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placental oxidative stress

Emilio A Herrera, Francisca Cifuentes-Zúñiga, Esteban Figueroa, Cristian Villanueva, Cherie Hernández, René Alegría, Viviana Arroyo, Estefania Peñaloza, Marcelo Farías, Ricardo Uauy, Paola Casanello, Bernardo J Krause
In humans, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial programming in umbilical vessels. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal antioxidant treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on fetal endothelial function and eNOS programming in IUGR guinea pigs. IUGR was induced by implanting ameroid constrictors on uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs at mid gestation, receiving half of the sows NAC in the drinking water (from day 34 until term)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physiology
G E Leghi, B S Muhlhausler
Pregnancy represents a state of heightened oxidative stress and inflammation, and these processes are further increased in pregnancy complications. The quality of the maternal diet is directly associated with maternal health and wellbeing, pregnancy and fetal outcomes, as well as the risk of pregnancy complications. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have significant potential to modify placental and fetal lipid environments and thereby modulate health outcomes. The omega-3 (n-3) LCPUFA in particular have been shown to exhibit both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and have potential therapeutic applications in reducing oxidative damage and inflammation during pregnancy...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Serkalem Tadesse, Nicholas G Norwitz, Seth Guller, Felice Arcuri, Paolo Toti, Errol R Norwitz, Dawit Kidane
Preeclampsia (PE) (gestational proteinuric hypertension) is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. Although placental endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are known to contribute to PE, the exact pathological basis for this disorder remains unclear. Previously, we demonstrated that DNA damage at the maternal-fetal interface is more common in the placentas of women with PE than normotensive controls. In this study, we utilized an in vivo comparative study, including 20 preeclamptic women and 8 healthy control subjects, and an in vitro hypoxia/reperfusion model to mimic the effects of oxidative stress at the maternal-fetal interface...
October 5, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Serafina Perrone, Maria Luisa Tataranno, Simona Negro, Mariangela Longini, Maria Stefania Toti, Maria Gabriella Alagna, Fabrizio Proietti, Francesco Bazzini, Paolo Toti, Giuseppe Buonocore
BACKGROUND: Prenatal conditions of enhanced oxidative stress (OS) linked to inflammation or hypoxia have been associated with impaired fetal growth and preterm delivery. Little is known regarding biomarkers of OS in the cord blood of preterm infants and placental histological patterns. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that placental lesions indicating chorioamnionitis (CA) or vascular underperfusion (VU) are associated with increased OS in the offspring. METHODS: 120 neonates born below 29(+6) weeks of gestational age (GA) were enrolled...
October 2016: Placenta
Masahiro Nezu, Tomokazu Souma, Lei Yu, Hiroki Sekine, Takashi Moriguchi, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Sadayoshi Ito, Norio Suzuki, Masayuki Yamamoto
OBJECTIVE: Placental activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in pathogenesis of preeclampsia. RAS induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by activating NADPH oxidases. Keap1-Nrf2 system is a critical regulator for cellular anti-oxidative stress response through controlling transcription of antioxidant genes. This study has explored the relationship between RAS-induced ROS signaling and Keap1-Nrf2 system in preeclampsia. DESIGN AND METHOD: To examine the contribution of Keap1-Nrf2 system to preeclampsia pathology, we generated transgenic mouse models of preeclampsia/pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH mice), in which RAS is activated selectively in late pregnancy, under deficient, normal or active Nrf2 conditions...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nisreen Kweider, Berthold Huppertz, Werner Rath, Jessica Lambertz, Rebecca Caspers, Mohamed ElMoursi, Ulrich Pecks, Mamed Kadyrov, Athanassios Fragoulis, Thomas Pufe, Christoph Jan Wruck
OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined as a pathological decreased fetal growth. Oxidative stress has been connected to the restriction in the fetal growth. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a potent activator of the cellular antioxidant response. The effect Nrf2 on fetal-placental development has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Here, we evaluated the placental and fetal growth in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-KO) and Nrf2-wild type mice (Nrf2-WT) throughout pregnancy...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Yi Liu, Ledan Wang, Fang Wang, Changzhong Li
BACKGROUND Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline...
