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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245011/oncogenic-role-of-thor-a-conserved-cancer-testis-long-non-coding-rna
#1
Yasuyuki Hosono, Yashar S Niknafs, John R Prensner, Matthew K Iyer, Saravana M Dhanasekaran, Rohit Mehra, Sethuramasundaram Pitchiaya, Jean Tien, June Escara-Wilke, Anton Poliakov, Shih-Chun Chu, Sahal Saleh, Keerthana Sankar, Fengyun Su, Shuling Guo, Yuanyuan Qiao, Susan M Freier, Huynh-Hoa Bui, Xuhong Cao, Rohit Malik, Timothy M Johnson, David G Beer, Felix Y Feng, Weibin Zhou, Arul M Chinnaiyan
Large-scale transcriptome sequencing efforts have vastly expanded the catalog of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with varying evolutionary conservation, lineage expression, and cancer specificity. Here, we functionally characterize a novel ultraconserved lncRNA, THOR (ENSG00000226856), which exhibits expression exclusively in testis and a broad range of human cancers. THOR knockdown and overexpression in multiple cell lines and animal models alters cell or tumor growth supporting an oncogenic role. We discovered a conserved interaction of THOR with IGF2BP1 and show that THOR contributes to the mRNA stabilization activities of IGF2BP1...
December 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244145/biological-and-therapeutic-implications-of-multisector-sequencing-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastomas
#2
Tatenda Mahlokozera, Ananth K Vellimana, Tiandao Li, Diane D Mao, Zohny S Zohny, David H Kim, David D Tran, Daniel S Marcus, Sarah J Fouke, Jian L Campian, Gavin P Dunn, Christopher A Miller, Albert H Kim
Background: Diagnostic workflows for glioblastoma (GBM) patients increasingly include DNA sequencing-based analysis of a single tumor site following biopsy or resection. We hypothesized that sequencing of multiple sectors within a given tumor would provide a more comprehensive representation of the molecular landscape and potentially inform therapeutic strategies. Methods: 10 newly diagnosed, IDH1 wildtype GBM tumor samples were obtained from two (n = 9) or four (n = 1) spatially distinct tumor regions...
December 13, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243184/study-of-myb-nfib-chimeric-gene-expression-tumor-angiogenesis-and-proliferation-in-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-salivary-gland
#3
Junya Ono, Yasuo Okada
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the common malignant tumors in salivary glands, and the clinical prognosis is poor with frequent distant metastasis which may lead to death. Expression of the MYB-NFIB chimeric gene in ACC has been reported recently. MYB is an oncogene with transcription regulating functions, and NFIB encodes nuclear transcription factor although detailed functions are unknown. This study investigated whether MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression affects tumor angiogenesis and proliferation in salivary gland ACC...
December 14, 2017: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242214/expressed-gene-fusions-as-frequent-drivers-of-poor-outcomes-in-hormone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#4
Karina J Matissek, Maristela L Onozato, Sheng Sun, Zongli Zheng, Andrew Schultz, Jesse Lee, Kristofer Patel, Piiha-Lotta Jerevall, Srinivas V Saladi, Allison MacLeay, Mehrad Tavallai, Tanja Badovinac-Crnjevic, Carlos Barrios, Nuran Beşe, Arlene Chan, Yanin Chavarri-Guerra, Marcio Debiasi, Elif Demirdogen, Unal Egeli, Sehsuvar Gökgöz, Henry Gomez, Pedro Liedke, Ismet Tasdelen, Sahsine Tolunay, Gustavo Werutsky, Jessica St Louis, Nora Horick, Dianne M Finkelstein, Long Phi Le, Aditya Bardia, Paul E Goss, Dennis C Sgroi, A John Iafrate, Leif W Ellisen
We sought to uncover novel genetic drivers of hormone-receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer, employing a targeted next-generation sequencing approach for detecting expressed gene rearrangements without prior knowledge of the fusion partners. We identified intergenic fusions involving driver genes including PIK3CA, AKT3, RAF1 and ESR1 in 14% (24/173) of unselected patients with advanced HR+ breast cancer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the corresponding chromosomal rearrangements in both primary and metastatic tumors...
