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Stroke inflammation

Suowen Xu, Danielle Kamato, Peter J Little, Shinichi Nakagawa, Jaroslav Pelisek, Zheng Gen Jin
Atherosclerosis, the principal cause of cardiovascular death worldwide, is a pathological disease characterized by fibro-proliferation, chronic inflammation, lipid accumulation, and immune disorder in the vessel wall. As the atheromatous plaques develop into advanced stage, the vulnerable plaques are prone to rupture, which causes acute cardiovascular events, including ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. Emerging evidence has suggested that atherosclerosis is also an epigenetic disease with the interplay of multiple epigenetic mechanisms...
November 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Luca Saba, Letizia Lai, Pierleone Lucatelli, Roberto Sanfilippo, Roberto Montisci, Jasjit S Suri, Gavino Faa
PURPOSE: To explore the association between presence of inflammatory cells in the carotid plaques surgically treated and brain MRI findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were prospectively analyzed. Brain MRI was performed with a 1.5 Tesla scanner and infacts (lacuna and non-lacunar) pertinence of the anterior circulation were recorded. All patients underwent carotid endarterectomy "en bloc"; carotid plaques histological sections were prepared and immuno-cytochemical analysis was performed to characterize and quantify the presence of inflammatory cells...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Maria Sole Chimenti, Flavia Sunzini, Laura Fiorucci, Elisabetta Botti, Giulia Lavinia Fonti, Paola Conigliaro, Paola Triggianese, Luisa Costa, Francesco Caso, Alessandro Giunta, Maria Esposito, Luca Bianchi, Roberto Santucci, Roberto Perricone
Psoriasis (PsO) is an autoimmune disease characterized by keratinocyte proliferation, chronic inflammation and mast cell activation. Up to 42% of patients with PsO may present psoriatic arthritis (PsA). PsO and PsA share common pathophysiological mechanisms: keratinocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes are resistant to apoptosis: this is one of the mechanism facilitating their hyperplasic growth, and at joint level, the destruction of articular cartilage, and bone erosion and/or proliferation. Several clinical studies regarding diseases characterized by impairment of cell death, either due to apoptosis or necrosis, reported cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the extracellular space and finally into the circulation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Justin Lee, Ryan McMillan, Leonidas Skiadopoulos, Vinod Bansal, José Biller, Debra Hoppensteadt, Jawed Fareed
The prevalence of neurocognitive deficits remains high in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD5D). Major contributors to such deficits include stroke, cervical carotid artery disease (CCAD), and intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). The risk of developing these dysfunctional vascular processes is facilitated by the chronic inflammation associated with renal failure. Plasma levels of 10 circulating biomarkers in patients with CKD5D (n = 78-90) were quantified using the sandwich enzyme linked immune sorbent assay method...
November 14, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Philip M Lam, Marco I González
Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by a predisposition to suffer epileptic seizures. Acquired epilepsy might be the result of brain insults like head trauma, stroke, brain infection, or status epilepticus (SE) when one of these triggering injuries starts a transformative process known as epileptogenesis. There is some data to suggest that, during epileptogenesis, seizures themselves damage the brain but there is no conclusive evidence to demonstrate that spontaneous recurrent seizures themselves injure the brain...
November 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Amanda G Chung, Jennifer B Frye, Jacob C Zbesko, Eleni Constantopoulos, Megan Hayes, Anna G Figueroa, Danielle A Becktel, W Antony Day, John P Konhilas, Brian S McKay, Thuy-Vi V Nguyen, Kristian P Doyle
Here we used mouse models of heart and brain ischemia to compare the inflammatory response to ischemia in the heart, a protein rich organ, to the inflammatory response to ischemia in the brain, a lipid rich organ. We report that ischemia-induced inflammation resolves between one and four weeks in the heart compared to between eight and 24 weeks in the brain. Importantly, we discovered that a second burst of inflammation occurs in the brain between four and eight weeks following ischemia, which coincided with the appearance of cholesterol crystals within the infarct...
