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Stroke inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776451/myeloid-specific-tak1-deletion-results-in-reduced-brain-monocyte-infiltration-and-improved-outcomes-after-stroke
#1
Anjali Chauhan, Jacob Hudobenko, Abdullah Al Mamun, Edward C Koellhoffer, Anthony Patrizz, Rodney M Ritzel, Bhanu P Ganesh, Louise D McCullough
BACKGROUND: Activation of transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) occurs after stroke and leads to an exacerbation of brain injury. TAK1 is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, but it has divergent inflammatory effects that are dependent on the cell type in which it is activated. There is a robust infiltration of myeloid cells after stroke; however, the contribution of myeloid TAK1 to cerebral ischemia is currently unknown. We hypothesized that myeloid-specific deletion of TAK1 would protect against ischemic brain injury...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774059/inflammation-in-stroke-the-role-of-cholinergic-purinergic-and-glutamatergic-signaling
#2
REVIEW
Abraham Martín, María Domercq, Carlos Matute
The inflammatory response is a major factor in stroke pathophysiology and contributes to secondary neuronal damage in both acute and chronic stages of the ischemic injury. Recent work in experimental cerebral ischemia has demonstrated the involvement of neurotransmitter signaling in the modulation of neuroinflammation. The present review discusses recent findings on the therapeutic potential and diagnostic perspectives of cholinergic, purinergic and glutamatergic receptors and transporters in experimental stroke...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774058/the-role-of-dopaminergic-immune-cell-signalling-in-poststroke-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Daniela Talhada, Monika Rabenstein, Karsten Ruscher
Upon ischaemic stroke, brain-resident and peripheral immune cells accumulate in the central nervous system (CNS). Interestingly, these cells express pattern specific to neurotransmitter receptors and, therefore, seem to be susceptible to neurotransmitter stimulation, potentially modulating their properties and functions. One of the principal neurotransmitters in the CNS, dopamine, is involved in the regulation of processes of brain development, motor control and higher brain functions. It is constantly released in the brain and there is experimental and clinical evidence that dopaminergic signalling is involved in recovery of lost neurological function after stroke...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774056/epigenetic-regulation-of-inflammation-in-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Gavin Yong-Quan Ng, Lim Yun-An, Christopher G Sobey, Thameem Dheen, David Yang-Wei Fann, Thiruma V Arumugam
Despite extensive research, treatments for clinical stroke are still limited only to the administration of tissue plasminogen activator and the recent introduction of mechanical thrombectomy, which can be used in only a limited proportion of patients due to time constraints. A plethora of inflammatory events occur during stroke, arising in part due to the body's immune response to brain injury. Neuroinflammation contributes significantly to neuronal cell death and the development of functional impairment and death in stroke patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770231/cardiovascular-outcomes-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-with-special-emphasis-on-its-effect-beyond-ldl-cholesterol-lowering
#5
REVIEW
Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Kumar Ashish, Adrija Hajra, Arshna Qureshi, Raktim K Ghosh
PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are novel antihypercholesterolemic drugs. FDA first approved them in July 2015. PCSK9 protein (692-amino acids) was discovered in 2003. It plays a major role in LDL receptor degradation and is a prominent modulator in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 protein in liver and inhibiting this protein leads to drastically lowering harmful LDL-C level in the bloodstream. Despite widespread use of the statin, not all the high-risk patients were able to achieve targeted level of LDL-C...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770118/neuroinflammation-as-a-target-for-intervention-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#6
REVIEW
Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, R Loch Macdonald
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a sub-type of hemorrhagic stroke associated with the highest rates of mortality and long-term neurological disabilities. Despite the improvement in the management of SAH patients and the reduction in case fatality in the last decades, disability and mortality remain high in this population. Brain injury can occur immediately and in the first days after SAH. This early brain injury can be due to physical effects on the brain such as increased intracranial pressure, herniations, intracerebral, intraventricular hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769800/the-therapeutic-potential-of-blocking-galectin-3-expression-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-mitigating-inflammation-of-infarct-region-a-clinical-outcome-based-translational-study
#7
Wassim Mosleh, Milind R Chaudhari, Swati Sonkawade, Supriya Mahajan, Charl Khalil, Kevin Frodey, Tanvi Shah, Suraj Dahal, Roshan Karki, Rujuta Katkar, W Matthijs Blankesteijn, Brian Page, Saraswati Pokharel, Minhyung Kim, Umesh C Sharma
Introduction: Increased galectin-3 is associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy, although its role in early remodeling post-myocardial infarction (MI) has not been fully elucidated. There are no data demonstrating that blocking galectin-3 expression would have an impact on the heart and that its relationship to remodeling is not simply an epiphenomenon. The direct association between galectin-3 and myocardial inflammation, dysfunction, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes post-MI was examined using clinical and translational studies...
