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colitis actinic

M Pelissier-Rota, N T Chartier, B Bonaz, M R Jacquier-Sarlin
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation that favor the development of colitis associated cancer. An alteration of the epithelial intestinal barrier function observed in IBD is supposed to be a consequence of stress. It has been proposed that corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor (CRF2), one of the two receptors of CRF, the principal neuromediator of stress, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce stress-mediated epithelial barrier dysfunction...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nian-Hua Lu, Hui-Qiao Zhao, Ming Jing, Xiong Liu, Chun-Zhen Ren, Xue-Feng Liu, Juan-Juan Liu, Yan-Xia Zhang
The current study focused on the pharmacodynamic activity components of Gentianopsis paludosa against ulcerative colitis (UC) fibrosis including symptoms of intestinal diarrhea and inflammatory. Trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid induced UC model rats were gavaged with gradient polarity extracts respectively from ethanol-extract of Gentianopsis paludosa. Masson staining and qRT-PCR methods were respectively used to assess the degree of UC fibrosis and detect the mRNA expressions of collagen I, collagen III, a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and E-cadherin in colon tissue...
March 10, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Nour Eissa, Laëtitia Kermarrec, Hayam Hussein, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
2,4-Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis is an experimental model that mimics Crohn's disease. Appropriateness of reference genes is crucial for RT-qPCR. This is the first study to determine the stability of reference gene expression (RGE) in mice treated with DNBS. DNBS experimental Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice. RNA was extracted from colon tissue and comprehensive analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria. Relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels were calculated...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xu-Guang Jiang, Kai Sun, Yu-Ying Liu, Li Yan, Ming-Xia Wang, Jing-Yu Fan, Hong-Na Mu, Chong Li, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Chuan-She Wang, Jing-Yan Han
Dysfunction of energy metabolism is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the potential of astragaloside IV (ASIV), an active ingredient of Radix Astragalus, to ameliorate colonic mucosal injury, with focusing on the implication of energy restoration in the underlying mechanism. Experimental colitis model was established in rats by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) through anus. After 24 hours, ASIV was administrated once daily by gavage for 6 days...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kuldeep Verma, Sunando Datta
One of the hallmarks of amoebic colitis is the detection of Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) trophozoites with ingested erythrocytes. Therefore, erythrophagocytosis is traditionally considered as one of the most important criteria to identify the pathogenic behavior of the amoebic trophozoites. Phagocytosis is an essential process for the proliferation and virulence of this parasite. Phagocytic cargo, upon internalization, follows a defined trafficking route to amoebic lysosomal degradation machinery. Here, we demonstrated the role of EhRab35 in the early and late phases of erythrophagocytosis by the amoeba...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
A F Citalán-Madrid, H Vargas-Robles, A García-Ponce, M Shibayama, A Betanzos, P Nava, C Salinas-Lara, K Rottner, R Mennigen, M Schnoor
The intestinal epithelium constitutes a first line of defense of the innate immune system. Epithelial dysfunction is a hallmark of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The actin cytoskeleton controls epithelial barrier integrity but the function of actin regulators such as cortactin is poorly understood. Given that cortactin controls endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that cortactin is also important for epithelial barrier regulation. We found increased permeability in the colon of cortactin-KO mice that was accompanied by reduced levels of ZO-1, claudin-1, and E-cadherin...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
Ainsley M Robinson, Ahmed A Rahman, Simona Elisa Carbone, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Rhiannon Filippone, Joel Charles Bornstein, Rajaraman Eri, Kulmira Nurgali
The Winnie mouse, carrying a missense mutation in Muc2, is a model for chronic intestinal inflammation demonstrating symptoms closely resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Alterations to the immune environment, morphological structure and innervation of Winnie mouse colon have been identified; however analyses of intestinal transit and colonic functions have not been conducted. In this study, we investigated in vivo intestinal transit in radiographic studies and in vitro motility of the isolated colon in organ bath experiments...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Kuldeep Verma, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Sunando Datta
Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic colitis and liver abscess in human, ingests the intestinal bacteria and variety of host cells. Phagocytosis of bacteria by the amebic trophozoite has been reported to be important for the virulence of the parasite. Here, we set out to characterize different stages of phagocytosis of type 1 E. coli and investigated the role of a set of amoebic Rab GTPases in the process. The localizations of the Rab GTPases during different stages of the phagocytosis were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy and their functional relevance were determined using fluorescence activated cell sorter based assay as well as colony forming unit assay...
