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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647908/cmv-immune-evasion-and-manipulation-of-the-immune-system-with-aging
#1
REVIEW
Sarah E Jackson, Anke Redeker, Ramon Arens, Debbie van Baarle, Sara P H van den Berg, Chris A Benedict, Luka Čičin-Šain, Ann B Hill, Mark R Wills
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response...
June 24, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647514/aqueous-cigarette-tar-extracts-disrupt-corticogenesis-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#2
Aynun N Begum, Jose S Aguilar, Yiling Hong
BACKGROUND: Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world, and approximately 4.5 trillion smoked cigarettes are discarded every year worldwide. Cigarette butts contain over 4000 chemicals, many of which are known to have neurotoxic effects. Stem cell neuronal differentiation provides an excellent cellular model with which to examine the impact of aqueous cigarette tar extracts (ACTEs) on neurodevelopment. METHODS: We have developed a neurosphere-based stem cell neuronal differentiation protocol that can recapitulate corticogenesis and produce cell types that are similar to upper and lower layer cortical projection neurons found in the germinal zone of the developing human cortex...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647373/salusin-%C3%AE-mediates-high-glucose-induced-endothelial-injury-via-disruption-of-ampk-signaling-pathway
#3
Xuexue Zhu, Yuetao Zhou, Weiwei Cai, Haijian Sun, Liying Qiu
The dysregulated proliferation, migration, apoptosis and angiogenesis of endothelial cells are involved in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. The circulating salusin-β levels were increased in diabetic patients, and salusin-β contributes to diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats. However, the roles of salusin-β in diabetes mellitus-induced endothelial dysfunction are not fully understood. Herein, we demonstrated the increased expressions of salusin-β in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in HG medium...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647290/effect-of-professional-expertise-and-exposure-to-everyday-life-decision-making-on-moral-choices
#4
Maddalena Boccia, Paola Verde, Gregorio Angelino, Paolo Carrozzo, Diego Vecchi, Laura Piccardi, Stefano Colangeli, Pierluigi Cordellieri, Fabio Ferlazzo, Anna Maria Giannini
Moral sense is defined as a feeling of fairness or unfairness of an action that knowingly causes harm to people other than the subject. It is crucial in determining human behavior and becomes pivotal in operational environments. Here we assessed whether professional daily life experience in an operational environment affects moral judgment by asking 41 military pilots of the Italian Air Force (P) and 69 controls (C) to solve 40 moral dilemmas. We found that P gave more morally acceptable utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647254/quantifying-public-health-benefits-of-environmental-strategy-of-pm2-5-air-quality-management-in-beijing-tianjin-hebei-region-china
#5
Li Chen, Mengshuang Shi, Suhuan Li, Shuang Gao, Hui Zhang, Yanling Sun, Jian Mao, Zhipeng Bai, Zhongliang Wang, Jiang Zhou
In 2013, China issued "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (Action Plan)" to improve air quality. To assess the benefits of this program in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, where the density of population and emissions vary greatly, we simulated the air quality benefit based on BenMAP to satisfy the Action Plan. In this study, we estimate PM2.5 concentration using Voronoi spatial interpolation method on a grid with a spatial resolution of 1×1km(2). Combined with the exposure-response function between PM2...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646956/clean-water-clean-hands-or-new-vaccines
#6
Stephen P Luby
Throughout human history, pathogens transmitted through feces from person to person have caused substantial mortality. Over a century ago civil engineers in high income countries developed approaches to collect and remove feces from the environment that in communities with high incomes and strong governments markedly reduced the burden of enteric disease. These approaches, however, have not been successfully extended to impoverished communities in low income countries. Water/sanitation/hygiene professionals have attempted, with only limited success, to reduce fecal exposure and human disease in the absence of definitive civil engineering approaches...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646801/the-effects-of-exposure-to-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-on-male-fertility
#7
Mahsa Darbandi, Sara Darbandi, Ashok Agarwal, Ralf Henkle, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi
Context • People are increasingly exposed to low frequency (LF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), mainly from electricity distribution networks and electronic devices. Critics of this widespread exposure believe that it can have detrimental effects on the human body. On the other hand, many in vivo and in vitro studies have claimed that low frequency electromagnetic therapy can function as a form of alternative medicine and that therapists can treat disease by applying electromagnetic radiation or pulsed EMFs to the body or cells...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646679/hypoxia-induced-adam-17-expression-is-mediated-by-rsk1-dependent-c-ebp%C3%AE-activation-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#8
Jing-Yun Chen, Chien-Huang Lin, Bing-Chang Chen