2018: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769288/targeted-complement-inhibition-salvages-stressed-neurons-and-inhibits-neuroinflammation-after-stroke-in-mice
#8
Ali Alawieh, E Farris Langley, Stephen Tomlinson
Ischemic stroke results from the interruption of blood flow to the brain resulting in long-term motor and cognitive neurological deficits, and it is a leading cause of death and disability. Current interventions focus on the restoration of blood flow to limit neuronal death, but these treatments have a therapeutic window of only a few hours and do not address post-stroke cerebral inflammation. The complement system, a component of the innate immune system, is activated by natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies that recognize neoepitopes expressed in the brain after ischemic stroke...
May 16, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768943/early-reduced-behavioral-activity-induced-by-large-strokes-affects-the-efficiency-of-enriched-environment-in-rats
#9
Anna-Sophia Wahl, Eva Erlebach, Biagio Brattoli, Uta Büchler, Julia Kaiser, Benjamin V Ineichen, Alice C Mosberger, Shirin Schneeberger, Stefan Imobersteg, Martin Wieckhorst, Martina Stirn, Aileen Schroeter, Bjoern Ommer, Martin E Schwab
The majority of stroke patients develop post-stroke fatigue, a symptom which impairs motivation and diminishes the success of rehabilitative interventions. We show that large cortical strokes acutely reduce activity levels in rats for 1-2 weeks as a physiological response paralleled by signs of systemic inflammation. Rats were exposed early (1-2 weeks) or late (3-4 weeks after stroke) to an individually monitored enriched environment to stimulate self-controlled high-intensity sensorimotor training. A group of animals received Anti-Nogo antibodies for the first two weeks after stroke, a neuronal growth promoting immunotherapy already in clinical trials...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765501/peroxisomal-acyl-coa-oxidase-type-1-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-aging-properties-with-a-special-emphasis-on-studies-with-lps-and-argan-oil-as-a-model-transposable-to-aging
#10
REVIEW
Joseph Vamecq, Pierre Andreoletti, Riad El Kebbaj, Fatima-Ezzahra Saih, Norbert Latruffe, M' Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj, Gérard Lizard, Boubker Nasser, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki
To clarify appropriateness of current claims for health and wellness virtues of argan oil, studies were conducted in inflammatory states. LPS induces inflammation with reduction of PGC1- α signaling and energy metabolism. Argan oil protected the liver against LPS toxicity and interestingly enough preservation of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase type 1 (ACOX1) activity against depression by LPS. This model of LPS-driven toxicity circumvented by argan oil along with a key anti-inflammatory role attributed to ACOX1 has been here transposed to model aging...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763889/neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-functional-and-safety-outcomes-after-endovascular-treatment-for-acute-ischemic-stroke
#11
Zhenhui Duan, Huaiming Wang, Zhen Wang, Yonggang Hao, Wenjie Zi, Dong Yang, Zhiming Zhou, Wenhua Liu, Min Lin, Zhonghua Shi, Penghua Lv, Yue Wan, Gelin Xu, Yunyun Xiong, Wusheng Zhu, Xinfeng Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Endovascular treatment (EVT) is proven to be safe and effective for treating acute large vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS). The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) reflects systemic inflammation, which plays an important role in the process of treating ischemic stroke. This study aims to explore the relationship between NLR and the clinical outcomes of LVOS patients undergoing EVT. METHODS: Patients were selected from the EVT for acUte Anterior circuLation (ACTUAL) ischemic stroke registry...
May 15, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761573/using-fat-to-fight-disease-a-systematic-review-of-non-homologous-adipose-derived-stromal-stem-cell-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Marjorie E Bateman, Amy L Strong, Jeffrey M Gimble, Bruce A Bunnell
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to describe the safety and efficacy of ASC and SVF in treating common diseases and the next steps in research that must occur prior to clinical use. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Pubmed, Ovid Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles about use of SVF or ASC for disease therapy published between 2012 and 2017. One meta-analysis, 2 randomized controlled trials, and 16 case series were included, representing 844 human patients...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761012/an-overview-of-protective-strategies-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-the-role-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-preconditioning
#13
Ciprian Hentia, Alex Rizzato, Enrico Camporesi, Zhongjin Yang, Danina M Muntean, Dorel Săndesc, Gerardo Bosco
Introduction: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, has been recognized as the most frequent causes of devastating disorders and death currently. Protective effect of various preconditioning stimuli, including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), has been proposed in the management of I/R. Methods: In this study, we searched and reviewed up-to-date published papers to explore the pathophysiology of I/R injury and to understand the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of HBO as conditioning strategy...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759716/atrial-fibrillation-in-athletes-a-lesson-in-the-virtue-of-moderation
#14
REVIEW
N A Mark Estes, Christopher Madias
Although the cardiovascular benefits of moderate exercise are well established, there is growing epidemiological support for the notion that high-intensity endurance athletics increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). There are many gaps in evidence related to epidemiology and mechanisms of AF in endurance athletes. The proposed pathophysiological mechanisms include alterations of autonomic tone, electrical remodeling, anatomical remodeling, fibrosis, and inflammation. Clinical management of the athlete with AF often includes a period of decreased frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise with assessment for improvement in AF recurrence...
