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Cardiac mapping

Isabel Deisenhofer
The three-dimensional (3D) mapping of cardiac arrhythmias has evolved in recent years to an important and extremely useful tool, providing important insights into arrhythmia mechanisms and thus improving ablation success rates, especially in complex arrhythmias. In atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common but also one of the most complex cardiac arrhythmias, progress in mapping technology has been focusing on several aspects according to the type of AF.In paroxysmal AF, important progress in the exact anatomic reconstruction of the main ablation target, i...
September 13, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
Theofilos M Kolettis, Eleni Bagli, Eleonora Barka, Dimitrios Kouroupis, Marianthi Kontonika, Agapi D Vilaeti, Maria Markou, Maria Roumpi, Violetta Maltabe, Vassilios La Rocca, Simeon Agathopoulos, Theodore Fotsis
Background Cardiac repair strategies are being evaluated for myocardial infarctions, but the safety issues regarding their arrhythmogenic potential remain unresolved. By utilizing the in-vivo rat model, we have examined the medium-term electrophysiologic effects of a biomaterial scaffold that has been cellularized with spheroids of human adipose tissue, derived from mesenchymal stem cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Mesenchymal stem cells, which exhibit adequate differentiation capacity, were co-cultured with umbilical vein endothelial cells and were seeded on an alginate based scaffold...
July 10, 2018: Curēus
Rotem Shlomo Lanzman, Alexandra Ljimani, Anja Müller-Lutz, Julia Weller, Julia Stabinska, Gerald Antoch, Hans-Jörg Wittsack
OBJECT: To assess changes diffusion properties of renal cortex over the entire cardiac cycle using electrocardiogram-gated respiratory-triggered dynamic diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 20 healthy volunteers were investigated on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Blood flow velocity within the renal arteries was determined by electrocardiogram-gated phase-contrast measurements. For dynamic renal DWI, an electrocardiogram-gated respiratory-triggered coronal single-slice EPI sequence was acquired at 14 times at 20, 70, 120, 170, …, 570, 620, 720 ms after the R-wave over the cardiac cycle...
September 10, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Reham F El-Kased
Cardiac troponin-I is a promising diagnostic marker for cardiovascular diseases. Troponin-I immunoassays rely on monoclonal antibodies, while polyclonal antibodies, cheaper to manufacture, are uncommonly used. The current study established an immuno-analytical assay using a polyclonal antibody capable of mapping troponin-I antigenic determinant. Proteolytic digestion of troponin-I was performed. Antigenic determinant was assigned by separation of fragments using gel electrophoresis followed by Western blot and high-performance liquid chromatography followed by dot blot...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Andrea Cattai, Roberto Rabozzi, Heidi Ferasin, Maurizio Isola, Paolo Franci
BACKGROUND: Propofol is one of the most widely used injectable anaesthetic agents in veterinary practice. Cardiovascular effects related to propofol use in dogs remain less well defined. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the haemodynamic changes during induction of general anaesthesia with propofol in healthy dogs, by a beat-to-beat continuous monitoring. All dogs were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.015 mg/kg) and methadone (0.15 mg/kg). Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure the velocity time integral (VTI) of the left ventricular outflow tract...
September 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Michael Hessler, Philip-Helge Arnemann, Frédéric Zamit, Laura Seidel, Tim-Gerald Kampmeier, Ulrich Kathöfer, Maged Alnaweiseh, Saman Tchaichian, Sebastian Rehberg, Christian Ertmer
INTRODUCTION: The conjunctival region may serve as an alternative site for microcirculatory measurements. The present study was performed to investigate the correlation of sublingual and conjunctival microcirculation in ovine models of septic and hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Septic shock was induced in ten sheep by inoculation of feces into the peritoneal cavity until mean arterial pressure (MAP) was <60 mmHg and arterial lactate level was ≥1.8 mmol L. In another ten sheep, hemorrhagic shock was induced by stepwise blood withdrawal of 3x10 mL kg...
