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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232328/novel-cyp2a6-diplotypes-identified-through-next-generation-sequencing-are-associated-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-nicotine-metabolism
#1
Julie-Anne Tanner, Andy Z Zhu, Katrina G Claw, Bhagwat Prasad, Viktoriya Korchina, Jianhong Hu, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Donna M Muzny, Erin G Schuetz, Caryn Lerman, Kenneth E Thummel, Steven E Scherer, Rachel F Tyndale
OBJECTIVES: Smoking patterns and cessation rates vary widely across smokers and can be influenced by variation in rates of nicotine metabolism [i.e. cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6), enzyme activity]. There is high heritability of CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism (60-80%) owing to known and unidentified genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene. We aimed to identify and characterize additional genetic variants at the CYP2A6 gene locus. METHODS: A new CYP2A6-specific sequencing method was used to investigate genetic variation in CYP2A6...
January 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224861/a-survey-of-selected-animal-based-measures-of-dairy-cattle-welfare-in-the-eastern-alps-toward-context-based-thresholds
#2
A Zuliani, M Mair, M Kraševec, I Lora, M Brscic, G Cozzi, C Leeb, M Zupan, C Winckler, S Bovolenta
In the Alps, traditional dairy farms are small-scale operations where vertical transhumance from valley indoor housing systems to highland pasture-based systems is still practiced in summer. Vertical transhumance implies a substantial change of environment, available resources, and management practices from one season to another. In such systems, animal-based welfare measures need to be monitored throughout the year to capture the variation of welfare outcomes, based on which targeted welfare management plans can be implemented...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218002/xenopus-laevis-as-a-model-organism-for-the-study-of-spinal-cord-formation-development-function-and-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Laura N Borodinsky
The spinal cord is the first central nervous system structure to develop during vertebrate embryogenesis, underscoring its importance to the organism. Because of its early formation, accessibility to the developing spinal cord in amniotes is challenging, often invasive and the experimental approaches amenable to model systems like mammals are limited. In contrast, amphibians, in general and the African-clawed frog Xenopus laevis, in particular, offer model systems in which the formation of the spinal cord, the differentiation of spinal neurons and glia and the establishment of spinal neuron and neuromuscular synapses can be easily investigated with minimal perturbations to the whole organism...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208843/severe-pigment-dispersion-after-iris-claw-phakic-intraocular-lens-implantation
#4
Virgilio Galvis, Néstor I Carreño, Alejandro Tello, Andrea N Laiton
A 23-year-old female patient presented 3 months after the implantation of an Artisan® phakic intraocular lens with a severe depigmentation of the iris and peripheral anterior synechiae. Explantation of the intraocular lens and goniosynechialysis were performed. Eleven months after the explantation appearance of the iris significantly improved. There was no loss of lines of corrected distance visual acuity. Severe pigment dispersion after the implantation of an Artisan® phakic intraocular lens may happen and may require explantation of the lens...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208842/implantation-of-a-double-iris-claw-intraocular-lens-in-an-aphakic-nanophthalmic-eye
#5
Filiz Avsin Ozdemir Sarioglu, Yelda Yildiz Tasci, Bengi Ece Kurtul, Sefer Ogün Boluk
A 55-year-old female with an aphakic nanophthalmic eye underwent a secondary intraocular lens implantation (IOL) with double Artisan aphakia iris claw IOLs (ICIOLs) and was evaluated in this research. The patient's preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the right eye was 0.4 (0.4 logMAR) (with + 21.00 D), postoperative 1st and 3rd month, 1st year, and 3 years BCVAs were 0.4 (0.4 logMAR). The intraocular pressure was 15 mmHg preoperatively, and 14, 12, 12, and 15 mmHg postoperatively at 1st and 3rd month, 1st year, and 3 years, respectively...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195442/sound-production-patterns-of-big-clawed-snapping-shrimp-alpheus-spp-are-influenced-by-time-of-day-and-social-context
#6
Ashlee Lillis, Jessica N Perelman, Apryle Panyi, T Aran Mooney
Snapping shrimp are perhaps the most pervasive sources of biological sound in the ocean. The snapping sounds of cryptic shrimp colonies in shallow coastal habitats worldwide create a near-continuous crackling with high spatiotemporal variability, yet the underlying acoustic ecology is not well understood. This study investigated sound production rates and acoustic behavior of snapping shrimp species common in the Western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico (Alpheus heterochaelis and Alpheus angulosus). Snap rates were measured in a controlled laboratory setting under natural light, temperature, and substrate conditions for shrimp held individually, in pairs, and in a ten-shrimp mesocosm, to test hypotheses that acoustic activity varies with time-of-day and social context...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180599/too-hard-to-swallow-a-secret-secondary-defence-of-an-aposematic-insect
#7
Lu-Yi Wang, Wen-San Huang, Hsin-Chieh Tang, Lung-Chun Huang, Chung-Ping Lin
