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Human exposure

Pedro Espitia-Pérez, Suelen Marin Albino, Helen Tais da Rosa, Alexandre Kleber Silveira, Lyda Espitia-Pérez, Hugo Brango, Diogo Pompéu Moraes, Paolla Rissi Silva Hermann, Moara Mingori, Fabiano Barreto, Alice Kunzler, Daniel Pens Gelain, Carlos Eduardo Schnorr, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
Ubiquitous low-dose methylmercury (MeHg) exposure through an increased fish consumption represents a global public health problem, especially among pregnant women. A plethora of micronutrients presented in fish affects MeHg uptake/distribution, but limited data is available. Vitamin A (VitA), another fish micronutrient is used in nutritional supplementation, especially during pregnancy. However, there is no information about the health effects arising from their combined exposure. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the effects of both MeHg and retinyl palmitate administered on pregnant and lactating rats in metabolic and redox parameters from dams and their offspring...
July 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yao Yu, Sili Yuan, Jian Zhuang, Yanan Wan, Qi Wang, Jingsuo Zhang, Huafen Li
Pak choi can readily accumulate cadmium (Cd) into its edible parts; this can pose a threat to human health. Although not essential for higher plants, selenium (Se) can be favorable for plant growth and antioxidative defense under heavy metal stress conditions. A pak choi hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of two forms of Se on the Cd uptake kinetics and accumulation and oxidative stress. The results showed that selenite and selenate remarkably enhanced Cd uptake kinetics in pak choi...
July 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Michele Bertoncello Souza, Marcella Tapias Passoni, Claudia Pälmke, Katlyn Barp Meyer, Amanda Caroline Venturelli, Giulia Araújo, Bruno Sanches de Castilhos, Rosana Nogueira Morais, Paulo Roberto Dalsenter, Shanna Helen Swan, Holger Martin Koch, Anderson Joel Martino-Andrade
BACKGROUND: Human exposure to phthalates and other non-persistent chemicals in developing countries is largely unknown. A preliminary analysis of urinary samples from pregnant Brazilian women revealed the presence of metabolites of Diisopentyl phthalate (DiPeP). OBJECTIVES: Reliably quantify DiPeP metabolites in human urine and investigate the potential antiandrogenic activity of this phthalate in rats. METHODS: We initiated a pilot pregnancy cohort in Curitiba, Brazil, to examine phthalate exposure in urine samples collected in early pregnancy (n = 50) or pooled samples from early, mid and late pregnancy (n = 44)...
July 18, 2018: Environment International
Arunnjah Vivekanandarajah, Karen A Waters, Rita Machaalani
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is the largest modifiable risk factor for adverse outcomes in the infant. Investigations have focused on the psychoactive component of cigarettes, nicotine. One proposed mechanism leading to adverse effects is the interaction between nicotine and its nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Much data has been generated over the past three decades on the effects of cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) on the expression of the nAChRs in the brainstem and physiological parameters related to cardiac, respiration and sleep, in the offspring of smoking mothers and animal models of nicotine exposure...
July 18, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Fabian Leinisch, Michele Mariotti, Per Hägglund, Michael J Davies
Oxidation can be induced by multiple processes in biological samples, with proteins being important targets due to their high abundance and reactivity. Oxidant reactions with proteins are not comprehensively understood, but it is known that structural and functional changes may be a cause, or a consequence, of disease. The mechanisms of oxidation of the model protein RNAse A by singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) were examined and compared to peroxyl radical (ROO● ) oxidation, both common biological oxidants. This protein is a prototypic member of the RNAse family that exhibits antiviral activity by cleaving single-stranded RNA...
July 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
David Stucki, Peter Brenneisen, Andreas S Reichert, Wilhelm Stahl
BH3 mimetics, such as BH3I-1, act as Bcl-2 antagonists, promote apoptosis and are used in basic research studies on apoptotic signaling and are currently tested as experimental anti-tumor agents. The present study addresses time- and dose-dependent responses of BH3I-1 on apoptosis, cellular stress defense mediated by hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), and mitochondrial morphology. As expected, treatment of normal human dermal fibroblasts with BH3I-1 induced apoptosis as determined by typical markers including cytochrome c release, loss of procaspase-3, and PARP cleavage...
