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Cardiac mapping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813699/t1-and-t2-mapping-in-cardiology-mapping-the-obscure-object-of-desire
#1
Sophie Mavrogeni, Dimitris Apostolou, Panayiotis Argyriou, Stella Velitsista, Lilika Papa, Stelios Efentakis, Evangelos Vernardos, Mikela Kanoupaki, George Kanoupakis, Athanassios Manginas
The increasing use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is based on its capability to perform biventricular function assessment and tissue characterization without radiation and with high reproducibility. The use of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) gave the potential of non-invasive biopsy for fibrosis quantification. However, LGE is unable to detect diffuse myocardial disease. Native T1 mapping and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) provide knowledge about pathologies affecting both the myocardium and interstitium that is otherwise difficult to identify...
August 17, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812230/simulation-of-left-ventricular-dynamics-using-a-low-order-mathematical-model
#2
Michael J Moulton, Brian D Hong, Timothy W Secomb
The eventual goal of this study is to develop methods for estimating dynamic stresses in the left ventricle (LV) that could be used on-line in clinical settings, based on routinely available measurements. Toward this goal, a low-order theoretical model is presented, in which LV shape is represented using a small number of parameters, allowing rapid computational simulations of LV dynamics. The LV is represented as a thick-walled prolate spheroid containing helical muscle fibers with nonlinear passive and time-dependent active contractile properties...
August 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811555/identification-of-novel-micrornas-in-the-sheep-heart-and-their-regulation-in-heart-failure
#3
Lee Lee Wong, Miriam T Rademaker, Eng Leng Saw, Kar Sheng Lew, Leigh J Ellmers, Christopher J Charles, Arthur Mark Richards, Peipei Wang
Study of microRNA (miRNAs) using sheep models is limited due to lack of miRNA information. We therefore investigated oar-miRNAs and their regulation in an ovine model of heart failure (HF). Left ventricular (LV) tissue was collected from normal (Cont), HF (LV pacing @ ~220bpm for 13-days) and HF-recovery sheep (HF-R, 26-days after pacing cessation). MiRNA expression was profiled using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and miRNA array, and validated by stem-loop qPCR. Detected sequences were mapped against the ovine genome (Oar v4...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808085/sub-mitochondrial-localization-of-genetic-tagged-mib-interacting-partners-mic19-mic60-and-sam50
#4
Mira Sastri, Manjula Darshi, Mason Mackey, Ranjan Ramachandra, Saeyeon Ju, Sebastien Phan, Stephen Adams, Kathryn Stein, Christopher R Douglas, Jiwan John Kim, Mark H Ellisman, Susan S Taylor, Guy A Perkins
Each mitochondrial compartment contains varying protein compositions that underlie a diversity of localized functions. Insights into the localization of mitochondrial intermembrane space bridging (MIB) components will have an impact on our understanding of mitochondrial architecture, dynamics and function. Using the novel visualizable genetic tags miniSOG and APEX2 in cultured mouse cardiac and human astrocyte cell lines and electron tomography, we have mapped at nanoscale resolution three key MIB components: Mic19, Mic60 and Sam50, in the environment of structural landmarks such as cristae and crista junctions (CJs)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804906/efficacy-of-a-mephentermine-based-product-as-a-vasopressor-and-a-cardiac-performance-enhancer-when-given-intramuscularly-to-cattle
#5
D N Q Cunha, C L Del Rio, B L Youngblood, E L Ferris, G E Geist, Y Ueyama, L C Franz, S Mathur, R L Hamlin
The goal of this study was to confirm the vasopressor and cardiac effects of POTENAY(®) INJETÁVEL (POT), a mephentermine-based product, given to cattle with induced vascular/cardiac depression. Ten healthy Holstein cattle (206 ± 13 kg) followed a randomized-complete-block design (RCBD) utilizing crossover study design. Each animal randomly received (1 ml/25 kg, IM) of either POT (n = 10) or volume-matched placebo control (0.9%NaCl, CP, n = 10). A subset of animals (n = 5) received POT first (day 0) while the remaining (n = 5) received CP; after a six-day washout period, cattle received the opposite compound...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803685/quantification-of-pulmonary-regurgitation-by-vector-flow-mapping-in-congenital-heart-patients-after-repair-of-right-ventricular-outflow-obstruction-a-preliminary-study
#6
Ashley Hoi-Man To, Vivian Wing-Yi Li, Ming-Yen Ng, Yiu-Fai Cheung
BACKGROUND: Vector flow mapping (VFM) enables direct visualization of flow pattern and estimation of flow volume. The aim of this study was to determine its accuracy in the quantification of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) in congenital heart patients after repair of right ventricular (RV) outflow obstruction. METHODS: This study comprised two parts: (1) validation of VFM in the quantification of PR in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot by cardiac magnetic resonance and (2) clinical application of VFM to determine PR in patients after biventricular repair of pulmonary atresia and stenosis with intact ventricular septum...
