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Stroke inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646795/offsetting-the-impact-of-smoking-and-e-cigarette-vaping-on-the-cerebrovascular-system-and-stroke-injury-is-metformin-a-viable-countermeasure
#1
Mohammad A Kaisar, Heidi Villalba, Shikha Prasad, Taylor Liles, Ali Ehsan Sifat, Ravi K Sajja, Thomas J Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Recently published in vitro and in vivo findings strongly suggest that BBB impairment and increased risk for stroke by tobacco smoke (TS) closely resemble that of type-2 diabetes (2DM) and develop largely in response to common key modulators such oxidative stress (OS), inflammation and alterations of the endogenous antioxidative response system (ARE) regulated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Preclinical studies have also shown that nicotine (the principal e-liquid's ingredient used in e-cigarettes) can also cause OS, exacerbation of cerebral ischemia and secondary brain injury...
June 17, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645895/multiparity-improves-outcomes-after-cerebral-ischemia-in-female-mice-despite-features-of-increased-metabovascular-risk
#2
Rodney M Ritzel, Anita R Patel, Monica Spychala, Rajkumar Verma, Joshua Crapser, Edward C Koellhoffer, Anna Schrecengost, Evan R Jellison, Liang Zhu, Venugopal Reddy Venna, Louise D McCullough
Females show a varying degree of ischemic sensitivity throughout their lifespan, which is not fully explained by hormonal or genetic factors. Epidemiological data suggest that sex-specific life experiences such as pregnancy increase stroke risk. This work evaluated the role of parity on stroke outcome. Age-matched virgin (i.e., nulliparous) and multiparous mice were subjected to 60 min of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion and evaluated for infarct volume, behavioral recovery, and inflammation. Using an established mating paradigm, fetal microchimeric cells present in maternal mice were also tracked after parturition and stroke...
June 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645333/sac-1004-a-vascular-leakage-blocker-reduces-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-suppressing-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-inflammation
#3
Haiying Zhang, Joon Ha Park, Sony Maharjan, Jeong Ae Park, Kyu-Sung Choi, Hyojin Park, Yoonjeong Jeong, Ji Hyeon Ahn, In Hye Kim, Jae-Chul Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, In-Kyu Lee, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Young-Myeong Kim, Young-Ger Suh, Moo-Ho Won, Young-Guen Kwon
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and inflammation are critical events in ischemic stroke, contributing to aggravated brain damage. The BBB mainly consists of microvascular endothelial cells sealed by tight junctions to protect the brain from blood-borne substances. Thus, the maintenance of BBB integrity may be a potential target for neuroprotection. Sac-1004, a pseudo-sugar derivative of cholesterol, enhances the endothelial barrier by the stabilization of the cortical actin ring...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645107/effects-of-liraglutide-on-hemodynamic-parameters-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#4
Jin Ying Zhang, Xin Yun Wang, Xiang Wang
Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues improve left ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of liraglutide on hemodynamic parameters in patients with heart failure. A total of 78 patients with heart failure were enrolled in this study between August 2014 and November 2015. Of these, 52 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either liraglutide or placebo for 7 days. Hemodynamic measurements were made using transpulmonary thermodilution and arterial pulse contour analysis...
June 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645072/association-of-the-serum-myeloperoxidase-high-density-lipoprotein-particle-ratio-and-incident-cardiovascular-events-in-a-multi-ethnic-population-observations-from-the-dallas-heart-study
#5
Htet W Khine, John F Teiber, Robert W Haley, Amit Khera, Colby R Ayers, Anand Rohatgi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a product of systemic inflammation, promotes oxidation of lipoproteins; whereas, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) exerts anti-oxidative effects in part via paraoxonase-1 (PON1). MPO induces dysfunctional HDL particles; however, the interaction of circulating levels of these measures in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been studied in humans. We tested whether serum levels of MPO indexed to HDL particle concentration (MPO/HDLp) are associated with increased CVD risk in a large multiethnic population sample, free of CVD at baseline...
June 3, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644252/antineuroinflammation-of-minocycline-in-stroke
#6
Yi Chen, Zhiyou Cai, Zunyu Ke
Accumulating research substantiates the statement that inflammation plays an important role in the development of stroke. Both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of stroke, an imbalance of which leads to inflammation. Anti-inflammation is a kind of hopeful strategy for the prevention and treatment of stroke. Substantial studies have demonstrated that minocycline, a second-generation semisynthetic antibiotic belonging to the tetracycline family, can inhibit neuroinflammation, inflammatory mediators and microglia activation, and improve neurological outcome...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641278/astragaloside-iv-alleviates-heat-induced-inflammation-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-autophagy
#7
Zhiwei Dong, Jian Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yajie Chen, Zichen Yang, Guangtao Huang, Yu Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Yizhi Peng, Tongtong Cao
BACKGROUND: Thermal injury is the main cause of pulmonary disease in stroke after burn and can be life threatening. Heat-induced inflammation is an important factor that triggers a series of induces pathological changes. However, this mechanism underlying heat-induced inflammation in thermal inhalation injury remains unclear. Studies have revealed that astragaloside-IV (AS-IV), a natural compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, has protective effects in inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated whether the protective effects of AS-IV occur because of the suppression of heat-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive autophagy Methods: AS-IV was administered to Wistar rats after thermal inhalation injury and 16HBE140-cells were treated with AS-IV...
