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Human exposure

A F Dos Santos, J M Pacheco, P A O Silva, A K Bedran-Russo, T M B Rezende, N R Pereira, A P D Ribeiro
AIM: To evaluate the potential biostimulatory effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on a primary culture of human pulp cells. METHODOLOGY: Human molars were used to obtained the primary pulp-cell culture and 0.5 mm dentine discs. For GSE direct-exposure, dose-response (0.0065% to 6.5%) and time response (1 to 60 min of contact) were examined. For transdentinal exposure, 0.65% of GSE was tested for 24h. Cellular metabolism, nitric oxide and collagen productions, and cell morphology alterations were assessed at periods of 24h and 72h...
September 23, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Dmitry Fridman, Eleanor Hawkins, Peer Dar, Scott Chudnoff, Ohad Rotenberg, Woojin Chong, Xianhong Xie, Sukrant Mehta, Mark Levie
OBJECTIVE: To report clinical experience with methotrexate (MTX) treatment for suspected but not definite ectopic pregnancy (EP). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. All patients treated with MTX for presumed EP between 2000 and 2016 were included. Demographic, clinical, sonographic, and outcome data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 820 patients were treated with MTX, 692 (84.4%) of which were lacking definitive features of EP; 155 (22...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Dale A Kunde, Januttha Yingchoncharoen, Saša Jurković, Dominic P Geraghty
Human monocytes and dendritic cells express transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) which may play a role in mediating the inflammatory, immune and cancer surveillance responses of these cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate TRPV1 expression and function in THP-1 monocytic cells. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect TRPV1. The metabolic activity and viability of THP-1 cells following exposure to vanilloids was assessed using resorufin production from rezazurin. Cytokine release was measured using ELISA...
September 19, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Jane P F Bai, Chia-Wen Hsu
There are no approved drugs or biologics to treat Ebola virus disease (EVD). Literature reviews identified a list of 141 drugs with reports of preliminary in-vitro potency and/or in-vivo effectiveness in animals or with reports of clinical use/trials in EVD patients. The majority of these drugs have been individually approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating various non-EVD diseases. The anti-Ebola potency data of these drugs were curated from literature and publicly accessible databases, along with their individual biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characteristics...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Gina Song, Cynthia B Van Landingham, P Robinan Gentry, Michael D Taylor, Athena M Keene, Melvin E Andersen, Harvey J Clewell, Miyoung Yoon
Due to concerns for enhanced absorption of manganese (Mn) from drinking water compared to diet, bioavailability of Mn from drinking water remains a major data gap in understanding Mn kinetics. In this study, PBPK models for adult rats and humans were updated with a drinking water exposure route and were used to assess the homeostatic control of Mn uptake, excretion and tissue kinetics between the two different ingestion modes. Drinking water model parameters were estimated from tissue kinetic data from a drinking water study in rats...
September 20, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Maria A Ramos-Roman
The prevention of diabetes and obesity in the young starts with the prevention and treatment of modifiable maternal risk factors encompassing the period from before conception until weaning. Major modifiable variables are characteristics and behaviors that include prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, glycemia, and intensity and duration of breastfeeding. Much of the early programming of resistance or vulnerability to age-related diseases is influenced by the integrated balance of maternal hormones transferred to the offspring by milk...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Karen Lilian Schott, Charles Elias Assmann, Cibele Ferreira Teixeira, Aline Augusti Boligon, Samuel Rodrigo Waechter, FabioAndrei Duarte, Euler Esteves Ribeiro, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz
There are some genes associated to the risk of chronic diseases that present potential nutrigenetic response, such as the superoxide dismutase manganesedependent gene (Val16Ala-SOD2, rs4880) for which homozygous genotypes (VV and AA) are associated with higher basal superoxide (S) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) levels, respectively. It is possible that AA-imbalance could be attenuated by selenium-rich foods such as Brazil nut aqueous extract (BNAE). To test this hypothesis, we conducted an in vitro protocol triggering a chemical S-HP imbalance by exposure of dermal fibroblast cells (HFF-1) to paraquat, that generates high S levels (VV-like treatment) and porphyrin (MnTAP), that generates high HP levels (AA-like treatment)...
