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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212940/hippocampal-nr3c1-dna-methylation-can-mediate-part-of-preconception-paternal-stress-effects-in-rat-offspring
#1
Somayeh Niknazar, Arezo Nahavandi, Ali Asghar Peyvandi, Hassan Peyvandi, Navid Ahmady Roozbahany, Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh
Many studies have been shown that maternal stress during pregnancy and in early life period influences offspring in the behavioral and molecular aspects in human and animal models. Recent research has indicated that the environmental condition of males before conception has effects on next generations. We evaluated whether preconception paternal stress (PPS) could influence on hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR), (NR3C1) expression, corticosterone response and behavioral outcomes of their offspring...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212334/transfer-of-anti-rotavirus-antibodies-during-pregnancy-and-in-milk-following-maternal-vaccination-with-a-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-amplicon-vector
#2
Anita F Meier, Mark Suter, Elisabeth M Schraner, Bruno M Humbel, Kurt Tobler, Mathias Ackermann, Andrea S Laimbacher
Rotaviruses (RVs) are important enteric pathogens of newborn humans and animals, causing diarrhea and in rare cases death, especially in very young individuals. Rotavirus vaccines presently used are modified live vaccines that lack complete biological safety. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that vaccines based on in situ produced, non-infectious rotavirus-like particles (RVLPs) are efficient while being entirely safe. However, using either vaccine, active mucosal immunization cannot induce protective immunity in newborns due to their immature immune system...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212315/developmental-programming-of-adult-disease-reprogramming-by-melatonin
#3
REVIEW
You-Lin Tain, Li-Tung Huang, Chien-Ning Hsu
Adult-onset chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) can originate from early life through so-called the "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD) or "developmental programming". The DOHaD concept offers the "reprogramming" strategy to shift the treatment from adulthood to early life, before clinical disease is apparent. Melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine produced by the pineal gland, has pleiotropic bioactivities those are beneficial in a variety of human diseases. Emerging evidence support that melatonin is closely inter-related to other proposed mechanisms contributing to the developmental programming of a variety of chronic NCDs...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212307/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-1-positive-mothers-neurological-implications-in-virus-free-children
#4
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Paola Maura Tricarico, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
Since the worldwide introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1-positive mothers, together with HIV-1 testing prior to pregnancy, caesarian birth and breastfeeding cessation with replacement feeding, a reduction of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has been observed in the last few years. As such, an increasing number of children are being exposed in utero to ART. Several questions have arisen concerning the neurological effects of ART exposure in utero, considering the potential effect of antiretroviral drugs on the central nervous system, a structure which is in continuous development in the fetus and characterized by great plasticity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211317/primary-human-cytomegalovirus-hcmv-infection-in-pregnancy
#5
Horst Buxmann, Klaus Hamprecht, Matthias Meyer-Wittkopf, Klaus Friese
BACKGROUND: In 0.5-4% of pregnancies, the prospective mother sustains a primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). An HCMV infection of the fetus in the first or second trimester can cause complex post-encephalitic impairment of the infant brain, leading to motor and mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, retinal defects, and progressive hearing loss. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications from January 2000 to October 2016 that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed employing the terms "cytomegalovirus and pregnancy" and "congenital cytomegalovirus...
January 27, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210952/two-dechlorinated-chlordecone-derivatives-formed-by-in-situ-chemical-reduction-are-devoid-of-genotoxicity-and-mutagenicity-and-have-lower-proangiogenic-properties-compared-to-the-parent-compound
#6
Samuel Legeay, Pierre-André Billat, Nicolas Clere, Fabrice Nesslany, Sébastien Bristeau, Sébastien Faure, Christophe Mouvet
Chlordecone (CLD) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, now classified as a persistent organic pollutant. Several studies have previously reported that chronic exposure to CLD leads to hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, raises early child development and pregnancy complications, and increases the risk of liver and prostate cancer. In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) has been identified as a possible way for the remediation of soils contaminated by CLD. In the present study, the objectives were (i) to evaluate the genotoxicity and the mutagenicity of two CLD metabolites formed by ISCR, CLD-5a-hydro, or CLD-5-hydro (5a- or 5- according to CAS nomenclature; CLD-1Cl) and tri-hydroCLD (CLD-3Cl), and (ii) to explore the angiogenic properties of these molecules...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210506/combined-supplementation-of-choline-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-during-pregnancy-enhances-neurodevelopment-of-fetal-hippocampus
#7
Huban Thomas Rajarethnem, Kumar Megur Ramakrishna Bhat, Malsawmzuali Jc, Siva Kumar Gopalkrishnan, Ramesh Babu Mugundhu Gopalram, Kiranmai Sesappa Rai
Choline is an essential nutrient for humans which plays an important role in structural integrity and signaling functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, highly enriched in cell membranes of the brain. Dietary intake of choline or DHA alone by pregnant mothers directly affects fetal brain development and function. But no studies show the efficacy of combined supplementation of choline and DHA on fetal neurodevelopment. The aim of the present study was to analyze fetal neurodevelopment on combined supplementation of pregnant dams with choline and DHA...
