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Stroke inflammation

Kyle Malone, Sylvie Amu, Anne C Moore, Christian Waeber
Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the intensive search for new therapies, hundreds of agents targeting various pathophysiological mechanisms have failed clinical trials, and the thrombolytic agent tissue plasminogen activator is currently the only FDA-approved medication for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). The immune system is involved in all stages of stroke, from the pathogenesis of risk factors to neurotoxicity, to tissue remodelling and repair. There is a bi-directional interaction between the brain and the immune system, with stroke-induced immunosuppression and subsequent infection a principal source of patient mortality...
July 19, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Yuki Imaoka, Masahiro Ohira, Ryosuke Nakano, Seiichi Shimizu, Shintaro Kuroda, Hiroyuki Tahara, Kentaro Ide, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Hideki Ohdan
Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is known as a risk factor of coronary artery disease, stroke, hyperphosphatemia, chronic inflammation, diabetes, and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate. However, the clinical implications of incidental AAC findings in liver transplantation have not been evaluated in terms of post-transplantation survival and complications. Therefore, we analyzed the relationships between the AAC level and the outcomes following liver transplantation. A total of 156 consecutive patients who underwent liver transplantation between January 2007 and December 2014 were divided into two groups according to their AAC level (< or ≥ 100 mm3 ), as calculated using the Agatston method...
July 18, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Seidu A Richard
Chlamydia pneumoniae(C.Pn) is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that is associated with respiratory tract infections like pneumonia, pharyngitis and bronchitis. It has also been implicated in cerebrovascular (stroke) as well as cardiovascular diseases. The most possible pathway via which C.Pn elicits its pathogenesis could be via activation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation resulting in the stimulation of toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and/or phospho-44/42(p44/p42) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)...
July 17, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Anil Kumar Rana, Damanpreet Singh
Cerebral stroke is a leading cause of early death and physical disability in adults throughout the world. Oxidative stress and inflammation plays an important role in the pathological process associated with the stroke. The available reperfusion therapy itself enhances the oxidative stress by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from the neurons, as well as non-neuronal cells, thus further worsens the condition. Excessive ROS and RNS production contributes to the brain injury during or after the stroke by activating inflammatory processes...
July 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Yijun Cheng, Jieyu Zan, Yaying Song, Guoyuan Yang, Hanbing Shang, Weiguo Zhao
Intestinal injury is a common complication following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which leads to malnutrition, impaired immunity and unsatisfactory prognosis. Previous studies have revealed the pathogenesis of intestinal injury following traumatic brain injury using ischemic stroke models. However, the effects of ICH on intestinal injury remain unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the pathological alterations and molecular mechanism, as well as the time course of intestinal injury following ICH in mice...
July 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Kai Le, Sisi Mo, Xiang Lu, Abdoulaye Idriss Ali, Dafan Yu, Yijing Guo
OBJECTIVES: Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of ischemic stroke (IS). The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) nucleoprotein is involved in the amplification of inflammatory responses during acute ischemic injury. HMGB1 levels in patients with active disease are higher than those in healthy controls. We performed a meta-analysis to assess currently published data pertaining to circulating blood HMGB1 levels in IS and the relationship with stroke severity...
July 17, 2018: Neurological Research
Shafqat Rasul Chaudhry, Ahmad Hafez, Behnam Rezai Jahromi, Thomas Mehari Kinfe, Alf Lamprecht, Mika Niemelä, Sajjad Muhammad
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) represents only a small portion of all strokes, but accounts for almost half of the deaths caused by stroke worldwide. Neurosurgical clipping and endovascular coiling can successfully obliterate the bleeding aneurysms, but ensuing complications such as cerebral vasospasm, acute and chronic hydrocephalus, seizures, cortical spreading depression, delayed ischemic neurological deficits, and delayed cerebral ischemia lead to poor clinical outcomes. The mechanisms leading to these complications are complex and poorly understood...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shogo Tanabe, Toshihide Yamashita
The immune system is a major contributor to brain homeostasis and pathogenesis of neurological diseases. However, the role of B lymphocytes (cells) in the brain is poorly understood. In this review, we describe the functions of the different subtypes of B cells in brain development and neurological diseases. B cells are classified into several subtypes according their function and gene expression. B-1a cells, which participate in innate immunity by producing natural antibodies, are abundant in the developing brain, and mediate oligodendrocyte development...
July 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Qinghua Li, Rongqing Sun, Shuyuan Liu, Hongdi Lyu, Haiwei Wang, Qing Hu, Nannan Wang, Jin Yan, Jing Wang, Xinli Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of heat acclimatization training on the inflammatory reaction and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in patients with exertional heat stroke (EHS). METHODS: 600 officers and soldiers from a special team who participated in 5 km armed wild training from June to July 2017 were selected as the research object, while 30 healthy officers and men who did not participate in armed wild training during the same period were selected as normal controls...
June 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Zengli Zhang, Pei Qin, Youliang Deng, Zhi Ma, Hang Guo, Haiyun Guo, Yushu Hou, Shiquan Wang, Wangyuan Zou, Yanyuan Sun, Yulong Ma, Wugang Hou
BACKGROUND: The steroid hormone estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2) provides neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury by activating estrogen receptors. The novel estrogen receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is highly expressed in the brain and provides acute neuroprotection against stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, ovariectomized female mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and E2, G1, and ICI182780 were administered immediately upon reperfusion...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jing Zong, Fang-Fang Li, Kai Liang, Rui Dai, Hao Zhang, Ling Yan, Jia-Li Liu, Lu-Hong Xu, Wen-Hao Qian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nuclear localization leucine-rich-repeat protein 1 (NLRP1) is a cytoplasmic protein, involved in autoimmune diseases, mammalian reproduction, neuronal cell death, and stroke. However, the role of NLRP1 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. We used in vivo and in vitro models to investigate the effects of NLRP1 on cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS: We used NLRP1-deficient mice and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with gain and loss of NLRP1 function...