Hypoxia was identified as a mediator of lung fibrosis in patients with chronic obstructive asthma (COA). Overexpression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM 17) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) leads to development of tissue fibrosis. However, the signaling pathway in hypoxia-induced ADAM 17 expression remains poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the roles that ribosomal S-6 kinase 1 (RSK1)/CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ)-dependent ADAM 17 expression plays in hypoxia-induced CTGF expression in human lung fibroblasts...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646666/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-in-powdered-infant-formula-using-is900-quantitative-pcr-and-liquid-culture-media
#9
Kamal R Acharya, Navneet K Dhand, Richard J Whittington, Karren M Plain
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been implicated in Crohn's disease in humans resulting in public concern over the presence of MAP in powdered infant formula, which could contribute towards early human exposure to MAP or MAP components. Testing of representative powdered infant formula samples using effective tests is required to provide information on contamination of infant formula with MAP, so that consumers can make informed decisions. This study aimed to test representative powdered infant formula samples for the presence of MAP using a quantitative PCR and liquid culture method...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646487/immunotoxic-effects-of-thymus-in-mice-following-exposure-to-nanoparticulate-tio2
#10
Fashui Hong, Yaoming Zhou, Yingjun Zhou, Ling Wang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been extensively used in industry, medicine, and daily life, and have shown potential toxic effects for animals or humans. We noted that the effects of TiO2 NPs on the immune system and its mechanism of action in animals or humans have not been elucidated. Thus, mice were exposed to the TiO2 NPs (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 9 consecutive months. Exposure to TiO2 NPs was accumulated in the thymus, leading to a decrease in body weight and increases in the weight of the thymus or thymus indices...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646455/human-nucleus-pulposus-intervertebral-disc-cells-becoming-senescent-using-different-treatments-exhibit-a-similar-transcriptional-profile-of-catabolic-and-inflammatory-genes
#11
Sotiris-Spyros Vamvakas, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Dimitris Kletsas
PURPOSE: Chronic low back pain has been associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, which is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading proteases and inflammatory molecules in the degenerate tissue. IVD degeneration could be the outcome of natural organismal ageing and/or of the exposure of the disc to cumulative stressful environmental stimuli and is accompanied by an increased population of senescent cells in the tissue. On the other hand, senescent cells are known to secrete proteolytic enzymes and inflammatory molecules, which can contribute to ECM catabolism...
June 23, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646397/concentrations-of-environmental-chemicals-in-urine-and-blood-samples-of-children-from-san-luis-potos%C3%A3-mexico
#12
Ivan N Perez-Maldonado, Angeles C Ochoa-Martinez, Sandra T Orta-Garcia, Tania Ruiz-Vera, Jose A Varela-Silva
Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an appreciated tool used to evaluate human exposure to environmental, occupational or lifestyle chemicals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure levels for environmental chemicals in urine and blood samples of children from San Luis Potosí, Mexico (SLP). This study identifies environmental chemicals of concern such as: arsenic (45.0 ± 15.0 µg/g creatinine), lead (5.40 ± 2.80 µg/dL), t,t-muconic acid (266 ± 220 µg/g creatinine), 1-hydroxypyrene (0...
June 23, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646114/staphylococcus-aureus-strain-newman-photoinactivation-and-cellular-response-to-sunlight-exposure
#13
Jill S McClary, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
Sunlight influences microbial water quality of surface waters. Previous studies have investigated photoinactivation mechanisms and cellular photostress responses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli and enterococci, but further work is needed to characterize photostress responses of bacterial pathogens. Here we investigate the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (strain Newman), a pigmented, waterborne pathogen of emerging concern. We measured photodecay using standard culture-based assays and cellular membrane integrity; and investigated photostress response by measuring the relative number of mRNA transcripts of select oxidative stress, DNA repair, and metabolism genes...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646113/aerosolization-of-mycotoxins-after-growth-of-toxinogenic-fungi-on-wallpaper
#14
Brankica Aleksic, Marjorie Draghi, Sebastien Ritoux, Sylviane Bailly, Marlène Lacroix, Isabelle P Oswald, Jean-Denis Bailly, Enric Robine
Many fungi can develop on building material in indoor environments if moisture is high enough. Among species that are frequently observed, some are known to be potent mycotoxin producers. This presence of toxinogenic fungi in indoor environments raises the question of the possible exposure of occupants to these toxic compounds by inhalation after aerosolization.This study investigated the mycotoxin production by Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum during their growth on wallpaper and the possible subsequent aerosolization of produced mycotoxins from contaminated substrates...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645980/association-between-human-herpesvirus-infections-and-dementia-or-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-protocol
#15
Charlotte Warren-Gash, Harriet Forbes, Judith Breuer, Andrew C Hayward, Angelique Mavrodaris, Basil H Ridha, Martin Rossor, Sara L Thomas, Liam Smeeth
