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Cardiac mapping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101405/deep-tissue-photoacoustic-computed-tomography-with-a-fast-and-compact-laser-system
#1
Depeng Wang, Yuehang Wang, Weiran Wang, Dandan Luo, Upendra Chitgupi, Jumin Geng, Yang Zhou, Lidai Wang, Jonathan F Lovell, Jun Xia
Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) holds great promise for biomedical imaging, but wide-spread implementation is impeded by the bulkiness of flash-lamp-pumped laser systems, which typically weigh between 50 - 200 kg, require continuous water cooling, and operate at a low repetition rate. Here, we demonstrate that compact lasers based on emerging diode technologies are well-suited for preclinical and clinical PACT. The diode-pumped laser used in this study had a miniature footprint (13 × 14 × 7 cm(3)), weighed only 1...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097207/upper-arm-and-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#2
Lasya Gaur, Alexander Hanna, W Patricia Bandettini, Kenneth H Fischbeck, Andrew E Arai, Ami Mankodi
We analyzed quantitative maps of T1 and T2 relaxation times and muscle fat fraction measurements in magnetic resonance imaging of the upper arm skeletal muscles and heart in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and age-range-matched healthy volunteer boys. The cardiac-optimized sequences detected fatty infiltration and edema in the upper arm skeletal muscles but not the myocardium in these Duchenne muscular dystrophy boys who had normal ejection fraction. Imaging the heart and skeletal muscle using the same magnetic resonance imaging methods during a single scan may be useful in assessing relative disease status and therapeutic response in clinical trials of Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096723/myocardial-t1-and-t2-mapping-techniques-and-clinical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Pan Ki Kim, Yoo Jin Hong, Dong Jin Im, Young Joo Suh, Chul Hwan Park, Jin Young Kim, Suyon Chang, Hye-Jeong Lee, Jin Hur, Young Jin Kim, Byoung Wook Choi
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is widely used in various medical fields related to cardiovascular diseases. Rapid technological innovations in magnetic resonance imaging in recent times have resulted in the development of new techniques for CMR imaging. T1 and T2 image mapping sequences enable the direct quantification of T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) values of the myocardium, leading to the progressive integration of these sequences into routine CMR settings. Currently, T1, T2, and ECV values are being recognized as not only robust biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, but also predictive factors for treatment monitoring and prognosis...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096168/sk-channel-enhancers-attenuate-ca2-dependent-arrhythmia-in-hypertrophic-hearts-by-regulating-mito-ros-dependent-oxidation-and-activity-of-ryr
#4
Tae Yun Kim, Radmila Terentyeva, Karim H F Roder, Weiyan Li, Man Liu, Ian Greener, Shanna Hamilton, Iuliia Polina, Kevin R Murphy, Richard T Clements, Samuel C Dudley, Gideon Koren, Bum-Rak Choi, Dmitry Terentyev
AIM: s: Plasmamembrane small conductance Ca<su2+p>-activated K<su+ p > (SK) channels were implicated in ventricular arrhythmias in infarcted and failing hearts. Recently, SK channels were detected in the mitochondria inner membrane (mSK), and their activation protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that mSK play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function in chronic cardiac diseases...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094481/influence-of-the-thoracic-epidural-anesthesia-on-the-left-ventricular-function-an-echocardiographic-study
#5
Miguel Miró, Filippo Sanfilippo, Fátima Pérez, Santiago García Del Valle, Juan I Gómez-Arnau
BACKGROUND: Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) is widely used for major surgery, but studies assessing its impact on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function are limited, and such studies have assessed patients already under general anesthesia and/or receiving volume expansion between examinations. METHODS: Observational study at a secondary university hospital including consecutive awake patients undergoing major abdominal surgery without significant pre-existing cardiac disease...
January 17, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092581/an-integrated-maximum-current-density-approach-for-noninvasive-detection-of-myocardial-infarction
#6
Chen Zhao, Shiqin Jiang, Yanhua Wu, Junjie Zhu, Dafang Zhou, Birgit Hailer, Dietrich Gronemeyer, Peter Van Leeuwen
We present a new approach of integrated maximum current density (IMCD) for the noninvasive detection of myocardial infarction (MI) using magnetocardiography (MCG) data acquired from a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system. In this study, we investigated the relationship of the maximum current density (MCD) in the current density map and the underlying equivalent current dipole (ECD) based on a novel method of reconstructing the ECD in the extremum circle of the magnetic field map. The performance of IMCD and the integrated ECD (IECD) approaches were also evaluated by using 61-channel MCG data from 39 healthy subjects and 102 patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)...
