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Mendelian Randomization Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901035/homocysteine-reducing-b-vitamins-and-ischemic-heart-disease-a-separate-sample-mendelian-randomization-analysis
#1
J V Zhao, C M Schooling
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Observationally, homocysteine is positively associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and unhealthy lipids; folate and vitamin B12, which reduce homocysteine, are associated with lower IHD risk and healthy lipids. Randomized controlled trials have shown no benefits of folate and vitamin B12 for IHD. To clarify the role of these potential targets of intervention in IHD we assessed how genetically determined homocysteine, folate and vitamin-B12-affected IHD and lipids...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25918230/a-mendelian-randomization-study-of-circulating-uric-acid-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
Ivonne Sluijs, Michael V Holmes, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Joline W J Beulens, Folkert W Asselbergs, José María Huerta, Tom M Palmer, Larraitz Arriola, Beverley Balkau, Aurelio Barricarte, Heiner Boeing, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Guy Fagherazzi, Paul W Franks, Diana Gavrila, Rudolf Kaaks, Kay Tee Khaw, Tilman Kühn, Esther Molina-Montes, Lotte Maxild Mortensen, Peter M Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, J Ramón Quirós, Olov Rolandsson, Carlotta Sacerdote, Núria Sala, Julie A Schmidt, Robert A Scott, Sabina Sieri, Nadia Slimani, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjonneland, Ruth C Travis, Rosario Tumino, Daphne L van der A, Stephen J Sharp, Nita G Forouhi, Claudia Langenberg, Elio Riboli, Nicholas J Wareham
We aimed to investigate the causal effect of circulating uric acid concentrations on type 2 diabetes risk. A Mendelian randomization study was performed using a genetic score with 24 uric acid-associated loci. We used data of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study, comprising 24,265 individuals of European ancestry from eight European countries. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 10 (4) years, 10,576 verified incident case subjects with type 2 diabetes were ascertained...
August 2015: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25611809/plasma-fetuin-a-concentration-genetic-variation-in-the-ahsg-gene-and-risk-of-colorectal-cancer
#3
Katharina Nimptsch, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Heiner Boeing, Jürgen Janke, Young-Ae Lee, Mazda Jenab, So Yeon Kong, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Elisabete Weiderpass, H B As Bueno-De-Mesquita, Peter D Siersema, Eugène H J M Jansen, Antonia Trichopoulou, Anne Tjønneland, Anja Olsen, Chunsen Wu, Kim Overvad, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Antoine Racine, Heinz Freisling, Verena Katzke, Rudolf Kaaks, Pagona Lagiou, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Gianluca Severi, Alessio Naccarati, Amalia Mattiello, Domenico Palli, Sara Grioni, Rosario Tumino, Petra H Peeters, Ingrid Ljuslinder, Hanna Nyström, Jenny Brändstedt, María-José Sánchez, Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea, Catalina Bonet Bonet, María-Dolores Chirlaque, Miren Dorronsoro, José Ramón Quirós, Ruth C Travis, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick Wareham, Elio Riboli, Marc J Gunter, Tobias Pischon
Fetuin-A, also referred to as α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG), is a liver protein known to inhibit insulin actions. Hyperinsulinemia is a possible risk factor for colorectal cancer; however, the role of fetuin-A in the development of colorectal cancer is unclear. We investigated the association between circulating fetuin-A and colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Fetuin-A concentrations were measured in prediagnostic plasma samples from 1,367 colorectal cancer cases and 1,367 matched controls...
August 15, 2015: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25052622/maternal-homocysteine-in-pregnancy-and-offspring-birthweight-epidemiological-associations-and-mendelian-randomization-analysis
#4
Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Giriraj R Chandak, Charudatta Joglekar, Prachi Katre, Dattatray S Bhat, Suraj N Singh, Charles S Janipalli, Helga Refsum, Ghattu Krishnaveni, Sargoor Veena, Clive Osmond, Caroline H D Fall
BACKGROUND: Disturbed one-carbon (1-C) metabolism in the mother is associated with poor fetal growth but causality of this relationship has not been established. METHODS: We studied the association between maternal total homocysteine and offspring birthweight in the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS, Pune, India) and Parthenon Cohort Study (Mysore, India). We tested for evidence of causality within a Mendelian randomization framework, using a methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR) gene variant rs1801133 (earlier known as 677C→T) by instrumental variable and triangulation analysis, separately and using meta-analysis...