July 18, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Thaís F Trombin, Roberta Procópio de Souza, Sonia Regina Kameda, Lineane Helena Fernandes Zanlorenci, Daniela Fukue Fukushiro, Mariana Bendlin Calzavara, Raphael Wuo-Silva, Elisa Mári-Kawamoto, Jacqueline Menezes Costa, Patrícia Helena Zanier-Gomes, Luciana Takahashi Carvalho Ribeiro, Roberto Frussa-Filho
Opioid addiction is a growing public health problem, being currently considered an epidemic in the United States. Investigating the behavioral effects of opioids and the factors influencing their development becomes of major importance. In animals, the effects of drugs of abuse can be assessed using the behavioral sensitization model, which shares similar neuronal substrates with drug craving in humans. Importantly, novelty plays a critical role on the development of behavioral sensitization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a new environment on both the induction and expression phases of morphine (Mor)-induced behavioral sensitization in the two-injection protocol...
July 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Marina Rusch, Astrid Spielmeyer, Holger Zorn, Gerd Hamscher
The impressive ability of the fungus Xylaria longipes to transform the highly persistent fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin into microbiologically less active degradation products was demonstrated. Fluoroquinolones are used extensively in both human and veterinary medicine. Poor metabolization and high chemical stability of these synthetic antibiotics led to their presence in several environmental compartments. This undesirable behavior may promote the spread of resistance mechanisms due to concomitant exposure to bacteria...
July 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Clémence Defois, Jérémy Ratel, Ghislain Garrait, Sylvain Denis, Olivier Le Goff, Jérémie Talvas, Pascale Mosoni, Erwan Engel, Pierre Peyret
Growing evidence indicates that the human gut microbiota interacts with xenobiotics, including persistent organic pollutants and foodborne chemicals. The toxicological relevance of the gut microbiota-pollutant interplay is of great concern since chemicals may disrupt gut microbiota functions, with a potential impairment of host homeostasis. Herein we report within batch fermentation systems the impact of food contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorobiphenyls, brominated flame retardants, dioxins, pesticides and heterocyclic amines) on the human gut microbiota by metatranscriptome and volatolome i...
July 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Krishna B Singh, Xinhua Ji, Shivendra V Singh
Clinical management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) resulting from androgen deprivation therapy remains challenging. CRPC is driven by aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR) through mechanisms ranging from its amplification, mutation, post-translational modification, and expression of splice variants (e.g., AR-V7). Herein, we present experimental evidence for therapeutic vulnerability of CRPC to a novel phytochemical, leelamine (LLM), derived from pine tree bark. Exposure of human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (an androgen-responsive cell line with mutant AR), C4-2B (an androgen-insensitive variant of LNCaP), and 22Rv1 (a CRPC cell line with expression of AR-Vs), and a murine prostate cancer cell line Myc-CaP to plasma achievable concentrations of LLM resulted in ligand-dependent (LNCaP) and ligand-independent (22Rv1) growth inhibition in vitro that was accompanied by downregulation of mRNA and/or protein levels of full-length AR as well as its splice variants including AR-V7...
July 20, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Chen Miao, Yunfei Yang, Shanshan Li, Yufeng Guo, Wenqing Shui, Qichen Cao
Mass spectrometry (MS) technology has a special advantage in species determination for protein-rich samples which requires identification of species-specific peptides. However, for species discrimination of highly homologous proteins, it remains challenging to select the species unique peptides with routine proteomics approaches. In this work, we chose keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) present in cashmere fibers from goat and wool fibers from sheep as targets, to develop a dual-protease digestion workflow based on in-silico and experimental analysis...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
K Zhang, G Anumanthan, S Scheaffer, L A Cornelius
The major modifiable risk factor in melanomagenesis is UV exposure and mutagenesis of melanocytes. Other UV-induced events that contribute to early tumorigenesis are poorly understood. Herein we show the repeated exposure of human primary melanocytes to UVB results in a sustained senescence response, increases in expression of STAT1, MX1, OAS2 and IRF7 proteins of up to 75-fold, and resistance to subsequent UVB-induced apoptosis. In the setting of UVB-induced DNA damage, we detected time-dependent increases in the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as HMGB1...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Timur Saliev, Dinara Begimbetova, Abdul-Razak Masoud, Bakhyt Matkarimov
Controversial, sensational and often contradictory scientific reports have triggered active debates over the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in literature and mass media the last few decades. This could lead to confusion and distraction, subsequently hampering the development of a univocal conclusion on the real hazards caused by EMFs on humans. For example, there are lots of publications indicating that EMF can induce apoptosis and DNA strand-breaks in cells. On the other hand, these effects could rather be beneficial, in that they could be effectively harnessed for treatment of various disorders, including cancer...
