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pulmonary and critical care

Kathleen Oare Lindell, Mehdi Nouraie, Melinda J Klesen, Sara Klein, Kevin F Gibson, Daniel J Kass, Margaret Quinn Rosenzweig
Introduction: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive life-limiting lung disease affects approximately 128 000 newly diagnosed individuals in the USA annually. IPF, a disease of ageing associated with intense medical and financial burden, is expected to grow in incidence globally. Median survival from diagnosis is 3.8 years, and many of these patients succumb to a rapid death within 6 months. Despite the fatal prognosis, we have found that patients and caregivers often fail to understand the poor prognosis as the disease relentlessly progresses...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
David Price, Dorothy L Keininger, Boomi Viswanad, Matthias Gasser, Susann Walda, Florian S Gutzwiller
Background: Nonadherence to medication and incorrect use of inhalers represent significant barriers to optimal disease management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thus, health care professionals (HCPs) play a critical role in educating their patients on appropriate inhaler use and in ensuring medication adherence. However, many patients do not receive appropriate inhaler training or have not had their inhaler technique checked. Methods: The Real-life Experience and Accuracy of inhaLer use (REAL) survey was a computer-assisted, telephonic survey consisting of 23 questions gathering real-world information on correct inhaler use, inhalation technique, device attributes, adherence, dosing accuracy, training, correct device use, ease of use, and factors that influence patient adherence in commercially available inhalers delivering COPD maintenance therapy...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Yuval D Bar-Or, Henry E Fessler, Dipan A Desai, Sammy Zakaria
INTRODUCTION: Many residents and fellows complete graduate medical education having received minimal unbiased financial planning guidance. This places them at risk of making ill-informed financial decisions, which may lead to significant harm to them and their families. Therefore, we sought to provide fellows with comprehensive unbiased financial education and empower them to make timely, constructive financial decisions. METHODS: A self-selected cohort of cardiovascular disease, pulmonary and critical care, and infectious disease fellows (n = 18) at a single institution attended a live, eight-hour interactive course on personal finance...
January 1, 2018: Curēus
Barbara Giordani, Annalisa Amato, Fabio Majo, Gianluca Ferrari, Serena Quattrucci, Laura Minicucci, Rita Padoan, Giovanna Floridia, Gianna Puppo Fornaro, Domenica Taruscio, Marco Salvatore
INTRODUCTION: The Italian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (ICFR) is based on a new agreement about the data flow towards the Registry signed on October, 4th 2016 by the Centre for Rare Diseases of the Italian National Institute of Health (NIH), the clinicians of the Italian National Referral and Support Centres for Cystic Fibrosis, the Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù" (Rome), the Italian Cystic Fibrosis Society, and the Italian League for Cystic Fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present Report is to improve the knowledge on cystic fibrosis (CF) through the epidemiological description of Italian patients...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Wolf B Kratzert, Eva K Boyd, Johanna C Schwarzenberger
Survival of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has improved significantly over the last 2 decades, leading to an increase in hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions of these patients. Whereas most of the ICU admissions in the past were related to perioperative management, the incidence of medical emergencies from long-term sequelae of palliative or corrective surgical treatment of these patients is rising. Intensivists now are confronted with patients who not only have complex anatomy after congenital cardiac surgery, but also complex pathophysiology due to decades of living with abnormal cardiac anatomy and diseases of advanced age...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Mihai Mareș, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti-Constantinescu, David W Denning
OBJECTIVE: To estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Romania. METHODS: Data derived from the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institute of Statistics, Romanian public health agencies and non-profit health organizations, and published annual reports on local epidemiology were used in the present study. When no data were available, specific at-risk populations were used to calculate frequencies of serious fungal diseases, using previously published epidemiological parameters...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
H Bryant Nguyen, Carey C Thomson, Naftali Kaminski, Lynn M Schnapp, J Mark Madison, Robb W Glenny, Anne E Dixon
An academic medical career traditionally revolves around patient care, teaching, and scholarly projects. Thus, when an opportunity for a leadership role arises, such as Division Chief, the new leader is often unprepared with little or no formal leadership training. In this article, academic leaders of the Association of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Division Directors reviewed several leadership concepts adapted from the business sector and applied years of their experience to aid new division chiefs with their first day on the job...
February 27, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Sean Collins, Jennifer Martindale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In spite of advances in our understanding of acute heart failure (AHF) and its different phenotypic expressions, AHF management is still centered on volume removal with intravenous diuretics. This narrative review describes the pathophysiology underlying hypertensive AHF and appraises therapies targeting these mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Vascular redistribution rather than volume overload may be the primary determinant of elevated cardiac filling pressures and subsequent pulmonary congestion in patients with hypertensive AHF; in these patients, vasodilators should be the predominant treatment...
February 24, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Philip S Wells, Anthonie W A Lensing, Lloyd Haskell, Bennett Levitan, François Laliberté, Michael Durkin, Veronica Ashton, Yongling Xiao, Concetta Crivera, Dominique Lejeune, Jeff Schein, Patrick Lefebvre
AIMS: The EINSTEIN-Extension trial (EINSTEIN-EXT) found that continued treatment with rivaroxaban for an additional 6 or 12 months (versus placebo) after 6-12 months of initial anticoagulation significantly reduced the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) with a small non-significant increased risk of major bleeding (none fatal or in critical site). This study aimed to compare total healthcare cost between rivaroxaban and placebo based on the EINSTEIN-EXT event rates. METHODS: Total healthcare cost was calculated as sum of treatment and clinical event costs from a US managed care perspective...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Deepa Ramadurai, Stephanie Corder, Tara Churney, Bridget Graney, Andrea Harshman, Sarah Meadows, Jeffrey J Swigris
Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, incurable lung disease whose intrusive symptoms rob patients of their quality of life. Patients with IPF rely on their caregivers for support and assistance in amounts that vary according to patients' individual circumstances and disease severity. Knowledgeable and well-informed patients and caregivers are best suited to deal with life-altering conditions like IPF. Methods: We conducted two hour-long focus groups with 13 patients with IPF and 4 caregivers of patients with IPF to better understand their informational needs and in what format such information should be delivered...