October 2014: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25043606/association-of-crp-genetic-variants-with-blood-concentrations-of-c-reactive-protein-and-colorectal-cancer-risk
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Katharina Nimptsch, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Heiner Boeing, Jürgen Janke, Young-Ae Lee, Mazda Jenab, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Eugène H J M Jansen, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Antonia Trichopoulou, Elisabete Weiderpass, Chunsen Wu, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Laure Dossus, Antoine Racine, Rudolf Kaaks, Federico Canzian, Pagona Lagiou, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Domenico Palli, Claudia Agnoli, Rosario Tumino, Paolo Vineis, Salvatore Panico, Anders Johansson, Bethany Van Guelpen, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick Wareham, Petra H Peeters, J Ramón Quirós, Adoración Venceslá García, Esther Molina-Montes, Miren Dorronsoro, María-Dolores Chirlaque, Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea, Timothy J Key, Talita Duarte-Salles, Magdalena Stepien, Marc J Gunter, Elio Riboli, Tobias Pischon
High blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with elevated risk of colorectal cancer in several prospective studies including the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), but it is unknown whether these observations reflect a causal relationship. We aimed to investigate whether CRP genetic variants associated with lifelong higher CRP concentrations translate into higher colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within EPIC including 727 cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2003 and 727 matched controls selected according to an incidence-density sampling protocol...
March 1, 2015: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24398642/maternal-iron-levels-early-in-pregnancy-are-not-associated-with-offspring-iq-score-at-age-8-findings-from-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#6
S J Lewis, C Bonilla, M-J Brion, D A Lawlor, D Gunnell, Y Ben-Shlomo, A Ness, G D Smith
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8...
April 2014: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23925429/the-causal-effect-of-malaria-on-stunting-a-mendelian-randomization-and-matching-approach
#7
Hyunseung Kang, Benno Kreuels, Ohene Adjei, Ralf Krumkamp, Jürgen May, Dylan S Small
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the association of malaria and stunted growth delivered inconsistent results. These conflicting results may be due to different levels of confounding and to considerable difficulties in elucidating a causal relationship. Randomized experiments are impractical and previous observational studies have not fully controlled for potential confounding including nutritional deficiencies, breastfeeding habits, other infectious diseases and socioeconomic status. METHODS: This study aims to estimate the causal effect between malaria episodes and stunted growth by applying a combination of Mendelian randomization, using the sickle cell trait, and matching...
October 2013: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22937140/association-of-the-european-lactase-persistence-variant-lct-13910-c-t-polymorphism-with-obesity-in-the-canary-islands
#8
Ricardo Almon, Eva Elisa Álvarez-León, Lluís Serra-Majem
BACKGROUND: European lactose tolerance genotype (LCT -13910 C>T, rs4988234) has been positively associated to body mass indexes (BMI) in a meta-analysis of 31,720 individuals of northern and central European descent. A strong association of lactase persistence (LP) with BMI and obesity has also been traced in a Spanish Mediterranean population. The aim of this study was to analyze a potential association of LP compared to lactase non-persistence (LNP) with BMI in inhabitants of the Canary Islands of Spain using Mendelian randomization...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22690666/prenatal-nutrition-epigenetics-and-schizophrenia-risk-can-we-test-causal-effects
#9
James B Kirkbride, Ezra Susser, Marija Kundakovic, Jacob K Kresovich, George Davey Smith, Caroline L Relton
We posit that maternal prenatal nutrition can influence offspring schizophrenia risk via epigenetic effects. In this article, we consider evidence that prenatal nutrition is linked to epigenetic outcomes in offspring and schizophrenia in offspring, and that schizophrenia is associated with epigenetic changes. We focus upon one-carbon metabolism as a mediator of the pathway between perturbed prenatal nutrition and the subsequent risk of schizophrenia. Although post-mortem human studies demonstrate DNA methylation changes in brains of people with schizophrenia, such studies cannot establish causality...
