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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743153/-how-much-alarm-can-the-human-being-tolerate
#1
Benedikt Lorenz, Jürgen Peters, Ulrich H Frey
Due to growing technisation of intensive care the number of devices with integrated alarm systems is steadily increasing. However, most of the sounding alarms are false alarms causing high levels of frustration, aggression and inappropriate behaviour amongst the medical personnel. All this jeopardises patient care. The high number of alarms also disturb the patients interrupting their sleep and provokes anxiety, and also increases the already high noise level in intensive care units and the operating theatre alike...
July 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742980/disease-relevant-modifications-of-the-methylome-and-transcriptome-by-particulate-matter-pm2-5-from-biomass-combustion
#2
Katharina Heßelbach, Gwang-Jin Kim, Stephan Flemming, Thomas Häupl, Marc Bonin, Regina Dornhof, Stefan Günther, Irmgard Merfort, Matjaz Humar
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is recognized as a major health hazard, but molecular responses are still insufficiently described. We analyzed the epigenetic impact of ambient PM2.5 from biomass combustion on the methylome of primary human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. The transcriptome was determined by the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 Array. PM2.5 induced genome wide alterations of the DNA methylation pattern, including differentially methylated CpGs in the promoter region associated with CpG islands...
July 25, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742854/risk-of-exposure-to-potential-vector-mosquitoes-for-rural-workers-in-northern-lao-pdr
#3
Julie-Anne A Tangena, Phoutmany Thammavong, Steve W Lindsay, Paul T Brey
BACKGROUND: One major consequence of economic development in South-East Asia has been a rapid expansion of rubber plantations, in which outbreaks of dengue and malaria have occurred. Here we explored the difference in risk of exposure to potential dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE), and malaria vectors between rubber workers and those engaged in traditional forest activities in northern Laos PDR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult mosquitoes were collected for nine months in secondary forests, mature and immature rubber plantations, and villages...
July 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742491/the-canary-in-the-coalmine-bee-declines-as-an-indicator-of-environmental-health
#4
Dave Goulson, Elizabeth Nicholls
Bee declines have received much attention of late, but there is considerable debate and confusion as to the extent, significance and causes of declines. In part, this reflects conflation of data for domestic honeybees, numbers of which are largely driven by economic factors, with those for wild bees, many of which have undergone marked range contractions but for the majority of which we have no good data on population size. There is no doubt that bees are subject to numerous pressures in the modern world. The abundance and diversity of flowers has declined along with availability of suitable nest sites, bees are chronically exposed to cocktails of agrochemicals, and they are simultaneously exposed to novel parasites and pathogens accidentally spread by humans...
September 1, 2016: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742120/virus-induced-asthma-attack-the-importance-of-allergic-inflammation-in-response-to-viral-antigen-in-an-animal-model-of-asthma
#5
Christopher Skappak, Ramses Ilarraza, Ying-Qi Wu, Matthew G Drake, Darryl J Adamko
Asthma exacerbation can be a life-threatening condition, and is most often triggered by common respiratory viruses. Poor asthma control and worsening of respiratory function is associated with increased airway inflammation, including eosinophilia. Prevention of asthma exacerbation relies on treatment with corticosteroids, which preferentially inhibit allergic inflammation like eosinophils. Human studies demonstrate that inactivated virus can trigger eosinophil activation in vitro through antigen presentation and memory CD4+ lymphocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742094/epidemiology-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-human-rabies-and-animal-bites-during-an-outbreak-of-rabies-in-maputo-and-matola-cities-mozambique-2014-implications-for-public-health-interventions-for-rabies-control
#6
Cristolde Salomão, Amílcar Nacima, Lutero Cuamba, Lorna Gujral, Olga Amiel, Cynthia Baltazar, Julie Cliff, Eduardo Samo Gudo
BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, the majority of rabies outbreaks are unreported and data on the epidemiological features of human rabies and animal bites are scarce. An outbreak of human rabies in adjacent Maputo and Matola cities in 2014 prompted us to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors of human rabies and animal bites in the two cities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed cases of human rabies and animal bites from April to July 2014, and carried out a community investigation in July and August in the neighborhoods where cases of human rabies resided...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742056/monte-carlo-simulations-of-skin-exposure-to-electromagnetic-field-from-10-ghz-to-1-thz
#7
Kensuke Sasaki, Maya Mizuno, Kanako Wake, Soichi Watanabe
In this study, we present an assessment of human-body exposure to an electromagnetic eld at frequencies ranging from 10 GHz to 1 THz. The energy absorption and temperature elevation were assessed by solving boundary value problems of the one-dimensional Maxwell equations and a bioheat equation for a multilayer plane model. Dielectric properties were measured in vitro at frequencies of up to 1 THz at body temperature. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to assess variations of the transmittance into a skin surface and temperature elevation inside a body by considering the variation of the tissue thickness due to individual differences among human bodies...