January 9, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089142/bedside-monitoring-of-cerebral-energy-state-during-cardiac-surgery-a-novel-approach-utilizing-intravenous-microdialysis
#7
Simon Mölström, Troels H Nielsen, Claus Andersen, Carl H Nordström, Palle Toft
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the lactate-to-pyruvate (LP) ratio obtained by microdialysis (MD) of the cerebral venous outflow reflected a derangement of global cerebral energy state during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DESIGN: Interventional, prospective, randomized study. SETTING: Single-center, university teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 10 patients undergoing primary, elective coronary artery bypass grafting...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087819/electrophysiologic-effects-of-the-ik1-inhibitor-pa-6-are-modulated-by-extracellular-potassium-in-isolated-guinea-pig-hearts
#8
Gregory S Hoeker, Mark A Skarsfeldt, Thomas Jespersen, Steven Poelzing
The pentamidine analog PA-6 was developed as a specific inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) antagonist, because established inhibitors either lack specificity or have side effects that prohibit their use in vivo. We previously demonstrated that BaCl2, an established IK1 inhibitor, could prolong action potential duration (APD) and increase cardiac conduction velocity (CV). However, few studies have addressed whether targeted IK1 inhibition similarly affects ventricular electrophysiology. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of PA-6 on cardiac repolarization and conduction in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087519/sympathetic-modulation-of-electrical-activation-in-normal-and-infarcted-myocardium-implications-for-arrhythmogenesis
#9
Olujimi A Ajijola, Robert L Lux, Anadjeet Khahera, OhJin Kwon, Eric Aliotta, Daniel Ennis, Michael C Fishbein, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
: Background The influence of cardiac sympathetic innervation on electrical activation in normal and chronically infarcted ventricular myocardium is not understood. Methods and Results Yorkshire pigs with normal hearts (NL, n=12) or anterior myocardial infarction (MI, n=9) underwent high-resolution mapping of the anteroapical left ventricle, at baseline, and during left and right stellate ganglion stimulation (LSGS & RSGS, respectively). Conduction velocity (CV), activation times (AT), & directionality of propagation were measured...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081200/fitter-women-did-not-have-attenuated-hemodynamic-responses-to-psychological-stress-compared-with-age-matched-women-with-lower-levels-of-fitness
#10
Sisitha U Jayasinghe, Susan J Torres, Mais Hussein, Steve F Fraser, Gavin W Lambert, Anne I Turner
According to the 'cross stressor adaptation hypothesis', regular exercise acts as a buffer against the detrimental effects of stress. Nevertheless, evidence that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness moderate hemodynamic responses to acute psychological stress is inconclusive, especially in women. Women aged 30-50 years (in the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) with higher (n = 17) and lower (n = 17) levels of fitness were subjected to a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Continuous, non-invasive measurements were made of beat-to-beat, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), maximum slope, pulse interval (PI) and total peripheral resistance (TPR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077536/cerebral-oxygen-saturation-and-cardiac-output-during-anaesthesia-in-sitting-position-for-neurosurgical-procedures-a-prospective-observational-study
#11
P Schramm, I Tzanova, F Hagen, M Berres, D Closhen, G Pestel, K Engelhard
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical operations in the dorsal cranium often require the patient to be positioned in a sitting position. This can be associated with decreased cardiac output and cerebral hypoperfusion, and possibly, inadequate cerebral oxygenation. In the present study, cerebral oxygen saturation was measured during neurosurgery in the sitting position and correlated with cardiac output. METHODS: Perioperative cerebral oxygen saturation was measured continuously with two different monitors, INVOS(®) and FORE-SIGHT(®)...
October 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068909/vector-flow-mapping-analysis-of-left-ventricular-energetic-performance-in-healthy-adult-volunteers
#12
Koichi Akiyama, Sachiko Maeda, Tasuku Matsuyama, Atsushi Kainuma, Maki Ishii, Yoshifumi Naito, Mao Kinoshita, Saeko Hamaoka, Hideya Kato, Yasufumi Nakajima, Naotoshi Nakamura, Keiichi Itatani, Teiji Sawa
BACKGROUND: Vector flow mapping, a novel flow visualization echocardiographic technology, is increasing in popularity. Energy loss reference values for children have been established using vector flow mapping, but those for adults have not yet been provided. We aimed to establish reference values in healthy adults for energy loss, kinetic energy in the left ventricular outflow tract, and the energetic performance index (defined as the ratio of kinetic energy to energy loss over one cardiac cycle)...
January 9, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066827/optimized-left-ventricular-endocardial-stimulation%C3%A2-is-superior-to-optimized-epicardial%C3%A2-stimulation-in-ischemic-patients-with%C3%A2-poor-response-to-cardiac-resynchronization%C3%A2-therapy-a%C3%A2-combined-magnetic-resonance-imaging-electroanatomic%C3%A2-contact-mapping-and-hemodynamic
#13
Jonathan M Behar, Tom Jackson, Eoin Hyde, Simon Claridge, Jaswinder Gill, Julian Bostock, Manav Sohal, Bradley Porter, Mark O'Neill, Reza Razavi, Steve Niederer, Christopher Aldo Rinaldi
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal pacing site for the left ventricular (LV) lead in ischemic patients with poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). BACKGROUND: LV endocardial pacing may offer benefit over conventional CRT in ischemic patients. METHODS: We performed cardiac magnetic resonance, invasive electroanatomic mapping (EAM), and measured the acute hemodynamic response (AHR) in patients with existing CRT systems...
