specimens from remote and implantation sites as well as trophoblastic tissues were also freshly collected from each FT with EP (n = 10)...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Katherine A Guthrie, Hilary S Gammill, Mads Kamper-Jørgensen, Anne Tjønneland, Vijayakrishna K Gadi, J Lee Nelson, Wendy Leisenring
Natural acquisition of small amounts of foreign cells or DNA, referred to as microchimerism, occurs primarily through maternal-fetal exchange during pregnancy. Microchimerism can persist long-term and has been associated with both beneficial and adverse human health outcomes. Quantitative microchimerism data present challenges for statistical analysis, including a skewed distribution, excess zero values, and occasional large values. Methods for comparing microchimerism levels across groups while controlling for covariates are not well established...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Brenda F Narice, Nicola H Green, Sheila MacNeil, Dilly Anumba
BACKGROUND: During labour, the cervix undergoes a series of changes to allow the passage of the fetoplacental unit. While this visible transformation is well-described, the underlying and causative microscopic changes, in which collagen plays a major role, are poorly understood and difficult to visualise. Recent studies in mice and humans have shown that Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy, a non-destructive imaging technique, can detect changes in the cervical collagen. However, the question of whether SHG can identify changes in the arrangement of cervical collagen at different physiological stages still needs addressing...
October 21, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Mulugeta Dile Worke, Lealem Meseret Bezabih, Mulat Adefris Woldetasdik
BACKGROUND: Contraception helps to prevent unplanned pregnancies among human immune virus positive women. The contraceptive utilization status and associated factors were not well addressed in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to assess utilization of contraceptives and associated factors among human immune virus positive reproductive age group women appearing at anti-retroviral therapy clinic at the University of Gondar Hospital, North West Ethiopia. METHOD: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 397 systematically selected HIV positive reproductive age women who visited ART unit of the University of Gondar teaching referral hospital from January 8-20, 2014...
October 21, 2016: BMC Women's Health
Alexandra C Sundermann, Troy D Abell, Lisa C Baker, Mark B Mengel, Kathryn E Reilly, Michael A Bonow, Gregory E Hoy, Richard D Clover
BACKGROUND: The specialization of human fat deposits is an inquiry of special importance in the study of fetal growth. It has been theorized that maternal lower-body fat is designated specifically for lactation and not for the growth of the fetus. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to compare the contributions of maternal upper-body versus lower-body adiposity to infant birth weight. We hypothesized that upper-body adiposity would be strongly associated with infant birth weight and that lower-body adiposity would be weakly or negligibly associated with infant birth weight-after adjusting for known determinants...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Li Wu, Jie Li, Hui Li Xu, Bo Xu, Xian Hong Tong, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Yu Sheng Liu
PROBLEM: We aim to investigate a possible role of IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway in recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the abortion-prone (AP) and non-abortion-prone (NP) mice model, fetal resorption rates (FRR), Th17 and Treg cells-related factors, and the effect of IL-7 and IL-7R antagonist were investigated by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. IL-7 and IL-7R expressions in human decidua were investigated by immunohistochemistry...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Kelly J McKelvey, Vanessa M Yenson, Anthony W Ashton, Jonathan M Morris, Sharon A McCracken
Inbred strains of mice are powerful models for understanding human pregnancy complications. For example, the exclusive mating of CBA/J females to DBA/2J males increases fetal resorption to 20-35% with an associated decline in placentation and maintenance of maternal Th1 immunity. More recently other complications of pregnancy, IUGR and preeclampsia, have been reported in this model. The aim of this study was to qualify whether the CBA/CaH substrain female can substitute for CBA/J to evoke a phenotype of embryonic/fetal mortality and IUGR...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maïlys De Sousa Mendes, Gabrielle Lui, Yi Zheng, Claire Pressiat, Deborah Hirt, Elodie Valade, Naïm Bouazza, Frantz Foissac, Stephane Blanche, Jean-Marc Treluyer, Saik Urien, Sihem Benaboud
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and their fetuses are exposed to numerous drugs; however, they are orphan populations with respect to the safety and efficacy of drugs. Therefore, the prediction of maternal and fetal drug exposure prior to administration would be highly useful. METHODS: A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nevirapine, which is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2B6 and 2D6 pathways, was developed to predict maternal and fetal pharmacokinetics (PK)...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Yu-Min Shen
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by defective complement regulation resulting in thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Patients can present as children or adults. The syndrome consists of hemolytic anemia with schistocytosis, thrombocytopenia, significant renal damage, and/or other organ system dysfunction(s). Patients with aHUS may succumb to the complications of the disease with the very first manifestation; surviving patients often suffer from progressive organ dysfunction with significant morbidity and mortality despite plasma infusion or plasma exchange...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Jacopo Celli, Gudrun Rappold, Beate Niesler
Serotonin type 3 (5-HT3 ) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels formed by five subunits (5-HT3 A-E), which are encoded by the HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR3C, HTR3D and HTR3E genes. Functional receptors are pentameric complexes of diverse composition. Different receptor subtypes confer a predisposition to nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, pregnancy, and following surgery. In addition, different subtypes contribute to neurogastroenterologic disorders such irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and eating disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric conditions...
