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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926935/serological-and-virological-evidence-of-crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever-virus-circulation-in-the-human-population-of-borno-state-northeastern-nigeria
#1
David N Bukbuk, Stuart D Dowall, Kuiama Lewandowski, Andrew Bosworth, Saka S Baba, Anitha Varghese, Robert J Watson, Andrew Bell, Barry Atkinson, Roger Hewson
BACKGROUND: Despite several studies on the seroprevalence of antibodies against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV) from humans and cattle in Nigeria, detailed investigation looking at IgG and IgM have not been reported. Additionally, there have been no confirmed cases of human CCHFV infection reported from Nigeria. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from sera (n = 1189) collected from four Local Government Areas in Borno State (Askira/Uba, Damboa, Jere and Maiduguri) were assessed for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926825/mycobacterium-malmesburyense-sp-nov-a-novel-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium-species-revealed-by-multiple-gene-sequence-characterization
#2
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Victor Rutten, Nicolaas Gey van Pittius, Brendon Naicker, Anita Michel
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment and an increasing number of NTM species have been isolated and characterized from both humans and animals, highlighting the zoonotic potential of these bacteria. Host exposure to NTM may impact on cross-reactive immune responsiveness which may affect diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and may also play a role in the variability of the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against tuberculosis. In this study we characterized 10 NTM isolates originating from water, soil, nasal swabs of cattle and African buffalo as well as bovine tissue samples...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925870/hydrogen-sulfide-enhances-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-differentiation-from-human-tooth-under-normal-and-glucotoxic-conditions
#3
Ioan Valentin Matei, Hisataka Ii, Ken Yaegaki
AIM: Glucotoxicity obstructs pancreatic differentiation from adult stem cells. The aim was to develop a novel protocol for differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) into pancreatic β cells and determine the effect of H2S on glucotoxicity. MATERIALS & METHODS: DPSCs were differentiated with media containing 5.5 or 25.0 mM glucose, exposed to 1 ng/ml H2S. Glucotoxicity, expression of β-cell markers, INS, PDX1 and GLUT2, and PI3K/AKT pathway were assessed...
December 7, 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925867/psychosocial-stressors-and-alcohol-use-severity-and-treatment-receipt-across-hiv-status-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-u-s-residents
#4
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. We evaluate whether psychosocial stressors, and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of U...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925846/characteristics-sources-and-cytotoxicity-of-atmospheric-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-urban-roadside-areas-of-hangzhou-china
#5
Hongzhen Bai, Hongjian Zhang
The primary objective of this study is to understand the profiles, sources and cytotoxic effects of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are closely related to urban air contamination and public health, in urban roadside environments. On-road sampling campaigns were conducted from 2014 to 2015 at three urban road sites in Hangzhou, China. Sixteen gaseous and particulate matter (PM) 2.5-bound PAHs were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations at the three sites ranged from 750 to1142 ng/m(3) and 1050 to 1483 ng/m(3) in summer and winter, respectively...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925619/moderate-hyperoxia-induces-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-by-human-fetal-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
Elizabeth R Vogel, Rodney D Britt, Arij Faksh, Ine Kuipers, Hitesh Pandya, Y S Prakash, Richard J Martin, Christina M Pabelick
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are at increased risk for airway diseases, such as wheezing and asthma, because of early exposure to risk factors including hyperoxia. As in adult asthma, airway remodeling and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition is involved. METHODS: We assessed the impact of 24-72 h of moderate hyperoxia (50%) on human fetal airway smooth muscle (fASM) ECM deposition through western blot, modified in-cell western, and zymography techniques...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925405/animal-to-human-dose-translation-of-obiltoxaximab-for-treatment-of-inhalational-anthrax-under-the-us-fda-animal-rule
#7
C F Nagy, J Mondick, N Serbina, L S Casey, S E Carpenter, J French, R Guttendorf
Obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen (PA), is approved for treatment of inhalational anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Animal Rule. The human dose was selected and justified by comparing observed obiltoxaximab exposures in healthy and infected New Zealand White rabbits and cynomolgus macaques to observed exposures in healthy humans, to simulated exposures in healthy and infected humans, and to serum PA levels in infected animals. In humans, at 16 mg/kg intravenous, obiltoxaximab AUC was >2 times that in animals, while maximum serum concentrations were comparable to those in animals and were maintained in excess of the concentration required for PA neutralization in infected animals for 2-3 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925349/hepatitis-c-viremia-reversibly-maintains-subset-of-antigen-specific-t-bet-tissue-like-memory-b-cells
#8
Li-Yuan Chang, Yonghai Li, David E Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Chronic antigen exposure and/or aging increases the frequency of T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet)-expressing B-lymphocytes in mice. The frequency and significance of B-cell T-bet expression during chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection in human subjects has never been described. METHODS: Healthy controls, cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic HCV-infected patients, and non-HCV patients with cirrhosis were recruited. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were phenotyped for expression of T-bet and related markers by flow cytometry...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925269/lifecycle-exposure-of-fathead-minnows-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-blocker-drug-propranolol
#9
Joanne L Parrott, Vimal K Balakrishnan
Propranolol is a human pharmaceutical β-blocker that has been detected in municipal wastewater effluents at ng/L to low µg/L. To assess the potential of this compound to affect fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for a lifecycle in a flow-through system to nominal propranolol concentrations of 0.87, 8.7, 87, 870 and 8,700 ng/L. Measured propranolol concentrations were below detection for the two lowest exposure concentrations, and were 76, 580, and 7,800 ng/L for the three highest exposure concentrations...