December 14, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242154/high-expression-of-diffuse-panbronchiolitis-critical-region-1-gene-promotes-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#5
Jiayi Yan, Guanghui Chen, Xuesong Zhao, Fangying Chen, Ting Wang, Fei Miao
Diffuse panbronchiolitis critical region 1 (DPCR1) is located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. It was reported to be downregulated in invasive pituitary adenoma compared with that in non-invasive tumors, but upregulated in the precursor of gastric carcinogenesis. However, the direct effect of DPCR1 on cancer cells has rarely been reported, and the role DPCR1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. The clinical sample validation and public data analysis of the present study demonstrated that DPCR1 was upregulated markedly in PDAC and this high expression was negatively correlated with the patient prognosis...
December 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241203/genome-wide-transcriptome-analysis-of-estrogen-receptor-positive-and-human-epithelial-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-breast-cancers-by-ribonucleic-acid-sequencing
#6
Pengtao Chen, Wei Song, Liangli Liu
AIM: The aim is to identify complex pathogenesis of breast cancer subtypes and disclose the whole landscape of altered transcriptional activities in these cancers. METHODS: We downloaded raw expression data from public database, and performed transcriptome analysis of 8 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer tissue samples, 8 human epithelial growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer tissue samples, and 3 normal breast tissues by identification, functional annotation, and prediction of upstream regulators and cell-surface biomarkers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
December 14, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241190/circrna-expression-profile-in-early-stage-lung-adenocarcinoma-patients
#7
Jiangmin Zhao, Le Li, Qian Wang, Hongxiu Han, Qing Zhan, Ming Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lung adenocarcinoma, a form of non-small cell lung cancer with high lethality at an advanced stage, is becoming more common in women, non- or never-smokers, and even young adults. At present, there are still no effective early diagnosis methods for patients to be cured in a timely manner. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), which are stable and conserved non-coding RNA in mammalian cells, have been reported to be widely involved in the processes of cancer disease. However, it is still a puzzle as to which specific circRNAs are involved in the development of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240581/cutaneous-melanocytoma-with-crtc1-trim11-fusion-report-of-5-cases-resembling-clear-cell-sarcoma
#8
Lucie Cellier, Emilie Perron, Daniel Pissaloux, Marie Karanian, Veronique Haddad, Laurent Alberti, Arnaud de la Fouchardière
We report 5 cases of primary intradermal nodular unpigmented tumors with a melanocytic immunophenotype associated with a novel CRTC1-TRIM11 fusion. Clinically, the cutaneous nodules were slowly growing in 3 women and 2 men (25 to 82 y old, median, 28 y) with no specific topography. Lesion size ranged from 4 to 12 mm (median, 5 mm). The tumors were strictly located in the dermis with a nodular pattern. The cells were arranged in confluent nests and fascicules. Central fibronecrotic areas were present in 2 cases...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239811/the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-is-deregulated-in-cemento-ossifying-fibromas
#9
Thaís Dos Santos Fontes Pereira, Marina Gonçalves Diniz, Josiane Alves França, Rennan Garcias Moreira, Grazielle Helena Ferreira de Menezes, Sílvia Ferreira de Sousa, Wagner Henriques de Castro, Carolina Cavaliéri Gomes, Ricardo Santiago Gomez
OBJECTIVE: The molecular pathogenesis of cemento ossifying fibroma (COF) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate mutations in 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, including APC and CTNNB1, in which mutations in COF have been previously reported. In addition, we assessed the transcriptional levels of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway genes in COF. STUDY DESIGN: We used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction array to evaluate the transcriptional levels of 44 Wnt/β-catenin pathway genes in 6 COF samples, in comparison with 6 samples of healthy jaws...
November 24, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238007/diagnostic-performance-of-arterial-spin-labeling-for-grading-nonenhancing-astrocytic-tumors
#10
Delgerdalai Khashbat, Masafumi Harada, Takashi Abe, Mungunbagana Ganbold, Seiji Iwamoto, Naoto Uyama, Saho Irahara, Youichi Otomi, Teruyoshi Kageji, Shinji Nagahiro
PURPOSE: We evaluated the utility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging of tumor blood flow (TBF) for grading non-enhancing astrocytic tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen non-enhancing astrocytomas were divided into high-grade (n = 7) and low-grade (n = 6) groups. Both ASL and conventional sequences were acquired using the same magnetic resonance machine. Intratumoral absolute maximum TBF (TBFmax), absolute mean TBF (TBFmean), and corresponding values normalized to cerebral blood flow (TBFmax and TBFmean ratios) were measured...
