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Lovastatin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353208/natural-products-berberine-and-curcumin-exhibited-better-ameliorative-effects-on-rats-with-non-alcohol-fatty-liver-disease-than-lovastatin
#1
Wu-Wen Feng, Shuang-Yu Kuang, Can Tu, Zhi-Jie Ma, Jing-Yao Pang, Yan-Hui Wang, Qing-Ce Zang, Ta-Si Liu, Yan-Ling Zhao, Xiao-He Xiao, Jia-Bo Wang
Studies have shown that satins and herbal products have potential to treat non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in clinic. However, no study has compared their effects, and their mechanisms remain unresolved. Here, we choose lovastatin and two herbal products including berberine and curcumin to compare their effects in treating NAFLD. NAFLD model was established by high fat food, and rats were administrated with lovastatin, berberine, curcumin, berberine + curcumin at the dosage of 100, 100, 100, 50 + 50 mg/kg bw, respectively...
January 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341888/protection-against-the-neurotoxic-effects-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-on-cultured-neuronal-cells-by-lovastatin-involves-elevated-expression-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-activating-phosphorylation-of-protein-kinases
#2
Liang Zhao, Yan Xiao, Jin Xiu, Long-Chun Tan, Zhi-Zhong Guan
The treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with statins has drawn increasing attention, but the related molecular mechanisms remain elusive. To examine the pleiotropic cholesterol-independent effects of statins in connection with the treatment of Alzheimer disease, we probed the influence of lovastatin on the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP) , expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase in primary cultured neurons and SH-SY5Y cells over-expressing human APP670/671...
January 13, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331024/combination-therapy-of-lovastatin-and-ampk-activator-improves-mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-functions-and-clinical-disease-in-eae-model
#3
Inderjit Singh, Devadoss J Samuvel, Seungho Choi, Nishant Saxena, Avtar K Singh, Jeseong Won
Recent studies report that loss and dysfunction of mitochondria and peroxisomes contribute to the myelin and axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated the efficacy of lovastatin and AMPK activator (AICAR) combination on the loss and dysfunction of mitochondria and peroxisomes and myelin and axonal damage in the spinal cords, relative to the clinical disease symptoms, using a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model for MS). We observed that lovastatin and AICAR treatments individually provided partial protection of mitochondria/peroxisomes, myelin/axons, and thus partial attenuation of clinical disease in EAE mice...
January 13, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306326/polyketide-synthases-of-diaporthe-helianthi-and-involvement-of-dhpks1-in-virulence-on-sunflower
#4
Michelina Ruocco, Riccardo Baroncelli, Santa Olga Cacciola, Catello Pane, Maurilia Maria Monti, Giuseppe Firrao, Mariarosaria Vergara, Gaetano Magnano di San Lio, Giovanni Vannacci, Felice Scala
BACKGROUND: The early phases of Diaporthe helianthi pathogenesis on sunflower are characterized by the production of phytotoxins that may play a role in host colonisation. In previous studies, phytotoxins of a polyketidic nature were isolated and purified from culture filtrates of virulent strains of D. helianthi isolated from sunflower. A highly aggressive isolate (7/96) from France contained a gene fragment of a putative nonaketide synthase (lovB) which was conserved in a virulent D...
January 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305070/alginate-as-a-potential-diphase-solid-dispersion-carrier-with-enhanced-drug-dissolution-and-improved-storage-stability
#5
Jian Guan, Qiaoyu Liu, Xiaofei Zhang, Yeli Zhang, Rina Chokshi, Haiyang Wu, Shirui Mao
The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using alginate as a promising diphase solid dispersion carrier to enhance dissolution rate of BCS II drugs with improved stability. Taking lovastatin and indomethacin as model drugs, solvent evaporation method was used to prepare solid dispersions. The drug/polymer compatibility was predicted by Hansen solubility parameter and the drug/polymer ratio was screened based on dissolution study, drug existing state in solid dispersion was characterized by DSC and XRPD...
January 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290960/lovastatin-induced-kruppel-like-factor-2-klf2-kruppel-like-factor-6-klf6-and-ras-homolog-family-member-b-rhob-genes-and-preferentially-led-to-viability-reduction-of-cisplatin-resistant-cells
#6
Chiho Koi, Hiroto Izumi, Tomoko Kurita, Thuy Thi Nguyen, Midori Murakami, Yukiko Yoshiura, Toru Hachisuga, Yasuo Morimoto
It was reported that statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase that are used to prevent hypercholesterolemia, have antitumor activity in several cancers. In this study, we investigated the cell viability of statins in Cisplatin-resistant HCP4 and PCDP5 cells compared with their parent Hela and PC3 cells, respectively, and found that HCP4 and PCDP5 cells were 37-fold and 18-fold more resistant to Cisplatin but 13-fold and 7-fold more sensitive to Lovastatin by cell proliferation assay...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258964/engineered-monoculture-and-co-culture-of-methylotrophic-yeast-for-de-novo-production-of-monacolin-j-and-lovastatin-from-methanol
#7
Yiqi Liu, Xiaohu Tu, Qin Xu, Chenxiao Bai, Chuixing Kong, Qi Liu, Jiahui Yu, Qiangqiang Peng, Xiangshan Zhou, Yuanxing Zhang, Menghao Cai
As a promising one-carbon renewable substrate for industrial biotechnology, methanol has attracted much attention. However, engineering of microorganisms for industrial production of pharmaceuticals using a methanol substrate is still in infancy. In this study, the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was used to produce anti-hypercholesterolemia pharmaceuticals, lovastatin and its precursor monacolin J, from methanol. The biosynthetic pathways for monacolin J and lovastatin were first assembled and optimized in single strains using single copies of the relevant biosynthetic genes, and yields of 60...
