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Stroke inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726018/association-of-vagotomy-and-decreased-risk-of-subsequent-ischemic-stroke-in-complicated-peptic-ulcer-patients-an-asian-population-study
#1
Chu-Wen Fang, Chun-Hung Tseng, Shih-Chi Wu, William Tzu-Liang Chen, Chih-Hsin Muo
OBJECTIVES: The primary management of peptic ulcers is medical treatment. Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to complications (perforation and/or bleeding). There has been a trend toward the use of a less invasive surgical simple suture, simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiography) hemostasis rather than acid-reducing vagotomy (i.e., vagus nerve severance) for treating complicated peptic ulcers. Other studies have shown the relationship between high vagus nerve activity and survival in cancer patients via reduced levels of inflammation, indicating the essential role of the vagus nerve...
July 19, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722240/an-mri-hyperintense-acute-reperfusion-marker-is-related-to-elevated-peripheral-monocyte-count-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#2
Zurab Nadareishvili, Marie Luby, Richard Leigh, Jignesh Shah, John K Lynch, Amie W Hsia, Richard T Benson, Lawrence L Latour
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute ischemic stroke as a hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Although activated leukocytes, including monocytes, are the main source of MMPs, limited data exist to support relationship between leukocyte activation and BBB disruption in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes with BBB disruption detected as HARM (+) in patients with acute ischemic stroke...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721154/obesity-and-inflammation-the-linking-mechanism-and-the-complications
#3
Mohammed S Ellulu, Ismail Patimah, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Asmah Rahmat, Yehia Abed
Obesity is the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat that may interfere with the maintenance of an optimal state of health. The excess of macronutrients in the adipose tissues stimulates them to release inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, and reduces production of adiponectin, predisposing to a pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress. The increased level of interleukin 6 stimulates the liver to synthesize and secrete C-reactive protein. As a risk factor, inflammation is an imbedded mechanism of developed cardiovascular diseases including coagulation, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720149/heparanase-promotes-neuroinflammatory-response-during-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#4
Benjarat Changyaleket, Zhao Zhong Chong, Randal O Dull, Danop Nanegrungsunk, Haoliang Xu
BACKGROUND: Heparanase, a mammalian endo-β-D-glucoronidase that specifically degrades heparan sulfate, has been implicated in inflammation and ischemic stroke. However, the role of heparanase in neuroinflammatory response in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not yet been investigated. This study was designed to examine the association between heparanase expression and neuroinflammation during subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Rats were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation, and the expression of heparanase was determined by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence in the ipsilateral brain cortex at 24 h post-SAH...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718666/atrial-cardiopathy-a-mechanism-of-cryptogenic-stroke
#5
Shadi Yaghi, Hooman Kamel, Mitchell S V Elkind
Cryptogenic stroke accounts for approximately 30% of all ischemic strokes. Recently, atrial cardiopathy diagnosed by the presence of one of its serum, imaging, or electrocardiogram biomarkers has been shown to be associated with ischemic stroke, particularly of embolic subtypes. Areas covered: This paper aims to summarize data on occult atrial fibrillation and stroke, provide an overview on mechanisms, such as inflammation and fibrosis, of stroke in atrial cardiopathy, critically review data on biomarkers of atrial cardiopathy and their association with stroke, and suggest therapeutic implications, including directions for future research...
July 18, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707263/delivery-of-viral-vectors-for-gene-therapy-in-intimal-hyperplasia-and-restenosis-in-atherosclerotic-swine
#6
REVIEW
Sannette Hall, Devendra K Agrawal
Cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis are a major financial and health burden globally. Inflammation associated with atherosclerosis results in the development of plaques that can rupture causing thrombosis, stroke, or death. The most widely used treatment for the removal of atherosclerotic plaques is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stenting. Although this is a safer and minimally invasive method, restenosis and intimal hyperplasia after interventional procedure remains a major hurdle and more refined approaches are needed...
