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Stroke inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#1
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431986/ninj2-a-novel-regulator-of-endothelial-inflammation-and-activation
#2
Jingjing Wang, Jingjing Fa, Pengyun Wang, Xinzhen Jia, Huixin Peng, Jing Chen, Yifan Wang, Chenhui Wang, Qiuyun Chen, Xin Tu, Qing K Wang, Chengqi Xu
Previous genetic studies suggested that variants in NINJ2 (encode ninjurin2) confer risk to ischemic stroke or large artery atherosclerotic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of NINJ2 in ischemic stroke or atherosclerosis are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that NINJ2 may play a role in endothelial inflammation and activation, and regulate the process of atherosclerosis. Here, we demonstrated that NINJ2 can regulate the expression of a panel of genes that are associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis (e...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431669/after-the-leader-trial-and-sustain-6-how-do-we-explain-the-cardiovascular-benefits-of-some-glp-1-receptor-agonists
#3
B Vergès, B Charbonnel
Recent cardiovascular outcome trials - the LEADER with liragutide and SUSTAIN-6 with semaglutide - have shown significant reductions of major cardiovascular (CV) events with these glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists. Progressive separation of the treatment and placebo curves, starting clearly between 12 and 18 months of the trial period, and significant reductions in the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, indicate that the beneficial CV effects observed with GLP-1 receptor agonists could be due to an antiatherogenic effect...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430696/sequential-analysis-of-a-panel-of-biomarkers-and-pathologic-findings-in-a-resuscitated-rat-model-of-sepsis-and-recovery
#4
Nishkantha Arulkumaran, Marije L Sixma, Elisa Jentho, Elias Ceravola, Paul S Bass, John A Kellum, Robert J Unwin, Fred W K Tam, Mervyn Singer
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the temporal pattern of a panel of blood and urinary biomarkers in an animal model of fecal peritonitis and recovery. DESIGN: Prospective observational animal study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: A fluid-resuscitated, long-term (3 d) rat model of sepsis (fecal peritonitis) and recovery was used to understand the temporal association of sepsis biomarkers in relation to systemic hemodynamics, inflammation, and renal function...
April 20, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430117/fluvastatin-therapy-could-not-decrease-progression-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-in-non-valvular-disease-patients
#5
Qiang Tan, Shuangyue Zhang, Xiaoyi Zou, Jun Zhao, Jia Hao, Qian Sun
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether fluvastatin therapy could decrease the probability of atrial fibrillation (AF) progression from paroxysmal AF to permanent AF and decrease the recurrence frequency of AF. METHODS: Analyses were performed using two-tailed Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U tests. Categorical variables were compared with the χ2 statistics or Fisher's exact test. Patients with paroxysmal AF were randomized case-control, prospective into either the fluvastatin group (n=61) or control group (n=57)...
April 10, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428349/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-hemorrhagic-transformation-after-delayed-tissue-plasminogen-activator-administration-in-in-situ-thromboembolic-stroke
#6
Alicia García-Culebras, Sara Palma-Tortosa, Ana Moraga, Isaac García-Yébenes, Violeta Durán-Laforet, Maria I Cuartero, Juan de la Parra, Ana L Barrios-Muñoz, Jaime Díaz-Guzmán, Jesús M Pradillo, María A Moro, Ignacio Lizasoain
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic transformation is the main complication of revascularization therapies after stroke. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is implicated in cerebral damage and inflammation in stroke. This study was designed to determine the role of TLR4 in hemorrhagic transformation development after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. METHODS: Mice expressing (TLR4(+/+)) or lacking functional TLR4 (TLR4(-)(/-)) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion using an in situ thromboembolic model by thrombin injection into the middle cerebral artery, and tPA (10 mg/kg) was administered 20 minutes or 3 hours after ischemia...