December 16, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231877/effects-of-resveratrol-lovastatin-and-the-mtor-inhibitor-rad-001-on-insulin-induced-genomic-damage-in-vitro
#8
Eman Awad, Eman M Othman, Helga Stopper
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major current health problems due to lifestyle changes. Before diagnosis and in the early years of disease, insulin blood levels are elevated. However, insulin generates low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are integral to the regulation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, but excess levels of insulin may also lead to DNA oxidation and DNA damage. Three pharmaceutical compounds, resveratrol, lovastatin and the mTOR-inhibitor RAD-001, were investigated due to their known beneficial effects...
December 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224015/renal-resistive-index-as-a-novel-indicator-for-renal-complications-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#9
Hairong Xu, Zejun Ma, Shan Lu, Rui Li, Liangkun Lyu, Lexi Ding, Qiulun Lu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The renal resistive index (RI) is a novel candidate as a renal injury prognostic indicator, but it remains unclear how renal RI levels correspond to renal injury in diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: To examine this issue, we compared 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) versus chow diet (CHD) for 16 weeks. At 8 and 12 weeks, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and MCP-1) were measured, along with the increase in renal RI...
December 7, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207042/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-lovastatin-is-mediated-via-the-modulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-inhibition-of-hdac1-and-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-in-raw264-7-macrophages
#10
Hyung-Wook Choi, Pyung-Gyun Shin, Ji-Hyun Lee, Woo-Suk Choi, Min-Jae Kang, Won-Sik Kong, Min-Ji Oh, Yong-Bae Seo, Gun-Do Kim
Lovastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor that is clinically used for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Although it has been reported that lovastatin has anti-inflammatory properties in several studies, how lovastatin regulates the inflammation is still unclear. To evaluate the effect of lovastatin on nitric oxide production (NO) in RAW264.7 macrophages, NO production assay was performed. Also, cell viability was measured to confirm cytotoxicity. Level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) transcription was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from total RNA in RAW264...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204172/protective-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-and-l-carnitine-against-statin-induced-pancreatic-mitochondrial-toxicity-in-rats
#11
Melina Sadighara, Jalal Pourahamad Joktaji, Valiollah Hajhashemi, Mohsen Minaiyan
Statins are widely used in patients with hyperlipidemia and whom with high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, statins also exert some adverse effects on the liver and pancreas and enhance the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of the present research was to investigate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) and L-carnitine (LC) on statins induced toxicity on pancreatic mitochondria in vivo. Seven groups of male Wistar rats received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg, p.o.), atorvastatin + Co-Q10 (10 mg/kg, i...
December 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203960/monascus-purpureus-induced-apoptosis-on-gastric-cancer-cell-by-scavenging-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species
#12
Hiromi Kurokawa, Hiromu Ito, Hirofumi Matsui
Monascus purpureus is a red dye derived from yeast rice and has been used as color additives for food in East Asia. Monascus purpureus consists of several bioactive components. Some of these components work as a radical scavenger, thus monascus purpureus would also eliminate reactive oxygen species. Cancer cells maintain the high level of reactive oxygen species than normal cell and are death by imbalance in pro-oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether monascus purpureus induced cancer specific cell death by scavenging reactive oxygen species...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200741/enzyme-inhibitors-cause-multiple-effects-on-accumulation-of-monoterpene-indole-alkaloids-in-catharanthus-roseus-cambial-meristematic-cell-cultures
#13
Zhou Pengfei, Zhu Jianhua, Yu Rongmin, Zi Jiachen
Background: Enzyme inhibitors have been used for the clarification of biosynthesis of natural products. Catharanthus roseus cambial meristematic cell (CMC) culture has been established and proved to be a better monoterpeneindole alkaloid (MIA) producer than C. roseus dedifferentiated cell (DDC) culture. However, little is known about the inter-relationship of the MIA-biosynthetic genes with respect to their transcription. Objective: To clarify effects of alteration of one gene transcription on transcript levels of another genes in MIA-biosynthetic pathway, and how the accumulation of MIAs in CMCs are influenced by the alteration of their biosynthetic gene transcript levels...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180851/differences-of-statin-activity-in-2d-and-3d-pancreatic-cancer-cell-cultures
#14
Miglė Paškevičiūtė, Vilma Petrikaitė