INTRODUCTION: Persisting neurotropic viruses are proposed to increase the risk of dementia, but evidence of association from robust, adequately powered population studies is lacking. This is essential to inform clinical trials of targeted preventive interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will carry out a comprehensive systematic review of published and grey literature of the association between infection with, reactivation of, vaccination against or treatment of any of the eight human herpesviruses and dementia or mild cognitive impairment...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645941/a-first-time-in-human-study-of-gsk2636771-a-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-beta-selective-inhibitor-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#16
Joaquin Mateo, Gopinath Ganji, Charlotte Lemech, Howard A Burris, Sae-Won Han, Karen E Swales, Shaun Decordova, Maurice P DeYoung, Deborah A Smith, Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram, Jiuhua Wu, Monica Motwani, Rakesh Kumar, Jerry M Tolson, Sun Young Rha, Hyun Cheol Chung, Joseph Paul Eder, Sunil Sharma, Yung-Jue Bang, Jeffrey R Infante, Li Yan, Johann S de Bono, Hendrik-Tobias Arkenau
The phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway is commonly activated in several tumor types. Selective targeting of p110β could result in successful pathway inhibition while avoiding the on and off target effects of pan-PI3K inhibitors. GSK2636771 is a potent, orally bioavailable, adenosine triphosphate-competitive, selective inhibitor of PI3Kβ.<br /><br />Experimental Design: <p>We evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and antitumor activity of GSK2636771 to define the recommended Phase II dose (RP2D)...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645863/toxicology-of-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane-d4
#17
Allison Franzen, Tracy Greene, Cynthia Van Landingham, Robinan Gentry
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is a volatile cyclic siloxane used primarily as a monomer or intermediate in the production of some silicon-based polymers widely used in industrial and consumer applications and may be present as a residual impurity in a variety of consumer products. A robust toxicological data set exists for D4. Treatment-related results from a chronic inhalation study conducted in rats are limited to mild effects on the respiratory tract, increases in liver weight, increases in the incidence of uterine endometrial epithelial hyperplasia, and a dose-related trend in the incidence of endometrial adenomas...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645776/selective-inhibition-of-flt3-by-gilteritinib-in-relapsed-or-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-a-multicentre-first-in-human-open-label-phase-1-2-study
#18
Alexander E Perl, Jessica K Altman, Jorge Cortes, Catherine Smith, Mark Litzow, Maria R Baer, David Claxton, Harry P Erba, Stan Gill, Stuart Goldberg, Joseph G Jurcic, Richard A Larson, Chaofeng Liu, Ellen Ritchie, Gary Schiller, Alexander I Spira, Stephen A Strickland, Raoul Tibes, Celalettin Ustun, Eunice S Wang, Robert Stuart, Christoph Röllig, Andreas Neubauer, Giovanni Martinelli, Erkut Bahceci, Mark Levis
BACKGROUND: Internal tandem duplication mutations in FLT3 are common in acute myeloid leukaemia and are associated with rapid relapse and short overall survival. The clinical benefit of FLT3 inhibitors in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia has been limited by rapid generation of resistance mutations, particularly in codon Asp835 (D835). We aimed to assess the highly selective oral FLT3 inhibitor gilteritinib in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia. METHODS: In this phase 1-2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with acute myeloid leukaemia who either were refractory to induction therapy or had relapsed after achieving remission with previous treatment...
June 20, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645738/human-germline-hedgehog-pathway-mutations-predispose-to-fatty-liver
#19
Maria J Guillen Sacoto, Ariel F Martinez, Yu Abe, Paul Kruszka, Karin Weiss, Joshua L Everson, Ramon Bataller, David E Kleiner, Jerrold M Ward, Kathleen K Sulik, Robert J Lipinski, Benjamin D Solomon, Maximilian Muenke
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease. Activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been implicated in the progression of NAFLD and proposed as a therapeutic target; however, the effects of Hh signaling inhibition have not been studied in humans with germline mutations affecting this pathway. METHODS: Patients with holoprosencephaly (HPE), a disorder associated with germline mutations disrupting Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, were clinically evaluated for NAFLD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645698/radiological-studies-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-in-humans-and-animal-models-an-updated-comprehensive-review
#20
Van T Nguyen, Suyinn Chong, Quang M Tieng, Karine Mardon, Graham J Galloway, Nyoman D Kurniawan
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders encompass a wide range of birth defects in children born to mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Typical mental impairments in FASD include difficulties in life adaptation and learning and memory, deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, language and speech disabilities, mood disorders and motor disabilities. Multimodal imaging methods have enabled in vivo studies of the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the central nervous system, giving more insight into the FASD phenotype...
June 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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