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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102516/production-of-lovastatin-and-itaconic-acid-by-aspergillus-terreus-a-comparative-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Tomasz Boruta, Marcin Bizukojc
Aspergillus terreus is a textbook example of an industrially relevant filamentous fungus. It is used for the biotechnological production of two valuable metabolites, namely itaconic acid and lovastatin. Itaconic acid serves as a precursor in polymer industry, whereas lovastatin found its place in the pharmaceutical market as a cholesterol-lowering statin drug and a precursor for semisynthetic statins. Interestingly, their biosynthetic gene clusters were shown to reside in the common genetic neighborhood. Despite the genomic proximity of the underlying biosynthetic genes, the production of lovastatin and itaconic acid was shown to be favored by different factors, especially with respect to pH values of the broth...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093797/adverse-reactions-to-dietary-supplements-containing-red-yeast-rice-assessment-of-cases-from-the-italian-surveillance-system
#2
Gabriela Mazzanti, Paola Angela Moro, Emanuel Raschi, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti-Ippolito
AIMS: Red yeast rice (RYR) is contained in dietary supplements for patients with dyslipidemia. RYR supplements contain monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, a licensed drug with a well-known risk profile. We aim to describe the safety profile of RYR by analysing spontaneous reports of suspected adverse reactions (ARs). METHODS: Within the Italian Surveillance System of Natural Health Products, suspected ARs were collected and evaluated by a multidisciplinary group of experts to assess causality using the WHO-UMC system or the CIOMS/RUCAM score, for hepatic reactions...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061433/lovastatin-upregulates-microrna-29b-to-reduce-oxidative-stress-in-rats-with-multiple-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#3
Fu Wang, Hui Ma, Wen-Jing Liang, Jing-Jing Yang, Xue-Qing Wang, Mei-Rong Shan, Yuan Chen, Min Jia, Ya-Ling Yin, Xue-Ying Sun, Jia-Ning Zhang, Qi-Sheng Peng, Yu-Guo Chen, Li-Ying Liu, Peng Li, Tao Guo, Shuang-Xi Wang
AIMS: Proteasome-linked oxidative stress is believed to cause endothelial dysfunction, an early event in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Statin, as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, prevents endothelial dysfunction in CVD. However, the molecular mechanism of statin-mediated normalization of endothelial function is not completely elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lovastatin time/dose-dependently increased miR-29b expression and decreased proteasome activity in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058034/retrospective-analysis-of-the-effects-of-a-highly-standardized-mixture-of-berberis-aristata-silybum-marianum-and-monacolins-k-and-ka-in-patients-with-dyslipidemia
#4
Francesco Di Pierro, Pietro Putignano, Tarcisio Ferrara, Carmela Raiola, Giuliana Rapacioli, Nicola Villanova
BACKGROUND: Berberis aristata, because of its berberine content, and Monascus purpureus fermented rice, because of the presence of monacolins (naturally derived statins), are widely investigated food-grade ingredients used to formulate cholesterol-lowering supplements. Although they are extensively used, berberine is poorly absorbed and monacolins are poorly chemically characterized, not standardized, and possibly contaminated with toxic compounds. Silymarin is reported to enhance berberine absorption, while Monakopure™-K20 (MK-20) is a highly standardized red yeast rice containing monacolins K and KA in the ratio of 1:1 but not secondary monacolins, dehydromonacolins, or citrinin...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054118/-red-yeast-rice-an-unsafe-food-supplement
#5
Christian Steffen
Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products...
January 4, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040693/influence-of-statins-and-cholesterol-on-mortality-among-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer
#6
Brian Z Huang, Jonathan I Chang, Erica Li, Anny H Xiang, Bechien U Wu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested associations between statins and enhanced survival among patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the relationship between statins, cholesterol, and survival remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 2142 PDAC patients in a regional integrated healthcare system from 2006 to 2014. Electronic pharmacy records were used to abstract information on the type, length, and dosage of statin exposures starting in the year prior to diagnosis...
May 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039362/defining-the-temporal-course-of-murine-neurofibromatosis-1-optic-gliomagenesis-reveals-a-therapeutic-window-to-attenuate-retinal-dysfunction
#7
Joseph A Toonen, Yu Ma, David H Gutmann
BACKGROUND: Optic gliomas arising in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome cause reduced visual acuity in 30%-50% of affected children. Since human specimens are rare, genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models have been successfully employed for preclinical therapeutic discovery and validation. However, the sequence of cellular and molecular events that culminate in retinal dysfunction and vision loss has not been fully defined relevant to potential neuroprotective treatment strategies...