July 25, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741979/systematic-review-of-the-literature-on-triclosan-and-health-outcomes-in-humans
#8
Michael Goodman, Daniel Q Naiman, Judy S LaKind
The ability of epidemiologic evidence to inform regulatory decisions is largely dependent on the coherence and quality of the published literature. This systematic review examines the quality and consistency of studies assessing health outcomes associated with exposure to triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial chemical with a short physiologic half-life. We used elements of the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals instrument to evaluate aspects of study quality. Each methodological domain - overall design, exposure assessment, and data analysis - was categorized according to three tiers where Tier 1 indicated the highest quality...
July 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741741/addiction-related-interactions-of-pregabalin-with-morphine-in-mice-and-humans-reinforcing-and-inhibiting-effects
#9
Elena Vashchinkina, Ossi Piippo, Olga Vekovischeva, Evgeny Krupitsky, Ruslan Ilyuk, Nikholay Neznanov, Kirill Kazankov, Igor Zaplatkin, Esa R Korpi
The gabapentinoid pregabalin is a rapid-acting anxiolytic and analgesic, possibly suitable in supervised opioid detoxification. However, clinicians have been cautious in using it because of its unknown addictive risk and rising number of mortalities after pregabalin self-medication in opioid abusers. Here, we studied interactions of pregabalin and morphine on reward functions of the dopamine system in mice and the efficacy of pregabalin on withdrawal in opioid addicts. After the treatment of mice with pregabalin and morphine, we used electrophysiology to study neuroplasticity in midbrain slices, self-administration and conditioned place preference tests to investigate the rewarding potential of pregabalin and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal to evaluate opioid withdrawal symptoms...
July 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741371/dexamethasone-ameliorates-h2s-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-increasing-claudin-5-expression-via-the-pi3k-pathway
#10
P Geng, T Ma, J Xing, L Jiang, H Sun, B Zhu, H Zhang, H Xiao, J Wang, J Zhang
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major outcome of exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Dexamethasone (DXM) has been used to treat ALI. However, the mechanisms involved in H2S-induced ALI and the protective mechanisms of DXM in treating ALI are still nebulous. To explore the mechanisms involved, we evaluated the role of claudin-5 in the protective effect of DXM against H2S-induced ALI. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to H2S to establish the ALI model. In parallel with the animal model, a cell model was also established by incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with NaHS...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741133/african-and-caribbean-nurses-decisions-about-hiv-testing-a-mixed-methods-study
#11
Jean N Harrowing, Nancy Edwards, Solina Richter, Karin Minnie, Tania Rae
Nurses in Jamaica, Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda are at risk for occupational exposure to HIV. Little is known about the experiences and policy supports related to nurses having themselves tested for the virus. This article reports a mixed-methods study about contextual influences on nurses' decision-making about HIV testing. Individual and focus group interviews, as well as a questionnaire on workplace polices and quality assurance and a human resource management assessment tool provided data. Fear of a positive diagnosis and stigma and lack of confidentiality along with gaps in the policy environment contributed to indecision about testing...
July 24, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741109/multi-analyte-method-development-for-analysis-of-brominated-flame-retardants-bfrs-and-pbde-metabolites-in-human-serum
#12
Dasheng Lu, Yu'e Jin, Chao Feng, Dongli Wang, Yuanjie Lin, Xinlei Qiu, Qian Xu, Yimin Wen, Jianwen She, Guoquan Wang, Zhijun Zhou
Commonly, analytical methods measuring brominated flame retardants (BFRs) of different chemical polarities in human serum are labor consuming and tedious. Our study used acidified diatomaceous earth as solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent and defatting material to simultaneously determine the most abundant BFRs and their metabolites with different polarities in human serum samples. The analytes include three types of commercial BFRs, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dominant hydroxylated BDE (OH-PBDE) and methoxylated BDE (MeO-PBDE) metabolites of PBDEs...
July 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739797/unraveling-drug-penetration-of-echinocandin-antifungals-at-the-site-of-infection-in-an-intra-abdominal-abscess-model
#13
Yanan Zhao, Brendan Prideaux, Yoji Nagasaki, Min Hee Lee, Pei-Yu Chen, Landry Blanc, Hsinpin Ho, Cornelius J Clancy, Minh Hong Nguyen, Véronique Dartois, David S Perlin
Intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) is a prominent invasive fungal infection associated with high mortality. Prompt antifungal therapy and source control are crucial for successful treatment. Echinocandin antifungal drugs are first-line agents. Yet, their clinical effectiveness is highly variable with known potential for breakthrough resistance, and little is known about drug exposure at the site of infection. Using matrix-assisted desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging technology, we investigated the spatial and quantitative distribution in tissue lesions for two echinocandin drugs, micafungin and CD101, in a clinically relevant IAC mouse model...