December 7, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925185/effects-of-carbocysteine-and-beclomethasone-on-histone-acetylation-deacetylation-processes-in-cigarette-smoke-exposed-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#10
E Pace, S Di Vincenzo, M Ferraro, L Siena, G Chiappara, P Dino, P Vitulo, A Bertani, F Saibene, L Lanata, M Gjomarkaj
Histone deacetylase expression/activity may control inflammation, cell senescence, and responses to corticosteroids. Cigarette smoke exposure, increasing oxidative stress, may negatively affect deacetylase expression/activity. The effects of cigarette smoke extracts (CSE), carbocysteine, and beclomethasone dipropionate on chromatin remodelling processes in human bronchial epithelial cells are largely unknown. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of cigarette smoke, carbocysteine, and beclomethasone dipropionate on histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) expression/activity, N-CoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) expression, histone acetyltransferases (HAT) (p300/CBP) expression, p-CREB and IL-1 m-RNA expression, neutrophil chemotaxis...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925057/serosurvey-for-leishmania-spp-toxoplasma-gondii-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-neospora-caninum-in-neighborhood-dogs-in-curitiba-paran%C3%A3-brazil
#11
Caroline Constantino, Maysa Pellizzaro, Edson Ferraz Evaristo de Paula, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme Vieira, Ana Pérola Drulla Brandão, Fernando Ferreira, Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira, Helio Langoni, Alexander Welker Biondo
Neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs for several zoonotic protozoan infections, particularly in urban areas, thus constituting a potential public health threat. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the exposure of neighborhood dogs to four protozoan pathogens in public areas with high levels of human movement in Curitiba, southern Brazil. Blood samples from 26 neighborhood dogs were screened by means of the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for Leishmania spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi and Neospora caninum, and a questionnaire was answered by the respective keeper...
December 1, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924835/longitudinal-study-of-pesticide-residue-levels-in-human-milk-from-western-australia-during-12-months-of-lactation-exposure-assessment-for-infants
#12
Jian Du, Zoya Gridneva, Melvin C L Gay, Ching T Lai, Robert D Trengove, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
The presence of pesticides in human milk (HM) is of great concern due to the potential health effects for the breastfed infant. To determine the relationships between HM pesticides and infant growth and development, a longitudinal study was conducted. HM samples (n = 99) from 16 mothers were collected at 2, 5, 9 and 12 months of lactation. A validated QuEChERS method and Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) were used for the analysis of 88 pesticides in HM. Only p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH were detected with a mean concentration (±SD) of 52...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924817/in-vitro-human-epidermal-permeation-of-nicotine-from-electronic-cigarette-refill-liquids-and-implications-for-dermal-exposure-assessment
#13
H Frederick Frasch, Ana M Barbero
Nicotine plus flavorings in a propylene glycol (PG) vehicle are the components of electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids), which are vaporized and inhaled by the user. Dermal exposure to nicotine and e-liquids may occur among workers in mixing and filling of e-cigarettes in the manufacturing process. Inadvertent skin contact among consumers is also a concern. In vitro nicotine permeation studies using heat-separated human epidermis were performed with surrogate and two commercial e-liquids, neat and aqueous nicotine donor formulations...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924816/an-analysis-of-human-exposure-to-trace-elements-from-deliberate-soil-ingestion-and-associated-health-risks
#14
Veronica M Ngole-Jeme, Georges-Ive E Ekosse, Sandile P Songca
Fifty-seven samples of soils commonly ingested in South Africa, Swaziland, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and Togo were analyzed for the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) and their bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract. Bioaccessibility values were used to calculate daily intake, and hazard quotient of each trace element, and chronic hazard index (CHI) of each sample. Carcinogenic risk associated with As and Ni exposure were also calculated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924730/congenital-malformations-attributed-to-prenatal-exposure-to-cyclophosphamide
#15
Padmanabhan Rengasamy
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) remains one of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, childhood nephrotic syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. It is a potent immunosuppressive agent. It is commonly used in blood and bone marrow transplantation. With the growing trend among women postponing childbearing, the number of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer is also increasing thus escalating the chances of exposure of the unborn child to antineoplastic drugs...