2017: Neurology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209492/reproductive-considerations-in-the-setting-of-chronic-viral-illness
#8
REVIEW
Brent M Hanson, Jessie A Dorais
Special considerations must be taken when patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, or Hepatitis C desire to achieve pregnancy. Patients with chronic viral illnesses desire children at rates similar to the general population, and options are available to decrease both vertical transmission and viral transmission between partners. Preconception counseling or consultation with fertility specialists is imperative in patients with HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C so that reproductive goals can be addressed and optimized...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208798/maternal%C3%A2-folic%C3%A2-acid%C3%A2-supplementation%C3%A2-during%C3%A2-pregnancy%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-childhood%C3%A2-allergic%C3%A2-disease%C3%A2-outcomes-%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-question%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-timing
#9
REVIEW
Catrina L McStay, Susan L Prescott, Carol Bower, Debra J Palmer
Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior  to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In  addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order  to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding  variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid  supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate  intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification...
February 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208268/medical-swab-analysis-using-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-a-noninvasive-approach-for-mucosal-diagnostics
#10
Pamela Pruski, David A MacIntyre, Holly V Lewis, Paolo Inglese, Gonçalo D S Correia, Trevor T Hansel, Phillip R Bennett, Elaine Holmes, Zoltan Takats
Medical swabs are routinely used worldwide to sample human mucosa for microbiological screening with culture methods. These are usually time-consuming and have a narrow focus on screening for particular microorganism species. As an alternative, direct mass spectrometric profiling of the mucosal metabolome provides a broader window into the mucosal ecosystem. We present for the first time a minimal effort/minimal-disruption technique for augmenting the information obtained from clinical swab analysis with mucosal metabolome profiling using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) analysis...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207337/engaging-human-rights-in-the-response-to-the-evolving-zika-virus-epidemic
#11
Jennifer J K Rasanathan, Sarah MacCarthy, Debora Diniz, Els Torreele, Sofia Gruskin
In late 2015, an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in poor communities in northeast Brazil prompted investigation of antenatal Zika infection as the cause. Zika now circulates in 69 countries, and has affected pregnancies of women in 29 countries. Public health officials, policymakers, and international organizations are considering interventions to address health consequences of the Zika epidemic. To date, public health responses have focused on mosquito vector eradication, sexual and reproductive health services, knowledge and technology including diagnostic test and vaccine development, and health system preparedness...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205414/avoidance-of-maternal-cell-contamination-and-overgrowth-in-isolating-fetal-chorionic-villi-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-term-placenta
#12
Varda S Sardesai, Abbas Shafiee, Nicholas M Fisk, Rebecca A Pelekanos
Human placenta is rich in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), with their origin widely presumed fetal. Cultured placental MSCs are confounded by a high frequency of maternal cell contamination. Our recent systematic review concluded that only a small minority of placental MSC publications report fetal/maternal origin, and failed to discern a specific methodology for isolation of fetal MSC from term villi. We determined isolation conditions to yield fetal and separately maternal MSC during ex vivo expansion from human term placenta...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203641/the-antecedents-of-women-s-external-locus-of-control-associations-with-characteristics-of-their-parents-and-their-early-childhood
#13
Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Stephen Nowicki
Locus of control (LOC) measures individuals' expectancies regarding their ability to affect what happens to them based on how they behave. The more they believe their behaviour has something to do with what happens to them the more internal they are. In contrast the more they perceive that what happens to them is beyond their control and determined by luck, fate, chance or powerful others the more external they are. Copious research findings suggest that external LOC (ELOC) is associated with many adverse personal, social, academic and health outcomes...
January 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202182/implantation-and-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-from-rare-archival-specimens-to-modern-biobanking
#14
Gerit Moser, Berthold Huppertz
Extravillous trophoblast invasion serves to attach the placenta to the uterus and to enable access to nutrients for the embryo throughout pregnancy - secretions of the uterine glands in the first trimester, maternal blood in the second and third trimester. For assessing extravillous trophoblast invasion, histology (in combination with immunohistochemistry) still plays a major role in placental research. This is especially true for the re-assessment of rare archival specimens from early human implantation sites or placenta in utero with the background of recent knowledge which may help to strengthen current hypotheses...