September 15, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Nelly D Saenen, Karen Vrijens, Bram G Janssen, Harry A Roels, Kristof Y Neven, Wim Vanden Berghe, Wilfried Gyselaers, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Patrick De Boever, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter with a diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) affects human fetal development during pregnancy. Oxidative stress is a putative mechanism by which PM2.5 may exert its effects. Leptin (LEP) is an energy regulating hormone involved in fetal growth and development. OBJECTIVES: We investigated in placental tissue whether DNA methylation of the LEP promoter is associated with PM2.5 and whether the oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarker 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NTp) is involved...
September 13, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Jose Sergio Possomato-Vieira, Victor Hugo Gonçalves-Rizzi, Tamiris Uracs Sales Graça, Regina Aparecida Nascimento, Carlos A Dias-Junior
Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) has presented antihypertensive and antioxidant effects and may reduce circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1). We examined whether NaHS prevents maternal and fetal detrimental changes in a model of hypertension in pregnancy induced by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Forty pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): Norm-Preg, Preg + NaHS, HTN-Preg, or HTN-Preg + NaHS. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), number of viable fetuses, litter size, pups, and placentae weights were recorded...
September 12, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Cathal McCarthy, Louise C Kenny
Aberrant placentation generating placental oxidative stress is proposed to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Unfortunately, therapeutic trials of antioxidants have been uniformly disappointing. There is provisional evidence implicating mitochondrial dysfunction as a source of oxidative stress in preeclampsia. Here we provide evidence that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediates endothelial dysfunction and establish that directly targeting mitochondrial scavenging may provide a protective role...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nelly D Saenen, Karen Vrijens, Bram G Janssen, Narjes Madhloum, Martien Peusens, Wilfried Gyselaers, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Harry A Roels, Tim S Nawrot
The placenta plays a crucial role in fetal growth and development through adaptive responses to perturbations of the maternal environment. We investigated the association between placental 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NTp), a biomarker of oxidative stress, and exposure to air pollutants during various time windows of pregnancy. We measured the placental 3-NTp levels of 330 mother-newborn pairs enrolled in the Environmental Influence on Ageing in Early Life (ENVIRONAGE) Study, a Belgian birth cohort study (2010-2013)...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Chuanfeng Teng, Zhiping Wang, Bing Yan
Worldwide epidemiological studies have shown that exposures to particulate matters (PMs), such as PM2.5 or PM10 , during pregnancy cause birth defects in the newborn. Although mechanistic understanding of such effects are not available, recent research using murine models highlights some key progress: (1) toxicity caused by PMs is a combined effects of particles and the adsorbed toxic pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, bacteria, and virus. Fine particles may hold on to pollutants and, therefore, reduce their toxicity or enhance the toxicity by carrying pollutants crossing the placental barrier; (2) smaller size, certain particle surface chemistry modifications, early developmental stage of placenta, and maternal diseases all aggravate PM-induced birth defects; (3) molecular events involved in such toxicity are begin to emerge: induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage, and alteration of molecular signaling or epigenetic events are some possible causes...
August 31, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Maria Teresa Mella, Katherine Kohari, Richard Jones, Juan Peña, Lauren Ferrara, Joanne Stone, Luca Lambertini
INTRODUCTION: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) affects 0.2-2% of pregnant women. While the maternal clinical course of ICP is usually benign, the fetal effects can be severe spanning from spontaneous preterm birth to fetal demise to long term effects on the health of the progeny. ICP is characterized by high maternal serum levels of bile acids and placental and hepatic bile acids accumulation. Intrahepatic cholestasis, in the non-pregnant state, has been also linked to alterations of the mitochondrial activity attributed to high oxidative stress rates driven by high intracellular bile acids concentrations...
September 2016: Placenta
Silvia Rodrigo, Lourdes Rodríguez, Paola Otero, María I Panadero, Antonia García, Coral Barbas, Núria Roglans, Sonia Ramos, Luis Goya, Juan C Laguna, Juan J Álvarez-Millán, Carlos Bocos
SCOPE: One of the features of metabolic syndrome caused by liquid fructose intake is an impairment of redox status. We have investigated whether maternal fructose ingestion modifies the redox status in pregnant rats and their fetuses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fructose (10% wt/vol) in the drinking water of rats throughout gestation, leads to maternal hepatic oxidative stress. However, this change was also observed in glucose-fed rats and, in fact, both carbohydrates produced a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity...