June 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641124/neural-repair-by-nt3-chitosan-via-enhancement-of-endogenous-neurogenesis-after-adult-focal-aspiration-brain-injury
#8
Peng Hao, Hongmei Duan, Fei Hao, Lan Chen, Min Sun, Kevin S Fan, Yi Eve Sun, David Williams, Zhaoyang Yang, Xiaoguang Li
The latent regenerative potential of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian brain has been postulated as a likely source for neural repair. However, the inflammatory and inhibitory microenvironment after traumatic brain injury (TBI) prohibits NSCs from generating new functional neurons to restore brain function. Here we report a biodegradable material, chitosan, which, when loaded with neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and injected into the lesion site after TBI, effectively engaged endogenous NSCs to proliferate and migrate to the injury area...
April 26, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638249/circulatory-levels-of-c-x-c-motif-chemokine-ligands-1-9-and-10-are-elevated-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#9
Masoud Amin, Alireza Vakilian, Mohammad Hossein Mahmoodi, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi, Soudeh Khanamani Falahati-Pour, Maryam Rafiei Dolatabadi, Ali Esmaeili Nadimi
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation plays a significant role in the development of ischemic stroke. CXC chemokines play pleiotropic roles in prolonged leukocyte locomotion, astrocyte migration/activation, and neural attachment/sprouting in response to focal stroke. In this study, we aimed to explore the changes in serum levels of three chemokines, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9), and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), in ischemic stroke patients at the time of admission and before discharge from the hospital ward...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635374/sepsis-favors-high-on-clopidogrel-platelet-reactivity
#10
Karolina Akinosoglou, Angelos Perperis, Spyridoula Theodoraki, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Charalambos Gogos
High-on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) is associated with ischemic events in patients on antiplatelet therapy with a history of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, recent data have associated sepsis with adverse cardiovascular events in patients admitted with bacteremia or respiratory infection. We aimed to assess P2Y12-mediated platelet reactivity (PR) during sepsis and recovery in patients under clopidogrel. This was a prospective observational study. Incoming patients presenting with signs/symptoms of sepsis already on a maintenance dose of clopidogrel of 75 mg qd for cardiovascular events were included in this study...
June 21, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634421/the-role-of-von-willebrand-factor-in-vascular-inflammation-from-pathogenesis-to-targeted-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Felice Gragnano, Simona Sperlongano, Enrica Golia, Francesco Natale, Renatomaria Bianchi, Mario Crisci, Fabio Fimiani, Ivana Pariggiano, Vincenzo Diana, Andreina Carbone, Arturo Cesaro, Claudia Concilio, Giuseppe Limongelli, Mariagiovanna Russo, Paolo Calabrò
Beyond its role in hemostasis, von Willebrand factor (VWF) is an emerging mediator of vascular inflammation. Recent studies highlight the involvement of VWF and its regulator, ADAMTS13, in mechanisms that underlie vascular inflammation and immunothrombosis, like leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and extravasation; vascular permeability; ischemia/reperfusion injury; complements activation; and NETosis. The VWF/ADAMTS13 axis is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, promoting plaque formation and inflammation through macrophage and neutrophil recruitment in inflamed lesions...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634267/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-role-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-the-vasculature
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
Since the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was cloned 30 years ago, it has become clear that MR is expressed in extra-renal tissues, including the cardiovascular system, where it is expressed in all cells of the vasculature. Understanding the role of MR in the vasculature has been of particular interest as clinical trials show that MR antagonism improves cardiovascular outcomes out of proportion to changes in blood pressure. The last 30 years of research have demonstrated that MR is a functional hormone-activated transcription factor in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632329/postictal-hypoperfusion-hypoxia-provides-the-foundation-for-a-unified-theory-of-seizure-induced-brain-abnormalities-and-behavioral-dysfunction
#13
REVIEW
Jordan S Farrell, Roberto Colangeli, Marshal D Wolff, Alexandra K Wall, Thomas J Phillips, Antis George, Paolo Federico, G Campbell Teskey
A recent article by Farrell et al. characterizes the phenomenon, mechanisms, and treatment of a local and severe hypoperfusion/hypoxia event that occurs in brain regions following a focal seizure. Given the well-established role of cerebral ischemia/hypoxia in brain damage and behavioral dysfunction in other clinical settings (e.g., stroke, cerebral vasospasm), we put forward a new theory: postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia is responsible for the negative consequences associated with seizures. Fortunately, inhibition of two separate molecular targets, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and l-type calcium channels, can prevent the expression of postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632121/anti-inflammatory-treatment-and-risk-for-depression-after-first-time-stroke-in-a-cohort-of-147-487-danish-patients
#14
