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Stroke inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088910/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-sglt2i-their-role-in-cardiometabolic-risk-management
#1
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Michael J Theodorakis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel category of oral antidiabetic drugs that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and increase renal glucose excretion, thus lowering plasma glucose levels. This unique mechanism of SGLT2i action is insulin independent, thus improving glycemic control without promoting hypoglycemia in the absence of exogenously administered insulin. METHODS: The present narrative review addresses the putative associations between SGLT2i and several cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular risk factors, as well as their effects on cardiac and renal function...
January 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#2
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087473/salvianolic-acids-for-injection-safi-suppresses-inflammatory-responses-in-activated-microglia-to-attenuate-brain-damage-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#3
Pengwei Zhuang, Yanjun Wan, Shihan Geng, Ying He, Bo Feng, Zhengliang Ye, Dazheng Zhou, Dekun Li, Hongjun Wei, Hongyan Li, Yanjun Zhang, Aichun Ju
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory reactions induced by microglia in the brain play crucial roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) cerebral injuries. Microglia activation has been shown to be closely related to TLR4/NF-κB signal pathways. Salvianolic acids for injection (SAFI) have been used in clinical practice to treat ischemic stroke with reported neuroprotective effects; however, the underlying mechanisms are still uncertain. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: First, we studied the effect of SAFI on inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079976/maresin-1-induces-a-novel-pro-resolving-phenotype-in-human-platelets
#4
Katie L Lannan, Sherry L Spinelli, Neil Blumberg, Richard P Phipps
BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet therapy is a cornerstone of modern medical practice and is routinely employed to reduce the likelihood of myocardial infarction, thrombosis, and stroke. However, current antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin, often have adverse side effects, including increased risk of bleeding, and some patients are relatively "aspirin-resistant". Platelets are intimately involved in hemostasis and inflammation, and clinical consequences are associated with excessive or insufficient platelet activation...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079313/postischemic-inflammation-in-acute-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Simone Vidale, Arturo Consoli, Marco Arnaboldi, Domenico Consoli
Cerebral ischemia is caused by arterial occlusion due to a thrombus or an embolus. Such occlusion induces multiple and concomitant pathophysiological processes that involve bioenergetic failure, acidosis, loss of cell homeostasis, excitotoxicity, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. All of these mechanisms contribute to neuronal death, mainly via apoptosis or necrosis. The immune system is involved in this process in the early phases after brain injury, which contributes to potential enlargement of the infarct size and involves the penumbra area...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077416/platelet-secretion-is-crucial-to-prevent-bleeding-in-the-ischemic-brain-but-not-in-the-inflamed-skin-or-lung-in-mice
#6
Carsten Deppermann, Peter Kraft, Julia Volz, Michael K Schuhmann, Sarah Beck, Karen Wolf, David Stegner, Guido Stoll, Bernhard Nieswandt
Platelets maintain hemostasis after injury, but also during inflammation. Recent studies have shown that platelets prevent inflammatory bleeding through (hem)ITAM-dependent mechanisms irrespective of aggregation during skin and lung inflammation. While the exact mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown, it was speculated that mediators released from platelet granules might be involved. Maintaining cerebral hemostasis during stroke treatment is of high clinical relevance as hemorrhage may aggravate the disease state and increase mortality...
January 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059114/cigarette-smoke-extract-profoundly-suppresses-tnf%C3%AE-mediated-proinflammatory-gene-expression-through-upregulation-of-atf3-in-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#7
Jack E Teasdale, Georgina G J Hazell, Alasdair M G Peachey, Graciela B Sala-Newby, Charles C T Hindmarch, Tristan R McKay, Mark Bond, Andrew C Newby, Stephen J White
Endothelial dysfunction caused by the combined action of disturbed flow, inflammatory mediators and oxidants derived from cigarette smoke is known to promote coronary atherosclerosis and increase the likelihood of myocardial infarctions and strokes. Conversely, laminar flow protects against endothelial dysfunction, at least in the initial phases of atherogenesis. We studied the effects of TNFα and cigarette smoke extract on human coronary artery endothelial cells under oscillatory, normal laminar and elevated laminar shear stress for a period of 72 hours...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053821/microrna-181c-exacerbates-brain-injury-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#8
Qingfeng Ma, Haiping Zhao, Zhen Tao, Rongliang Wang, Ping Liu, Ziping Han, Shubei Ma, Yumin Luo, Jianping Jia
MicroRNA-181 (miR-181) is highly expressed in the brain, and downregulated in miRNA expression profiles of acute ischemic stroke patients. However, the roles of miR-181c in stroke are not known. The clinical relevance of miR-181c in acute stroke patients was evaluated by real-time PCR and correlation analyses. Proliferation and apoptosis of BV2 microglial cells and Neuro-2a cells cultured separately or together under oxidative stress or inflammation were assessed with the Cell Counting Kit-8 and by flow cytometry, respectively...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051279/carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-blood-biomarkers-of-atherosclerosis-in-patients-after-stroke-or-myocardial-infarction
#9
Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzebska, Michał A Karlinski, Beata Błazejewska-Hyzorek, Iwona Sarzynska-Dlugosz, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Anna Czlonkowska
AIM: To test if circulating levels of markers of inflammation, endothelial function, and chronic infections, as well as association between these markers and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), depend on the stage of atherosclerosis expressed as a history of a major vascular event. METHODS: The associations were analyzed separately in 75 healthy controls, 79 patients 3-6 months after the first-ever non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke (IS), and 37 patients 3-6 months after the first-ever myocardial infarction (MI)...