December 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237405/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-hereditary-non-polyposis-colorectal-cancer-hnpcc-syndrome-in-immigrant-asian-colorectal-cancer-patients
#11
Jasmine Lee, Yin-Yi Xiao, Yan Yu Sun, Jasminka Balderacchi, Bradley Clark, Jatin Desani, Vivek Kumar, Angela Saverimuthu, Khin Than Win, Yiwu Huang, Yiqing Xu
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) is 2 to 5% in the Caucasian population. HNPCC is caused by genomic mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR), namely MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM. A non-hereditary, acquired process of hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter can also lead to silencing of MLH1 protein expression. Diagnosis of HNPCC in patients with colorectal and other related cancers is important in the clinical treatment and surveillance of related cancers...
December 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237393/micrornas-downregulation-in-cancer-is-associated-with-guanine-enrichment-in-the-terminal-loop-sequences-of-their-precursors
#12
Amit Cohen, Mario Alberto Burgos-Aceves, Yoav Smith
A global repression in microRNA (miRNA) expression is a phenomenon observed in different types of cancer. Herein, we show an association of miRNAs downregulation in cancer, with guanine (G) enrichment in the terminal loop sequences of their precursors. High G (and GG) content was mostly found in repressed miRNAs of breast, lung and ovary cancers, predominantly in poorly differentiated tumors. The mature sequences of repressed miRNAs had significantly low G level and were enriched with an ACA motif. These results suggest a new link between G enrichment of precursor miRNAs terminal loops and carcinogenesis, and the possible association of specific sequence motifs with the regulation of their expression...
December 13, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236566/genome-profile-in-a-extremely-rare-case-of-pulmonary-sclerosing-pneumocytoma-presenting-with-diffusely-scattered-nodules-in-the-right-lung
#13
Xiangshan Fan, Ling Lin, Jianjun Wang, Yu Wang, Anning Feng, Ling Nie, Hongyan Wu, Fanqing Meng, Haodong Xu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sclerosing pneumocytoma (PSP) typically presents solitary and peripheral mass, while only rarely cases display unusual multiple lesions. We reported a extremely rare case of PSP with diffusely-scattered nodules in the right lung. CASE PRESENTATION: Diffusely round-shaped nodular shadows in the right lung were found by CT scan in a 31-year-old Chinese woman. The patient undergone the right pneumnectomy. Grossly, numerous small nodules, up to 2...
December 13, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235495/identification-of-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-pathway-as-a-critical-regulator-of-p53-isoform-%C3%AE
#14
Lauren E Cowen, Yi Tang
Human TP53 gene encodes the tumor suppressor p53 and, via alternative splicing, the p53β and γ isoforms. Numerous studies have shown that p53β/γ can modulate p53 functions and are critically involved in regulation of cellular response to stress conditions. However, it is not fully understood how the β and γ isoforms are regulated following splicing. Using gene targeting and RNAi, we showed that depletion of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) factor SMG7 or UPF1 significantly induced p53β but had minimal effect on p53γ...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235465/molecular-basis-of-differential-3-splice-site-sensitivity-to-anti-tumor-drugs-targeting-u2-snrnp
#15
Luisa Vigevani, André Gohr, Thomas Webb, Manuel Irimia, Juan Valcárcel
Several splicing-modulating compounds, including Sudemycins and Spliceostatin A, display anti-tumor properties. Combining transcriptome, bioinformatic and mutagenesis analyses, we delineate sequence determinants of the differential sensitivity of 3' splice sites to these drugs. Sequences 5' from the branch point (BP) region strongly influence drug sensitivity, with additional functional BPs reducing, and BP-like sequences allowing, drug responses. Drug-induced retained introns are typically shorter, displaying higher GC content and weaker polypyrimidine-tracts and BPs...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235051/development-of-the-cns-tap-tool-for-the-selection-of-precision-medicine-therapies-in-neuro-oncology
#16
Joseph R Linzey, Bernard L Marini, Amy Pasternak, Cory Smith, Zac Miklja, Lili Zhao, Chandan Kumar-Sinha, Alyssa Paul, Nicholas Harris, Patricia L Robertson, Lindsey M Hoffman, Arul Chinnaiyan, Rajen Mody, Carl Koschmann
