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Richard Pentz, Christoph Kaun, Barbara Thaler, Stefan Stojkovic, Max Lenz, Konstantin A Krychtiuk, Andreas Zuckermann, Kurt Huber, Johann Wojta, Philipp J Hohensinner, Svitlana Demyanets
Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 family and is able to act cardioprotective. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of IL-33 by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) and bisphosphonates (BPs) in human cardiac tissue. The lipophilic fluvastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and lovastatin as well as the nitrogenous BPs alendronate and ibandronate, but not hydrophilic pravastatin increased IL-33 mRNA and intracellular IL-33 protein levels in both human adult cardiac myocytes (HACM) and fibroblasts (HACF)...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Huajing Teng, Fengbiao Mao, Jialong Liang, Meiying Xue, Wenqing Wei, Xianfeng Li, Kun Zhang, Dongdong Feng, Baoguo Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the fastest-growing disease caused by numerous molecular alterations in addition to previously reported DNA mutations. There is a compelling need to identify novel transcriptomic alterations that are associated with the pathogenesis of PTC with potential diagnostic and prognostic implications. Methods: We gathered and compared 242 expression profiles between paired PTC and adjacent normal tissues and identified and validated the coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with the extrathyroidal extension (ETE) of 655 PTC patients in two independent cohorts, followed by predicting their interactions with drugs...
2018: Theranostics
Carly M Bond, Yi Tang
Simvastatin is a semisynthetic cholesterol-lowering medication and one of the top-selling statins in the world. Currently, industrial production of simvastatin acid (SVA) is a multistep process starting from the natural product lovastatin. For this reason, there is significant interest in direct production of simvastatin from a microbial host. In this study, six heterologous biosynthetic genes were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the acyl-donor dimethylbutyryl-S-methyl mercaptopropionate (DMB-SMMP) was added, resulting in initial production of 0...
September 10, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Soheila Koohestanimobarhan, Siamak Salami, Vahideh Imeni, Zeinab Mohammadi, Omid Bayat
Resistance to therapies, recurrence, and metastasis remain challenging issues for breast cancer patients, particularly for triple-negative and breast cancer stem cells. The activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an indispensable role in the poor prognosis of those types. The accumulating proofs indicated that the mevalonate pathway crucially mediates a poor prognosis. Here, the effects of lipophilic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A inhibitors, atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin, were investigated on expression and function of a selected profile of EMT-related genes in breast cancer stem-like cells...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Hsien-Tsung Chiu, Li-Jiuan Shen, Yee-Chun Chen, Jung-Hsin Lin, Chi-Chuan Wang
OBJECTIVES: The immunomodulatory effects of statins may reduce the immune response induced by influenza vaccines. However, evidence regarding the effect of statin use on the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines against medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) in the elderly remains scarce. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Elderly adults aged ≧ 66 years who were vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccines during the 2007-2008 to 2012-2013 influenza seasons were enrolled for this analysis...
October 1, 2018: Vaccine
Li Yu, Hua Liu
BACKGROUNDS: Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is essential for cardiovascular homeostasis owing to its anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. Perillaldehyde (PAH), one of the major oil components in Perilla frutescens, has anti-inflammatory effects. AIM: This study was designed to explore whether PAH prevents atherosclerosis through normalizing eNOS functions. METHODS: The model of atherosclerosis was induced by feeding rats and mice with high-fat diet or plus balloon injury...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
K Eljaaly, S Alshehri, S Bhattacharjee, J A Al-Tawfiq, A E Patanwala
OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobial agents are commonly used in ambulatory care settings. Our objective was to examine national-level patterns of contraindications between oral antibacterial or antifungal agents and patients' other oral medications in the US ambulatory care setting. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included multiple year pooled data (2003-2011) from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS Outpatient Department)...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Janani Balraj, Karunyadevi Jairaman, Vidhya Kalieswaran, Angayarkanni Jayaraman
Beside anti-cholesterol activity, lovastatin garners worldwide attention for therapeutical application against various diseases especially cancer. A total of 36 filamentous fungi from soil samples were isolated and screened for lovastatin production by yeast growth bioassay method. C9 strain (later identified as Cunninghamella blakesleeana) was screened as potential strain of lovastatin production. Further confirmation of the compound was made using TLC, HPTLC and HPLC in which similar Rf value, densitogram peak and chromatogram peak against the standard lovastatin were observed, respectively...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Yuan Wang, Yi Jin, Xinming Yun, Meijing Wang, Yue Dai, Yufeng Xia
AIMS: Sinomenine, an anti-rheumatoid arthritis drug used in China for decades, is usually co-administered with cardiovascular (CV) drugs to reduce arthritis-related risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study was to investigate whether and how CV drugs affect the pharmacokinetic profile of sinomenine. MAIN METHODS: In rat liver microsomes (RLMs), the key metabolic enzymes of sinomenine were identified by using specific inhibitors. The influences of CV drugs, including propranolol, verapamil, warfarin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin, on the metabolism of sinomenine were examined...
September 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Nisi Zhang, Xiaolong Liang, Chuang Gao, Min Chen, Yiming Zhou, Christopher J Krueger, Gang Bao, Zhuoran Gong, Zhifei Dai
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a malignant and refractory disease with high morbidity and mortality. The TNBC shows no response to hormonal therapy nor targeted therapy due to the lack of known targetable biomarkers. Furthermore, the TNBC also exhibits a high degree of heterogeneity that leads to cancer evolution, drug resistance, metastatic progression, and recurrence, arising from the tumor-initiating properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Thus, the development of radical therapeutic regimens with high efficacy and limited side effects is crucial...
