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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151145/pendimethalin-induces-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-to-trigger-apoptosis-in-human-lymphocytes-and-rat-bone-marrow-cells
#1
Sabiha M Ansari, Quaiser Saquib, Sabry M Attia, Eslam M Abdel-Salam, Hend A Alwathnani, Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Javed Musarrat
Pendimethalin (PM) is a dinitroaniline herbicide extensively applied against the annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds. There is no report available on PM-induced low-dose genotoxicity in human primary cells and in vivo test models. Such data gap has prompted us to evaluate the genotoxic potential of PM in human lymphocytes and rats. PM selectively binds in the minor groove of DNA by forming covalent bonds with G and C nitrogenous bases, as well as with the ribose sugar. PM induces micronucleus formation (MN) in human lymphocytes, indicating its clastogenic potential...
November 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150910/educating-youth-swine-exhibitors-on-influenza-a-virus-transmission-at-agricultural-fairs
#2
J M Nolting, J Midla, M S Whittington, S D Scheer, A S Bowman
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine...
November 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150881/genotoxicity-of-11-heavy-metals-detected-as-food-contaminants-in-two-human-cell-lines
#3
B Kopp, D Zalko, M Audebert
Heavy metals, such as arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), germanium (Ge), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), tellurium (Te), and vanadium (V) are widely distributed in the environment and in the food chain. Human exposure to heavy metals through water and food has been reported by different international agencies. Although some of these heavy metals are essential elements for human growth and development, they may also be toxic at low concentrations due to indirect mechanisms. In this study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of 15 different oxidation statuses of 11 different heavy metals were investigated using high-throughput screening (γH2AX assay) in two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) representative of target organs (liver and colon) for food contaminants...
November 18, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150876/toxicological-characterization-of-zno-nanoparticles-in-malignant-and-non-malignant-cells
#4
Helena Moratin, Agmal Scherzad, Thomas Gehrke, Pascal Ickrath, Katrin Radeloff, Norbert Kleinsasser, Stephan Hackenberg
The increasing usage of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in industrial applications as well as in consumer products raises concern regarding their potential adverse effects to a greater extend. Numerous studies have demonstrated toxic properties of NPs, however there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the underlying mechanisms. This study was designed to systematically investigate cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle alterations, and genotoxicity induced by ZnO-NP. Moreover, it was an aim of the investigations to specify the diverse effects of nanoparticle exposure in malignant in comparison with non-malignant cells...
November 18, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150847/chronic-sun-exposure-is-associated-with-distinct-histone-acetylation-changes-in-human-skin
#5
S Ding, J Chen, Q Zeng, J Lu, L Tan, A Guo, J Kang, S Yang, Y Xiang, C Zuo, J Huang
BACKGROUND: Photoaging is attributed to continuous sunlight or artificial UV exposure and manifests the clinical and histological changes of skin. Epigenetic changes have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of photoaging. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To analyse histone modification patterns in sun-exposed and non-exposed skins, and identify the abnormally histone modified-genes related to photoaging. METHODS: Skin biopsies were collected both from the outer forearm (sun-exposed area) and the buttock (sun-protected area) in 20 healthy middle-aged female volunteers...
November 18, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150647/impact-of-multidecadal-climate-variability-on-united-kingdom-rickets-rates
#6
Haris Majeed, G W K Moore
Children who receive inadequate exposure to sunlight have reduced levels of vitamin D, resulting in rickets, a disease that is characterized by bone deformity, stunted growth, and long term pronounced disability. The United Kingdom rickets incidence rates declined from the early 1960's to mid-1990's, after which there was a dramatic increase. The reason for this change is not well understood. Here we show that an important low frequency mode of climate variability, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a period of ~60-80 years, has an impact on rickets incidence rates in the United Kingdom through changes in sea level pressure, cloud cover and sunshine duration...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150642/rescue-of-pfos-induced-human-sertoli-cell-injury-by-overexpressing-a-p-fak-y407e-phosphomimetic-mutant
#7
Haiqi Chen, Ying Gao, Dolores D Mruk, Xiang Xiao, Constance M John, Paul J Turek, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
PFOS induces Sertoli cell injury using testicular cells isolated from rodent testes, but it remains unknown if PFOS has similar effects in humans. Herein, we maintained human Sertoli cells in a mitotically active state in vitro, thus enabling transfection experiments that altered gene expression to explore the molecular mechanism(s) underlying toxicant-induced cell injury. Human Sertoli cells obtained from men at ages 15, 23, 36 and 40 were cultured in vitro. These differentiated Sertoli cells remained mitotically active when cultured in the presence of 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), with a replication time of ~1-3 weeks...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150544/estimation-of-circulating-drug-metabolite-exposure-in-human-using-in-vitro-data-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modelling-example-of-a-high-metabolite-parent-drug-ratio
#8
R Scott Obach, Jian Lin, Emi Kimoto, Sridhar Duvvuri, Timothy Nicholas, Eugene P Kadar, Larry M Tremaine, Aarti Sawant Basak
TBPT ((R)-4-((4-(((4-((tetrahydrofuran-3-yl)oxy)benzo[d]isoxazol-3-yl)oxy)methyl)piperidin-1-yl)methyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ol), a serotonin-4 receptor partial agonist, is metabolized to two metabolites: an N-dealkylation product (M1) and a cyclized oxazolidine structure (M2). After administration to humans, the exposure to M1 was low and the exposure to M2 was high, relative to the parent drug, despite this being the opposite in vitro. In this study, projection of the plasma metabolite/parent ratios for M1 and M2 was attempted, using in vitro metabolism, binding, and permeability data in static and dynamic PBPK models...
