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Cardiac mapping

Kaveh Rayani, Eric Lin, Calvin Craig, Marcel Lamothe, Sanam Shafaattalab, Marvin Gunawan, Alison Yueh Li, Leif Hove-Madsen, Glen F Tibbits
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart is a viable model of mammalian cardiovascular function due to similarities in heart rate, ultrastructure, and action potential morphology. Zebrafish are able to tolerate a wide range of naturally occurring temperatures through altering chronotropic and inotropic properties of the heart. Optical mapping of cannulated zebrafish hearts can be used to assess the effect of temperature on excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and to explore the mechanisms underlying voltage (Vm ) and calcium (Ca2+ ) transients...
July 11, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Stuart Schecter, Wei Lin, Aasha Gopal, Roger Fan, Eric Rashba
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Interventional cardiovascular procedures are performed while operators view multiple visual displays including fluoroscopic and ultrasonic images, intracardiac electrical signals, electroanatomic mapping data, and hemodynamic indices. Operators are unable to palpate physiologic and biophysical signals or feel intracardiac anatomy due to the attenuation and dampening properties of cardiac catheters. This poses a significant limitation when performing higher risk procedures such as complex coronary interventions, transeptal or epicardial puncture to gain access to the left atrium or pericardium for ablation of heart rhythm disorders, cardiac device delivery, and when attempting to maintain stable tissue contact force ("CF") during ablation of cardiac arrhythmia...
June 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
F Hohendanner, I Romero, F Blaschke, F R Heinzel, B Pieske, L-H Boldt, A S Parwani
INTRODUCTION: The extent of left atrial (LA) adverse remodeling as a cardiac disease marker has become increasingly important. In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial remodeling (AR) is accompanied by increased mortality. The relation between LA function and the extent of low-voltage areas (LVAs) has not yet been systematically investigated. METHODS: In patients with AF undergoing catheter-ablation, LA was studied using echocardiography and ultra-high-density mapping (Rhythmia®)...
July 9, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
David Ziupa, Marius Menza, Susanne Koppermann, Robin Moss, Julia Beck, Gerlind Franke, Stefanie Perez Feliz, Michael Brunner, Sonja Mayer, Heiko Bugger, Gideon Koren, Manfred Zehender, Bernd A Jung, Gunnar Seemann, Daniela Foell, Christoph Bode, Katja E Odening
BACKGROUND: Prolonged repolarization is the hallmark of long QT syndrome (LQTS), which is associated with subclinical mechanical dysfunction. We aimed at elucidating mechanical cardiac function in LQTS type 1 (loss of IKs ) and its modification upon further prolongation of the action potential (AP) by IKr -blockade (E-4031). METHODS: Transgenic LQT1 and wild type (WT) rabbits (n = 12/10) were subjected to tissue phase mapping MRI, ECG, and epicardial AP recording...
July 9, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Stephanie Marchesseau, Sue-Ann Ng, Yu Tien Wang, Wanying Xie, David Chee-Eng Ng, John James Totman, Andrea Hsiu Ling Low
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis-associated gastrointestinal tract involvement (SSc-GIT) is an independent predictor of 2-year mortality in early SSc. Availability of non-invasive investigations will facilitate early diagnosis and monitoring. HYPOTHESIS: We investigate the role of 18 F-FDG-PET-MRI in SSc-GIT, hypothesizing that i) higher bowel FDG-PET uptake, a surrogate biomarker for inflammation, distinguishes healthy bowel from inflamed SSc-GIT; ii) MRI T1-MOLLI mapping, a surrogate biomarker for cardiac fibrosis, distinguishes healthy bowel from fibrotic SSc-GIT...
August 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Viatcheslav Korshunov, Diego Penela, Markus Linhart, Juan Acosta, Mikel Martinez, David Soto-Iglesias, Juan Fernández-Armenta, Francesca Vassanelli, Mario Cabrera, Roger Borràs, Beatriz Jáuregui, Jose T Ortiz-Pérez, Rosario J Perea, Xavier Bosch, Damian Sanchez-Quintana, Lluis Mont, Antonio Berruezo
Aims: Left ventricular (LV) outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OTVA) are associated with hypertension (HT), older age, and LV dysfunction, suggesting that LV overload plays a role in the aetiopathogenesis. We hypothesized that anatomical modifications of the LV outflow tract (LVOT) could predict left vs. right OTVA site of origin (SOO). Methods and results: Fifty-six (32 men, 53 ± 18 years old) consecutive patients referred for OTVA ablation were included...
July 16, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jose Nativi-Nicolau, Mathew S Maurer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article provides an update about the recent advances in the diagnosis and management of the most common types of cardiac amyloidosis, including light chain, wild-type transthyretin (ATTRwt), and mutant transthyretin (ATTRm). RECENT FINDINGS: The document reviews the utility of diagnostic tools including innovative echocardiographic indices, magnetic resonance T1 mapping and measurement of extracellular volume, and the role and validation of bone scintigraphy for the noninvasive assessment of ATTR amyloidosis...