December 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Kenji Suzuki, Somasundaram Arumugam, Junji Yokoyama, Yusuke Kawauchi, Yutaka Honda, Hiroki Sato, Yutaka Aoyagi, Shuji Terai, Kazuichi Okazaki, Yasuo Suzuki, Shuji Mizumoto, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Raja Atreya, Markus F Neurath, Kenichi Watanabe, Taishi Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Hitoshi Asakura
Induction of mucosal healing (MH) is an important treatment goal in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the molecular mechanisms underlying MH in IBD is not fully explored, local fibrosis would contribute to interfere mucosal repair. Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15 (CHST15), which catalyzes sulfation of chondroitin sulfate to produce rare E-disaccharide units, is a novel mediator to create local fibrosis. Here we have used siRNA-based approach of silencing CHST15 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice, human colon fibroblasts and cancer cell lines...
2016: PloS One
Braden M Roth, Kristen M Varney, Richard R Rustandi, David J Weber
Once considered a relatively harmless bacterium, Clostridium difficile has become a major concern for healthcare facilities, now the most commonly reported hospital-acquired pathogen. C. difficile infection (CDI) is usually contracted when the normal gut microbiome is compromised by antibiotic therapy, allowing the opportunistic pathogen to grow and produce its toxins. The severity of infection ranges from watery diarrhea and abdominal cramping to pseudomembranous colitis, sepsis, or death. The past decade has seen a marked increase in the frequency and severity of CDI among industrialized nations owing directly to the emergence of a highly virulent C...
October 2016: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Yamato Tanabe, Soichiro Sasaki, Naofumi Mukaida, Tomohisa Baba
We previously demonstrated that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) accumulate at tumor sites through the interaction between a chemokine, CCL3, and its receptor, CCR5, in the late phase of colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Here we examined the effect of a CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc, on tumor growth arising from the orthotopic injection of mouse or human colon cancer cell lines into the cecal wall by focusing on CAFs. Orthotopic injection of either cell line caused tumor formation together with leukocyte infiltration and fibroblast accumulation...
July 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Sarah Lynn Martz, Mabel Guzman-Rodriguez, Shu-Mei He, Curtis Noordhof, David John Hurlbut, Gregory Brian Gloor, Christian Carlucci, Scott Weese, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Jun Sun, Erika Chiong Claud, Elaine Olga Petrof
BACKGROUND: A defined Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutic (MET-1, or "RePOOPulate") derived from the feces of a healthy volunteer can cure recurrent C. difficile infection (rCDI) in humans. The mechanisms of action whereby healthy microbiota protect against rCDI remain unclear. Since C. difficile toxins are largely responsible for the disease pathology of CDI, we hypothesized that MET-1 exerts its protective effects by inhibiting the effects of these toxins on the host. METHODS: A combination of in vivo (antibiotic-associated mouse model of C...
April 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
Nour Eissa, Hayam Hussein, Hongxing Wang, Mohammad F Rabbi, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
BACKGROUND: Many animal models have been developed to characterize the complexity of colonic inflammation. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) experimental colitis in mice the choice of reference genes is critical for accurate quantification of target genes using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). No studies have addressed the performance of reference genes in mice DSS-experimental colitis. This study aimed to determine the stability of reference genes expression (RGE) in DSS-experimental murine colitis...
2016: PloS One
So-Young Lee, Hwain Kim, Kyoungmi Kim, Hyunji Lee, Seungbok Lee, Daekee Lee
Coordinated regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by the Rho GTPase family is required for the maintenance of polarity in epithelial cells as well as for their proliferation and migration. A RhoGTPase-activating protein 17 (Arhgap17) is known to be involved in multiple cellular processes in vitro, including the maintenance of tight junctions and vesicle trafficking. However, the function of Arhgap17 has not been studied in the physiological context. Here, we generated Arhgap17-deficient mice and examined the effect in the epithelial and mucosal barriers of the intestine...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nayden G Naydenov, Alex Feygin, Dongdong Wang, John F Kuemmerle, Gianni Harris, Mary Anne Conti, Robert S Adelstein, Andrei I Ivanov
The actin cytoskeleton is a critical regulator of intestinal mucosal barrier permeability, and the integrity of epithelial adherens junctions (AJ) and tight junctions (TJ). Non muscle myosin II (NM II) is a key cytoskeletal motor that controls actin filament architecture and dynamics. While NM II has been implicated in the regulation of epithelial junctions in vitro, little is known about its roles in the intestinal mucosa in vivo. In this study, we generated a mouse model with an intestinal epithelial-specific knockout of NM IIA heavy chain (NM IIA cKO) and examined the structure and function of normal gut barrier, and the development of experimental colitis in these animals...
