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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335457/the-epigenetic-link-between-prenatal-adverse-environments-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Marija Kundakovic, Ivana Jaric
Prenatal adverse environments, such as maternal stress, toxicological exposures, and viral infections, can disrupt normal brain development and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and autism. Increasing evidence shows that these short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposures on brain structure and function are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to stress, toxins, viral mimetics, and drugs induces lasting epigenetic changes in the brain, including genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf)...
March 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335439/mercury-levels-in-human-hair-and-farmed-fish-near-artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining-communities-in-the-madre-de-dios-river-basin-peru
#2
Aubrey L Langeland, Rebecca D Hardin, Richard L Neitzel
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#3
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335424/an-alternative-wearable-tracking-system-based-on-a-low-power-wide-area-network
#4
Raul Fernández-Garcia, Ignacio Gil
This work presents an alternative wearable tracking system based on a low-power wide area network. A complete GPS receiver was integrated with a textile substrate, and the latitude and longitude coordinates were sent to the cloud by means of the SIM-less SIGFOX network. To send the coordinates over SIGFOX protocol, a specific codification algorithm was used and a customized UHF antenna on jeans fabric was designed, simulated and tested. Moreover, to guarantee the compliance to international regulations for human body exposure to electromagnetic radiation, the electromagnetic specific absorption rate of this antenna was analyzed...
March 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335296/controlled-mechanical-cracking-of-metal-films-deposited-on-polydimethylsiloxane-pdms
#5
Andreas Polywka, Luca Stegers, Oliver Krauledat, Thomas Riedl, Timo Jakob, Patrick Görrn
Stretchable large area electronics conform to arbitrarily-shaped 3D surfaces and enables comfortable contact to the human skin and other biological tissue. There are approaches allowing for large area thin films to be stretched by tens of percent without cracking. The approach presented here does not prevent cracking, rather it aims to precisely control the crack positions and their orientation. For this purpose, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is hardened by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (172 nm) through an exposure mask...
September 9, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334957/quechers-based-method-for-pesticides-analysis-in-adipose-tissue-associated-with-rat-ovaries
#6
Nathalie Zamariola, Pedro Toledo Netto, Carla Adriene da Silva Franchi, João Lauro Viana de Camargo, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi
The concomitant exposure to low doses of various pesticides is one of the most relevant issues in human toxicology today. An experimental toxicology study was developed to evaluate the effects of this type of exposure on the reproductive capacity of females of three species of rats that were exposed to mixtures of dicofol, dieldrin, endosulfan and permethrin at low doses (LOAEL and NOAEL). In this context, we have developed a method for determining pesticides in adipose tissue (0.5 g, 49% lipid) associated with the ovaries, based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) strategy...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334696/effects-of-hypergravity-on-the-angiogenic-potential-of-endothelial-cells
#7
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Daniel T O Carvalho, Miguel J S Ferreira, Guilherme Aresta, Manuela E Gomes, Jack J W A van Loon, Kim Van der Heiden, Pedro L Granja
Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is a key event in pathology, including cancer progression, but also in homeostasis and regeneration. As the phenotype of endothelial cells (ECs) is continuously regulated by local biomechanical forces, studying endothelial behaviour in altered gravity might contribute to new insights towards angiogenesis modulation. This study aimed at characterizing EC behaviour after hypergravity exposure (more than 1g), with special focus on cytoskeleton architecture and capillary-like structure formation...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334623/rapid-on-chip-apoptosis-assay-on-human-carcinoma-cells-based-on-annexin-v-quantum-dot-probes
#8
Helena Montón, Mariana Medina-Sánchez, Joan Antoni Soler, Andrzej Chałupniak, Carme Nogués, Arben Merkoçi
Despite all the efforts made over years to study the cancer expression and the metastasis event, there is not a clear understanding of its origins and effective treatment. Therefore, more specialized and rapid techniques are required for studying cell behaviour under different drug-based treatments. Here we present a quantum dot signalling-based cell assay carried out in a segmental microfluidic device that allows studying the effect of anti-cancer drugs in cultured cell lines by monitoring phosphatidylserine translocation that occurs in early apoptosis...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334393/adjuvant-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-for-secondary-prevention-a-systematic-review
#9
Gregory R Dion, Stephanie Teng, Leslie R Boyd, Antonia Northam, Charlotte Mason-Apps, Dorice Vieira, Milan R Amin, Ryan C Branski