August 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802656/rethinking-papillary-muscle-resection-for-refractory-ventricular-tachycardia-in-the-lvad-era-a-case-report
#7
Zachary J Il'Giovine, Adam D DeVore, Chetan B Patel, Jason Koontz, Jacob Schroder
We report the case of a 57-year-old man with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy who presented to the hospital with recurrent episodes of ventricular tachycardia refractory to antiarrhythmic medications. Mapping identified a deep premature ventricular contraction focus in the anterolateral papillary muscle, an area that has been previously identified as difficult to treat with radiofrequency catheter ablation. The hospital course was complicated by cardiogenic shock and VT-storm, and the patient ultimately underwent surgical resection of the anterolateral papillary muscle with left ventricular assist device placement as a successful bridge to cardiac transplantation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802637/blood-pressure-responses-to-dietary-sodium-association-with-autonomic-cardiovascular-function-in-normotensive-adults
#8
Evan L Matthews, Michael S Brian, David G Edwards, Sean D Stocker, Megan M Wenner, William B Farquhar
Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium vary widely person-to-person. Salt sensitive rodent models display altered autonomic function, a trait thought to contribute to poor cardiovascular health. Thus, we hypothesized that increased salt sensitivity (SS) in normotensive humans would be associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Healthy normotensive men and women completed 1week of high (300mmol·day(-1)) and 1week of low (20mmol·day(-1)) dietary sodium (random order) with 24h mean arterial pressure (MAP) assessed on the last day of each diet to assess SS...
August 6, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802636/cardiac-neuroanatomy-imaging-nerves-to-define-functional-control
#9
REVIEW
Peter Hanna, Pradeep S Rajendran, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, J Andrew Armour, Jefrrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
The autonomic nervous system regulates normal cardiovascular function and plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Further understanding of the interplay between the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system holds promise for the development of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics. To this end, techniques to image myocardial innervation will help provide a basis for understanding the fundamental underpinnings of cardiac neural control. In this review, we detail the evolution of gross and microscopic anatomical studies for functional mapping of cardiac neuroanatomy...
July 29, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802249/high-resolution-mapping-of-chromatin-conformation-in-cardiac-myocytes-reveals-structural-remodeling-of-the-epigenome-in-heart-failure
#10
Manuel Rosa-Garrido, Douglas J Chapski, Anthony D Schmitt, Todd H Kimball, Elaheh Karbassi, Emma Monte, Enrique Balderas, Matteo Pellegrini, Tsai-Ting Shih, Elizabeth Soehalim, David A Liem, Peipei Ping, Niels J Galjart, Shuxun Ren, Yibin Wang, Bing Ren, Thomas M Vondriska
Background -Cardiovascular disease is associated with epigenomic changes in the heart, however the endogenous structure of cardiac myocyte chromatin has never been determined. Methods -To investigate the mechanisms of epigenomic function in the heart, genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) and DNA sequencing were performed in adult cardiac myocytes following development of pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. Mice with cardiac-specific deletion of CTCF (a ubiquitous chromatin structural protein) were generated to explore the role of this protein in chromatin structure and cardiac phenotype...
August 11, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801204/improved-post-processing-strategy-for-molli-based-tissue-characterization-allows-application-in-patients-with-dyspnoe-and-impaired-left-ventricular-function
#11
Thomas Kampf, Wolfgang Rudolf Bauer, Theresa Reiter
Contrast and non-contrast MRI based characterization of myocardium by T1-mapping will be of paramount importance to obtain biomarkers, e.g. fibrosis, which determines the risk of heart failure patients. T1-mapping by the standard post-processing of the modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) lacks of accuracy when trying to reduce its duration, which on the other hand, is highly desirable in patients with heart failure. The recently suggested inversion group fitting (IGF) technique, which considers more parameters for fitting, has a superior accuracy for long T1 times despite a shorter duration...
August 8, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800546/mr-based-respiratory-and-cardiac-motion-correction-for-pet-imaging
#12
Thomas Küstner, Martin Schwartz, Petros Martirosian, Sergios Gatidis, Ferdinand Seith, Christopher Gilliam, Thierry Blu, Hadi Fayad, Dimitris Visvikis, F Schick, B Yang, H Schmidt, N F Schwenzer
PURPOSE: To develop a motion correction for Positron-Emission-Tomography (PET) using simultaneously acquired magnetic-resonance (MR) images within 90 s. METHODS: A 90 s MR acquisition allows the generation of a cardiac and respiratory motion model of the body trunk. Thereafter, further diagnostic MR sequences can be recorded during the PET examination without any limitation. To provide full PET scan time coverage, a sensor fusion approach maps external motion signals (respiratory belt, ECG-derived respiration signal) to a complete surrogate signal on which the retrospective data binning is performed...