February 8, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199859/structure-of-the-lps-o-chain-from-fusobacterium-nucleatum-strain-10953-containing-sialic-acid
#15
Evgeny Vinogradov, Frank St Michael, Kiyonobu Homma, Ashu Sharma, Andrew D Cox
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobic bacterium found in the human mouth where it causes periodontitis. Recently, it has been gaining attention as a potential causative agent for colorectal cancer and is strongly linked with pregnancy complications including pre-term and still births. Little is known about virulence factors of this organism and thus we have initiated studies to examine the bacterial surface glycochemistry. Consistent with a recent paper suggesting that F. nucleatum strain 10593 can synthesize sialic acid, a staining technique identified sialic acid on the bacterial surface...
January 28, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199846/frequent-zika-virus-sexual-transmission-and-prolonged-viral-rna-shedding-in-an-immunodeficient-mouse-model
#16
Nisha K Duggal, Jana M Ritter, Samuel E Pestorius, Sherif R Zaki, Brent S Davis, Gwong-Jen J Chang, Richard A Bowen, Aaron C Brault
Circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Western hemisphere in late 2014. Primarily transmitted through mosquito bite, ZIKV can also be transmitted through sex and from mother to fetus, and maternal ZIKV infection has been associated with fetal malformations. We assessed immunodeficient AG129 mice for their capacity to shed ZIKV in semen and to infect female mice via sexual transmission. Infectious virus was detected in semen between 7 and 21 days post-inoculation, and ZIKV RNA was detected in semen through 58 days post-inoculation...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199412/modulation-of-cholesterol-transport-by-maternal-hypercholesterolemia-in-human-full-term-placenta
#17
Ran Zhang, Shan Dong, Wei-Wei Ma, Xue-Ping Cai, Zhi-Yin Le, Rong Xiao, Qi Zhou, Huan-Ling Yu
The significance of maternal cholesterol transporting to the fetus under normal as well as pathological circumstances is less understood. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of maternal hypercholesterolemia on placental cholesterol transportation. Human full-time placenta, maternal and venous cord blood were sampled at delivery from the pregnant women with serum total cholesterol (TC) concentrations at third trimester higher than 7.25 mM (n = 19) and the pregnant women with normal TC concentrations (n = 19)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199380/the-effects-of-pravastatin-on-the-normal-human-placenta-lessons-from-ex-vivo-models
#18
Adelina Balan, Irit Szaingurten-Solodkin, Shani S Swissa, Valeria Feinshtein, Mahmoud Huleihel, Gershon Holcberg, Doron Dukler, Ofer Beharier
INTRODUCTION: Research in animal models and preliminary clinical studies in humans support the use of pravastatin for the prevention of preeclampsia. However, its use during pregnancy is still controversial due to limited data about its effect on the human placenta and fetus. METHODS: In the present study, human placental cotyledons were perfused in the absence or presence of pravastatin in the maternal reservoir (PraM). In addition, placental explants were treated with pravastatin for 5, 24 and 72 h under normoxia and hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199196/danshen-extract-regulates-the-expression-of-aquaporin-3-in-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells
#19
Wenwen Zhang, Yiwen Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Huihui Cheng, Ying Hua, Xueqiong Zhu
Danshen extract has been used in the treatment of oligohydramnios, however, the mechanism of its action has not been elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that down-regulation of AQP3 in fetal membranes may contribute to the development of oligohydramnios. In this study, we investigated the effects of Danshen extract on AQP3 expression in human amniotic epithelial cells from term pregnancies with oligohydramnios or those with those with (those with) normovolemic amniotic fluid. Human amniotic epithelial cells from the oligohydramnios group expressed a lower level of AQP3 mRNA and protein than those with normovolemia...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198501/effect-of-gjb2-235delc-and-30-35delg-genetic-polymorphisms-on-risk-of-congenital-deafness-in-a-chinese-population
#20
Y Xiong, M Zhong, J Chen, Y L Yan, X F Lin, X Li
Congenital deafness is a serious and irreversible condition in humans. The GJB2 gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Its 235delC and 30-35delG polymorphisms are reported to be associated with risk of hereditary deafness. However, the effect of the interaction between GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG and environmental factors on congenital deafness has not been described. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the influence of these polymorphisms on congenital deafness risk, and their interaction with maternal and other environmental factors in the development of this disease...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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