September 2018: ENeuro
Paul M Ridker, Brendan M Everett, Aruna Pradhan, Jean G MacFadyen, Daniel H Solomon, Elaine Zaharris, Virak Mam, Ahmed Hasan, Yves Rosenberg, Erin Iturriaga, Milan Gupta, Michelle Tsigoulis, Subodh Verma, Michael Clearfield, Peter Libby, Samuel Z Goldhaber, Roger Seagle, Cyril Ofori, Mohammad Saklayen, Samuel Butman, Narendra Singh, Michel Le May, Olivier Bertrand, James Johnston, Nina P Paynter, Robert J Glynn
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is causally related to atherothrombosis. Treatment with canakinumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits inflammation by neutralizing interleukin-1β, resulted in a lower rate of cardiovascular events than placebo in a previous randomized trial. We sought to determine whether an alternative approach to inflammation inhibition with low-dose methotrexate might provide similar benefit. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of low-dose methotrexate (at a target dose of 15 to 20 mg weekly) or matching placebo in 4786 patients with previous myocardial infarction or multivessel coronary disease who additionally had either type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome...
November 10, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Hai-Rong Yu, Yue-Yue Wei, Jian-Guo Ma, Xiao-Yong Geng
OBJECTIVE: Both Aspirin and Clopidogrel are considered as effective drugs in decreasing ischemic events, which potentially contribute to a promising application regarding the cardiovascular events. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the combination of both Clopidogrel and Aspirin to determine the influence among inflammatory factors, cardiac function, and treatment outcome of patients suffering from ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the Hebei province of China...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Pui Y Lee
Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a monogenic form of systemic vasculopathy that often presents during early childhood. Linked to biallelic mutations in ADA2 (previously CECR1 ), DADA2 was initially described as a syndrome of recurrent fever, livedo racemosa, early-onset strokes, and peripheral vasculopathy that resembles polyarteritis nodosum. However, the wide spectrum of clinical findings and heterogeneity of disease, even among family members with identical mutations, is increasingly recognized...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Bo Lv, Xiyuan Cheng, Frank R Sharp, Bradley P Ander, Da Zhi Liu
Aim: Our previous study demonstrated miR-122 mimic decreased NOS2 expression in blood leucocytes and improved stroke outcomes when given immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Since NOS2 is associated with neuro-inflammation in stroke and decreasing NOS2 expression alone in leucocytes is insufficient to improve stroke outcomes, we hypothesized that miR-122 mimic may also decrease NOS2 expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) even at extended time windows. Methods: We administered PEG-liposome wrapped miR-122 mimic (2...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Emily R Rosario, Stephanie E Kaplan, Sepehr Khonsari, Garrett Vazquez, Niyant Solanki, Melanie Lane, Hiriam Brownell, Sheila S Rosenberg
Background: While research suggests a benefit of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for neurologic injury, controlled clinical trials have not been able to clearly define the benefits. Objective: To investigate the effects of HBOT on physical and cognitive impairments resulting from an ischemic stroke. Methods: Using a within-subject design a baseline for current functional abilities was established over a 3-month period for all subjects (n=7)...
2018: Neurology Research International
Kar Wey Yong, Jane Ru Choi, Mehdi Mohammadi, Alim P Mitha, Amir Sanati-Nezhad, Arindom Sen
Ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and critical limb ischemia are immense public health challenges. Current pharmacotherapy and surgical approaches are insufficient to completely heal ischemic diseases and are associated with a considerable risk of adverse effects. Alternatively, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been shown to exhibit immunomodulation, angiogenesis, and paracrine secretion of bioactive factors that can attenuate inflammation and promote tissue regeneration, making them a promising cell source for ischemic disease therapy...
2018: Stem Cells International
Tao Wang, Chao Qiang Jiang, Lin Xu, Wei Sen Zhang, Feng Zhu, Ya Li Jin, G Neil Thomas, Kar Keung Cheng, Tai Hing Lam
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown positive associations between higher WBC count and deaths from all-causes, CHD, stroke and cancer among occidental populations or developed countries of Asia. No study on the association of WBC count with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese populations was reported. We studied this using prospective data from a large Chinese cohort. METHODS: We used prospective data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS), a total of 29,925 participants in present study...