August 3, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800541/an-experimental-study-of-the-protective-effect-of-simvastatin-on-sepsis-induced-myocardial-depression-in-rats
#13
Yu Wang, Lichun Zhang, Xin Zhao, Wenping Yang, Rong Zhang
Many patients with sepsis died of heart failure caused by sepsis-induced myocardial depression. Patients with cardiovascular diseases treated by statins have a lower incidence and mortality of sepsis, although the mechanisms remain elusive. To investigate the protective effect of simvastatin on sepsis-induced myocardial depression and to explore possible mechanisms of action. Thirty six adult male Wistar rats were pretreated with simvastatin (0.2μg/g, q12h) for one week before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
August 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796394/maternal-haemodynamics-in-normal-pregnancies-and-in-pregnancies-affected-by-pre-eclampsia
#14
Daniel Stott, Obianuju Nzelu, Kypros H Nicolaides, Nikos A Kametas
OBJECTIVES: To determine if in a high risk group in the first half of pregnancy, women who developed pre-eclampsia (PE) with fetal growth restriction (PE-FGR) demonstrate distinct haemodynamics compared to those with PE in the absence of FGR (PE-only). METHODS: Cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured at the first hospital visit at 9-24 weeks' gestation in 69 women who had chronic hypertension and 67 who had a hypertensive disorder in a previous pregnancy...
August 10, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795675/-clinical-application-of-abdominal-lifting-and-compression-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-method-for-treatment-of-patients-with-cardiac-arrest
#15
Haishan Li, Liu Ji, Jingjing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical application of rhythmic abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ALC-CPR) in cardiac arrest (CA) patients with conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) contraindication (chest rib fracture, chest trauma, etc.). METHODS: The clinical data of patients with CA in emergency department of Hefei Second People's Hospital from June 2015 to December 2016 were analyzed retrospectively, and the patients with weights 40-150 kg and CA≤20 minutes, and resuscitated with ALC-CPR were selected...
August 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793912/re-evaluation-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-from-a-developmental-and-morphological-perspective
#16
A Crucean, A Alqahtani, D J Barron, W J Brawn, R V Richardson, J O'Sullivan, R H Anderson, D J Henderson, B Chaudhry
BACKGROUND: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) covers a spectrum of rare congenital anomalies characterised by a non-apex forming left ventricle and stenosis/atresia of the mitral and aortic valves. Despite many studies, the causes of HLHS remain unclear and there are conflicting views regarding the role of flow, valvar or myocardial abnormalities in its pathogenesis, all of which were proposed prior to the description of the second heart field. Our aim was to re-evaluate the patterns of malformation in HLHS in relation to recognised cardiac progenitor populations, with a view to providing aetiologically useful sub-groupings for genomic studies...
August 10, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789598/development-of-a-computerized-4-d-mri-phantom-for-liver-motion-study
#17
Chunhao Wang, Fang-Fang Yin, W P Segars, Zheng Chang, Lei Ren
PURPOSE: To develop a 4-dimensional computerized magnetic resonance imaging phantom with image textures extracted from real patient scans for liver motion studies. METHODS: The proposed phantom was developed based on the current version of 4-dimensional extended cardiac-torso computerized phantom and a clinical magnetic resonance scan. Initially, the extended cardiac-torso phantom was voxelized in abdominal-chest region at the end of exhalation phase. Structures/tissues were classified into 4 categories: (1) Seven key textured organs, including liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, heart, kidneys, and pancreas, were mapped from a clinical T1-weighted liver magnetic resonance scan using deformable registration...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774383/atrial-cardiomyopathy-a-useful-notion-in-cardiac-disease-management-or-a-passing-fad
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Guichard, Stanley Nattel
The term atrial cardiomyopathy, which has been used sporadically in the medical literature, was recently the subject of a detailed Consensus Document prepared by representatives of the European Heart Rhythm Association, Heart Rhythm Society, Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society, and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardiaca y Electrofisiología. They discussed aspects of the definition, histopathology, atrial-specific physiology, atrial pathology, impact on arrhythmia occurrence, imaging, mapping, and ablation...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768519/synthetic-hematocrit-derived-from-the-longitudinal-relaxation-of-blood-can-lead-to-clinically-significant-errors-in-measurement-of-extracellular-volume-fraction-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients
#19
Frank J Raucci, David A Parra, Jason T Christensen, Lazaro E Hernandez, Larry W Markham, Meng Xu, James C Slaughter, Jonathan H Soslow
BACKGROUND: Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) is altered in pathological cardiac remodeling and predicts death and arrhythmia. ECV can be quantified using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping but calculation requires a measured hematocrit (Hct). The longitudinal relaxation of blood has been used in adults to generate a synthetic Hct (estimate of true Hct) but has not been validated in pediatric populations. METHODS: One hundred fourteen children and young adults underwent a total of 163 CMRs with T1 mapping...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766985/hemodynamic-effects-of-low-dose-atipamezole-in-isoflurane-anesthetized-cats-receiving-an-infusion-of-dexmedetomidine
#20
Manuel Martin-Flores, Daniel M Sakai, Juhana Honkavaara, Luis Campoy
Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of low-dose atipamezole administered intravenously to isoflurane-anesthetized cats receiving dexmedetomidine. We hypothesized that atipamezole would increase heart rate (HR) and reduce arterial blood pressure in isoflurane-anesthetized cats receiving dexmedetomidine. Methods Six healthy adult domestic shorthair cats were anesthetized with isoflurane and instrumented for direct arterial pressures and cardiac output (CO) measurements...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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