September 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752550/aging-alters-the-immunological-response-to-ischemic-stroke
#15
Rodney M Ritzel, Yun-Ju Lai, Joshua D Crapser, Anita R Patel, Anna Schrecengost, Jeremy M Grenier, Nickolas S Mancini, Anthony Patrizz, Evan R Jellison, Diego Morales-Scheihing, Venugopal R Venna, Julia K Kofler, Fudong Liu, Rajkumar Verma, Louise D McCullough
The peripheral immune system plays a critical role in aging and in the response to brain injury. Emerging data suggest inflammatory responses are exacerbated in older animals following ischemic stroke; however, our understanding of these age-related changes is poor. In this work, we demonstrate marked differences in the composition of circulating and infiltrating leukocytes recruited to the ischemic brain of old male mice after stroke compared to young male mice. Blood neutrophilia and neutrophil invasion into the brain were increased in aged animals...
May 11, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750575/unified-nexus-of-macrophages-and-maresins-in-cardiac-reparative-mechanisms
#16
Jeevan Kumar Jadapalli, Ganesh V Halade
Macrophages are immune-sensing "big eater" phagocytic cells responsible for an innate, adaptive, and regenerative response. After myocardial infarction, macrophages predominantly clear the deceased cardiomyocyte apoptotic or necrotic neutrophils to develop a regenerative and reparative program with the activation of the lipoxygenase-mediated maresin (MaR) metabolome at the site of ischemic injury. The specialized proresolving molecule and macrophage mediator in resolving inflammation, MaR-1, produced by human macrophages, has potent defining effects that limit polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, enhance uptake of apoptotic PMNs, regulate inflammation resolution and tissue regeneration, and reduce pain...
May 11, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748423/role-of-myeloid-lineage-cell-autophagy-in-ischemic-brain-injury
#17
Masakazu Kotoda, Hajime Furukawa, Takeshi Miyamoto, Masaaki Korai, Fumiaki Shikata, Atsushi Kuwabara, Xiaoxing Xiong, Caleb Rutledge, Rona G Giffard, Tomoki Hashimoto
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory cells play a significant role in secondary injury after ischemic stroke. Recent studies have suggested that a lack of autophagy in myeloid cells causes augmented proinflammatory cytokine release and prolonged inflammation after tissue injury. In this study, we investigated the roles of myeloid cell autophagy in ischemic brain injury. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced via transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice with autophagy-deficient myeloid lineage cells (Atg5flox/flox LysMCre+) and in their littermate controls (Atg5flox/flox)...
May 10, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747910/stroke-promotes-systemic-endothelial-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis
#18
Ruslan Rust, Anna-Sophie Hofer, Martin E Schwab
Patients who survive a stroke have an increased risk for recurrent vascular events. The mechanisms underlying the events are barely understood. A recent study suggests that stroke-enhanced atherosclerosis is induced through brain-released alarmins, which lead to systemic vascular inflammation and plaque formation. Interfering with these processes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches.
May 7, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744684/biochemical-markers-of-cardiac-dysfunction-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-osa
#19
Daniel Hirsch, Carla A Evans, Melanie Wong, Rita Machaalani, Karen A Waters
OBJECTIVES: We explored relationships between biochemical markers and cardiac responses of children with and without obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) during exercise. We hypothesised that serum markers of sympathetic nervous system activity and low-grade inflammation would correlate with cardiac responses to exercise in children with or without OSA. METHODOLOGY: The study included 40 of 71 children with previously characterised responses to cardiopulmonary exercise testing...
May 9, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743967/neuropharmacological-potential-and-delivery-prospects-of-thymoquinone-for-neurological-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Md Jakaria, Duk-Yeon Cho, Md Ezazul Haque, Govindarajan Karthivashan, In-Su Kim, Palanivel Ganesan, Dong-Kug Choi
Thymoquinone (TQ) is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa and has various pharmacological activities, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, and infections. In addition, it might be a potential neuropharmacological agent because it exhibits versatile potential for attenuating neurological impairments. It features greater beneficial effects in toxin-induced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity. In various models of neurological disorders, it demonstrates emergent functions, including safeguarding various neurodegenerative diseases and other neurological diseases, such as stroke, schizophrenia, and epilepsy...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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