July 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739691/efficacy-in-vitro-of-caffeine-and-valproic-acid-on-patient-derived-undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-and-rhabdomyosarcoma-cell-lines
#14
Kentaro Igarashi, Kei Kawaguchi, Tasuku Kiyuna, Takashi Murakami, Shinji Miwa, Scott D Nelson, Sarah M Dry, Yunfeng Li, Arun S Singh, Hiroaki Kimura, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Norio Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Fritz C Eilber, Robert M Hoffman
BACKGROUND/AIM: We have previously reported that caffeine (CAF) can enhance chemotherapy efficacy of bone and soft-tissue sarcoma established cell lines via cell-cycle perturbation. We subsequently tested the combination of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, with caffeine on established human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Both VPA and CAF caused concentration-dependent cell death of the osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro, and their combination was synergistic. We subsequently established patient-derived cell lines from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), both of which are recalcitrant cancers...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739603/novel-in-vitro-booster-vaccination-to-rapidly-generate-antigen-specific-human-monoclonal-antibodies
#15
Irene Sanjuan Nandin, Carol Fong, Cecilia Deantonio, Juan A Torreno-Pina, Simone Pecetta, Paula Maldonado, Francesca Gasparrini, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Samuel W Kazer, Svend Kjaer, Daryl W Borley, Usha Nair, Julia A Coleman, Daniel Lingwood, Alex K Shalek, Eric Meffre, Pascal Poignard, Dennis R Burton, Facundo D Batista
Vaccines remain the most effective tool to prevent infectious diseases. Here, we introduce an in vitro booster vaccination approach that relies on antigen-dependent activation of human memory B cells in culture. This stimulation induces antigen-specific B cell proliferation, differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, and robust antibody secretion after a few days of culture. We validated this strategy using cells from healthy donors to retrieve human antibodies against tetanus toxoid and influenza hemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 and newly emergent subtypes such as H5N1 and H7N9...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739530/curcumin-modulates-endothelial-permeability-and-monocyte-transendothelial-migration-by-affecting-endothelial-cell-dynamics
#16
Laurent-Emmanuel Monfoulet, Sylvie Mercier, Dominique Bayle, Radu Tamaian, Nicolas Barber-Chamoux, Christine Morand, Dragan Milenkovic
Curcumin is a phenolic compound that exhibits beneficial properties for cardiometabolic health. We previously showed that curcumin reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the vascular wall and prevented atherosclerosis development in mice. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) and to decipher the underlying mechanisms of these actions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to curcumin (0.5-1μM) for 3hours prior to their activation by Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α)...
July 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739528/chronic-hyper-leptinemia-induces-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-adipocytes-implications-of-nos2
#17
Abhishek Gupta, Muheeb Beg, Durgesh Kumar, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Kalpana Singh, Satyendra Sonkar, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Madhu Dikshit, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad
Leptin, following its discovery, has developed a formidable interest in the scientific community to delineate its contribution towards overall metabolic homeostasis. Contradictory reports have been published on leptin administration effects on whole body insulin sensitivity. Following late reports, we surveyed human serum leptin levels along with other metabolic parameters including BMI and HOMA-IR. We found a positive correlation between leptin levels and insulin resistance parameters. Considering the presence of the long form of leptin receptor on adipocytes, we explored the effects of chronic physiological hyper-leptinemic exposure on adipocyte insulin sensitivity...
July 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739526/chronic-mild-stress-exacerbates-severity-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-association-with-altered-non-coding-rna-and-metabolic-biomarkers
#18
Brietta Gerrard, Vaibhav Singh, Olena Babenko, Isabelle Gauthier, V Wee Yong, Igor Kovalchuk, Artur Luczak, Gerlinde A S Metz
The causal factors determining the onset and severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) are not well understood. Here, we investigated the influence of chronic stress on clinical symptoms, metabolic and epigenetic manifestations of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a common animal model of MS. Lewis rats were immunized for monophasic EAE with MBP69-88 and were exposed to chronic stress for 37 days starting 7 days prior to immunization. The exposure to stress accelerated and exacerbated the clinical symptoms of EAE...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739384/tumor-heterogeneity-determined-with-a-%C3%AE-h2ax-foci-assay-a-study-in-human-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-hhnscc-models
#19
Treewut Rassamegevanon, Steffen Löck, Ursula Range, Mechthild Krause, Michael Baumann, Cläre von Neubeck
PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the intra-tumoral heterogeneity of γH2AX foci in tumor specimens following ex vivo radiation to evaluate the potential of γH2AX foci as predictors for radiosensitivity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: γH2AX foci were quantified in tumor specimens of 3hHNSCC tumor models with known differences in radiosensitivity after reoxygenation in culture medium (10h, 24h), single dose exposure (0Gy, 4Gy), and fixation 24h post-irradiation. Multiple, equally treated samples of the same tumor were analyzed for foci, normalized and fitted in a linear mixed-effects model...
July 21, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739368/andrographolide-induces-oxidative-stress-dependent-cell-death-in-unicellular-protozoan-parasite-trypanosoma-brucei
#20
Malabika Banerjee, Debaprasad Parai, Pranab Dhar, Manab Roy, Rajib Barik, Subrata Chattopadhyay, Samir Kumar Mukherjee
African sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease in humans and livestock caused by Trypanosoma brucei throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Absence of appropriate vaccines and prevalence of drug resistance proclaim that a new way of therapeutic interventions is essential against African trypanosomiasis. In the present study, we have looked into the effect of andrographolide (andro), a diterpenoid lactone from Andrographis paiculata on Trypanosoma brucei PRA 380. Although andro has been recognized as a promosing anti-cancer drug, its usefulness against Trypanosoma spp remained unexplored...
July 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
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