September 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
G Hilton, H Barosova, A Petri-Fink, B Rothen-Rutishauser, M Bereman
With the emerging concern over the potential toxicity associated with carbon nanotube inhalation exposure, several in vitro methods have been developed to evaluate cellular responses. Since the major concern for adverse effects by carbon nanotubes is inhalation, various lung cell culture models have been established for toxicity testing, thus creating a wide variation of methodology. Limited studies have conducted side-by-side comparisons of common methods used for carbon nanotube hazard testing. The aim of this work was to use proteomics to evaluate global cellular response, including pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators, of a 3D lung model composed of macrophages, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts which mimics the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier...
September 19, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Ronald L Melnick
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted two-year studies of cell phone radiation in rats and mice exposed to CDMA- or GSM-modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at exposure intensities in the brain of rats that were similar to or only slightly higher than potential, localized human exposures from cell phones held next to the head. This study was designed to test the (null) hypothesis that cell phone radiation at non-thermal exposure intensities could not cause adverse health effects, and to provide dose-response data for any detected toxic or carcinogenic effects...
September 19, 2018: Environmental Research
RuiHua Dong, JingSi Chen, JianHeng Zheng, MeiRu Zhang, Han Zhang, Min Wu, ShuGuang Li, Bo Chen
The effect of human exposure to phthalates and consequent contribution to the development of cardiometabolic health problems is unknown. However, oxidative stress has been established as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic outcomes. In this study, we aimed to explore whether exposure to phthalate metabolites could induce cardiometabolic risk by increasing oxidative stress in a diabetic population from Shanghai. We collected paired blood and urine samples from a total of 300 volunteers, and measured 10 phthalate metabolites in urine and biomarkers of oxidative stress from serum including glucose and lipid levels, and liver and kidney damage...
September 19, 2018: Environment International
Pummi Singh, Peter J Cotty
Aflatoxins are toxic carcinogens produced by several species of Aspergillus section Flavi, with some aflatoxin producers associated with specific crops. Red chilies (Capsicum spp.) are grown in warm regions that also favor aflatoxin-producers. Aflatoxins in red chilies may result in serious health concerns and severe economic losses. The current study sought to gain insight on causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in red chilies. Naturally contaminated chilies from markets in Nigeria (n = 55) and the United States (US) (n = 169) were examined...
August 27, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jyotsna Joshi, David Brennan, Vince Beachley, Chandrasekhar R Kothapalli
Collagen is the major structural protein in myocardium and contributes to tissue strength and integrity, cellular orientation, and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Significant post-myocardial infarction related loss of cardiomyocytes and cardiac tissue, and their subsequent replacement with fibrous scar tissue, negatively impacts endogenous tissue repair and regeneration capabilities. To overcome such limitations, tissue engineers are working toward developing a 3D cardiac patch which not only mimics the structural, functional, and biological hierarchy of the native cardiac tissue, but also could deliver autologous stem cells and encourage their homing and differentiation...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Rebekah Davis Reed, Erik L Antonsen
Humans exploring beyond low-Earth orbit face environmental challenges coupled with isolation, remote operations, and extreme resource limitations in which personalized medicine, enabled by genetic research, might be necessary for mission success. With little opportunity to test personalized countermeasures broadly, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will likely need to rely instead on collection of significant amounts of genomic and environmental exposure data from individuals. This need appears at first to be in conflict with the statutes and regulations governing the collection and use of genetic data...