Purpose: To evaluate the anticancer activity of lovastatin (LOVA), mevastatin (MEVA), pitavastatin (PITA), and simvastatin (SIMVA) in 2D and 3D models of three human pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2, and PANC-1). Methods: The effect of statins on cell viability was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test. The activity of statins in 3D pancreatic cancer cell cultures was examined by measuring the size change of spheroids...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155776/differential-effects-of-lipid-lowering-drugs-in-modulating-morphology-of-cholesterol-particles
#15
Shanmugavel Madasamy, David Liu, Jason Lundry, Benjamin Alderete, Raymond Kong, J Paul Robinson, Alan H B Wu, Edward P Amento
Treatment of dyslipidemia patients with lipid-lowering drugs leads to a significant reduction in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level and a low to moderate level of increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in plasma. However, a possible role of these drugs in altering morphology and distribution of cholesterol particles is poorly understood. Here, we describe the in vitro evaluation of lipid-lowering drug effects in modulating morphological features of cholesterol particles using the plaque array method in combination with imaging flow cytometry...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150805/aspergillus-terreus-treated-rice-straw-suppresses-methane-production-and-enhances-feed-digestibility-in-goats
#16
P Mohd Azlan, M F Jahromi, M O Ariff, M Ebrahimi, S C L Candyrine, J B Liang
The objectives of this study were to test the efficacy of producing lovastatin in rice straw treated with Aspergillus terreus in larger laboratory scale following the procedure previously reported and to investigate the effectiveness of the treated rice straw containing lovastatin on methane mitigation in goats. The concentration of lovastatin in the treated rice straw was 0.69 ± 0.05 g/kg dry matter (DM) rice straw. Our results showed that supplementation of lovastatin at 4.14 mg/kg BW reduced methane production by 32% while improving the DM digestibility by 13% (P < 0...
November 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132077/lovastatin-analogues-and-other-metabolites-from-soil-derived-aspergillus-terreus-yim-ph30711
#17
Qiang Wang, Ya-Bin Yang, Xue-Qiong Yang, Cui-Ping Miao, Yi-Qing Li, Shi-Xi Liu, Na Luo, Zhong-Tao Ding, Li-Xing Zhao
Eight previously undescribed metabolites including of lovastatin analogues, a pair of diastereoisomers, a cyclopentenone dimer, and three polyketides were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus terreus YIM PH30711. Two types of unprecedented skeletons, benzene-cyclopentanone complex and linear polyketide, and an unusual dimer structure were determined by spectral analysis. Compound, 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L showed moderate activity against HMG-CoA reductase, with an inhibition ratio of 34% at the concentration of 50 μM, while lovastatin and dihydromonacolin K ethyl ester presented much stronger activity against HMGR with inhibition rates of 85% and 90% at the concentration of 50 μM, respectively...
November 10, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107672/lovastatin-inhibits-visceral-allodynia-and-increased-colonic-permeability-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-or-repeated-water-avoidance-stress-in-rats
#18
Tsukasa Nozu, Saori Miyagishi, Shima Kumei, Rintaro Nozu, Kaoru Takakusaki, Toshikatsu Okumura
Statins have been reported to block inflammatory somatic pain and have an anti-cytokine property. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or repeated water avoidance stress (WAS) induces visceral hypersensitivity and increases gut permeability in rats, which are mediated through proinflammatory cytokine-dependent pathways. Since visceral hypersensitivity with increased gut permeability plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), these above animal models are considered to simulate IBS. We hypothesized that lovastatin improves symptoms in the patients with IBS by attenuating these visceral changes...
October 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097328/lovastatin-suppresses-hyperexcitability-and-seizure-in-angelman-syndrome-model
#19
Leeyup Chung, Alexandra L Bey, Aaron J Towers, Xinyu Cao, Il Hwan Kim, Yong-Hui Jiang
Epilepsy is prevalent and often medically intractable in Angelman syndrome (AS). AS mouse model (Ube3a(m-/p+)) shows reduced excitatory neurotransmission but lower seizure threshold. The neural mechanism linking the synaptic dysfunction to the seizure remains elusive. We show that the local circuits of Ube3a(m-/p+)in vitro are hyperexcitable and display a unique epileptiform activity, a phenomenon that is reminiscent of the finding in fragile X syndrome (FXS) mouse model. Similar to the FXS model, lovastatin suppressed the epileptiform activity and audiogenic seizures in Ube3a(m-/p+)...
October 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092018/the-function-of-hdl-and-ldl-in-the-maintenance-of-mouse-ovarian-steroid-balance
#20
Xin-Lian Chang, Lisheng Liu, Naiqiang Wang, Zi-Jiang Chen, Cong Zhang
The membrane proteins, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-BI, gene name Scarb1), are lipoprotein receptors that play central roles in lipoprotein metabolism. Cholesterol bound in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and LDL is transported into cells mainly by SR-BI and LDLR. The relative contribution of LDL and HDL to the steroidogenic cholesterol pool varies among species and may vary among tissues within one species. To investigate which of these pathways is more important in the supply of cholesterol in mouse ovary, we utilized immunohistochemistry, western blotting, RNAi and RT-PCR as well as Ldlr-/- mice to explore the uptake of HDL and LDL in the ovary...
October 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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