September 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kendra Morotti, Julio Lopez, Vanessa Vaupel, Arthur Swislocki, David Siegel
BACKGROUND: A relative cardiovascular risk reduction of 25% to 35% has been reported in patients starting a statin for elevated cholesterol; yet many patients fail to consistently take these medications as directed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors affecting adherence and persistence with statin therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed data from a Veterans Affairs database of facilities west of the Rocky Mountains. Patient demographics, co-morbidities, and prescription information was collected for individuals newly prescribed a statin between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012...
August 7, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Shagufta Kamal, Naheed Akhter, Samreen Gul Khan, Shumaila Kiran, Tahir Farooq, Muhammad Akram, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir, Muhammad Akhlaq, Fahad Said, Jawad Zaheer
Lovastatin is a natural competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase and inhibits specifically rate limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. Further, lovastatin in comparison with synthetic drugs has no well-reported side effects. Four pure isolated filamentous fungal strains including Aspergillus niger IBL, Aspergillus terreus FFCBP-1053, Aspergillus flavus PML and Aspergillus nidulans FFCBP-014 have been cultured by solid state fermentation (SSF) using rice straw as substrate for the synthesis of lovastatin...
July 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mishal Subhan, Rani Faryal, Ian Macreadie
OBJECTIVES: Reduced efficacy of statins has been observed in people but the mechanism of this resistance is unclear and no statin-resistance mutations in the catalytic domain of HMGCR have been reported. The present study focused on looking for statin-resistance mutations and examining the mechanism of statin resistance using Candida glabrata as a model organism. RESULTS: C. glabrata was cultured in media containing lovastatin, simvastatin or atorvastatin to obtain lovastatin-, simvastatin- and atorvastatin-resistant mutants...
July 27, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Alireza Abdanipour, Fatemeh Deheshjo, Davood Sohrabi, Iraj Jafari Anarkooli, Reza Nejatbakhsh
OBJECTIVE: Statins as inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase have been recently recognized as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drugs. In this paper, we studied anti-apoptotic and regulatory effects of lovastatin using Pilocarpine rat model through downregulation of Mst1 (Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1) as a novel pro-apoptotic gene. METHODS: The rats were divided into four groups: non-treated epileptic rats, lovastatin treated, and two vehicle groups. Racine scale was used for behavioral assessment and animals with a score of 4-5 were selected for the study...
July 26, 2018: Neurological Research
Somanon Bhattacharya, Brooke D Esquivel, Theodore C White
Ergosterol (ERG) is a critical sterol in the cell membranes of fungi, and its biosynthesis is tightly regulated by 25 known enzymes along the ERG production pathway. The effects of changes in expression of each ERG biosynthesis enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed by the use of gene deletion or plasmid-borne overexpression constructs. The strains overexpressing the ERG pathway genes were examined for changes in doubling time and responses to a variety of stress agents. In addition, ERG gene overexpression strains and ERG gene deletion strains were tested for alterations in antifungal drug susceptibility...
July 24, 2018: MBio
Su Chui Len Candyrine, Mazrul Fahmi Mahadzir, Sani Garba, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Yong Meng Goh, Anjas Asmara Samsudin, Awis Qurni Sazili, Wei Li Chen, Siva Ganesh, Ron Ronimus, Stefan Muetzel, Juan Boo Liang
Twenty male Saanen goats were randomly assigned to four levels of lovastatin supplementation and used to determine the optimal dosage and sustainability of naturally produced lovastatin from fermentation of palm kernel cake (PKC) with Aspergillus terreus on enteric methane (CH4) mitigation. The effects on ruminal microbiota, rumen fermentation, feed digestibility and health of animal were determined over three measuring periods (4-, 8- and 12-weeks) and the accumulation of lovastatin in tissues was determined at the end of the experiment...
2018: PloS One
Claudia Villani, Giuseppina Sacchetti, Renzo Bagnati, Alice Passoni, Federica Fusco, Mirjana Carli, Roberto William Invernizzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2018: ELife
Chintan V Dave, Almut G Winterstein, Haesuk Park, Robert L Cook, Abraham G Hartzema
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of new-onset depression in a cohort of US adult patients initiating lipophilic statin therapy compared to hydrophilic statin therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large US commercial claims database PARTICIPANTS: 1:1 propensity score matched cohort of lipophilic (atorvastatin, lovastatin and simvastatin) and hydrophilic (pravastatin and rosuvastatin) statin initiators between January 2009 to June 2015...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Wen-Bin Zhong, Yuan-Chin Tsai, Li-Han Chin, Jen-Ho Tseng, Li-Wen Tang, Steve Horng, Yu-Ching Fan, Sung-Po Hsu
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a malignant subtype of thyroid cancers and its mechanism of development remains inconclusive. Importantly, there is no effective strategy for treatment since ATC is not responsive to conventional therapies, including radioactive iodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression. Here, we report that a combinational approach consisting of drugs designed for targeting lipid metabolism, lovastatin (an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, HMGCR) and troglitazone (an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ), exhibits anti-proliferation in cell culture systems and leads to tumor regression in a mouse xenograft model...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Suthipong Chujan, Tawit Suriyo, Teerapat Ungtrakul, Yotsawat Pomyen, Jutamaad Satayavivad
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains to be a major health problem in several Asian countries including Thailand. The molecular mechanism of CCA is poorly understood. Early diagnosis is difficult, and at present, no effective therapeutic drug is available. The present study aimed to identify the molecular mechanism of CCA by gene expression profile analysis and to search for current approved drugs which may interact with the upregulated genes in CCA. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) was used to analyze the gene expression profiles of CCA patients and normal subjects...
July 2018: Biomedical Reports
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