Anti-predator strategies are significant components of adaptation in prey species. Aposematic prey are expected to possess effective defences that have evolved simultaneously with their warning colours. This study tested the hypothesis of the defensive function and ecological significance of the hard body in aposematic Pachyrhynchus weevils pioneered by Alfred Russel Wallace nearly 150 years ago. We used predation trials with Japalura tree lizards to assess the survivorship of 'hard' (mature) vs. 'soft' (teneral) and 'clawed' (intact) vs...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177032/stable-isotopes-can-be-used-to-infer-the-overwintering-locations-of-prebreeding-marine-birds-in-the-canadian-arctic
#8
Rolanda J Steenweg, Glenn T Crossin, T Kurt Kyser, Flemming R Merkel, H Grant Gilchrist, Holly L Hennin, Gregory J Robertson, Jennifer F Provencher, Joanna Mills Flemming, Oliver P Love
Although assessments of winter carryover effects on fitness-related breeding parameters are vital for determining the links between environmental variation and fitness, direct methods of determining overwintering distributions (e.g., electronic tracking) can be expensive, limiting the number of individuals studied. Alternatively, stable isotope analysis in specific tissues can be used as an indirect means of determining individual overwintering areas of residency. Although increasingly used to infer the overwintering distributions of terrestrial birds, stable isotopes have been used less often to infer overwintering areas of marine birds...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174159/fluctuations-in-milk-yield-are-heritable-and-can-be-used-as-a-resilience-indicator-to-breed-healthy-cows
#9
G G Elgersma, G de Jong, R van der Linde, H A Mulder
Automatic milking systems record an enormous amount of data on milk yield and the cow itself. These type of big data are expected to contain indicators for health and resilience of cows. In this study, the aim was to define and estimate heritabilities for traits related with fluctuations in daily milk yield and to estimate genetic correlations with existing functional traits, such as udder health, fertility, claw health, ketosis, and longevity. We used daily milk yield records from automatic milking systems of 67,025 lactations in the first parity from 498 herds in the Netherlands...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167752/a-prospective-study-of-distal-metatarsal-chevron-osteotomies-with-k-wire-fixations-to-treat-hallux-valgus-deformities
#10
M N Baig, Usman Baig, Ali Tariq, Robert Din
Introduction Hallux valgus is one of the most common forefoot deformities worldwide. Females are affected more often than males. The three most common clinical symptoms are the painful bunion, transfer metatarsalgia, and hammer or claw toes. Methods This case series consisted of 20 patients who had chevron osteotomy from January 2015 to January 2016. The clinical assessment was measured by The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS), and radiologic assessment was determined by preoperative and postoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA)...
September 20, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148084/size-shape-and-sex-dependent-variation-in-force-production-by-crayfish-chelae
#11
Brian M Malavé, Joseph M Styga, Ethan D Clotfelter
The ability to generate large closing forces is important for many animals. Several studies have demonstrated that bite or pinching force capacity is usually related to the linear dimensions of the closing apparatus. However, relatively few studies have applied geometric morphometrics to examine the effects of size-independent shape on force production, particularly in studies of crustacean pinching force. In this study, we utilized traditional and geometric morphometric techniques to compare the pinching force of Procambarus clarkii crayfish to their chela morphology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142093/developmental-changes-in-spinal-neuronal-properties-motor-network-configuration-and-neuromodulation-at-free-swimming-stages-of-xenopus-frog-tadpoles
#12
Stephen Paul Currie, Keith Thomas Sillar
We describe a novel preparation of the isolated brainstem and spinal cord from pro-metamorphic tadpole stages of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) that permits whole cell patch-clamp recordings from neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Previous research on earlier stages of the same species has provided one of the most detailed understandings of the design and operation of a CPG circuit. Here we have addressed how development sculpts complexity from this more basic circuit. The preparation generates bouts of fictive swimming activity either spontaneously or in response to electrical stimulation of the optic tectum, allowing an investigation into how the neuronal properties, activity patterns and neuromodulation of locomotor rhythm generation change during development...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141033/transcriptome-profiling-of-claw-muscle-of-the-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-at-different-fattening-stages
#13
Qingling Jiang, Chenchang Bao, Ya'nan Yang, An Liu, Fang Liu, Huiyang Huang, Haihui Ye
In crustaceans, muscle growth and development is complicated, and to date substantial knowledge gaps exist. In this study, the claw muscle, hepatopancreas and nervous tissue of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) were collected at three fattening stages for sequence by the Illumina sequencing. A total of 127.87 Gb clean data with no less than 3.94 Gb generated for each sample and the cycleQ30 percentages were more than 86.13% for all samples. De Bruijn assembly of these clean data produced 94,853 unigenes, thereinto, 50,059 unigenes were found in claw muscle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134157/overland-movement-in-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis-empirical-dispersal-data-from-within-their-native-range
#14
F André De Villiers, John Measey