2018: BMJ open quality
Olufunmilola Abraham, Jenny S Li, Kathy E Monangai, Alison M Feathers, Daniel Weiner
OBJECTIVES: To describe the critical need for pharmacists' involvement in outpatient care for people living with cystic fibrosis (CF). DATA SOURCES: Not applicable. SUMMARY: CF is a pulmonary condition that affects more than 30,000 children and adults in the United States and 70,000 people worldwide. Various complex medication regimens are given to patients with CF, some depending on the type of mutation they have in their CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Thomas F X O'Donnell, Chloe Powell, Sarah E Deery, Jeremy D Darling, Kakra Hughes, Kristina A Giles, Grace J Wang, Marc L Schermerhorn
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies identified significant racial disparities as well as regional variation in outcomes of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). We aimed to determine whether regional variation contributes to these racial disparities. METHODS: We identified all white or black patients who underwent infrainguinal revascularization or amputation in 15 deidentified regions of the Vascular Quality Initiative between 2003 and 2017. We excluded three regions with <100 procedures...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Adrian Vk Wong, Nitin Arora, Olusegun Olusanya, Ben Sharif, Robert M Lundin, A Dhadda, S Clarke, R Siviter, M Argent, Gavin Denton, Anna Dennis, Angela Day, Tamas Szakmany
Background: Central venous catheters are inserted ubiquitously in critical care and have roles in drug administration, fluid management and renal replacement therapy. They are also associated with numerous complications. The true number of central venous catheters inserted per year and the proportion of them associated with complications are unknown in the UK. Methods: We performed a prospective audit at five hospitals, as a feasibility pilot for a larger, nationwide audit...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Melisa M Shah, Eric I Hsiao, Carl M Kirsch, Amit Gohil, Supriya Narasimhan, David A Stevens
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is classically considered an illness of severely immunocompromised patients with limited host defenses. However, IPA has been reported in immunocompetent but critically ill patients. This report describes two fatal cases of pathologically confirmed IPA in patients with influenza in the intensive care unit. One patient had influenza B infection, whereas the other had influenza A H1N1. Both patients died despite broad-spectrum antimicrobials, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support...
February 2, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Thomas W Carver
OBJECTIVE: Surgical critical care (SCC) fellows are expected to receive training in critical care ultrasound (CCUS) but training is sporadic and there is no standardized curriculum to guide educators. Previous studies show wide variation in CCUS training during fellowship across specialties but SCC has been underrepresented. This study was performed to assess SCC program directors' views regarding CCUS during fellowship training. DESIGN: Adult SCC program directors were surveyed regarding the role of CCUS in fellowship training...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Joshua T Bucher, Christopher Bryczkowski, Grant Wei, Renee L Riggs, Anoop Kotwal, Brian Sumner, Jonathan V McCoy
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study is to investigate rates of individual procedures performed by residents in our emergency medicine (EM) residency program. Different programs expose residents to different training environments. Our hypothesis is that ultrasound examinations are the most commonly performed procedure in our residency. METHODS: The study took place in an academic level I trauma center with multiple residency and fellowship programs including surgery, surgical critical care, trauma, medicine, pulmonary/critical care, anesthesiology and others...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Melissa Beaudet Jones
The Fontan procedure is the final procedure in staged palliation for patients with functional single-ventricle physiology. The goal of the procedure is to separate systemic and pulmonary blood flow by directing systemic venous return through the Fontan connection to the pulmonary arteries and the lungs without ventricular contribution. Following the procedure, pulmonary blood flow is completely passive and dependent on pressure gradients, resulting in complex postoperative cardiopulmonary interactions. Understanding the physiology is essential to effectively manage these patients...
February 2018: Critical Care Nurse
Blair Wendlandt, Thomas Bice, Shannon Carson, Lydia Chang
PURPOSE: Intermediate care units (IMCUs) represent an alternative care setting with nurse staffing levels between those of the general ward and the intensive care unit (ICU). Despite rising prevalence, little is known about IMCU practices across US hospitals. The purpose of this study is to characterize utilization patterns and assess for variation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 14-item survey was distributed to a random nationwide sample of pulmonary and critical care physicians between January and April 2017...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Lieuwe D J Bos
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complication of critical illness that is characterized by acute onset, protein rich, pulmonary edema. There is no treatment for ARDS, other than the reduction of additional ventilator induced lung injury. Prediction or earlier recognition of ARDS could result in preventive measurements and might decrease mortality and morbidity. Exhaled breath contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a collection of hundreds of small molecules linked to several physiological and pathophysiological processes...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle weakness is common in the intensive care units (ICU). Approximately 50% of patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days show signs of ICU-acquired muscle weakness. In these patients, muscle weakness may be the result of axonal polyneuropathy, myopathy or a combination of both. The commonest risk factors in patients with ICU-acquired weakness (AW) are the severity and duration of the systemic inflammatory response, duration of the stay in the ICU and of mechanical ventilation, hyperglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, parenteral nutrition, and administration of corticosteroids and of neuromuscular blocking agents...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
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