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Human exposure

Seyed Mojtaba Momtaz, Parvin Mehdipour, Payam Dadvand, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Alireza Sarsangi Aliabad, Fereshte Molavi, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi
Biomarkers are promising indicators to evaluate human exposure to air pollutants and to predict the health outcomes. Area of Airway macrophages that is occupied by Black Carbon could be used as a biomarker of personal long term exposure to traffic related air pollution. Association of airway macrophages carbon load with weighted average distance and environmental and subject-specific behavior are considered in this study. Sputum samples were taken from 160 healthy adult women and airway macrophages carbon load (AMCL) were determined in 93 subjects, which represent a success rate of 62% in sputum induction...
November 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Aemere Ogunlaja, Sunny O Abarikwu, Chiagoziem A Otuechere, Olufisayo O Oshoro
Landfill sites near human settlements are known to have adverse health effects. Here, we investigated the effect of different concentrations of leachates from the Redemption Camp landfill (RCLL, 10%, 30%, 50%) on the liver of adult female rats after 21 days of exposure in their drinking water. The physicochemical and metal analyses showed that biochemical oxygen and chemical oxygen demand, zinc and magnesium levels were significantly high, whereas copper level was low in RCLL when compared to water samples from residential areas close to the landfill site, and were higher than the acceptable limits (p < 0...
November 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Jun Zhou, Lili Tang, Jia-Sheng Wang
The adverse impacts of AFB1 on gut-microbiota dependent metabolism in F344 rats were assessed via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-profiling and UHPLC-mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomic analyses. UHPLC-profiling analysis found 1100 raw peaks from the fecal samples collected at week 4, of which 335 peaks showed peak shape qualified for quantitation. A total of 24, 40 and 71 peaks were significantly decreased (>2-fold, p < 0.05) among the exposure groups treated with 5, 25, and 75 μg AFB1 kg-1 body weight (B...
November 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Stephanie C McClelland, Renata Durães Ribeiro, Howard W Mielke, Myra E Finkelstein, Christopher R Gonzales, John Anthony Jones, Jan Komdeur, Elizabeth Derryberry, Emma B Saltzberg, Jordan Karubian
Many urban areas have elevated soil lead concentrations due to prior large-scale use of lead in products such as paint and automobile gasoline. This presents a potential problem for the growing numbers of wildlife living in urbanized areas as lead exposure is known to affect multiple physiological systems, including the nervous system, in vertebrate species. In humans and laboratory animals, low-level lead exposure is associated with neurological impairment, but less is known about how lead may affect the behavior of urban wildlife...
November 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shahid Hussain, Ali Muhammad Khan, Zed Rengel
Zinc (Zn)-biofortified wheat may contribute to decreasing widespread human Zn deficiency. Such genotypes may also accumulate cadmium (Cd) in grains that would expect to be decreased by Zn application. However, the influence of soil and foliar Zn application on grain Cd accumulation in Zn-biofortified versus standard wheat is unknown. In our experiment, we grew standard (Faisalabad-2008) and Zn-biofortified (Zincol-2016) wheats in pots having uncontaminated (T0 ) or Cd-spiked (8 mg kg-1 ) soil. Plants in Cd-amended pots were treated with no Zn (T1 ), 8 mg Zn kg-1 to soil at sowing (T2 ), 0...