November 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Verdiana Ravarotto, Francesca Simioni, Gianni Carraro, Giovanni Bertoldi, Elisa Pagnin, Lorenzo A Calò
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the GLA gene that lead to a reduction or an absence of the enzyme α-galactosidase A, resulting in the progressive and multisystemic accumulation of globotriaosylceramide. Clinical manifestation varies from mild to severe, depending on the phenotype. The main clinical manifestations are cutaneous (angiokeratomas), neurological (acroparesthesias), gastrointestinal (nausea, diarrhea abdominal pain), renal (proteinuria and kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias), and cerebrovascular (stroke)...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Chen Chen, Qi-Di Ai, Shi-Feng Chu, Zhao Zhang, Nai-Hong Chen
As a vital cell type in immune system and infiltrating cells in ischemic brain, NK cells can bridge the crosstalk between immune system and nervous system in stroke setting. The mechanism of action of NK cells is complicated, involving direct and indirect actions. NK cells are closely associated with poststroke inflammation, immunodepression and infections. The excessive inflammatory response in ischemic brain is one of the important causes for aggravating cerebral ischemic injury. Besides the inflammation induced by ischemia itself, thrombolytic drug tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration could also induce deteriorative inflammation, which is unfavorable for stroke control and recovery...
November 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Alexander Kokkinos
A wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence has linked obesity to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Obesity can increase CVD morbidity and mortality directly and indirectly. Direct effects are mediated by obesity-induced structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system to accommodate excess body weight, as well as by adipokine effects on inflammation and vascular homeostasis...
November 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
J S Dileep Kumar, Francesca Zanderigo, Jaya Prabhakaran, Harry Rubin-Falcone, Ramin V Parsey, J John Mann
Overexpression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme is associated with the pathogenesis of inflammation, cancers, stroke, arthritis, and neurological disorders. Because of the involvement of COX-2 in these diseases, quantification of COX-2 expression using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) may be a biological marker for early diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and an indicator of effective treatment. At present there is no target-specific or validated PET tracer available for in vivo quantification of COX-2...
October 31, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Michael Eisenhut
BACKGROUND: Brain injury in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is common but under recognized and affects up to 54% of patients with this complication. It's manifestations include cerebral oedema (CE) and cerebral infarction (CI). The etiology of CE in DKA has up to the present time been uncertain. Practical management had been guided by the assumption that rapid osmotic shifts due to rapid correction of hypovolemia and reduction of plasma glucose could cause a shift of water into the cells...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Alessandra Magenta, Sara Sileno, Marco D'Agostino, Francesca Persiani, Sara Beji, Alessandra Paolini, Daniele Camilli, Alessandro Platone, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Sergio Furgiuele
Early recognition of vulnerable carotid plaques could help identifying patients at high stroke risk, who may benefit of earlier revascularization. Nowadays, different biomarkers of plaque instability have been unravelled, among these microRNAs are promising tools for the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis. Inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endothelial dysfunction play a key role in unstable plaques genesis. We showed that miR-200c induces endothelial dysfunction, ROS production and a positive mechanism among miR-200c and miR-33a/b, two microRNAs involved in atherosclerosis progression...
November 2, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Maarten J G Leening, Nancy R Cook, Oscar H Franco, JoAnn E Manson, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Michael J LaMonte, Enrique C Leira, Jennifer G Robinson, Paul M Ridker, Nina P Paynter
Background Cardiovascular risk factors have differential effects on various manifestations of cardiovascular disease, but to date direct formal comparisons are scarce, have been conducted primarily in men, and include only traditional risk factors. Methods and Results Using data from the multi-ethnic Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, we used a case-cohort design to compare 1731 women with incident cardiovascular disease during follow-up to a cohort of 1914 women. The direction of effect of all 24 risk factors (including various apolipoproteins, hemoglobin A1c , high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and tissue plasminogen activator antigen) was concordant for coronary heart disease (CHD, defined as myocardial infarction and CHD death) and ischemic stroke; however, associations were generally stronger with CHD...
October 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
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