October 20, 2016: Human Mutation
Demin Cai, Mengjie Yuan, Haoyu Liu, Shifeng Pan, Wenqiang Ma, Jian Hong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) gene expression, but decreasing bile acids content and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) expression in the liver of weaning piglets...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Carmela Nardelli, Ilaria Granata, Laura Iaffaldano, Valeria D'Argenio, Valentina Del Monaco, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Daniela Omodei, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pasquale Martinelli, Francesco Salvatore, Mario Rosario Guarracino, Lucia Sacchetti, Lucio Pastore
Clinical findings and data obtained in animal models indicate that nutrient uptake and exposure to environmental agents during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn gestational programming thereby resulting in obesity and/or obesity-related disorders in offspring. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs) differentiate into adipocytes, and are thus a suitable model to investigate adipocyte functions in obesity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the miRNome of hA-MSCs and its contribution to obesity in pregnancy...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Haruta Mogami, Shigeo Yura, Eiji Kondoh, Hiroshi Masutani, Junji Yodoi, Ikuo Konishi
AIM: Thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2), which is identical to thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip), controls cellular proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to compare TBP-2 protein and mRNA expression in human placenta during the three trimesters of pregnancy and to investigate the role of hypoxia in the change of these expressions in placental tissue. A secondary objective was to determine the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in TBP-2 deficient placenta using TBP-2 gene disrupted mice (TBP-2(-/-) )...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Afsoon Zarei, Parastoo Sohail, Mohammad Ebrahim Parsanezhad, Saeed Alborzi, Alamtaj Samsami, Maryam Azizi
PURPOSE: To compare the pregnancy outcomes between four regimens of luteal phase support (LPS), including vaginal progesterone, oral dydrogesterone, combination of oral dydrogesterone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analog (GnRH-α), and combination of oral dydrogesterone and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), in Frozen-thawed Embryo Transfer (FET) cycles. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was performed during a 6-month period, including candidates for FET...
October 19, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Bronwen R Herbert, Renyi Hua, Simon N Waddington, David A MacIntyre, Philip R Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
Inflammation plays a key role in human term and preterm labor (PTL). Intrauterine LPS has been widely used to model inflammation induced complications of pregnancy including PTL. It has been shown to induce an intense myometrial inflammatory cell infiltration, but the role of LPS-induced inflammatory cell activation in labor onset and fetal demise is unclear. We investigated this using a mouse model of PTL, where an intrauterine injection of 10 µg of LPS (serotype 0111:B4) was given at E16 of CD1 mouse pregnancy...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Damien Seth Hunter, Susan J Hazel, Karen L Kind, Hong Liu, Danila Marini, Lynne C Giles, Miles J De Blasio, Julie A Owens, Julia B Pitcher, Kathryn L Gatford
Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F)...
October 19, 2016: Laterality
Saeide-Sadat Shobeiri, Saeid Abediankenari, Bahareh Lashtoo-Aghaee, Zahra Rahmani, Bahareh Esmaeili-Gorji
BACKGROUND: Research says that diabetes may develop in over 10% of non-diabetic pregnant women. Diabetes which generally occurs late in second trimester and third trimester of pregnancy, it is called gestational diabetes. Overweight or suffering from obesity before pregnancy is type 2 diabetes risk factor. In most cases, diabetic symptoms disappear after delivery. HLA-G has an important role both in mother and fetus tolerance during pregnancy, it may also be effective in the protection of pancreatic islet cells...
2016: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Martin Kuete, HongFang Yuan, Aude Laure Tchoua Kemayou, Emmanuel Ancel Songo, Fan Yang, XiuLan Ma, ChengLiang Xiong, HuiPing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. METHODS: We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
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