August 22, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Lucas Sagrillo-Fagundes, Hélène Clabault, Laetitia Laurent, Andrée-Anne Hudon-Thibeault, Eugênia Maria Assunção Salustiano, Marlène Fortier, Josianne Bienvenue-Pariseault, Philippe Wong Yen, J Thomas Sanderson, Cathy Vaillancourt
This protocol describes how villous cytotrophoblast cells are isolated from placentas at term by successive enzymatic digestions, followed by density centrifugation, media gradient isolation and immunomagnetic purification. As observed in vivo, mononucleated villous cytotrophoblast cells in primary culture differentiate into multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast cells after 72 hr. Compared to normoxia (8% O2), villous cytotrophoblast cells that undergo hypoxia/reoxygenation (0.5% / 8% O2) undergo increased oxidative stress and intrinsic apoptosis, similar to that observed in vivo in pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Iman Hassan, Anjana M Kumar, Hae-Ryung Park, Lawrence H Lash, Rita Loch-Caruso
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental pollutant associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in humans. TCE intoxication is primarily through its biotransformation to bioactive metabolites, including S-(1, 2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC). TCE induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver and kidney. Although the placenta is capable of xenobiotic metabolism, and oxidative stress and inflammation in placenta have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, TCE toxicity in the placenta remains poorly understood...
August 3, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Michael J Haas, Mohammad Jafri, Kent R Wehmeier, Luisa M Onstead-Haas, Arshag D Mooradian
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress promote endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Since vitamin D has been shown in several studies to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, we examined the effects of vitamin D on ER stress and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. ER stress was measured using the placental secreted alkaline phosphatase assay and oxidative stress was measured by hydroethidine fluorescence. Expression of ER stress markers, including glucose-regulated protein 78, c-jun N-terminal kinase 1 phosphorylation, and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation, as well as X-box binding protein-1 splicing were measured in tunicamycin (TM)-treated human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) and other vitamin D analogs...
July 22, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ramkumar Menon
Various endocrine, immune, and mechanical factors produced by feto-maternal compartments at term increase intrauterine inflammatory loads to induce labor. The role of fetal (placental) membranes (amniochorion) as providers of parturition signals has not been well investigated. Fetal membranes line the intrauterine cavity and grow with and protect the fetus. Fetal membranes exist as an entity between the mother and fetus and perform unique functions during pregnancy. Membranes undergo a telomere-dependent p38 MAPK-induced senescence and demonstrate a decline in functional and mechanical abilities at term, showing signs of aging...
August 2016: Placenta
Michael J Haas, Luisa Onstead-Haas, Tracey Lee, Maisoon Torfah, Arshag D Mooradian
BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in diabetes-related vascular complications partly through oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of angiotensin II receptor subtype one (AT1) in dextrose induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, another cellular stress implicated in vascular disease. METHODS: Human coronary artery endothelial cells with or without AT1 receptor knock down were treated with 27...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Wanyi Zhang, Lin Yang, Huijuan Kuang, Pengfei Yang, Zoraida P Aguilar, Andrew Wang, Fen Fu, Hengyi Xu
In this study, the effects of cadmium containing QDs (such as CdSe/ZnS and CdSe QDs) and bulk CdCl2 in pregnant mice, their fetuses, and the pregnancy outcomes were investigated. It was shown that although the QDs and bulk CdCl2 were effectively blocked by the placental barrier, the damage on the placenta caused by CdSe QDs still led to fetus malformation, while the mice in CdSe/ZnS QDs treatment group exhibited slightly hampered growth but showed no significant abnormalities. Moreover, the Cd contents in the placenta and the uterus of CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs treatment groups showed significantly higher than the CdCl2 treated group which indicated that the nanoscale size of the QDs allowed relative ease of entry into the gestation tissues...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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