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Human exposure

Brian Shiner, Christine Leonard Westgate, Vanessa Simiola, Richard Thompson, Paula P Schnurr, Joan M Cook
Objective: Available studies on implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) for patients attending Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) residential post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) programs rely on therapist self-report of EBP delivery. Patient-level data on receipt of EBP are needed both to corroborate therapist self-report and to understand patient factors that predict receipt of EBPs for PTSD. Materials and Methods: We identified 159 therapists from 38 VA residential PTSD programs who responded to a survey about EBP implementation during the 2015 fiscal year (FY15)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Uzochukwu C Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor, Chika M Jidere, Chizoba Agu, Frida Nkoloagu, John Ewoh, Virginia U Okwu-Delunzu
In this study, the human and livestock (cattle) health risks of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a wetland of Obuaku, Abia State Nigeria contaminated by hydrocarbon spill due to incidents of hydrocarbon theft and pipeline vandalization were assessed. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed in analyzing the TPH and PAHs respectively. The contaminated soil was delineated into sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3, AOC-4, AOC-5 and AOC-6 to reflect the discrete patches (areas) of the contaminated site and for effective planning of remedial actions...
March 13, 2018: Environment International
Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
March 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ya-Chi Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Fang-Chun Liao, Sing-Siang Wang, Hsiu-Chu Chang, Hung-Fu Hsu, Sue-Hsien Chen, Gwo-Hwa Wan
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the difference in bacterial contamination between conventional reused ventilator systems and disposable closed ventilator-suction systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination rates of the reused and disposable ventilator systems, and the association between system disconnection and bacterial contamination of ventilator systems. METHODS: The enrolled intubated and mechanically ventilated patients used a conventional reused ventilator system and a disposable closed ventilator-suction system, respectively, for a week; specimens were then collected from the ventilator circuit systems to evaluate human and environmental bacterial contamination...
2018: PloS One
Elizabeth G Mosher, John A Butman, Les R Folio, Nadia M Biassou, Choonsik Lee
OBJECTIVE: Radiation exposure of the lens during neck CT may increase a patient's risk of developing cataracts. Radiologists at the National Institutes of Health worked with technicians to modify the neck CT scanning procedure to include a reduction in the scanning range, a reduction in the tube potential (kilovoltage), and a change in neck positioning using a head tilt. We objectively quantified the organ dose changes after this procedure modification using a computer simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed CT images of 40 patients (20 men and 20 women) scanned before and after the procedure change...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Beatriz V R Pereira, Gregorio Nolazco Matus, Monica Jones Costa, André Cordeiro Alves Dos Santos, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Janaina Braga do Carmo, Bruno Nunes
Over time, many pollutants of anthropogenic origin have caused the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Among several characteristics, these compounds can reach the trophic chain, causing deleterious interactions with the biota. Pharmaceutical substances can be included in this scenario as emerging contaminants that reach the aquatic environment because of direct human and veterinary usage, and release by industrial effluents, as well as through domestic dumping of surplus drugs. The effects of these compounds on exposed organisms have been studied since the 1990s, but ecotoxicological data for such chemicals are still scarce especially concerning aquatic organisms from tropical regions...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sarva Mangala Praveena, Seoh Wei Teh, Ranjith Kumar Rajendran, Narayanan Kannan, Chu-Ching Lin, Rozaini Abdullah, Suresh Kumar
Phthalates have been blended in various compositions as plasticizers worldwide for a variety of purposes. Consequently, humans are exposed to a wide spectrum of phthalates that needs to be researched and understood correctly. The goal of this review is to focus on phthalate's internal exposure pathways and possible role of human digestion on liver toxicity. In addition, special focus was made on stem cell therapy in reverting liver toxicity. The known entry of higher molecular weight phthalates is through ingestion while inhalation and dermal pathways are for lower molecular weight phthalates...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rebecca C Richmond, Gemma C Sharp, Georgia Herbert, Charlotte Atkinson, Caroline Taylor, Sohinee Bhattacharya, Doris Campbell, Marion Hall, Nabila Kazmi, Tom Gaunt, Wendy McArdle, Susan Ring, George Davey Smith, Andy Ness, Caroline L Relton
Background: It has been proposed that maternal folic-acid supplement use may alter the DNA-methylation patterns of the offspring during the in-utero period, which could influence development and later-life health outcomes. Evidence from human studies suggests a role for prenatal folate levels in influencing DNA methylation in early life, but this has not been extended to consider persistent effects into adulthood. Methods: To better elucidate the long-term impact of maternal folic acid in pregnancy on DNA methylation in offspring, we carried out an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) nested within the Aberdeen Folic Acid Supplementation Trial (AFAST-a trial of two different doses: 0...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Luyan Tang, Wenyu Wu, Wenwen Fu, Yao Hu
Phototherapy is widely used in the treatment of vitiligo. Previous studies have focused on the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on melanocytes; however, the biological effects of phototherapy and melanocytes on keratinocytes remain to be elucidated. To investigate and assess the effects of clinically doses of broad band (BB)-UVA, narrow band (NB)-UVB and melanocytes on human keratinocytes in vitro , clinical doses of BB-UVA or NB-UVB radiation and human melanoma cell A375 co-culture were performed as stress divisors to HaCaT cells...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Renping Liu, Peihong Wang, Caiqing Wu, Juan Chen, Chengxin Li, Yongtao Xie, Qi Wang, Jianming Liu, Huan He, Jing Zhu
Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) is a constituent of several Chinese medicines used clinically to treat inflammatory diseases, including airway inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HDW serves a protective role in suppressing chronic airway inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. A mouse model of chronic smoking was induced via exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30 days, increasing the exposure time for up to 5 min per day and the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jaime S Rosa, Van B Vuong, Orly Haskin, Anne Y Liu
Background: Recombinant human erythropoietin, such as epoetin alfa and darbepoetin alfa, is an important therapy for anemia due to chronic renal failure. Allergy to recombinant human erythropoietin and the need for desensitization are rare. Case presentation: We report here a novel epoetin alfa outpatient desensitization protocol in a girl who developed delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to subcutaneous epoetin alfa and intravenous darbepoetin alfa. An initial attempt at traditional epoetin alfa desensitization failed, so we created a slower 17-day outpatient desensitization that succeeded and allowed treatment continuation...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Marco A Moro-García, Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Rebeca Alonso-Arias
T lymphocytes, from their first encounter with their specific antigen as naïve cell until the last stages of their differentiation, in a replicative state of senescence, go through a series of phases. In several of these stages, T lymphocytes are subjected to exponential growth in successive encounters with the same antigen. This entire process occurs throughout the life of a human individual and, earlier, in patients with chronic infections/pathologies through inflammatory mediators, first acutely and later in a chronic form...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marija Adzic, Nadezda Nedeljkovic
CD73 is a bifunctional glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein which functions as ecto-5'-nucleotidase and a membrane receptor for extracellular matrix protein (ECM). A large body of evidence demonstrates a critical involvement of altered purine metabolism and particularly, increased expression of CD73 in a number of human disorders, including cancer and immunodeficiency. Massive up-regulation of CD73 was also found in reactive astrocytes in several experimental models of human neuropathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Krishna B Singh, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Lora H Rigatti, Daniel P Normolle, Jian-Min Yuan, Shivendra V Singh
We have shown previously that dietary administration of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a small molecule from edible cruciferous vegetables, significantly decreases the incidence of poorly-differentiated prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice without any side effects. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Myc-regulated glycolysis in prostate cancer chemoprevention by PEITC. Exposure of LNCaP (androgen-responsive) and 22Rv1 (castration-resistant) human prostate cancer cells to PEITC resulted in suppression of expression as well as transcriptional activity of c-Myc...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Richard W Foltin
The reinforcing efficacy of vaporized methamphetamine HCl (0.3 mg/kg) was determined in baboons with minimal previous drug exposure. A group of 8 adult male baboons was tested prior to a group of 7 adult female baboons. Baboons were initially trained to suck on a brass stem activating a pressure-sensitive relay (i.e., puff), to receive one M&M® candy. Five of the 8 males and 6 of the 7 females learned to activate the relay. 0.05 ml of 95% ethyl alcohol containing 0.3 mg/kg methamphetamine was vaporized and delivered to the mouth of the baboon after he/she completed 2 puffs; a single candy was given after an additional 5 puffs to ensure that baboons continued puffing after the aerosol entered their mouths...
March 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Charles V Vorhees, Jenna N Sprowles, Samantha L Regan, Michael T Williams
High throughput screens for developmental neurotoxicity (DN) will facilitate evaluation of chemicals and can be used to prioritize those designated for follow-up. DN is evaluated under different guidelines. Those for drugs generally include peri- and postnatal studies and juvenile toxicity studies. For pesticides and commercial chemicals, when triggered, include developmental neurotoxicity studies (DNT) and extended one-generation reproductive toxicity studies. Raffaele et al. (2010) reviewed 69 pesticide DNT studies and found two of the four behavioral tests underperformed...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Aubrey L Galusha, Pamela C Kruger, Lyn J Howard, Patrick J Parsons
Patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are exposed to potentially toxic elements, which may accumulate in bone. Bone samples collected from seven PN patients (average = 14 years) and eighteen hip/knee samples were analyzed for Al as part of a previous investigation. Yttrium was serendipitously detected in the PN bone samples, leading to the present investigation of rare earth elements (REEs). A method for quantitating fifteen REEs in digested bone was developed based on tandem ICP-MS (ICP-MS/MS) to resolve spectral interferences...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Jui-Hsiang Hung, Shi-Kae Wee, Hany A Omar, Chia-Hui Su, Hsing-Yi Chen, Pin-Shern Chen, Chien-Chih Chiu, Ming-Syuan Wu, Yen-Ni Teng
Leucine-rich repeats and WD repeat domain containing protein 1 (LRWD1) is implicated in the regulation of signal transduction, transcription, RNA processing and tumor development. However, LRWD1 transcriptional regulation is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between LRWD1 expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in human embryonal carcinoma cell line, NT2/D1 cells, which will help in understanding the transcriptional regulatory role of ROS in cells. Results showed that the exposure of NT2/D1 cells to various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) caused a significant increase in the mRNA and protein expression of LRWD1...
March 12, 2018: Biochimie
Kednapa Thavorn, Howsikan Kugathasan, Darrell H S Tan, Nasheed Moqueet, Stefan D Baral, Becky Skidmore, Derek MacFadden, Anna Simkin, Sharmistha Mishra
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals is an efficacious and effective intervention to decrease the risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) acquisition. Yet drug and delivery costs prohibit access in many jurisdictions. In the absence of guidelines for the synthesis of economic evaluations, we developed a protocol for a systematic review of economic evaluation studies for PrEP by drawing on best practices in systematic reviews and the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations...
March 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
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