Dispersal forms are an important component of the ecology of many animals, and reach particular importance for predicting ranges of invasive species. African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) move overland between water bodies, but all empirical studies are from invasive populations with none from their native southern Africa. Here we report on incidents of overland movement found through a capture-recapture study carried out over a three year period in Overstrand, South Africa. The maximum distance moved was 2...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133993/lithobius-chinobius-yuchernovi-a-new-lithobiid-species-from-northeastern-siberia-and-the-kamchatka-peninsula-russia-chilopoda-lithobiomorpha
#15
Gyulli Sh Farzalieva, Pavel S Nefediev, Ivan H Tuf
Lithobius yuchernovisp. n. is described, based on type material from the Ola Plateau, Magadan Region, Russia. The new species is widely distributed in northeastern Siberia, ranging from the Magadan Region, until the eastern Chukot Autonomous Region and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the southeast, whence non-type material is documented. This species belongs to the subgenus Chinobius Matic, 1973 based on the structure of the female gonopodal claw (more than two denticles on the internal ridge). It differs from all Palearctic species of the genus Lithobius by the following apomorphy: distoventral tubercle supporting a cluster of long and curved setae situated on the last male tibia...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124637/large-scale-geographic-patterns-of-mercury-contamination-in-morocco-revealed-by-freshwater-turtles
#16
Tahar Slimani, Mohamed Said El Hassani, El Hassan El Mouden, Marine Bonnet, Paco Bustamante, François Brischoux, Maud Brault-Favrou, Xavier Bonnet
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic contaminant present in most aquatic ecosystems. High concentrations pose serious threats to organisms and to human health. Because previous studies focused on few countries, environmental hazard due to Hg contamination remains obscure in many geographic areas, and for example limited information is available in North Africa. We examined total Hg contamination in 13 sites in Morocco (12 rivers and one lake) spread over a large area, 400 km north-south and 350 km west-east, that encompasses different biogeographic zones separated by the Atlas Mountains...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122615/ultrastructural-and-molecular-characterization-of-vairimorpha-austropotamobii-sp-nov-microsporidia-burenellidae-and-thelohania-contejeani-microsporidia-thelohaniidae-two-parasites-of-the-white-clawed-crayfish-austropotamobius-pallipes-complex-decapoda-astacidae
#17
Tobia Pretto, Francesco Montesi, Daniela Ghia, Valeria Berton, Miriam Abbadi, Michele Gastaldelli, Amedeo Manfrin, Gianluca Fea
The microsporidiosis of the endangered white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex has generally been attributed to only one species, Thelohania contejeani, the agent of porcelain disease. Species identification was mostly assessed by macroscopic examination or microscopic evaluation of muscle samples rather than by molecular or ultrastructural analyses. A survey conducted on A. pallipes complex populations in Northern Italy highlighted the presence of two different microsporidia causing similar muscular lesions, T...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118590/contribution-to-the-knowledge-of-neanurinae-of-vietnam-with-description-of-three-new-species-collembola-neanuridae
#18
Adrian Smolis
Detailed and illustrated descriptions of three new species belonging to the tribe Lobellini from Vietnam are given. Lobellina weineraesp. n. is the most similar to L. minuta (Lee, 1980) and L. musangensis Yosii, 1976, but differs from them in chaetotaxic details and the number of mandibular teeth. Lobellina pomorskiisp. n. differs from L. perfusionides (Stach, 1965) in chaetotaxic details and the number of tubercles on Abd.V. Yuukianura deharvengisp. n. is superficially similar to Y. halophila Yosii, 1955, but it differs in the build of the maxilla, the size of eyes and an inner tooth on the claw, and in chaetotaxic details...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115948/evaluation-of-intravenous-regional-anaesthesia-and-four-point-nerve-block-efficacy-in-the-distal-hind-limb-of-dairy-cows
#19
S Yavari, N Khraim, G Szura, A Starke, E Engelke, C Pfarrer, K Hopster, M Schmicke, W Kehler, M Heppelmann, S B R Kästner, J Rehage
BACKGROUND: Intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) and hindfoot four-point nerve block anaesthesia (NBA) are recommended for local anaesthesia (LA) in the distal limb of dairy cows. Two studies were conducted to compare the efficacy, time until onset and stress responses to IVRA and NBA in dairy cows. In the first cross-over designed study, eight healthy unsedated German Holstein cows, restrained in lateral recumbency (LR) on a surgical tipping table, were treated with IVRA and NBA using procaine 2% as a local anaesthetic...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114294/evisceration-of-brain-an-unusual-case-report-of-bear-mauling-from-eastern-india
#20
Bikash Ranjan Behera, Sanjib Mishra, Deepak Das, Rajesh Gantayat
Even if human beings are the most intelligent among all living beings, they are still not immune to attack from wild animals. Human contact with bears has become more frequent as their habitat is being endangered by frequent deforestation. The sloth bear is one of the few bear species found in India, especially in the hilly areas of Southern Odisha. Bears are highly intelligent and omnivorous animals with long claws coupled with powerful shoulder. Here, we describe the tale of a poor tribal male's encounter with a sloth bear resulting in critical injuries to face, scalp, skull bone, with brain matter fungating-out of the skull...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
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