November 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150543/toxicokinetics-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-the-shellfish-toxin-domoic-acid-in-nonhuman-primates
#9
Jing Jing, Rebekah Petroff, Sara Shum, Brenda Crouthamel, Ariel R Topletz, Kimberly S Grant, Thomas M Burbacher, Nina Isoherranen
Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin, is produced by marine algae and has caused toxications worldwide in animals and humans. However, the toxicokinetics of DA has not been fully evaluated, and information is missing on the disposition of DA following oral exposures at doses that are considered safe for human consumption. In this study, toxicokinetics of DA were investigated in cynomolgus monkeys, following single doses of 5 µg/kg DA iv, 0.075 mg/kg DA po and 0.15 mg/kg DA po. Following iv dosing, DA had a systemic clearance of 124 ± 71 ml/hr/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 131±71 ml/kg and elimination half-life of 1...
November 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150338/impacts-of-prenatal-triclosan-exposure-on-fetal-reproductive-hormones-and-its-potential-mechanism
#10
Caifeng Wang, Limei Chen, Shasha Zhao, Yi Hu, Yijun Zhou, Yu Gao, Weiye Wang, Jun Zhang, Ying Tian
BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) has been widely detected in pregnant women. The reproductive endocrine-disrupting effects of TCS have been observed in humans and animals. Little is known about the potential impact of prenatal TCS exposure on fetal reproductive development as well as its potential mechanism. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the potential effect of prenatal TCS exposure on fetal reproductive hormones in cord blood and its potential mechanism in relation to placental steroidogenic enzymes...
November 14, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#11
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150047/cytogenetic-damage-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-of-children-exposed-to-pesticides-in-agricultural-areas-of-the-department-of-cordoba-colombia
#12
Javier Alonso Ruiz-Guzmán, Pamela Gómez-Corrales, Ángel Cruz-Esquivel, José Luis Marrugo-Negrete
Pesticides offer benefits, like optimization of agricultural production and disease control; however, these toxic substances can contaminate the environment and pose risks to human health. The aim of this study was to assess pesticide exposure and frequency of cytogenetic damage in infant populations in agricultural areas of the department of Córdoba, Colombia. Urine and peripheral blood samples were taken from children living in the villages of La Ceibita (municipality of Cereté), Cabuya (municipality of San Carlos), Aguas Negras (municipality of Montería), Pelayito (municipality of San Pelayo), and the city of Monteria (control group)...
December 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149818/renal-dysfunction-following-elective-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#13
Esma Isenovic, Djodje Radak, Mihailo Neskovic, Petar Otasevic
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease of the aortic wall with potentially fatal complications. Open repair (OR) was considered the gold standard, until the emergence of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), which is less invasive and equally (if not more) effective. As the popularity of endovascular procedures grows, related complications become more evident, with kidney damage being one of them. Although acute kidney injury (AKI) following EVAR is relatively common, its true incidence is still uncertain...