Importance: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for children and younger adults but not older adults or those with prior HPV exposure, leaving a large portion of the population at risk for HPV-mediated disease. Emerging data suggest a possible role for vaccination as an adjuvant treatment for individuals with HPV-related clinical disease. Objective: To systematically review the literature regarding HPV vaccination for secondary disease prevention after treatment of active clinical disease across disease sites to serve as a platform for the management of HPV-related disease of the head and neck...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334273/gwas-summary-based-pathway-analysis-correcting-for-the-genetic-confounding-impact-of-environmental-exposures
#10
Qianrui Fan, Feng Zhang, Wenyu Wang, Jiawen Xu, Jingcan Hao, Awen He, Yan Wen, Ping Li, Xiao Liang, Yanan Du, Li Liu, Cuiyan Wu, Sen Wang, Xi Wang, Yujie Ning, Xiong Guo
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)-based pathway association analysis is a powerful approach for the genetic studies of human complex diseases. However, the genetic confounding effects of environment exposure-related genes can decrease the accuracy of GWAS-based pathway association analysis of target diseases. In this study, we developed a pathway association analysis approach, named Mendelian randomization-based pathway enrichment analysis (MRPEA), which was capable of correcting the genetic confounding effects of environmental exposures, using the GWAS summary data of environmental exposures...
March 8, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334103/neuronal-and-peripheral-pentraxins-modify-glutamate-release-and-may-interact-in-blood-brain-barrier-failure
#11
Damian M Cummings, Tiffanie A Benway, Hinze Ho, Angelo Tedoldi, Monica M Fernandes Freitas, Lion Shahab, Christina E Murray, Angela Richard-Loendt, Sebastian Brandner, Tammaryn Lashley, Dervis A Salih, Frances A Edwards
Neuronal pentraxin 1 (NPTX1) has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, being present in and around dystrophic neurons in plaques, affecting glutamatergic transmission postsynaptically and mediating effects of amyloidβ. Here, we confirm the presence of NPTX1 around plaques in postmortem Alzheimer's disease brain and report that acutely applied human NPTX1 increases paired-pulse ratio at mouse CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses, indicating a decrease in glutamate release. In contrast, chronic exposure to NPTX1, NPTX2, or NPTX receptor decreases paired-pulse ratio, mimicking some of the earliest changes in mice expressing familial Alzheimer's disease genes...
February 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334042/whole-body-counter-wbc-and-food-radiocesium-contamination-surveys-in-namie-fukushima-prefecture
#12
Yoichiro Hosokawa, Kazuki Nomura, Eiki Tsushima, Kohsei Kudo, Yuka Noto, Yoshiko Nishizawa
PURPOSE: This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. METHODS: The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333989/street-trees-reduce-the-negative-effects-of-urbanization-on-birds
#13
João Carlos de Castro Pena, Felipe Martello, Milton Cezar Ribeiro, Richard A Armitage, Robert J Young, Marcos Rodrigues
The effects of streets on biodiversity is an important aspect of urban ecology, but it has been neglected worldwide. Several vegetation attributes (e.g. street tree density and diversity) have important effects on biodiversity and ecological processes. In this study, we evaluated the influences of urban vegetation-represented by characteristics of street trees (canopy size, proportion of native tree species and tree species richness)-and characteristics of the landscape (distance to parks and vegetation quantity), and human impacts (human population size and exposure to noise) on taxonomic data and functional diversity indices of the bird community inhabiting streets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333938/the-relationship-between-entomological-indicators-of-aedes-aegypti-abundance-and-dengue-virus-infection
#14
Elizabeth A Cromwell, Steven T Stoddard, Christopher M Barker, Annelies Van Rie, William B Messer, Steven R Meshnick, Amy C Morrison, Thomas W Scott
Routine entomological monitoring data are used to quantify the abundance of Ae. aegypti. The public health utility of these indicators is based on the assumption that greater mosquito abundance increases the risk of human DENV transmission, and therefore reducing exposure to the vector decreases incidence of infection. Entomological survey data from two longitudinal cohort studies in Iquitos, Peru, linked with 8,153 paired serological samples taken approximately six months apart were analyzed. Indicators of Ae...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333929/the-rise-and-fall-of-rabies-in-japan-a-quantitative-history-of-rabies-epidemics-in-osaka-prefecture-1914-1933
#15
Aiko Kurosawa, Kageaki Tojinbara, Hazumu Kadowaki, Katie Hampson, Akio Yamada, Kohei Makita
Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333633/no-reference-quality-assessment-of-tone-mapped-hdr-pictures
#16
Debarati Kundu, Deepti Ghadiyaram, Alan Bovik, Brian Evans
Being able to automatically predict digital picture quality, as perceived by human observers, has become important in many applications where humans are the ultimate consumers of displayed visual information. Standard dynamic range (SDR) images provide 8 bits/color/pixel. High dynamic range (HDR) images which are usually created from multiple exposures of the same scene, can provide 16 or 32 bits/color/pixel, but must be tonemapped to SDR for display on standard monitors. Multi-exposure fusion (MEF) techniques bypass HDR creation, by fusing the exposure stack directly to SDR format while aiming for aesthetically pleasing luminance and color distributions...