July 17, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Khayelihle B Makhathini, Musa V Mabandla, William M U Daniels
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) has infected more than 40 million people worldwide and is associated with central nervous system (CNS) disruption in at least 30% of these persons. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly reduced the systemic immunopathology associated with HIV, but the occurrence of neurological disorders continues to be reported in notable numbers. The present study evaluated the potential of rosmarinic acid to reverse the detrimental effects of an intracerebral injection of the viral protein tat...
July 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Luisa Lo Iacono, Clarissa Catale, Alessandro Martini, Alessandro Valzania, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Valerio Chiurchiù, Ezia Guatteo, Silvia Bussone, Fabiana Perrone, Paola Di Sabato, Eleonora Aricò, Alberto D'Argenio, Alfonso Troisi, Nicola B Mercuri, Mauro Maccarrone, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Pietro Casella, Valeria Carola
BACKGROUND: Experiencing traumatic childhood is a risk factor for developing substance use disorder, but the mechanisms that underlie this relationship have not been determined. Adverse childhood experiences affect the immune system, and the immune system mediates the effects of psychostimulants. However, whether this system is involved in the etiology of substance use disorder in individuals who have experienced early life stress is unknown. METHODS: In this study, we performed a series of ex vivo and in vivo experiments in mice and humans to define the function of the immune system in the early life stress-induced susceptibility to the neurobehavioral effects of cocaine...
June 11, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Huei-Yu Chen, Atikul Islam, Tien-Ming Yuan, Shi-Wen Chen, Pei-Fen Liu, Pin Ju Chueh
BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin belongs to the platinum-based drug family and has shown promise in treating cancer by binding to DNA to induce cytotoxicity. However, individual patients show diverse therapeutic responses toward oxaliplatin due to yet-unknown underlying mechanisms. We recently established that oxaliplatin also exert its anti-cancer activity in gastric cancer cell lines by targeting tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX), attenuate NAD+ generation and reduce NAD+ -dependent sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity, which in turn enhances p53 acetylation and apoptosis...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Ye Ji Jeong, Yeonghoon Son, Na-Kyung Han, Hyung-Do Choi, Jeong-Ki Pack, Nam Kim, Yun-Sil Lee, Hae-June Lee
The expansion of mobile phone use has raised questions regarding the possible biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on oxidative stress and brain inflammation. Despite accumulative exposure of humans to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, their long-term effects on oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the aging brain have not been studied. In the present study, middle-aged C57BL/6 mice (aged 14 months) were exposed to 1950 MHz electromagnetic fields for 8 months (specific absorption rate (SAR) 5 W/kg, 2 h/day, 5 d/week)...
July 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Youxian Li, Beibei Chen, Man He, Bin Hu
Arsenite (As(III)) has been considered as a human carcinogen associated with many human cancers especially skin cancer. Elucidation of the transformed species of As(III) during its metabolism in cells is beneficial for evaluation of its bioeffect. In this work, a hyphenated method of reversed phase ion pair high performance liquid chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (RP-IP-HPLC-ICP-MS) equipped with collision/reaction cell technology (CCT) was developed for speciation of As(III) and its metabolites (arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]) in SCC-7 cells...
October 1, 2018: Talanta
Magdalena Chłopecka, Marta Mendel, Natalia Dziekan, Wojciech Karlik
The application of pyriproxyfen (PPF) to drinking water and constant exposure of the whole population to this insecticide is an unprecedented action on a world scale and presents a new and serious challenge for toxicology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of PPF on the intestine muscle activity. The experiments were performed on isolated duodenum and jejunum strips of rat, in isometric conditions. Doses of PPF in the range of 0.032-100 μM were used in the experiments. The obtained results indicate that PPF affected significantly the spontaneous activity of duodenum and jejunum strips, PPF caused the muscle relaxation when used in the concentration of 0...
October 2018: Environmental Pollution
Clare L S Wiseman, Jianjun Niu, Christine Levesque, Marc Chénier, Pat E Rasmussen
Metal enrichment of road dust is well characterized but available data on the bioaccessibility of metals in particle size fractions relevant to human respiratory health remain limited. The study goal was to investigate the bioaccessibility of platinum group elements (PGE), which are used as catalysts in automotive exhaust converters, in the inhalable fraction of road dust. Street sweepings were provided by the City of Toronto, Canada, collected as part of its Clean Roads to Clean Air program.The particle size relevance of road dust for inhalation exposures was confirmed using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer (mean Dx(50): 9...
October 2018: Environmental Pollution
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