December 6, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924716/allergen-quantification-in-surface-dust-samples-from-german-day-care-centers
#16
Ingrid Sander, Heinz-Dieter Neumann, Anne Lotz, Christina Czibor, Eva Zahradnik, Angelika Flagge, Inga Faller, Martin Buxtrup, Thomas Brüning, Monika Raulf
Indoor allergens are among the main causes of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Allergen exposure is not limited to private homes. Mite, cat, and dog allergens were measured in day care centers to determine whether these concentrations detected might exert significant influence on human health. In 20 day care centers across North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, the surfaces of 171 rooms were vacuumed 4 times a year to collect dust (1340 samples in total). In all samples, domestic mite antigens (DM) and the main allergens of cats (Fel d 1) and dogs (Can f 1) were quantified using enzyme immunoassays...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924714/biomonitoring-of-mycotoxins-in-urine-pilot-study-in-mill-workers
#17
Wolfram Föllmann, Nurshad Ali, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Gisela H Degen
Contamination of grains with mycotoxins results in a dietary background exposure of the general population. In occupational settings such as during processing of raw materials as in milling, an additional mycotoxin exposure by inhalation is possible. Biomonitoring is an integrative approach to assess human exposure from various sources and by all routes. To investigate possible workplace exposure to mycotoxins, a pilot study was conducted that compared levels of urinary biomarkers in mill workers to those in a control group with dietary mycotoxin intake alone...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924713/acetylcholinesterase-and-neuropathy-target-esterase-activities-in-11-cases-of-symptomatic-flight-crew-members-after-fume-events
#18
Astrid R R Heutelbeck, Catherine Bornemann, Martina Lange, Anke Seeckts, Michael M Müller
In modern aviation, so-called fume events such as exposure to an unknown mixture of chemicals introduced into the aircraft cabin with bleed air drawn off at the engines may occur. Human exposure may result in (neuro)toxic symptoms described as so-called "aerotoxic syndrome." Currently, among other agents organophosphates (OP) are regarded as a likely cause of the observed adverse effects. After fume events 11 flight crew members (9 female/2 male; ages 23-58 yr) were admitted for a medical examination within 5 d post exposure...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924712/cytotoxicity-of-carbon-nanohorns-in-different-human-cells-of-the-respiratory-system
#19
Franziska Schramm, Martina Lange, Pia Hoppmann, Astrid Heutelbeck
One of the new synthetic carbon-based nanomaterials is carbon nanohorns (CNH). A potential risk for employees of production processes is an unintentional intake of these nanomaterials via inhalation. Once taken up, nanoparticles might interact with cells of different tissues as well as with intercellular substances. These interactions may have far-reaching consequences for human health. Currently, many gaps in available information on the CNH toxicological profile remain. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of CNH particles on human epithelial cells of the respiratory system with special consideration given to different particle sizes...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924707/interindividual-differences-in-chemosensory-perception-toward-a-better-understanding-of-perceptual-ratings-during-chemical-exposures
#20
Marlene Pacharra, Stefan Kleinbeck, Michael Schäper, Stephanie A Juran, Kathrin Hey, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Marie-Louise Lehmann, Klaus Golka, Christoph van Thriel
Perceptions that arise from stimulation of olfactory and trigeminal receptors in the nasal cavity guide the evaluation of chemical environment in humans. Strong interindividual differences in these assessments may be attributed to nonsensory factors such as gender, anxiety, and chemical sensitivity. Knowledge regarding the influence of these factors originates mainly from basic odor research using short-term exposure scenarios. In situations with continuous chemical exposures-common in the working environment-their impact is less clear...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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