July 13, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707073/protective-effects-of-spatholobi-caulis-extract-on-neuronal-damage-and-focal-ischemic-stroke-reperfusion-injury
#7
Hee Ra Park, Heeeun Lee, Jung-Jin Lee, Nam-Hui Yim, Min-Jung Gu, Jin Yeul Ma
Neuronal apoptotic cell death plays an important role in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ischemic stroke. Spatholobi Caulis (SC) has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, viral infection, and anemia. However, the protective effects of SC extract (SCE) against apoptotic cell death in the brain have not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of SCE against neuronal injury etoposide-induced neurotoxicity and in rats subjected to focal transient ischemic stroke middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 45 min, followed by 7 days of reperfusion...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704925/licochalcone-a-prevents-platelet-activation-and-thrombus-formation-through-the-inhibition-of-plc%C3%AE-2-pkc-akt-and-mapk-pathways
#8
Li-Ming Lien, Kuan-Hung Lin, Li-Ting Huang, Mei-Fang Tseng, Hou-Chang Chiu, Ray-Jade Chen, Wan-Jung Lu
Platelet activation is involved in cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Licochalcone A (LA), an active ingredient of licorice, exhibits multiple biological activities such as anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. However, its role in platelet activation remains unclear. Therefore, the study investigated the antiplatelet mechanism of LA. Our data revealed that LA (2-10 μM) concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin and U46619...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699181/predicting-in-a-predicament-stroke-and-hemorrhage-risk-prediction-in-dialysis-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#9
REVIEW
Amber O Molnar, Manish M Sood
Whether to anticoagulate dialysis patients with atrial fibrillation is a common clinical dilemma with limited high-quality data to inform decision-making. While the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation for stroke prevention in dialysis patients with atrial fibrillation has long been debated and remains unclear, the more upstream issue of stroke risk assessment from atrial fibrillation has received relatively little attention. In the general population, a handful of risk scores to help predict stroke and hemorrhage risk in the setting of atrial fibrillation are widely validated and applied in clinical practice...
July 11, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698256/neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-and-perihematomal-edema-growth-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#10
Aaron M Gusdon, Gino Gialdini, Gbambele Kone, Hediyeh Baradaran, Alexander E Merkler, Halinder S Mangat, Babak B Navi, Costantino Iadecola, Ajay Gupta, Hooman Kamel, Santosh B Murthy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although preclinical studies have shown inflammation to mediate perihematomal edema (PHE) after intracerebral hemorrhage, clinical data are lacking. Leukocyte count, often used to gauge serum inflammation, has been correlated with poor outcome but its relationship with PHE remains unknown. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that leukocyte count is associated with PHE growth. METHODS: We included patients with intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to a tertiary-care stroke center between 2011 and 2015...
July 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691141/vinpocetine-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-inflammation-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-patients
#11
Fang Zhang, Chen Yan, Changjuan Wei, Yang Yao, Xiaofeng Ma, Zhongying Gong, Shoufeng Liu, Dawei Zang, Jieli Chen, Fu-Dong Shi, Junwei Hao
Immunity and inflammation play critical roles in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke. Therefore, immune intervention, as a new therapeutic strategy, is worthy of exploration. Here, we tested the inflammation modulator, vinpocetine, for its effect on the outcomes of stroke. For this multi-center study, we recruited 60 patients with anterior cerebral circulation occlusion and onset of stroke that had exceeded 4.5 h but lasted less than 48 h. These patients, after random division into two groups, received either standard management alone (controls) or standard management plus vinpocetine (30 mg per day intravenously for 14 consecutive days, Gedeon Richter Plc...
July 9, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691076/self-assembling-cyclic-d-l-%C3%AE-peptides-as-modulators-of-plasma-hdl-function-a-supramolecular-approach-toward-antiatherosclerotic-agents
#12
Yannan Zhao, Luke J Leman, Debra J Search, Ricardo A Garcia, David A Gordon, Bruce E Maryanoff, M Reza Ghadiri
There is great interest in developing new modes of therapy for atherosclerosis to treat coronary heart disease and stroke, particularly ones that involve modulation of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Here, we describe a new supramolecular chemotype for altering HDL morphology and function. Guided by rational design and SAR-driven peptide sequence enumerations, we have synthesized and determined the HDL remodeling activities of over 80 cyclic d,l-α-peptides. We have identified a few distinct sequence motifs that are effective in vitro in remodeling human and mouse plasma HDLs to increase the concentration of lipid-poor pre-beta HDLs, which are key initial acceptors of cholesterol in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process, and concomitantly promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells...
June 28, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690033/schisantherin-a-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-neuronal-injury-in-rats-via-regulation-of-tlr4-and-c5ar1-signaling-pathways
#13
Yun Wei Shi, Xiao Chuan Zhang, Chen Chen, Miao Tang, Zhi Wei Wang, Xin Miao Liang, Fei Ding, Cai Ping Wang
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and C5aR1 (CD88) have been recognized as potential therapeutic targets for the reduction of inflammation and secondary damage and improvement of outcome after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). The inflammatory responses which induce cell apoptosis and necrosis after I/R brain injury lead to a limited process of neural repair. To further comprehend how these targets function in I/R state, we investigated the pathological changes and TLR4 and C5aR1 signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo models of I/R brain injury in this study...