April 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424593/phospholipase-a2-of-peroxiredoxin-6-plays-a-critical-role-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-inflammatory-injury
#7
Yu Shanshan, Jiang Beibei, Tan Li, Gao Minna, Lei Shipeng, Peng Li, Zhao Yong
Microglia-mediated inflammation is an important step in the progression of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and the associated production of receptors of immunomoudulation, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) has been demonstrated as the endogenous antioxidant protein for its peroxidase properties. However, the role of the independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activity of Prdx6 in stroke has not been well studied. In this study, we evaluated whether blocking the calcium-iPLA2 activity of Prdx6 using siRNA and inhibitors (1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethgl)-sn-glycerol-2 phosphomethanol, MJ33) would have a critical effect on inflammatory brain damage...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419990/effects-of-estradiol-on-autophagy-and-nrf-2-are-signals-after-cerebral-ischemia
#8
Litao Li, Jinghong Chen, Sujuan Sun, Jingru Zhao, Xiaoli Dong, Jianhua Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Estradiol (EST) reduces the risk of stroke and decreases the incidence and progression of the disease because of its neuroprotective roles in inhibiting cell death that occurs in response to a variety of neuronal stimuli such as inflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we determined the role played by autophagy and Nrf2-ARE signal pathways in the hippocampus regions in modulating cerebral ischemia under different EST conditions. METHODS: Western blot analysis and ELISA were used to determine the protein expression of autophagy and Nrf2-ARE pathways; and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and a key marker of oxidative stress...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419988/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-is-an-independent-predictor-for-in-hospital-mortality-in-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
Antje Giede-Jeppe, Tobias Bobinger, Stefan T Gerner, Jochen A Sembill, Maximilian I Sprügel, Vanessa D Beuscher, Hannes Lücking, Philip Hoelter, Joji B Kuramatsu, Hagen B Huttner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke-associated immunosuppression and inflammation are increasingly recognized as factors that trigger infections and thus, potentially influence the outcome after stroke. Several studies demonstrated that elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a significant predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke. However, little is known about the impact of NLR on short-term mortality in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: This observational study included 855 consecutive ICH-patients...
April 19, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417216/pathogenic-mechanisms-following-ischemic-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, William Winlow, Maryam Farzaneh, Yaghoob Farbood, Hadi Fathi Moghaddam
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Brain injury following stroke results from a complex series of pathophysiological events including excitotoxicity, oxidative and nitrative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Moreover, there is a mechanistic link between brain ischemia, innate and adaptive immune cells, intracranial atherosclerosis, and also the gut microbiota in modifying the cerebral responses to ischemic insult. There are very few treatments for stroke injuries, partly owing to an incomplete understanding of the diverse cellular and molecular changes that occur following ischemic stroke and that are responsible for neuronal death...
April 17, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415917/exercise-rehabilitation-immediately-following-ischemic-stroke-exacerbates-inflammatory-injury
#11
Fengwu Li, John T Pendy, Jessie N Ding, Changya Peng, Xiaorong Li, Jiamei Shen, Sainan Wang, Xiaokun Geng
OBJECTIVES: The rehabilitative benefits of physical exercise after stroke appear to be contingent upon exercise initiation timing. The present study assessed the hypothesis that very early post-stroke exercise would amplify cellular stress and increases expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, while exercise initiated later would limit the inflammation associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Adult rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and subsequently assigned to one of seven groups: one sham injury control group, three stroke groups subjected to exercise initiated after 6, 24 hours, or 3 days of reperfusion, and three stroke groups not subjected to exercise...
April 17, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414101/autophagy-in-hemorrhagic-stroke-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#12
REVIEW
Haiying Li, Jiang Wu, Haitao Shen, Xiyang Yao, Chenglin Liu, S Pianta, J Han, C V Borlongan, Gang Chen
Accumulating evidence advances the critical role of autophagy in brain pathology after stroke. Investigations employing autophagy induction or inhibition using pharmacological tools or autophagy-related gene knockout mice have recently revealed the biological significance of intact and functional autophagy in stroke. Most of the reported cases attest to a pro-survival role for autophagy in stroke, by facilitating removal of damaged proteins and organelles, which can be recycled for energy generation and cellular defenses...
April 13, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412968/interleukin-1-primes-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-and-pro-trophic-phenotype-in-vitro
#13
Elena Redondo-Castro, Catriona Cunningham, Jonjo Miller, Licia Martuscelli, Sarah Aoulad-Ali, Nancy J Rothwell, Cay M Kielty, Stuart M Allan, Emmanuel Pinteaux
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key contributor to central nervous system (CNS) injury such as stroke, and is a major target for therapeutic intervention. Effective treatments for CNS injuries are limited and applicable to only a minority of patients. Stem cell-based therapies are increasingly considered for the treatment of CNS disease, because they can be used as in-situ regulators of inflammation, and improve tissue repair and recovery. One promising option is the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can secrete anti-inflammatory and trophic factors, can migrate towards inflamed and injured sites or can be implanted locally...
April 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408965/phospholipase-c-related-catalytically-inactive-protein-can-regulate-obesity-a-state-of-peripheral-inflammation
#14
REVIEW
Yosuke Yamawaki, Kana Oue, Satomi Shirawachi, Satoshi Asano, Kae Harada, Takashi Kanematsu
Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. Chronic inflammation in fat influences the development of obesity-related diseases. Many reports state that obesity increases the risk of morbidity in many diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea, and breast, prostate and colon cancers, leading to increased mortality. Obesity is also associated with chronic neuropathologic conditions such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. However, there is strong evidence that weight loss reduces these risks, by limiting blood pressure and improving levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol...