March 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333339/platelet-rich-plasma-augments-adipose-derived-stem-cell-growth-and-differentiation
#17
Robert P Gersch, Joshua Glahn, Michael G Tecce, Anthony J Wilson, Ivona Percec
Background: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a powerful tool for cosmetic surgery and regenerative medicine. The use of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP), particularly in combination with ASC-based therapy, has significantly expanded in recent years. Unfortunately, the mechanisms and optimal dosing responsible for the beneficial effects of PRP remain poorly understood. Here we investigate the effect of PRP on ASC growth and differentiation. Objectives: To assess the impact of different PRP feeding and cryopreservation protocols on ASC isolation, expansion, and differentiation...
February 22, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333338/drug-discovery-for-male-subfertility-using-high-throughput-screening-a-new-approach-to-an-unsolved-problem
#18
Sarah J Martins da Silva, Sean G Brown, Keith Sutton, Louise V King, Halil Ruso, David W Gray, Paul G Wyatt, Mark C Kelly, Christopher L R Barratt, Anthony G Hope
STUDY QUESTION: Can pharma drug discovery approaches be utilized to transform investigation into novel therapeutics for male infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: High-throughput screening (HTS) is a viable approach to much-needed drug discovery for male factor infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is both huge demand and a genuine clinical need for new treatment options for infertile men. However, the time, effort and resources required for drug discovery are currently exorbitant, due to the unique challenges of the cellular, physical and functional properties of human spermatozoa and a lack of appropriate assay platform...
March 16, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333306/protein-aggregation-in-ehrlichia-chaffeensis-during-infection-of-mammalian-cells
#19
Dorota Kuczynska-Wisnik, Chuanmin Cheng, Roman R Ganta, Michal Zolkiewski
Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular pathogen transmitted through infected ticks to humans and other vertebrates. We investigated the extent of protein aggregation in E. chaffeensis during infection of canine macrophage cell line, DH82. We discovered that the size of the aggregated fraction of E. chaffeensis proteins increased during the first 48 h post infection. We also incubated the infected cells with guanidinium chloride (GuHCl), a known inhibitor of the protein-disaggregating molecular chaperone ClpB...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333259/predisposing-factors-and-outcome-of-uncommon-yeast-species-related-fungaemia-based-on-an-exhaustive-surveillance-programme-2002-14
#20
Stéphane Bretagne, Charlotte Renaudat, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Karine Sitbon, Olivier Lortholary, Françoise Dromer
Objectives: Using registry data to compare fungaemia caused by uncommon yeast species (UYS; i.e. other than Candida albicans , Candida glabrata , Candida parapsilosis , Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei ) and C. albicans -related fungaemia can reveal specific predisposing factors of UYS with potential impact on treatment strategies. Methods: We analysed 338 episodes of UYS fungaemia prospectively collected from 27 hospitals (Paris, France; 1 October 2002-31 December 2014) and compared these with 1998 single episodes of C...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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