May 4, 2018: Shock
Aaron M Williams, Umar F Bhatti, Isabel S Dennahy, Kiril Chtraklin, Panpan Chang, Nathan J Graham, Basil M Baccouche, Shalini Roy, Mohammed Harajli, Jing Zhou, Vahagn C Nikolian, Qiufang Deng, Yuzi Tian, Baoling Liu, Yongqing Li, Gregory L Hays, Julia L Hays, Hasan B Alam
Hemorrhage remains the leading cause of preventable deaths in trauma. Endovascular management of non-compressible torso hemorrhage has been at the forefront of trauma care in recent years. Since complete aortic occlusion presents serious concerns, the concept of partial aortic occlusion has gained a growing attention. Here, we present a large animal model of hemorrhagic shock to investigate the effects of a novel partial aortic balloon occlusion catheter and compare it with a catheter that works on the principles of complete aortic occlusion...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ali Vasheghani-Farahani, Fatemeh Kazemnejad, Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Soleil Saadat, Parya Tavakolipoor, Tahereh Yazdani, Mohammad Alidoosti, Vahid Ghasem-Amooeian, Haleh Ashraf
Background: It has been implicated that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease including stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between OSA and severity of atherosclerosis assessed by angiography. Methods: This study included 337 patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography at Tehran Heart Center, Iran. The Gensini score was obtained from each patient for coronary angiogram, and OSA were assessed by using Multivariable apnea prediction (MAP) risk index on the day of cardiac catheterization...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Misugi Urano, Fatmaelzahraa Abdelfattah Denewar, Taro Murai, Masaru Mizutani, Masanori Kitase, Kazuya Ohashi, Norio Shiraki, Yuta Shibamoto
The internal mammary lymph node (IMLN) chain is a pathway through which breast lymphatic drainage flows. The internal mammary lymphatic vessel runs around the internal mammary artery and veins with IMLN in the parasternal intercostal spaces. IMLN metastasis, which forms a part of clinical TNM staging, may negatively affect the prognosis of primary breast cancer patients. IMLN metastasis is clinically detected using ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and 18 F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography...
September 7, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Hidehira Fukaya, Bradley N Plummer, Joseph S Piktel, Xiaoping Wan, David S Rosenbaum, Kenneth R Laurita, Lance D Wilson
BACKGROUND: Cardiac alternans is promoted by heart failure (HF) -induced calcium (Ca2+ ) cycling abnormalities. Late sodium current (INa,L ) is enhanced in HF and promotes Ca2+ overload, however, mechanisms underlying an antiarrhythmic effect of INa,L blockade in HF remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We determined if ranolazine suppresses cardiac alternans in HF by normalizing Ca2+ cycling. METHODS: Transmural dual optical mapping of Ca2+ transients and action potentials was performed in wedge preparations from 8 HF and 8 control (Normal) dogs...
September 4, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Gunilla Larsson, Peter O O Julu, Ingegerd Witt Engerström, Marlene Sandlund, Britta Lindström
People with Rett syndrome have deficient central autonomic control, which may interfere with walking. We have limited knowledge regarding the effects of exertion during physical activity in Rett syndrome. The aim was to investigate the autonomic responses during walking on a treadmill in Rett syndrome. Twenty-six females, 12 with Rett syndrome and 14 healthy females were included. All individuals started on the treadmill by standing still, followed by walking slowly with progressive speed until reaching maximum individual speed, which they kept for 6 min...
September 4, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Katherine Margulis, Zhenpeng Zhou, Qizhi Fang, Richard E Sievers, Randall J Lee, Richard N Zare
Lipid profile changes in heart muscle have been previously linked to cardiac ischemia and myocardial infarction, but the spatial distribution of lipids and metabolites in ischemic heart remains to be fully investigated. We have performed desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging of hearts from in vivo myocardial infarction mouse models. In these mice, myocardial ischemia was induced by blood supply restriction via a permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery. We have shown that applying the machine learning algorithm of gradient boosting tree ensemble to the ambient mass spectrometry imaging data allows us to distinguish segments of infarcted myocardium from normally perfused hearts on a pixel by pixel basis...
September 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jihong Zhu, Weimin Zhang, Guoying Shen, Xin Yu, Jige Guo, Taidi Zhong
The effect of Lund exhaust technique on hemodynamics and inflammatory mediators in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass was evaluated. A total of 60 patients with heart disease undergoing elective heart valve replacement under elective cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly divided into Lund exhaust group (group A) and control group (group B), with 30 patients in each group. Group A underwent Lund exhaust during cardiopulmonary bypass, while group B was identical to group A except for not using the Lund exhaust technique during cardiopulmonary bypass...
September 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kirsten M Becker, Jeanette Schulz-Menger, Tobias Schaeffter, Christoph Kolbitsch
PURPOSE: To provide high-resolution cardiac T1 mapping of various cardiac phases and cine imaging within a single breath-hold using continuous golden ratio-based radial acquisition and model-based iterative image reconstruction. METHODS: Data acquisition was performed continuously using golden ratio-based radial sampling and multiple inversion pulses were applied independent of the heart rate. Native T1 maps of diastole and systole were reconstructed with in-plane resolution of 1...