Ida Kim Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim Wium-Andersen, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Merete Osler
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication after stroke, and inflammation may be a pathophysiological mechanism. This study examines whether anti-inflammatory treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) or statins influence the risk of depression after stroke. METHODS: A register-based cohort including all patients admitted to hospital with a first-time stroke from Jan. 1, 2001, through Dec. 31, 2011, and a nonstroke population with a similar age and sex distribution was followed for depression until Dec...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629771/chemokines-play-complex-roles-in-cerebral-ischemia
#15
REVIEW
Chen Chen, Shi-Feng Chu, Dan-Dan Liu, Zhao Zhang, Ling-Lei Kong, Xin Zhou, Nai-Hong Chen
Ischemic stroke (IS) is a disease caused by deficiency of blood and oxygen in focal or complete brain, followed by inflammation cascade and other pathological reactions, which finally lead to irreversible damage to the cerebrum. For the inflammation is a key progress at the initiation of ischemia and poststroke, and chemokines work as vital cytokines in inflammation, we focus the roles of chemokines in IS. Studies have shown cerebral ischemia is associated with marked induction of both CXC and CC chemokines which resulting in extensive leukocyte infiltration in the ischemic brain, and neutrophil infiltration may increase cerebral edema inducing injury in the ischemic area...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629519/erythropoietin-endogenous-protection-of-ischemic-brain
#16
Robert T Mallet, Myoung-Gwi Ryou
The human brain requires uninterrupted delivery of blood-borne oxygen and nutrients to sustain its function. Focal ischemia, particularly, ischemic stroke, and global ischemia imposed by cardiac arrest disrupt the brain's fuel supply. The resultant ATP depletion initiates a complex injury cascade encompassing intracellular Ca(2+) overload, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxido-nitrosative stress, extracellular matrix degradation, and inflammation, culminating in neuronal and astroglial necrosis and apoptosis, neurocognitive deficits, and even death...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628593/consideration-of-dose-and-timing-when-applying-interventions-after-stroke-and-spinal-cord-injury
#17
D Michele Basso, Catherine E Lang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nearly 4 decades of investigation into the plasticity of the nervous system suggest that both timing and dose could matter. This article provides a synopsis of our lectures at the IV STEP meeting, which presented a perspective of current data on the issues of timing and dose for adult stroke and spinal cord injury motor rehabilitation. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: For stroke, the prevailing evidence suggests that greater amounts of therapy do not result in better outcomes for upper extremity interventions, regardless of timing...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627961/microsomal-prostaglandin-e2-synthase-1-inhibitors-a-patent-review
#18
Anastasia Psarra, Aikaterini Nikolaou, Maroula G Kokotou, Dimitris Limnios, George Kokotos
Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) catalyzes the terminal step of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation. It is strongly upregulated in inflamed tissues and overexpressed in tumors and it has been recognized as a key enzyme in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, stroke and cancer. Thus, a great effort has been devoted in developing synthetic mPGES-1 inhibitors as novel anti-inflammatory agents. Areas covered: This review article summarizes the mPGES-1 inhibitors presented in patent literature from 2000 to August 2016 and their biological evaluation, discussing their activities in vitro and in vivo...
June 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625252/-cerebral-injury-induced-by-heat-stroke-and-the-therapeutic-effect-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#19
Xiaoxiao Ni, Zhifeng Liu, Qiuyou Xie, Huasheng Tong, Lei Su, Ronghao Yu
With the global warming, the incidence of heat stroke was significantly higher than before. Severe heat stroke has a high mortality, high morbidity and consolidated central nervous system injury characteristics. The main features of severe heat stroke cerebral injury include cognitive impairment, delirium, convulsions and coma. Its mechanism is related with heat shock induced cerebral tissue ischemia and hypoxia, vascular dysfunction, secondary cascade inflammation and so on. Currently, the main treatment of heat stroke cerebral injury is the hypothermia therapy, dehydration for the reduction of intracranial pressure, naloxone and other cerebral protection and nutrition treatments...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611572/4r-cembranoid-improves-outcomes-after-6-hydroxydopamine-challenge-in-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Jing Hu, P A Ferchmin, Ann M Hemmerle, Kim B Seroogy, Vesna A Eterovic, Jiukuan Hao
(1S, 2E, 4R, 6R,-7E, 11E)-2, 7, 11-cembratriene-4, 6-diol (4R) is one of the cembranoids found in tobacco leaves. Previous studies have found that 4R protected acute rat hippocampal slices against neurotoxicity induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and against the toxic organophosphorus compounds paraoxon and diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Furthermore, in vivo, 4R reduced the infarct size in a rodent ischemic stroke model and neurodegeneration caused by DFP. The present study expanded our previous study by focusing on the effect of 4R in Parkinson's disease (PD) and elucidating its underlying mechanisms using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced injury models...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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