December 29, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032938/environmental-cues-that-induce-the-physiology-of-solid-medium-a-study-on-lovastatin-production-by-aspergillus-terreus
#8
N Ávila, M R Tarragó-Castellanos, J Barrios-González
AIM: The aim of this work was to identify the main environmental factors that induce the special physiology displayed by fungi growing in solid culture,-that is, higher secondary metabolite production-compared with those in submerged culture. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lovastatin specific production was used as an indicator of the physiological status, and different model culture systems were used to evaluate the impact of potential solid-state fermentation (SSF) environmental stimuli...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012135/eicosapentaenoic-acid-enriched-phosphatidylcholine-attenuated-hepatic-steatosis-through-regulation-of-cholesterol-metabolism-in-rats-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Yanjun Liu, Di Shi, Yingying Tian, Yuntao Liu, Qiping Zhan, Jie Xu, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Disturbed cholesterol metabolism plays a crucial role in the development of NAFLD. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of EPA-PC extracted from sea cucumber on liver steatosis and cholesterol metabolism in NAFLD. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups (normal control group, model group, lovastatin group, low- and high-dose EPA groups, and low- and high-dose EPA-PC groups). Model rats were established by administering a diet containing 1% orotic acid...
December 24, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003840/lovastatin-prevents-bleomycin-induced-dna-damage-to-hepg2-cells
#10
Marjan Nasiri, Mahmoud Etebari, Abbas Jafarian-Dehkordi, Shahla Moradi
Lovastatin as a member of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors is used as a lipid-lowering agent. It can also inhibit the formation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion and finally leads to decline in oxidative stress processes. Here, we evaluated whether lovastatin can increase DNA damage resistance of HepG2 cells against genotoxicity of the anticancer drug bleomycin (BLM). HepG2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of lovastatin (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 µM) before exposure to BLM (0...
December 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967318/effect-of-polymorphisms-in-cyp3a4-ppara-nr1i2-nfkb1-abcg2-and-slco1b1-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-lovastatin-in-healthy-chinese-volunteers
#11
Guilian Zhao, Mei Liu, Xiujun Wu, Guofei Li, Feng Qiu, Jingkai Gu, Limei Zhao
AIM: This study examined whether gene polymorphisms (CYP3A4, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, NR1I2, PPARA and NFKB1) influenced the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in Chinese healthy subjects. PATIENTS & METHOD: Plasma concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin acid were quantified using LC/MS/MS. RESULTS: PPARA c.208+3819 G allele carriers had approximately twofold higher AUC0-∞ and Cmax of lovastatin than wild-type (PPARA c.208+3819 AA) subjects. After adjustment for the PPARA variants, subjects with the SLCO1B1 521TT genotype had approximately 50% lower AUC0-∞ of lovastatin acid than those with 521TC/CC genotypes, while the AUC0-∞ of lovastatin lactone in NFKB1-94 DD wild-type carriers was twofold higher than in mutant homozygotes carriers...
January 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956565/randomized-placebo-controlled-study-of-lovastatin-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#12
Jonathan M Payne, Belinda Barton, Nicole J Ullrich, Alan Cantor, Stephen J C Hearps, Gary Cutter, Tena Rosser, Karin S Walsh, Gerard A Gioia, Pamela L Wolters, James Tonsgard, Elizabeth Schorry, David Viskochil, Laura Klesse, Michael Fisher, David H Gutmann, Alcino J Silva, Scott J Hunter, Celiane Rey-Casserly, Nancy L Cantor, Anna W Byars, Peter L Stavinoha, Joseph D Ackerson, Carol L Armstrong, Jill Isenberg, Sharon H O'Neil, Roger J Packer, Bruce Korf, Maria T Acosta, Kathryn N North
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of lovastatin on visuospatial learning and attention for treating cognitive and behavioral deficits in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). METHODS: A multicenter, international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between July 2009 and May 2014 as part of the NF Clinical Trials Consortium. Children with NF1 aged 8-15 years were screened for visuospatial learning or attention deficits (n = 272); 146 children demonstrated deficits at baseline and were randomly assigned to lovastatin (n = 74; 40 mg/d) or placebo (n = 70)...