The number of targeted therapies utilized in precision medicine are rapidly increasing. Neuro-oncology offers a unique challenge due to the varying blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration of each agent. Neuro-oncologists face a difficult task weighing the growing number of potential targeted therapies and their likelihood of BBB penetration. We developed the CNS TAP Working Group and performed an extensive literature review for the evidence-based creation of the CNS TAP tool, which was retrospectively validated by analyzing brain tumor patients who underwent therapy targeted based on genomic results from an academic sequencing study (MiOncoseq, n = 17) or private molecular profiling (Foundation One, n = 7)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234674/microrna-in-glioblastoma-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
Barbara Banelli, Alessandra Forlani, Giorgio Allemanni, Anna Morabito, Maria Pia Pistillo, Massimo Romani
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor and, even with the current multimodal therapy, is an invariably lethal cancer with a life expectancy that depends on the tumor subtype but, even in the most favorable cases, rarely exceeds 2 years. Epigenetic factors play an important role in gliomagenesis, are strong predictors of outcome, and are important determinants for the resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. The latest addition to the epigenetic machinery is the noncoding RNA (ncRNA), that is, RNA molecules that are not translated into a protein and that exert their function by base pairing with other nucleic acids in a reversible and nonmutational mode...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234329/neoantigens-generated-by-individual-mutations-and-their-role-in-cancer-immunity-and-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Mirjana Efremova, Francesca Finotello, Dietmar Rieder, Zlatko Trajanoski
Recent preclinical and clinical studies have proved the long-standing hypothesis that tumors elicit adaptive immune responses and that the antigens driving effective T-cell response are neoantigens, i.e., peptides that are generated from somatically mutated genes. Hence, the characterization of neoantigens and the identification of the immunogenic ones are of utmost importance for improving cancer immunotherapy and broadening its efficacy to a larger fraction of patients. In this review, we first introduce the methods used for the quantification of neoantigens using next-generation sequencing data and then summarize results obtained using these tools to characterize the neoantigen landscape in solid cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234247/pi3k-mtor-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-luminal-breast-cancer-why-when-and-to-whom
#19
REVIEW
Francesco Schettini, Giuseppe Buono, Meghana V Trivedi, Sabino De Placido, Grazia Arpino, Mario Giuliano
Estrogen receptor (ER) signaling represents the main driver of tumor growth and survival in luminal breast cancer (BC). Despite the efficacy of endocrine agents, many patients with luminal BC do not respond to endocrine therapy and many others develop endocrine resistance over time, due to the activation of escape pathways such as the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of mTOR and PI3K inhibitors in overcoming endocrine resistance in hormone receptor-positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic BC (MBC) patients...
October 2017: Breast Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234122/transcriptome-wide-analysis-of-natural-antisense-transcripts-shows-their-potential-role-in-breast-cancer
#20
Stephane Wenric, Sonia ElGuendi, Jean-Hubert Caberg, Warda Bezzaou, Corinne Fasquelle, Benoit Charloteaux, Latifa Karim, Benoit Hennuy, Pierre Frères, Joëlle Collignon, Meriem Boukerroucha, Hélène Schroeder, Fabrice Olivier, Véronique Jossa, Guy Jerusalem, Claire Josse, Vincent Bours
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) represent 1/5 of the mammalian transcript number, and 90% of the genome length is transcribed. Many ncRNAs play a role in cancer. Among them, non-coding natural antisense transcripts (ncNAT) are RNA sequences that are complementary and overlapping to those of either protein-coding (PCT) or non-coding transcripts. Several ncNATs were described as regulating protein coding gene expression on the same loci, and they are expected to act more frequently in cis compared to other ncRNAs that commonly function in trans...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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