July 12, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaowei Zheng, Nimei Zeng, Aili Wang, Zhengbao Zhu, Chongke Zhong, Tan Xu, Tian Xu, Yanbo Peng, Hao Peng, Qunwei Li, Zhong Ju, Deqin Geng, Yonghong Zhang, Jiang He
AIMS: C-reactive protein is an established marker of inflammation that can impair the protective function of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The combined effect of C-reactive protein and HDL-C on long-term outcomes in patients with stroke remains uncertain. METHODS: A total of 3124 acute ischemic stroke subjects from the China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke (CATIS) were included in this analysis. Participants were divided into four groups according to CRP and HDL-C levels on admission...
July 11, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Qingqing Wang, Chengmei Lv, Yongxin Sun, Xu Han, Shan Wang, Zhengchun Mao, Yanming Xin, Bing Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ischemic stroke results in increased cerebral infarction, neurological deficits and neuroinflammation. The underlying mechanisms involving the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) remain poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the potential role of α-LA in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model and an in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia inflammation model. METHODS: In the in vivo study, infarct volume was examined by TTC staining and Garcia score was used to evaluate neurologic recovery...
July 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Matilde Alique, Rafael Ramírez-Carracedo, Guillermo Bodega, Julia Carracedo, Rafael Ramírez
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease that causes the most heart attacks and strokes in humans, is the leading cause of death in the developing world; its principal clinical manifestation is coronary artery disease. The development of atherosclerosis is attributed to the aging process itself (biological aging) and is also associated with the development of chronic diseases (premature aging). Both aging processes produce an increase in risk factors such as oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and proinflammatory cytokines (oxi-inflamm-aging) that might generate endothelial senescence associated with damage in the vascular system...
July 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aisling M Chaney, Emily M Johnson, Haley C Cropper, Michelle L James
Neuroinflammation is central to the pathological cascade following ischemic stroke. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to provide critical insights into the temporal dynamics and role of certain neuroimmune interactions in stroke. Specifically, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), a marker of activated microglia and peripheral myeloid-lineage cells, provides a means to detect and track neuroinflammation in vivo. Here, we present a method to accurately quantify neuroinflammation using [11 C]N,N-Diethyl-2-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]acetamide ([11 C]DPA-713), a promising second generation TSPO-PET radiotracer, in distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) compared to sham-operated mice...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chen Wei, Wusong Tong, Yijun Guo, Bin He, Lei Chen, Wenjin Yang, Chenxing Wu, Dabin Ren, Ping Zheng, Jiugeng Feng
Background Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of pituitary adenomas, unfortunately it would raise the risk of ischemia stroke, with neuroinflammation being a major pathological process. Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system and have been reported playing important roles in ischemia stroke. Objective Here we studied how γ-radiation would introduce astrocytes into a detrimental state for neuroinflammation and provide new theory evidence and target for the clinical management of inflammation-related neural damage after radiation-induced ischemia stroke...
July 6, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Raffaele Altara, Rana Ghali, Ziad Mallat, Alessandro Cataliotti, George W Booz, Fouad A Zouein
Interleukin 33 (IL-33), which is expressed by several immune cell types, endothelial and epithelial cells, and fibroblasts, is a cytokine of the IL-1 family that acts both intra- and extracellularly to either enhance or resolve the inflammatory response. Intracellular IL-33 acts in the nucleus as a regulator of transcription. Once released from cells by mechanical stress, inflammatory cytokines, or necrosis, extracellular IL-33 is proteolytically processed to act in an autocrine/paracrine manner as an "alarmin" on neighboring or various immune cells expressing the ST2 receptor...
July 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Sherif Rashad, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Mika Sato-Maeda, Miki Fujimura, Ahmed Mansour, Hidenori Endo, Shuntaro Ikawa, Teiji Tominaga
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of cerebral stroke that causes a variety of symptoms, ranging from mild headache to severe morbidity or death in the more severe forms. The use of anti-coagulant or thrombolytic agents is the classical treatment for CVT. However, the development of new therapies for the treatment of the condition has not been the focus. In this study, we aimed to analyze the pathophysiology of CVT and to identify the pathways associated with its pathology. Moreover, mechanisms that are potential drug targets were identified...
July 4, 2018: Brain Research
Guanghong Jia, Annayya R Aroor, Luis A Martinez-Lemus, James R Sowers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased arterial stiffness, an abnormal structural and functional change in the vascular wall, is a precursor for hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this paper is to review the etiology of arterial stiffening and potential therapeutic approaches to modulate arterial fibrosis and stiffness. RECENT FINDINGS: The Framingham Heart Study demonstrated that arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of CVD and related morbidity and mortality...
July 6, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Melissa Tsuboyama, Justin V Chandler, Eugene Scharf, John Scagnelli, Rajeev S Ramchandran, Robert Holloway, Thomas Wychowski
Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is a self-limited idiopathic inflammatory ophthalmologic condition with characteristic funduscopic and fluorescein angiography findings. It is typically characterized by a flu-like prodrome followed by monocular or binocular vision loss. Often, prognosis is excellent with complete or near-complete recovery of vision. Rarely, however, APMPPE is associated with neurologic complications, including meningitis, cerebral vasculitis, and stroke. Treatment in patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement involves steroids and ultimately other immunosuppressive therapy, as there can be significant resulting morbidity and mortality otherwise...
July 2018: Neurohospitalist
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