February 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406979/correction-gut-dysbiosis-is-associated-with-metabolism-and-systemic-inflammation-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#15
Kazuo Yamashiro, Ryota Tanaka, Takao Urabe, Yuji Ueno, Yuichiro Yamashiro, Koji Nomoto, Takuya Takahashi, Hirokazu Tsuji, Takashi Asahara, Nobutaka Hattori
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171521.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404595/nlr-members-nlrc4-and-nlrp3-mediate-sterile-inflammasome-activation-in-microglia-and-astrocytes
#16
Leslie Freeman, Haitao Guo, Clément N David, W June Brickey, Sushmita Jha, Jenny P-Y Ting
Inflammation in the brain accompanies several high-impact neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. Neuroinflammation is sterile, as damage-associated molecular patterns rather than microbial pathogens elicit the response. The inflammasome, which leads to caspase-1 activation, is implicated in neuroinflammation. In this study, we reveal that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), a molecule associated with neurodegeneration and demyelination, elicits NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasome activation in microglia and astrocytes, which are central players in neuroinflammation...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400208/diesel-exhaust-particles-dep-pre-exposure-contributes-to-the-anti-oxidant-response-impairment-in-hcmec-d3-during-post-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-damage
#17
Francesca Farina, Elena Lonati, Anna Brambilla, Roberta Dal Magro, Chiara Milani, Laura Botto, Giulio Sancini, Paola Palestini, Alessandra Bulbarelli
Recently, air pollution has been identified as a significant modifiable risk factor to the increasing stroke burden. Diesel exhaust particles, characterized by high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content, constitute an important component of outdoor air pollution and is known to cause oxidative stress, and could therefore contribute to and exacerbate the effects of ROS in post-ischemic injury. hCMEC/D3 cells have been submitted to 48h treatment with diesel exhaust particles (25μg/ml and 50μg/ml, DEP50) or alternatively to 3h of oxygen and glucose deprivation, followed by 1h of oxygen and glucose restoration...
April 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399045/a-differential-expression-of-uncoupling-protein-2-associates-with-renal-damage-in-stroke-resistant-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-derived-stroke-congenic-lines
#18
Speranza Rubattu, Maria Cotugno, Franca Bianchi, Luigi Sironi, Paolo Gelosa, Rosita Stanzione, Maurizio Forte, Claudia De Sanctis, Michele Madonna, Simona Marchitti, Alice Pignieri, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Massimo Volpe
OBJECTIVES: Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial anion transporter involved in mitochondrial uncoupling, limiting reactive oxygen species formation, is significantly downregulated in kidneys of high-salt-fed stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP), where it associates with increased renal damage occurrence. METHODS: We aimed at establishing whether UCP2 differential expression associates with renal damage in two stroke-resistant spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSR)/SHRSP-derived stroke congenic lines...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397407/sanguinate-pegylated-carboxyhemoglobin-bovine-mechanism-of-action-and-clinical-update
#19
Abraham Abuchowski
Historically, blood substitutes were under development that would provide oxygen carrying capacity as well as fluid replacement for both trauma and surgical indications. Their development was halted by the inability of the products to deliver therapeutic amounts of oxygen targeted to hypoxic tissue as well as from the inherent toxicity of the molecules. This led to the concept of an oxygen therapeutic that would be targeted for indications caused by anemia/ischemia/hypoxia but would not exhibit the toxicity that plagued earlier products...
April 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396446/identification-of-a-cono-rfamide-from-the-venom-of-conus-textile-that-targets-asic3-and-enhances-muscle-pain
#20
Catharina Reimers, Cheng-Han Lee, Hubert Kalbacher, Yuemin Tian, Chih-Hsien Hung, Axel Schmidt, Lea Prokop, Silke Kauferstein, Dietrich Mebs, Chih-Cheng Chen, Stefan Gründer
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated Na(+) channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system. ASICs have been implicated in several neuronal disorders, like ischemic stroke, neuronal inflammation, and pathological pain. Several toxins from venomous animals have been identified that target ASICs with high specificity and potency. These toxins are extremely useful in providing protein pharmacophores and to characterize function and structure of ASICs. Marine cone snails contain a high diversity of toxins in their venom such as conotoxins, which are short polypeptides stabilized by disulfide bonds, and conopeptides, which have no or only one disulfide bond...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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