July 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685617/aerobic-exercise-prevents-rarefaction-of-pial-collaterals-and-increased-stroke-severity-that-occur-with-aging
#14
Wojciech Rzechorzek, Hua Zhang, Brian K Buckley, Kunjie Hua, Daniel Pomp, James E Faber
Variation in extent of the brain's collateral circulation is an important determinant of variation in the severity of stroke and efficacy of revascularization therapies. However, the number and diameter of pial collateral "arterioles" decrease with aging in associated with reduced eNOS and increased oxidative stress. We tested whether exercise reduces this aging-induced rarefaction. Twelve-month-old mice were randomized to sedentary or voluntary wheel-running. At 26 months' age, permanent MCA occlusion was followed 72 h later by determination of infarct volume and vascular casting after maximal dilation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684305/emerging-roles-of-protein-kinases-in-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation
#15
REVIEW
Sun-Hwa Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Neuroinflammation is mediated by resident central nervous system glia, neurons, peripherally derived immune cells, blood-brain barrier, and inflammatory mediators secreted from these cells. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Protein kinases have been one of the most exploited therapeutic targets in the current pharmacological research, especially in studies on cancer and inflammation...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677732/jnk-signaling-is-required-for-the-mip%C3%A2-1%C3%AE-%C3%A2-associated-regulation-of-kupffer-cells-in-the-heat-stroke-response
#16
Xiao-Juan Chen, Zhong-Zhi Tang, Guo-Guo Zhu, Qing Cheng, Wen-Kai Zhang, Hui-Min Li, Wei Fu, Qi-Ping Lu
Severe heat stroke (HS) consists of extreme hyperthermia with thermoregulatory failure, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Liver injury is a complication of HS that is associated with inflammatory responses and Kupffer cells (KCs), which are resident macrophages in the liver that serve as a major source of inflammatory cytokines; however, the association and the underlying mechanisms of KC functions in HS‑induced endotoxemia and inflammation require an improved understanding. The important chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein‑1α (MIP‑1α) increases inflammatory responses and the secretion of inflammatory molecules from KCs, including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677497/platelets-their-potential-contribution-to-the-generation-of-beta-amyloid-plaques-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Christian Humpel
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative brain disorder, showing severe beta-amyloid depositions in the brain (plaques) and in vessels (cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CAA), tau pathology, neurodegeneration (and loss of acetylcholine), inflammation with reactive astrocytes and microglia and cerebrovascular damage, all resulting in memory loss. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this review I present a hypothesis that chronic vascular lesions and bleedings cause platelet overactivation and repair...
July 5, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674685/risk-factors-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-congenital-heart-disease-patients
#18
REVIEW
Michael Silvey, Leonardo R Brandão
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a common condition in the pediatric population, affecting up to 1% of all live births (i.e., around 40,000 newborns/year in the United States). Although CHD does have a wide range of severity, by the age of 5 years approximately 80% of patients will require at least one surgical intervention to achieve a complete/palliative cardiac repair. Today, in light of their much-improved surgical survival, the care of these patients focuses on morbidity prevention and/or treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663065/potential-therapeutic-and-protective-effect-of-curcumin-against-stroke-in-the-male-albino-stroke-induced-model-rats
#19
Yuanyuan Zhang, Yi Yan, Yi Cao, Yongtao Yang, Qing Zhao, Rui Jing, Jiayi Hu, Juan Bao
AIMS: The present study was carried out to understand the therapeutic effect of curcumin (CUR) against stroke in the experimental animal model. The study investigates the healing effect of CUR on mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male albino, Wistar strain rats were used for the induction of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and reperfusion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain region...
June 26, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661565/a-brief-review-of-intradialytic-hypotension-with-a-focus-on-survival
#20
Jason A Chou, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Anna T Mathew
Intradialytic hypotension (IDH), a common complication of ultrafiltration during hemodialysis therapy, is associated with high mortality and morbidity. IDH, defined as a nadir systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg on more than 30% of treatments, is a relevant definition and is correlated with mortality. Risk factors for IDH include patient demographics, anti-hypertensive medication use, larger interdialytic weight gain, and dialysis prescription features as dialysate sodium, high ultrafiltration rate, and dialysate temperature...
June 29, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
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