June 2012: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21437028/use-of-genetic-markers-and-gene-diet-interactions-for-interrogating-population-level-causal-influences-of-diet-on-health
#10
George Davey Smith
Differences in diet appear to contribute substantially to the burden of disease in populations, and therefore changes in diet could lead to major improvements in public health. This is predicated on the reliable identification of causal effects of nutrition on health, and unfortunately nutritional epidemiology has deficiencies in terms of identifying these. This is reflected in the many cases where observational studies have suggested that a nutritional factor is protective against disease, and randomized controlled trials have failed to verify this...
February 2011: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21076366/obesity-in-pregnancy-implications-for-the-mother-and-lifelong-health-of-the-child-a-consensus-statement
#11
Lucilla Poston, Lucien F Harthoorn, Eline M Van Der Beek
Obesity among pregnant women is becoming one of the most important women's health issues. Obesity is associated with increased risk of almost all pregnancy complications: gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, delivery of large-for-GA infants, and higher incidence of congenital defects all occur more frequently than in women with a normal BMI. Evidence shows that a child of an obese mother may suffer from exposure to a suboptimal in utero environment and that early life adversities may extend into adulthood...
February 2011: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20980488/erythrocyte-membrane-phospholipid-fatty-acids-desaturase-activity-and-dietary-fatty-acids-in-relation-to-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-the-european-prospective-investigation-into-cancer-and-nutrition-epic-potsdam-study
#12
Janine Kröger, Vera Zietemann, Cornelia Enzenbach, Cornelia Weikert, Eugène Hjm Jansen, Frank Döring, Hans-Georg Joost, Heiner Boeing, Matthias B Schulze
BACKGROUND: The long-term role of fatty acids (FAs) in the cause of diabetes remains largely unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate erythrocyte membrane FAs, desaturase activity, and dietary FAs in relation to the incidence of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: We applied a nested case-cohort design (n = 2724, including 673 incident diabetes cases) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study, which involves 27,548 middle-aged subjects...
January 2011: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20031641/association-of-ahsg-gene-polymorphisms-with-fetuin-a-plasma-levels-and-cardiovascular-diseases-in-the-epic-potsdam-study
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Eva Fisher, Norbert Stefan, Kathrin Saar, Dagmar Drogan, Matthias B Schulze, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Georg Joost, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Hubner, Heiner Boeing, Cornelia Weikert
BACKGROUND: Elevated circulating levels of fetuin-A in blood have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The goal of our study was to prospectively investigate the potential causal nature of the association between fetuin-A levels and myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke by applying a Mendelian randomization approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2248690, rs2070633, rs2070635, rs4917, and rs6787344) capturing the common genetic variation of the fetuin-A coding gene alpha(2)-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) were genotyped in a case-cohort comprising 214 MI cases, 154 ischemic stroke cases, and 2152 persons who remained free of cardiovascular disease events in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study...
December 2009: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19844753/associations-between-lactase-persistence-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-cross-sectional-study-in-the-canary-islands
#14
Ricardo Almon, Eva E Alvarez-Leon, Peter Engfeldt, Lluís Serra-Majem, Anders Magnuson, Torbjörn K Nilsson
BACKGROUND: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) LCT -13910 C>T, associated with genetically determined phenotypes of lactase persistence (LP) or non-persistence (LNP), was studied in relation to the metabolic syndrome (MS). AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim was to determine if milk intake and MS are associated. We applied Mendelian randomization (MR). The SNP, LCT -13910 C>T, with the genotypes LP (TT/CT) and LNP (CC), was taken as a proxy for milk consumption...