December 2016: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063633/evaluation-of-myocardial-strain-in-patients-with-amyloidosis-using-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-feature-tracking
#14
Tarun Pandey, Sindhura Alapati, Vibhor Wadhwa, Mohan M Edupuganti, Pooja Gurram, Shelly Lensing, Kedar Jambhekar
PURPOSE: To study the use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) feature tracking technique in evaluation of myocardial amyloidosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CMR scans of 28 patients with biopsy proven myocardial amyloidosis and 35 controls were reviewed. Conventional short axis, vertical long axis, and 4-chamber cine steady-state free precession images from CMR scans were used to generate radial, circumferential, and longitudinal myocardial strain maps using feature tracking software...
November 10, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063348/the-in-silico-identification-of-small-molecules-for-protein-protein-interaction-inhibition-in-akap-lbc-rhoa-signaling-complex
#15
Asifullah Khan, Mehwish Munir, Sara Aiman, Abdul Wadood, Arif-Ullah Khan
The rational design of small molecules that mimic key residues at the interface of interacting proteins can be a successful approach to target certain biological signaling cascades causing pathophysiological outcome. The A-Kinase Anchoring Protein, i.e. AKAP-Lbc, catalyses nucleotide exchange on RhoA and is involved in cardiac repolarization. The oncogenic AKAP-Lbc induces the RhoA GTPase hyperactivity and aberrantly amplifies the signaling pathway leading to hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. We took advantage of the AKAP-Lbc-RhoA complex crystal structure to design in silico small molecules predicted to inhibit the associated pathological signaling cascade...
December 31, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060289/high-resolution-optical-mapping-of-the-mouse-sino-atrial-node
#16
Di Lang, Alexey V Glukhov
Sino-atrial node (SAN) dysfunctions and associated complications constitute important causes of morbidity in patients with cardiac diseases. The development of novel pharmacological therapies to cure these patients relies on the thorough understanding of both normal physiology and pathophysiology of the SAN. Among the studies of cardiac pacemaking, the mouse SAN is widely used due to its feasibility for modifications in the expression of different genes that encode SAN ion channels or calcium handling proteins...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055264/inos-inhibition-improves-autonomic-dysfunction-and-oxidative-status-in-hypertensive-obese-rats
#17
Natalia Veronez da Cunha, Fernanda Novi Cortegoso Lopes, Carolina Panis, Rubens Cecchini, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Marli Cardoso Martins-Pinge
It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO) from iNOS source is involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, and hypertension in obese subjects involves an inflammatory process. However, no study evaluated the participation of iNOS inhibition on cardiovascular, autonomic, and inflammatory parameters in obese rats. Obesity was induced by the administration of 4 mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate (MSG) or equimolar saline (CTR) in newborn rats. On the 60th day, treatment with aminoguanidine (Amino, 50 mg/kg), an iNOS inhibitor, or 0...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054365/mapping-for-acute-transvenous-phrenic-nerve-stimulation-study-maps-study
#18
Lukas R C Dekker, Bart Gerritse, Avram Scheiner, Lilian Kornet
AIMS: Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome, correlated with the occurrence of heart failure, is characterized by periods of insufficient ventilation during sleep. This acute study in 15 patients aims to map the venous system and determine, if diaphragmatic movement can be achieved by phrenic nerve stimulation at various locations within the venous system. METHODS: Subjects underwent a scheduled catheter ablation procedure. During the procedural waiting time, one multi-electrode EP catheter was subsequently placed at the the superior and inferior vena cava and the junctions of the left jugular and left brachiocephalic vein and right jugular and right brachiocephalic vein, for phrenic nerve stimulation (1-2 seconds ON / 2-3 seconds OFF, 40 Hz, pulse width 210 μs)...
January 5, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052283/the-feasibility-of-conservative-management-for-morbidly-adherent-placenta-accidentally-encountered-after-vaginal-delivery
#19
Ran Cui, Junli Lu, Zhenyu Zhang, Huimin Bai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of conservative management for patients with morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) accidentally encountered after term vaginal delivery. METHODS: Medical records of patients with MAP who were accidentally encountered after term vaginal delivery and treated in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 8 eligible patients were included in this analysis...
January 5, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051771/proarrhythmic-remodelling-of-the-right-ventricle-in-a-porcine-model-of-repaired-tetralogy-of-fallot
#20
David Benoist, Virginie Dubes, François Roubertie, Stephen H Gilbert, Sabine Charron, Marion Constantin, Delphine Elbes, Delphine Vieillot, Bruno Quesson, Hubert Cochet, Michel Haïssaguerre, Caroline Rooryck, Pierre Bordachar, Jean-Benoit Thambo, Olivier Bernus
OBJECTIVE: The growing adult population with surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is at risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We sought to investigate the contribution of right ventricular (RV) structural and electrophysiological remodelling to arrhythmia generation in a preclinical animal model of repaired TOF (rTOF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Pigs mimicking rTOF underwent cardiac MRI functional characterisation and presented with pulmonary regurgitation, RV hypertrophy, dilatation and dysfunction compared with Sham-operated animals (Sham)...
October 8, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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