July 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Maximilian Kreibich, Georg Trummer, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Christian Scherer, Katharina Förster, Itumeleng Taunyane, Christoph Benk
The reperfusion period after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been recognized as a key player in improving the outcome after cardiac arrest (CA). Our aim was to evaluate the effects of high mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulsatile flow during controlled automated reperfusion of the whole body. Following 20 min of normothermic CA, high MAP, and pulsatile blood flow (pulsatile group, n = 10) or low MAP and nonpulsatile flow (nonpulsatile group, n = 6) controlled automated reperfusion of the whole body was commenced through the femoral vessels of German landrace pigs for 60 min...
July 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
Na'ama Avitzur, Alessandro Satriano, Muhammad Afzal, Mariam Narous, Yoko Mikami, Reis Hansen, Gary Dobko, Jacqueline Flewitt, Carmen P Lydell, Andrew G Howarth, Kelvin Chow, Nowell M Fine, James A White
Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is a significant contributor to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and is appreciating expanding therapeutic options. Non-invasive tools aimed at accurate identification and surveillance of therapeutic response are of immediate and expanding need. While native and post-contrast T1 mapping quantify expansion of the extra-cellular compartment from amyloid protein deposition, 3D strain analysis of non-contrast cine images offers unique advantages relevant to high prevalence of renal insufficiency in this population and reduced dependency on field strength, pulse sequence, and vendor implementation...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Jonathan A Pan, Yoo Jin Lee, Michael Salerno
BACKGROUND: The Lake Louise Criteria (LLC) were established in 2009 and are the recommended cardiac magnetic resonance imaging criterion for diagnosing patients with suspected myocarditis. Subsequently, newer parametric imaging techniques which can quantify T1, T2, and the extracellular volume (ECV) have been developed and may provide additional utility in the diagnosis of myocarditis. However, whether their diagnostic accuracy is superior to LLC remains unclear. In this meta-analysis, we compared the diagnostic performance of native T1, T2, ECV to LLC in diagnosing acute myocarditis...
July 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Anlei Liu, Juyuan Liu, Jun Xu, Huadong Zhu, Liang Zong, Xuezhong Yu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the role of dendritic cells (DC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial dysfunction in mice. METHODS: Eighty wild type male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups, according to random number table method: sham group, DC inhibitors in control group (VAG539-sham group), LPS sepsis model group (LPS group) and DC inhibitors pretreatment group (VAG539-LPS group), 20 in each group. The cardiac dysfunction model of sepsis mice was established by LPS intraperitoneal injection; the sham group was injected with the same dose of normal saline...
June 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Eva María Cirugeda-Roldán, Antonio Molina Picó, Daniel Novák, David Cuesta-Frau, Vaclav Kremen
Most cardiac arrhythmias can be classified as atrial flutter, focal atrial tachycardia, or atrial fibrillation. They have been usually treated using drugs, but catheter ablation has proven more effective. This is an invasive method devised to destroy the heart tissue that disturbs correct heart rhythm. In order to accurately localise the focus of this disturbance, the acquisition and processing of atrial electrograms form the usual mapping technique. They can be single potentials, double potentials, or complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) potentials, and last ones are the most effective targets for ablation...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Zinais Kontouli, Chryssoula Staikou, Nicoletta Iacovidou, Ioannis Mamais, Evaggelia Kouskouni, Apostolos Papalois, Panagiotis Papapanagiotou, Anil Gulati, Athanasios Chalkias, Theodoros Xanthos
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the combination of centhaquin and 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES 130/0.4) in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Twenty Landrace-Large White pigs were instrumented and subjected to hemorrhagic shock. The animals were randomly allocated in two experimental groups, the control (group CO, n = 10) and the centhaquin groups (0.015 mg/kg, n = 10, group CH). Acute hemorrhage was induced by stepwise blood withdrawal (18 mL/min) from the internal jugular vein until MAP decreased to 40-45 mmHg, whereas anesthesia remained constant...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
M P Graham-Brown, A S Singh, G S Gulsin, E Levelt, J A Arnold, D J Stensel, J O Burton, G P McCann
BACKGROUND: Extent of myocardial fibrosis (MF) determined using late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) predicts outcomes, but gadolinium is contraindicated in advanced renal disease. We assessed the ability of native T1-mapping to identify and quantify MF in aortic stenosis patients (AS) as a model for use in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: We compared the ability to identify areas of replacement-MF using native T1-mapping to LGE in 25 AS patients at 3 T. We assessed agreement between extent of MF defined by LGE full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) and the LGE 3-standard-deviations (3SD) in AS patients and nine T1 thresholding-techniques, with thresholds set 2-to-9 standard-deviations above normal-range (1083 ± 33 ms)...