April 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andrew Baird, Raul Coimbra, Xitong Dang, Brian P Eliceiri, Todd W Costantini
BACKGROUND: The α7-subunit of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is an obligatory intermediate for the anti-inflammatory effects of the vagus nerve. But in humans, there exists a second gene called CHRFAM7A that encodes a dominant negative α7-nAChR inhibitor. Here, we investigated whether their expression was altered in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer. METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR measured gene expression of human α7-nAChR gene (CHRNA7), CHRFAM7A, TBC3D1, and actin in biopsies of normal large and small intestine, and compared to their expression in biopsies of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and colon cancer...
June 2016: BBA Clinical
Chiara Ippolito, Rocchina Colucci, Cristina Segnani, Mariella Errede, Francesco Girolamo, Daniela Virgintino, Amelio Dolfi, Erika Tirotta, Piero Buccianti, Giulio Di Candio, Daniela Campani, Maura Castagna, Gabrio Bassotti, Vincenzo Villanacci, Corrado Blandizzi, Nunzia Bernardini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal fibrosis is a complication of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Although fibrostenosis is a rare event in ulcerative colitis [UC], there is evidence that a fibrotic rearrangement of the colon occurs in the later stages. This is a retrospective study aimed at examining the histopathological features of the colonic wall in both short-lasting [SL] and long-lasting [LL] UC. METHODS: Surgical samples of left colon from non-stenotic SL [≤ 3 years, n = 9] and LL [≥ 10 years, n = 10] UC patients with active disease were compared with control colonic tissues from cancer patients without UC [n = 12] to assess: collagen and elastic fibres by histochemistry; vascular networks [CD31/CD105/nestin] by immunofluorescence; parameters of fibrosis [types I and III collagen, fibronectin, RhoA, alpha-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA], desmin, vimentin], and proliferation [proliferating nuclear antigen [PCNA]] by western blot and/or immunolabelling...
October 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Dongdong Wang, Nayden G Naydenov, Alex Feygin, Somesh Baranwal, John F Kuemmerle, Andrei I Ivanov
The actin cytoskeleton is a crucial regulator of the intestinal mucosal barrier, controlling the assembly and function of epithelial adherens and tight junctions (AJs and TJs). Junction-associated actin filaments are dynamic structures that undergo constant turnover. Members of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) and cofilin protein family play key roles in actin dynamics by mediating filament severing and polymerization. We examined the roles of ADF and cofilin-1 in regulating the structure and functions of AJs and TJs in the intestinal epithelium...
April 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Claudia Frädrich, Lara-Antonia Beer, Ralf Gerhard
Clostridium difficile infections can induce mild to severe diarrhoea and the often associated characteristic pseudomembranous colitis. Two protein toxins, the large glucosyltransferases TcdA and TcdB, are the main pathogenicity factors that can induce all clinical symptoms in animal models. The classical molecular mode of action of these homologous toxins is the inhibition of Rho GTPases by mono-glucosylation. Rho-inhibition leads to breakdown of the actin cytoskeleton, induces stress-activated and pro-inflammatory signaling and eventually results in apoptosis of the affected cells...
January 18, 2016: Toxins
Peter S Hegan, Dmitri V Kravtsov, Christina Caputo, Marie E Egan, Nadia A Ameen, Mark S Mooseker
Myosin Ia (Myo1a), the most prominent plus-end directed motor and myosin VI (Myo6) the sole minus-end directed motor, together exert opposing tension between the microvillar (MV) actin core and the apical brush border (BB) membrane of the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC). Mice lacking Myo1a or Myo6 each exhibit a variety of defects in the tethering of the BB membrane to the actin cytoskeleton. Double mutant (DM) mice lacking both myosins revealed that all the defects observed in either the Myo1a KO or Snell's waltzer (sv/sv) Myo6 mutant mouse are absent...
September 2015: Cytoskeleton
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