November 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shanshan Yin, Frederic Been, Weiping Liu, Adrian Covaci
The application and production of alternative plasticizers (APs) has been increasing in the last decade in replacement of conventional phthalates due to their toxicity. This calls for the development of non-invasive monitoring approaches to assess human exposure to APs. A method for the simultaneous measurement of exposure biomarkers of di(2‑propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), di(isononyl)cyclohexane‑1,2‑dicarboxylate (DINCH), di(2‑ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP) and di‑2‑ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA) in hair samples was developed and validated in this study...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Noriko Iwamoto, Atsushi Yonezawa, Kazuo Matsubara, Takashi Shimada
Antibody drugs are effective therapeutic agents and provide treatment for many types of diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. Because many antibody drugs are developed and approved, quantification technologies of antibodies are required for drug development and individualized therapy. We recently reported a high reproducible and robust therapeutic drug monitoring method for antibody drugs. This method was developed to be applicable to all type of antibody drugs and to provide accurate quantification values...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Pennante Bruce-Vanderpuije, David Megson, Eric J Reiner, Lee Bradley, Sam Adu-Kumi, Joseph A Gardella
Ghana is one of the top pesticide users and highest persistent organic pollutant (POP) emitters in sub-saharan Africa. Despite recent increases in published data, there is limited information on how POP concentrations have changed, post ratification of the Stockholm Convention. As a result, this review aims to address these knowledge gaps by collating available data that reported POPs in Ghanaian environmental matrices, identify spatial and temporal trends, and establish potential health risks. It is worth noting that Ghana has not developed its own regulatory standards for POPs, but adapts United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Huijuan Li, Jingkun Li, Huizhi Li, Hao Yu, Lingxiao Yang, Xiangfeng Chen, Zongwei Cai
Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were added to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) at the eighth meeting of the conference of the parties in 2017. As a consequence, increasing environmental attention and international regulation on SCCPs is expected in the future. Inhalation uptake of particulate matter (PM) was an important exposure pathway for POPs into the human body. In the present study, a total of eighty PM2.5 samples were collected in the four seasons of the year at an urban site (Shandong University, Jinan) in Shandong province to investigate the seasonal changes of SCCPs and their inhalation exposure risks to human health...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Alessandro de Souza Prestes, Matheus Mulling Dos Santos, Assis Ecker, Gabriel Teixeira de Macedo, Roselei Fachinetto, Getulio Nicola Bressan, João Batista Teixeira da Rocha, Nilda Vargas Barbosa
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a α-dycarbonyl compound derived mainly from glycolysis, whose accumulation is harmful for cells and tissues. Here, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects induced by MG in leukocytes after an acute exposure, measuring as endpoints of toxicity some markers of oxidative stress and programmed cell death. Human leukocytes were isolated and incubated with MG at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mM for 2.5 h, and subsequently prepared for assays based in flow cytometry, gene expression and immunoreactivity profile...
November 14, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Luqi Duan, Anup Ramachandran, Jephte Y Akakpo, James L Weemhoff, Steven C Curry, Hartmut Jaeschke
Formation of acetaminophen (APAP) protein adducts are a critical feature of APAP hepatotoxicity, and circulating protein adducts have recently been utilized in bioassays for identification of APAP overdose in humans. Despite their clinical significance, mechanisms of adduct release into the circulation are not well understood. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are discrete membrane bound vesicles, which package cellular cargo and function in extracellular transport. Clarification of their role in transport of APAP adducts is relevant since adduct packaging within these vesicles could shield them from detection by antibody based methods, resulting in under-estimating adduct levels...
November 14, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Anfeng Cui, Meng Xiang, Ming Xu, Peng Lu, Shun Wang, Yajuan Zou, Ke Qiao, Chengyu Jin, Yijun Li, Meng Lu, Alex F Chen, Sifeng Chen
BACKGROUND: Fine ambient particle matter (PM2.5) induces inflammatory lung injury; however, whether intratracheal administration of PM2.5 increases pulmonary polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration, the mechanism of infiltration, and if these cells exacerbate PM2.5-induced lung injury are unknown. METHODS: Using 32,704 subjects, the association between blood PMNs and ambient PM2.5 levels on the previous day was retrospectively analyzed. Neutropenia was achieved by injecting mice with PMN-specific antibodies...
November 14, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Brendan Le Daré, Tatiana Victoni, Aude Bodin, Manuel Vlach, Elise Vene, Pascal Loyer, Vincent Lagente, Thomas Gicquel
Alcohol consumption is considered to be the third leading cause of death in the United States. In addition to its direct toxicity, ethanol has two contrasting effects on the immune system: the nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is inhibited by acute ethanol exposure but activated by chronic ethanol exposure. Purinergic receptors (especially the P2X7 receptor) are able to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, and are involved in many ethanol-related diseases (such as gout, pulmonary fibrosis, alcoholic steatohepatitis and certain cancers)...