September 5, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Zhang Dengke, Li Lan, Shen Xiangli, Jiang Shubin
To investigate the effectiveness and safety of using the Ensite NavX three-dimensional (3D) mapping system during Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of left accessory pathway (AP) disorders. A total of 227 patients having their left AP treated by RFCA, were classified into study group (n = 112) and the control group (n = 115). X-ray irradiation time and exposure doses during the course of the operations were recorded. Time taken to place the mapping catheter along with total duration of operations and procedural complications were compared...
September 3, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Irene Del Canto, Laura Santamaría, Patricia Genovés, Luis Such-Miquel, Oscar Arias-Mutis, Manuel Zarzoso, Carlos Soler, Germán Parra, Álvaro Tormos, Antonio Alberola, Luis Such, Francisco J Chorro
PURPOSE: Mechanical stretch increases sodium and calcium entry into myocytes and activates the late sodium current. GS967, a triazolopyridine derivative, is a sodium channel blocker with preferential effects on the late sodium current. The present study evaluates whether GS967 inhibits or modulates the arrhythmogenic electrophysiological effects of myocardial stretch. METHODS: Atrial and ventricular refractoriness and ventricular fibrillation modifications induced by acute stretch were studied in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts (n = 28) using epicardial multiple electrodes and high-resolution mapping techniques under control conditions and during the perfusion of GS967 at different concentrations (0...
September 1, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Evangelos K Oikonomou, Mohamed Marwan, Milind Y Desai, Jennifer Mancio, Alaa Alashi, Erika Hutt Centeno, Sheena Thomas, Laura Herdman, Christos P Kotanidis, Katharine E Thomas, Brian P Griffin, Scott D Flamm, Alexios S Antonopoulos, Cheerag Shirodaria, Nikant Sabharwal, John Deanfield, Stefan Neubauer, Jemma C Hopewell, Keith M Channon, Stephan Achenbach, Charalambos Antoniades
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery inflammation inhibits adipogenesis in adjacent perivascular fat. A novel imaging biomarker-the perivascular fat attenuation index (FAI)-captures coronary inflammation by mapping spatial changes of perivascular fat attenuation on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). However, the ability of the perivascular FAI to predict clinical outcomes is unknown. METHODS: In the Cardiovascular RISk Prediction using Computed Tomography (CRISP-CT) study, we did a post-hoc analysis of outcome data gathered prospectively from two independent cohorts of consecutive patients undergoing coronary CTA in Erlangen, Germany (derivation cohort) and Cleveland, OH, USA (validation cohort)...
August 24, 2018: Lancet
Jonas Karlsson, Joacim Linde, Christer Svensen, Mikael Gellerfors
IntroductionInvasive blood pressure (IBP) monitoring could be of benefit for certain prehospital patient groups such as trauma and cardiac arrest patients. However, there are disadvantages with using conventional IBP devices. These include time to prepare the transducer kit and flush system as well as the addition of long tubing connected to the patient. It has been suggested to simplify the IBP equipment by replacing the continuous flush system with a syringe and a short stopcock.HypothesisIn this study, blood pressures measured by a standard IBP (sIBP) transducer kit with continuous flush was compared to a transducer kit connected to a simplified and minimized flush system IBP (mIBP) using only a syringe...
August 31, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Min-Young Kim, Markus B Sikkel, Ross J Hunter, Guy A Haywood, David R Tomlinson, Muzahir H Tayebjee, Rheeda Ali, Chris D Cantwell, Hanney Gonna, Belinda Sandler, Elaine Limb, Guy Furniss, Dimitrios Panagopoulos Mrcp, Gordon Begg, Gurpreet Dhillon, Nicola J Hill, James O'Neill, Darrel P Francis, Phang Boon Lim, Nicholas S Peters, Nick W F Linton, Prapa Kanagaratnam
INTRODUCTION: The ganglionated plexuses (GPs) of the intrinsic cardiac autonomic system are implicated in arrhythmogenesis. GP localization by stimulation of the epicardial fat pads to produce atrioventricular dissociating (AVD) effects is well described. We determined the anatomical distribution of the left atrial GPs that influence AV dissociation. METHODS AND RESULTS: High frequency stimulation was delivered through a Smart-Touch™ catheter in the left atrium of patients undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Maurizio Dondi, Carlo Rodella, Raffaele Giubbini, Luca Camoni, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Joao V Vitola, Andrew J Einstein, Bertjan J Arends, Olga Morozova, Thomas N Pascual, Diana Paez
BACKGROUND: Consistency of results between different readers is an important issue in medical imaging, as it affects portability of results between institutions and may affect patient care. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in pursuing its mission of fostering peaceful applications of nuclear technologies has supported several training activities in the field of nuclear cardiology (NC) and SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in particular. The aim of this study was to verify the outcome of those activities through an international clinical audit on MPI where participants were requested to report on studies distributed from a core lab...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
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