December 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050710/the-copper-bis-thiosemicarbazone-complex-cu-ii-atsm-is-protective-against-cerebral-ischemia-through-modulation-of-the-inflammatory-milieu
#10
Mikko T Huuskonen, Qing-Zhang Tuo, Sanna Loppi, Hiramani Dhungana, Paula Korhonen, Lachlan E McInnes, Paul S Donnelly, Alexandra Grubman, Sara Wojciechowski, Katarina Lejavova, Yuriy Pomeshchik, Laura Periviita, Lotta Kosonen, Martina Giordano, Frederick R Walker, Rong Liu, Ashley I Bush, Jari Koistinaho, Tarja Malm, Anthony R White, Peng Lei, Katja M Kanninen
Developing new therapies for stroke is urgently needed, as this disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and the existing treatment is only available for a small subset of patients. The interruption of blood flow to the brain during ischemic stroke launches multiple immune responses, characterized by infiltration of peripheral immune cells, the activation of brain microglial cells, and the accumulation of immune mediators. Copper is an essential trace element that is required for many critical processes in the brain...
January 3, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046118/transcriptome-analysis-identifies-key-metabolic-changes-in-the-hooded-seal-cystophora-cristata-brain-in-response-to-hypoxia-and-reoxygenation
#11
Mariana Leivas Müller Hoff, Andrej Fabrizius, Nicole U Czech-Damal, Lars P Folkow, Thorsten Burmester
The brain of diving mammals tolerates low oxygen conditions better than the brain of most terrestrial mammals. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the neurons in brain slices of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) withstand hypoxia longer than those of mouse, and also tolerate reduced glucose supply and high lactate concentrations. This tolerance appears to be accompanied by a shift in the oxidative energy metabolism to the astrocytes in the seal while in terrestrial mammals the aerobic energy production mainly takes place in neurons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044308/expression-of-monomeric-c-reactive-protein-in-infarcted-brain-tissue-from-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Mark Slevin, Donghui Liu, Glenn Ferris, Malik Al-Hsinawi, Raid Al-Baradie, Jerzy Krupinski
OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that monomeric-C-reactive protein is deposited in significant quantities within the brain parenchyma after stroke. Since we have recently identified a possible role of this protein in supporting neurodegeneration and aberrant vascular development we identified a small group of post-mortem brain samples from individuals who had Alzheimer's disease and evidence of tissue infarction/ micro-infarction on histological examination. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We used immunohistochemistry staining to identify the monomeric-C-reactive protein expressed in the infarcted brain tissues...
2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030360/effect-of-natural-products-on-diabetes-associated-neurological-disorders
#13
Sita Sharan Patel, Malairaman Udayabanu
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is associated with neurological complications such as depression, anxiety, hypolocomotion, cognitive dysfunction, phobias, anorexia, stroke, pain, etc. Traditional system of medicine is long known for its efficient management of diabetes. The current review discusses the scope of some common medicinal herbs as well as secondary metabolites with a special focus on diabetes-mediated central nervous system complications. Literatures suggest that natural products reduce diabetes-mediated neurological complications partly by reducing oxidative stress and/or inflammation or apoptosis in certain brain regions...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028791/clinical-value-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-and-platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
Chuanyuan Tao, Jiajing Wang, Xin Hu, Junpeng Ma, Hao Li, Chao You
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and thrombosis are associated with the pathogenesis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are emerging as novel inflammatory markers in stroke. We aimed to identify the association of NLR and PLR with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and 3-month outcome after aSAH. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-seven patients diagnosed with aSAH within 24 h of symptoms onset were enrolled...