April 2010: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19674341/mendelian-randomization-in-nutritional-epidemiology
#15
REVIEW
Lu Qi
Nutritional epidemiology aims to identify dietary and lifestyle causes for human diseases. Causality inference in nutritional epidemiology is largely based on evidence from studies of observational design, and may be distorted by unmeasured or residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization is a recently developed methodology that combines genetic and classical epidemiological analysis to infer causality for environmental exposures, based on the principle of Mendel's law of independent assortment...
August 2009: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19174578/mendelian-randomization-how-it-can-and-cannot-help-confirm-causal-relations-between-nutrition-and-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Arthur Schatzkin, Christian C Abnet, Amanda J Cross, Marc Gunter, Ruth Pfeiffer, Mitchell Gail, Unhee Lim, George Davey-Smith
Observational epidemiologic studies of nutrition and cancer have faced formidable methodologic obstacles, including dietary measurement error and confounding. We consider whether Mendelian randomization can help surmount these obstacles. The Mendelian randomization strategy, building on both the accuracy of genotyping and the random assortment of alleles at meiosis, involves searching for an association between a nutritional exposure-mimicking gene variant (a type of "instrumental variable") and cancer outcome...
February 2009: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18344067/-monogenic-heart-disease
#17
REVIEW
Jost Schönberger, Georg Ertl
The pathogenesis of most cardiovascular disorders is multifactorial and incompletely understood. Besides genetic influences that often arise from multiple genetic loci, the specific nutritional and environmental influences do contribute to the dysfunctional development. Nevertheless, a rather small number of cardiovascular diseases exhibits Mendelian traits, since they are caused by a single gene defect. Examples are familial cardiomyopathies, primary arrhythmias and connective tissues disorders of vessels...
March 15, 2008: Medizinische Klinik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17596267/lactase-persistence-and-bitter-taste-response-instrumental-variables-and-mendelian-randomization-in-epidemiologic-studies-of-dietary-factors-and-cancer-risk
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Carlotta Sacerdote, Simonetta Guarrera, George Davey Smith, Sara Grioni, Vittorio Krogh, Giovanna Masala, Amalia Mattiello, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Rosario Tumino, Fabrizio Veglia, Giuseppe Matullo, Paolo Vineis
Consumption of dairy products seems to increase the risk of cancer at several sites, while intake of cruciferous vegetables could have protective effects. However, these dietary intakes are subject to measurement error, and associations with cancer could be due to confounders. Mendelian randomization has been suggested as a way to overcome confounding by exploiting the random allocation of alleles from parents to offspring. In mid-2006, the authors conducted a study of allele frequencies for the lactase (LCT) and taste receptor, type 2, member 38 (TAS2R38) genes, including 634 volunteers recruited (1992-1998) from the Italian branch of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition...
September 1, 2007: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16353359/segregation-analysis-of-body-mass-index-in-an-unselected-french-canadian-sample-the-qu%C3%A3-bec-family-study
#19
T Rice, I B Borecki, C Bouchard, D C Rao
Interest in a single gene etiology for obesity, as assessed by the body mass index (BMI), has been spurred recently by reports of a putative recessive major gene for extreme values, which accounts for as much as 40% of the variance. The major gene hypothesis was evaluated here in the Québec Family Study, a random sample of 375 French-Canadian volunteer families. This report represents one component in a more complete investigation of obesity in these families. In contrast to the recent studies, a major gene hypothesis for BMI was not verified here...
July 1993: Obesity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15879687/insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-and-coronary-heart-disease-molecular-epidemiology
#20
REVIEW
Manjinder S Sandhu
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a fundamental role in somatic growth and cellular differentiation, metabolism and survival. Indeed, the processes linking nutrition, metabolism and growth are thought to involve a complex interrelation among insulin, growth hormone (GH), IGFs and their binding proteins (IGFBPs). However, accumulating data from both experimental and molecular epidemiological studies indicate that these growth factors may also be important in the pathophysiological processes underlying chronic disease, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease and cancer...
2005: Endocrine Development
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