November 17, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Alyssa McDonagh, Jessica H Leibler, Jean Mukherjee, Anil Thachil, Laura B Goodman, Cassidy Riekofski, Amanda Nee, Khrysti Smyth, Janet Forrester, Marieke H Rosenbaum
The backyard chicken (BYC) movement in the USA has increased human contact with poultry and subsequently, human contact with the pathogen Salmonella. However, to date, there have been few studies assessing prevalence of Salmonella in backyard flocks, despite the known public health risk this zoonotic bacterium poses. The objective of this study was to characterize human-BYC interactions and assess the prevalence of Salmonella among BYC flocks. We interviewed 50 BYC owners using a structured questionnaire to determine flock and household characteristics that facilitate contact with BYC and that may be associated with Salmonella in the BYC environment...
November 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Corina S Rueegg, Jo S Stenehjem, Matthias Egger, Reza Ghiasvand, Eunyoung Cho, Eiliv Lund, Elisabete Weiderpass, Adele C Green, Marit B Veierød
Whether sunscreen use affects melanoma risk has been widely studied with contradictory results. To answer this question we performed a systematic review of all published studies, accounting for sources of heterogeneity and bias. We searched for original articles investigating the sunscreen-melanoma association in humans to 28.02.2018. We then used random-effects meta-analysis to combine estimates of the association, stratified by study design. Stratified meta-analysis and meta-regression were used to identify sources of heterogeneity...
November 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Rami B Kassab, Maha S Lokman, Ehab A Essawy
Due to its ability to cross blood brain barrier and placenta, dibutyl phthalate (di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP) is expected to cause severe side effects to the central nervous system of animals and humans. A little data is available about the potential DBP neurotoxicity; therefore, this work was designed to investigate the brain tissue injury induced by DBP exposure. Forty Wister albino rats were allocated randomly into 4 groups (10 rats each). Group 1 served as control and the rats administered with physiological saline (0...
November 16, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
K N Apsalikov, A Lipikhina, B Grosche, T Belikhina, E Ostroumova, S Shinkarev, V Stepanenko, T Muldagaliev, S Yoshinaga, T Zhunussova, M Hoshi, H Katayama, D T Lackland, S L Simon, A Kesminiene
Direct quantitative assessment of health risks following exposure to ionizing radiation is based on findings from epidemiological studies. Populations affected by nuclear bomb testing are among those that allow such assessment. The population living around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is one of the largest human cohorts exposed to radiation from nuclear weapons tests. Following research that started in the 1960s, a registry that contains information on more than 300,000 individuals residing in the areas neighboring to the test site was established...
November 16, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Jason L Larabee, Garrett Hauck, Jimmy D Ballard
CREB and C/EBP β signaling pathways are modulated during inflammation and also targeted by Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET), but how these factors individually and jointly contribute to changes in immune cell function is poorly understood. Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, macrophage cell lines lacking CREB and isoforms of C/EBP β were generated and analyzed for changes in responses to LPS, ET, and IL-4. Macrophages lacking C/EBP β suppressed induction of IL-10 and Arg1, while IL-6 was increased in these cells following exposure to LPS...
November 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gilles Vandewalle, Markus J van Ackeren, Véronique Daneault, Joseph T Hull, Geneviève Albouy, Franco Lepore, Julien Doyon, Charles A Czeisler, Marie Dumont, Julie Carrier, Steven W Lockley, Olivier Collignon
The discovery of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) marked a major shift in our understanding of how light information is processed by the mammalian brain. These ipRGCs influence multiple functions not directly related to image formation such as circadian resetting and entrainment, pupil constriction, enhancement of alertness, as well as the modulation of cognition. More recently, it was demonstrated that ipRGCs may also contribute to basic visual functions. The impact of ipRGCs on visual function, independently of image forming photoreceptors, remains difficult to isolate, however, particularly in humans...
November 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric F Lucking, Karen M O'Connor, Conall R Strain, Fiona Fouhy, Thomaz F S Bastiaanssen, David P Burns, Anna V Golubeva, Catherine Stanton, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan, Ken D O'Halloran
BACKGROUND: Carotid body (peripheral oxygen sensor) sensitisation is pivotal in the development of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced hypertension. We sought to determine if exposure to CIH, modelling human sleep apnoea, adversely affects cardiorespiratory control in guinea-pigs, a species with hypoxia-insensitive carotid bodies. We reasoned that CIH-induced disruption of gut microbiota would evoke cardiorespiratory morbidity. METHODS: Adult male guinea-pigs were exposed to CIH (6...
November 13, 2018: EBioMedicine
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