December 27, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025370/prognosis-after-surgical-treatment-of-trigeminal-neuropathy-with-a-pga-c-tube-report-of-10-cases
#15
Kenji Seo, Makoto Terumitsu, Yuji Inada, Tatsuo Nakamura, Keiji Shigeno, Yutaka Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: Although surgery using a polyglycolic acid-collagen (PGA-c) tube is effective for peripheral nerve injury-induced chronic hand pain, it has not been applied to trigeminal nerve lesions because of the difficult approach. We used a PGA-c tube during surgery for trigeminal neuropathy and evaluated its prognosis based on the outcomes. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING AND PATIENTS: In the dental anesthesia division of a university hospital, 11 patients with severe dysesthesia underwent surgical repair of a damaged lingual nerve (LN) or inferior alveolar nerve (IAN)...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025216/hydroxychloroquine-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-cardiovascular-events-in-myocardial-infarction-patients-rationale-and-design-of-the-oxi-trial
#16
Otto Hartman, Petri T Kovanen, Jukka Lehtonen, Kari K Eklund, Juha Sinisalo
BACKGROUND: Inflammation of the arterial wall plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Among patients with rheumatic diseases, anti-rheumatic medication reduces the incidence of cardiovascular (CV) diseases, but only few studies have addressed their cardioprotective effects on patients with no rheumatic diseases. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an anti-rheumatic drug commonly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition to its anti-inflammatory properties, HCQ reduces cholesterol levels and the risk of type II diabetes, and has also anti-platelet effects...
November 8, 2016: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024309/stroke-as-initial-manifestation-of-adenosine-deaminase-2-deficiency
#17
Miriam Elbracht, Michael Mull, Norbert Wagner, Christiane Kuhl, Angela Abicht, Ingo Kurth, Klaus Tenbrock, Martin Häusler
Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) due to homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 (CECR1) gene causes an autoimmune phenotype with systemic vasculitis affecting the skin, inner organs, and the central nervous system. Typically, stroke has been reported to follow systemic inflammatory disease and predominantly affects posterior and central brain areas. Here, we describe one of the rare patients in whom acute mesencephalic stroke preceded systemic inflammation and presented as initial clinical symptom...
December 26, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018358/endothelial-response-to-glucocorticoids-in-inflammatory-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Karolina A Zielińska, Laura Van Moortel, Ghislain Opdenakker, Karolien De Bosscher, Philippe E Van den Steen
The endothelium plays a crucial role in inflammation. A balanced control of inflammation requires the action of glucocorticoids (GCs), steroidal hormones with potent cell-specific anti-inflammatory properties. Besides the classic anti-inflammatory effects of GCs on leukocytes, recent studies confirm that endothelial cells also represent an important target for GCs. GCs regulate different aspects of endothelial physiology including expression of adhesion molecules, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and maintenance of endothelial barrier integrity...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012949/cannabidiol-reduces-brain-damage-and-improves-functional-recovery-in-a-neonatal-rat-model-of-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#19
Maria Ceprián, Laura Jiménez-Sánchez, Carlos Vargas, Lorena Barata, Will Hind, Jose Martínez-Orgado
BACKGROUND: and purpose: Currently there is no effective treatment for neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Cannabidiol (CBD) is neuroprotective in models of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and adult stroke. The purpose of this work was to study the protective effect of CBD in a neonatal rat model of AIS. METHODS: Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) was achieved in neonatal Wistar rats by introducing a nylon filament to the left MCA for 3 h; 15 min after removing the occluder vehicle (MCAO-V) or CBD single dose 5 mg/kg (MCAO-C) were administered i...
December 21, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012846/neuroprotection-of-agomelatine-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-an-antiapoptotic-pathway-in-rat
#20
Wijitra Chumboatong, Sarinthorn Thummayot, Piyarat Govitrapong, Chainarong Tocharus, Jinatta Jittiwat, Jiraporn Tocharus
Agomelatine is an agonist of the melatonergic MT1/MT2 receptors and an antagonist of the serotonergic 5-HT receptors. Its actions mimic melatonin in antioxidative and anti-inflammation. However, the protective mechanism of agomelatine in ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been investigated. In this study, cerebral I/R injury rats were induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (12 rats per group): sham-operated; vehicle-treated I/R; 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg agomelatine-treated I/R; and 10 mg/kg melatonin-treated I/R...
January 2017: Neurochemistry International
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