November 16, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149739/removal-of-tio2-nanoparticles-from-water-by-low-pressure-pilot-plant-filtration
#14
Josune Olabarrieta, Oihane Monzón, Yolanda Belaustegui, Jon-Iñaki Alvarez, Saioa Zorita
Rising use of nanoparticles in manufacturing as well as in commercial products bring issues related to environmental release and human exposure. A large amount of TiO2 nanoparticles will eventually reach wastewater treatment plants. Low pressure membrane filtration has been suggested as a feasible treatment of water streams. This study investigated first at laboratory scale the influence of: i) membrane material, ii) pore size and iii) water chemistry on nTiO2 removal. TiO2 retention was governed by the cake layer formation mechanism and significant retention of nanoparticles was observed even for filters having considerably larger pores than nTiO2...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149712/detection-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-sulphonates-in-italian-eel-samples-by-hplc-hrms-orbitrap
#15
Luca Maria Chiesa, Maria Nobile, Elisa Pasquale, Claudia Balzaretti, Petra Cagnardi, Doriana Tedesco, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contain one or more carbon-bound hydrogens substituted by fluorine. Since the 1950s, these compounds have been used to manufacture fat- and water-resistant fabrics, paper and food containers, and to produce photographic films, firefighting foams, detergents and insecticides. The widespread use and global distribution of PFASs, have led to their accumulation in the environment. Food, particularly fish and other seafood, is considered the main route of human exposure to PFASs...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149606/chronic-stress-alters-striosome-circuit-dynamics-leading-to-aberrant-decision-making
#16
Alexander Friedman, Daigo Homma, Bernard Bloem, Leif G Gibb, Ken-Ichi Amemori, Dan Hu, Sebastien Delcasso, Timothy F Truong, Joyce Yang, Adam S Hood, Katrina A Mikofalvy, Dirk W Beck, Norah Nguyen, Erik D Nelson, Sebastian E Toro Arana, Ruth H Vorder Bruegge, Ki A Goosens, Ann M Graybiel
Effective evaluation of costs and benefits is a core survival capacity that in humans is considered as optimal, "rational" decision-making. This capacity is vulnerable in neuropsychiatric disorders and in the aftermath of chronic stress, in which aberrant choices and high-risk behaviors occur. We report that chronic stress exposure in rodents produces abnormal evaluation of costs and benefits resembling non-optimal decision-making in which choices of high-cost/high-reward options are sharply increased...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149404/the-translational-controlled-tumour-protein-tctp-biological-functions-and-regulation
#17
Ulrich-Axel Bommer
The Translational Controlled Tumour Protein TCTP (gene symbol TPT1, also called P21, P23, Q23, fortilin or histamine-releasing factor, HRF) is a highly conserved protein present in essentially all eukaryotic organisms and involved in many fundamental cell biological and disease processes. It was first discovered about 35 years ago, and it took an extended period of time for its multiple functions to be revealed, and even today we do not yet fully understand all the details. Having witnessed most of this history, in this chapter, I give a brief overview and review the current knowledge on the structure, biological functions, disease involvements and cellular regulation of this protein...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#18
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149203/alc1-chd1l-a-chromatin-remodeling-enzyme-is-required-for-efficient-base-excision-repair
#19
Masataka Tsuda, Kosai Cho, Masato Ooka, Naoto Shimizu, Reiko Watanabe, Akira Yasui, Yuka Nakazawa, Tomoo Ogi, Hiroshi Harada, Keli Agama, Jun Nakamura, Ryuta Asada, Haruna Fujiike, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Junko Murai, Masahiro Hiraoka, Kaoru Koike, Yves Pommier, Shunichi Takeda, Kouji Hirota
ALC1/CHD1L is a member of the SNF2 superfamily of ATPases carrying a macrodomain that binds poly(ADP-ribose). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2 synthesize poly(ADP-ribose) at DNA-strand cleavage sites, promoting base excision repair (BER). Although depletion of ALC1 causes increased sensitivity to various DNA-damaging agents (H2O2, UV, and phleomycin), the role played by ALC1 in BER has not yet been established. To explore this role, as well as the role of ALC1's ATPase activity in BER, we disrupted the ALC1 gene and inserted the ATPase-dead (E165Q) mutation into the ALC1 gene in chicken DT40 cells, which do not express PARP2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149046/impact-of-a-single-oral-acute-dose-of-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-on-liver-function-cytokines-and-the-lymphoproliferative-response-in-c57bl-6-mice
#20
Angélica Tieme Ishikawa, Elisa Yoko Hirooka, Paula Leonello Alvares E Silva, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense, Karina Keller Marques da Costa Flaiban, Claudia Yuri Akagi, Osamu Kawamura, Marcio Carvalho da Costa, Eiko Nakagawa Itano
Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), a mycotoxin found in food and feed, exerts harmful effects on humans and animals. The liver is the earliest target of AFB₁, and its effects have been evaluated in animal models exposed to acute or chronic doses. Considering the possibility of sporadic ingestion of AFB₁-contaminated food, this study investigated the impact of a single oral dose of AFB₁ on liver function/cytokines and the lymphoproliferative response in mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a single oral AFB₁ dose (44, 442 or 663 μg AFB₁/kg of body weight) on the first day...
November 17, 2017: Toxins
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