September 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Amit Fulzele, Eric J Bennett
Protein ubiquitylation is one of the most prevalent posttranslational modifications (PTM) within cells. Ubiquitin modification of target lysine residues typically marks substrates for proteasome-dependent degradation. However, ubiquitylation can also alter protein function through modulation of protein complexes, localization, or activity, without impacting protein turnover. Taken together, ubiquitylation imparts critical regulatory control over nearly every cellular, physiological, and pathophysiological process...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Larissa T Franco, Tânia Petta, George E Rottinghaus, Keliani Bordin, Gilmar A Gomes, Carlos A F Oliveira
A limited survey was conducted to assess the co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 ; fumonisins (FB) B1 and B2 ; ochratoxin A (OTA); zearalenone (ZEN); and deoxynivalenol (DON) in maize food (N = 26) and animal feed (N = 45) collected from 21 small-scale farms from the states of São Paulo (SP) and Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. Samples evaluated were maize meal and maize flour for human consumption available in the farm households, and maize-based feed intended for broiler chicks, laying hens, and dairy cows...
September 21, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Christina L Hayes, Jasmine Dong, Heather J Galipeau, Jennifer Jury, Justin McCarville, Xianxi Huang, Xuan-Yu Wang, Avee Naidoo, Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Josie Libertucci, Conor Sheridan, Pradeep K Dudeja, Dawn M E Bowdish, Michael G Surette, Elena F Verdu
The intestinal barrier encompasses structural, permeability and immune aspects of the gut mucosa that, when disrupted, may contribute to chronic inflammation. Although gnotobiotic studies have demonstrated the effects of microbiota on mucosal and systemic immunity, as well as intestinal barrier architecture and innate immune characteristics, its impact on barrier function remains unclear. We compared germ-free and conventional mice, as well as mice colonized with human fecal microbiota that were followed for 21 days post-colonization...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Namdi Brandon, Kathie L Dionisio, Kristin Isaacs, Rogelio Tornero-Velez, Dustin Kapraun, R Woodrow Setzer, Paul S Price
Exposure to a chemical is a critical consideration in the assessment of risk, as it adds real-world context to toxicological information. Descriptions of where and how individuals spend their time are important for characterizing exposures to chemicals in consumer products and in indoor environments. Herein we create an agent-based model (ABM) that simulates longitudinal patterns in human behavior. By basing the ABM upon an artificial intelligence (AI) system, we create agents that mimic human decisions on performing behaviors relevant for determining exposures to chemicals and other stressors...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Carlene Petes, Victoria Mintsopoulos, Renée L Finnen, Bruce W Banfield, Katrina Gee
Upon repeated exposure to endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), myeloid cells enter a refractory state called endotoxin tolerance as a homeostatic mechanism. In innate immune cells, LPS is recognized by co-receptors Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and cluster of differentiation (CD)-14 to initiate an inflammatory response for subsequent cytokine production. One such cytokine, interleukin (IL)-27, is produced by myeloid cells in response to bacterial infection. In monocytes, IL-27 has proinflammatory functions such as upregulating TLR4 expression for enhanced LPS-mediated cytokine production; alternatively, IL-27 induces inhibitory functions in activated macrophages...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Benjamin S Johnson, Kristen M Malecki, Paul E Peppard, Kirsten M M Beyer
INTRODUCTION: Adequate sleep duration and quality are protective against many adverse health outcomes. Many individual-level predictors of poor sleep have been examined, but few studies have examined neighborhood-level influences. Despite known associations between neighborhood green space and sleep influencing factors (eg, physical activity, mental health), few studies have examined green space and sleep's relationship. Furthermore, little work has examined the relationship between the magnitude and type of neighborhood sounds and sleep...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Chao Jiang, Xin Wang, Xiyan Li, Jingga Inlora, Ting Wang, Qing Liu, Michael Snyder
Human health is dependent upon environmental exposures, yet the diversity and variation in exposures are poorly understood. We developed a sensitive method to monitor personal airborne biological and chemical exposures and followed the personal exposomes of 15 individuals for up to 890 days and over 66 distinct geographical locations. We found that individuals are potentially exposed to thousands of pan-domain species and chemical compounds, including insecticides and carcinogens. Personal biological and chemical exposomes are highly dynamic and vary spatiotemporally, even for individuals located in the same general geographical region...
September 20, 2018: Cell
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