July 13, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Vaibhav R Vaidya, Anas A Abudan, Krithika Vasudevan, Ghanshyam Shantha, Leslie T Cooper, Suraj Kapa, Peter A Noseworthy, Yong-Mei Cha, Samuel J Asirvatham, Abhishek J Deshmukh
PURPOSE: Electroanatomic mapping (EAM) has been utilized as a modality to improve the sensitivity of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB). We sought to systematically review published medical literature on the efficacy and safety of EAM-guided EMB. METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid CDR, Cochrane Central, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies where EAM was used for EMB. Data abstracted included demographics, indications, final diagnoses, histology findings, and technical details of biopsy extraction...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Ahmed Al-Badri, Zeba Hashmath, Garrett H Oldland, Rachana Miller, Khuzaima Javaid, Amer Ahmed Syed, Bilal Ansari, Swetha Gaddam, Walter R Witschey, Scott R Akers, Julio A Chirinos
OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether poor glycemic control is associated with an increase in myocardial fibrosis among adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 47 adults with type 2 diabetes and stratified them into three groups according to their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) level: <6.5% (group 1; n = 12), 6.5-7.5% (group 2; n = 20), and >7.5% (group 3; n = 15). Left ventricular (LV) mass was assessed using cardiac MRI. The extracellular volume fraction (ECVF), an index of myocardial fibrosis, was measured by using myocardial T1 mapping before and after the administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent...
July 12, 2018: Diabetes Care
Michel Haïssaguerre, Mélèze Hocini, Ghassen Cheniti, Josselin Duchateau, Frédéric Sacher, Stéphane Puyo, Hubert Cochet, Masateru Takigawa, Arnaud Denis, Ruairidh Martin, Nicolas Derval, Pierre Bordachar, Philippe Ritter, Sylvain Ploux, Thomas Pambrun, Nicolas Klotz, Gregoire Massoullié, Xavier Pillois, Corentin Dallet, Jean-Jacques Schott, Solena Scouarnec, Michael J Ackerman, David Tester, Olivier Piot, Jean-Luc Pasquié, Christophe Leclerc, Jean-Sylvain Hermida, Estelle Gandjbakhch, Philippe Maury, Louis Labrousse, Ruben Coronel, Pierre Jais, David Benoist, Edward Vigmond, Mark Potse, Richard Walton, Koonlawee Nademanee, Olivier Bernus, Remi Dubois
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death because of ventricular fibrillation (VF) is commonly unexplained in younger victims. Detailed electrophysiological mapping in such patients has not been reported. METHODS: We evaluated 24 patients (29±13 years) who survived idiopathic VF. First, we used multielectrode body surface recordings to identify the drivers maintaining VF. Then, we analyzed electrograms in the driver regions using endocardial and epicardial catheter mapping during sinus rhythm...
July 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Prabhu Mathiyalagan, Marta Adamiak, Joshua Mayourian, Yassine Sassi, Yaxuan Liang, Neha Agarwal, Divya Jha, Shihong Zhang, Erik Kohlbrenner, Elena Chepurko, Jiqiu Chen, Maria G Trivieri, Rajvir Singh, Rihab Bouchareb, Kenneth Fish, Kiyotake Ishikawa, Djamel Lebeche, Roger J Hajjar, Susmita Sahoo
Background -Despite its functional importance in various fundamental bioprocesses, the studies of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in the heart are lacking. Here we show that, fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO), an m6A demethylase, plays a critical role in cardiac contractile function during homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. Methods -We used clinical human samples, preclinical pig and mouse models and primary cardiomyocyte cell cultures to study the functional role of m6A and FTO in the heart and in cardiomyocytes...
July 11, 2018: Circulation
Helder Pereira, Tom A Jackson, Benjamin Sieniewicz, Justin Gould, Cheng Yao, Steven Niederer, Christopher A Rinaldi
BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is now generally delivered via quadripolar leads. Assessment of the effect of different vector programs from quadripolar leads on ventricular activation can be now done using non-invasive electrocardiographic mapping (ECM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In nineteen patients with quadripolar LV leads, activation maps were constructed. The total ventricular activation time (TVaT) and the time for the bulk of ventricular activation (VaT10-90 ) were calculated...
July 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Bharatraj Banavalikar, Jayaprakash Shenthar
The left ventricular summit is the most common site of idiopathic epicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT). We report a case of a 48-yr-old lady who presented with VT of RBBB configuration, inferior axis and delayed initial activation. During electrophysiological study, local activation in the distal great cardiac vein (GCV) preceded surface QRS by 56 ms whereas mapping in the aortic sinuses and left ventricular outflow tract endocardially revealed late activation. Ablation in the distal GCV with an irrigated catheter successfully terminated the tachycardia...
July 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
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