December 13, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955920/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-cultured-human-methanogens-to-lovastatin
#13
Vanessa Demonfort Nkamga, Nicholas Armstrong, Michel Drancourt
Lovastatin is a prodrug that is hydrolysed in vivo to β-hydroxy acid lovastatin, which inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-Co-A) reductase (HMGR), thereby lowering cholesterol in humans. A side effect of lovastatin is inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis and cell membrane formation in methanogenic Archaea, which are members of the human digestive tract microbiota and are emerging pathogens. In this study, the in vitro susceptibility of the human-associated methanogens Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Methanobrevibacter massiliense, Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus and Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis to lovastatin (1-4 µg/mL) was tested in the presence of five gut anaerobes aiming to metabolise lovastatin into β-hydroxy acid lovastatin as confirmed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924788/effect-of-statins-type-on-incident-prostate-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#14
Ping Tan, Chen Zhang, Shi-You Wei, Zhuang Tang, Liang Gao, Lu Yang, Qiang Wei
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of statins type or even when grouping statins by hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature on prostate cancer risk. A literature search was performed without language restrictions using the databases of PubMed (1984.1-2015.3), MEDLINE (1984.1-2015.3), and EMBASE (1990.1-2015.3). Two independent reviewers appraised eligible studies and extracted data. Weighted averages were reported as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Statistic heterogeneity scores were assessed with the standard Cochran's Q-test and I2 statistic...
December 2, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924530/aspergillus-species-and-their-associated-mycotoxins
#15
Giancarlo Perrone, Antonia Gallo
The genus Aspergillus is among the most abundant and widely distributed organism on earth, and at the moment comprises 339 known species. It is one of the most important economically fungal genus and the biotechnological use of Aspergillus species is related to production of soy sauce, of different hydrolytic enzymes (amylases, lipases) and organic acid (citric acid, gluconic acid), as well as biologically active metabolites such as lovastatin. Although they are not considered to be major cause of plant diseases, Aspergillus species are responsible for several disorders in various plants and plant products, especially as opportunistic storage moulds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919957/simultaneous-administration-of-statins-and-pioglitazone-limits-tumor-growth-in-a-rat-model-of-malignant-glioma
#16
Jorge Humberto Tapia-Pérez, Robert Preininger, Elmar Kirches, Annegret Reinhold, Jana Butzmann, Sylvia Prilloff, Christian Mawrin, Thomas Schneider
BACKGROUND/AIM: Statins are cholesterol reducers with considerable dose-dependent effect against glioma cells. The apoptotic effect could be increased by combining statins or by adding pioglitazone (PGZ). The last one is an anti-diabetic drug, an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG). We used an animal model to test the effect of such combination in vivo and we investigated the changes on immunological processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three rats (F344/DuCrl) were anesthetized and glioblastoma (F98) cells were implanted stereotactically...
2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915128/cholesterol-reducing-agents-inhibit-assembly-of-type-i-parainfluenza-viruses
#17
Shringkhala Bajimaya, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Tünde Frankl, Peter Bryk, Brian Ward, Toru Takimoto
Many enveloped RNA viruses utilize lipid rafts for the assembly of progeny virions, but the role of cholesterol, a major component of rafts, on paramyxovirus budding and virion formation is controversial. In this study, we analyzed the effects of FDA-approved cholesterol-reducing agents, gemfibrozil and lovastatin, on raft formation and assembly of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) and Sendai virus (SeV). Treatment of the human airway epithelial A549 cells with the agents, especially when combined, significantly decreased production of infectious hPIV1 and SeV...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904408/quality-of-bread-supplemented-with-antrodia%C3%A2-salmonea-fermented-grains
#18
Rao-Chi Chien, Enkhjargal Ulziijargal, Jeng-Leun Mau
Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7% of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892851/lovastatin-fails-to-improve-motor-performance-and-survival-in-methyl-cpg-binding-protein2-null-mice
#19
Claudia Villani, Giuseppina Sacchetti, Renzo Bagnati, Alice Passoni, Federica Fusco, Mirjana Carli, Roberto William Invernizzi
Previous studies provided evidence for the alteration of brain cholesterol homeostasis in 129.Mecp2-null mice, an experimental model of Rett syndrome. The efficacy of statins in improving motor symptoms and prolonging survival of mutant mice suggested a potential role of statins in the therapy of Rett syndrome. In the present study, we show that Mecp2 deletion had no effect on brain and reduced serum cholesterol levels and lovastatin (1.5 mg/kg, twice weekly as in the previous study) had no effects on motor deficits and survival when Mecp2 deletion was expressed on a background strain (C57BL/6J; B6) differing from that used in the earlier study...
November 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888640/chronotherapy-versus-conventional-statins-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hyperlipidaemia
#20
REVIEW
Jose Manuel Izquierdo-Palomares, Jesus Maria Fernandez-Tabera, Maria N Plana, Almudena Añino Alba, Pablo Gómez Álvarez, Inmaculada Fernandez-Esteban, Luis Carlos Saiz, Pilar Martin-Carrillo, Óscar Pinar López
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein play an important role in the development of atheromas and, therefore, in cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol biosynthesis follows a circadian rhythm and is principally produced at night (between 12:00 am and 6:00 am). The adjustment of hypolipaemic therapy to biologic rhythms is known as chronotherapy. Chronotherapy is based on the idea that medication can have different effects depending on the hour at which it is taken...
26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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