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Alain Manceau, Paco Bustamante, Ahmed Haouz, Jean-Paul Bourdineaud, Maria Gonzalez-Rey, Cyprien Lemouchi, Isabelle Gautier-Luneau, Valérie Geertsen, Elodie Barruet, Mauro Rovezzi, Pieter Glatzel, Serge Pin
Of all divalent metals, mercury (Hg(II)) has the highest affinity for metallothioneins. Hg(II) is considered to be enclosed in the α and β domains as tetrahedral α-type Hg4Cys11-12 and β-type Hg3Cys9 clusters similarly to Cd(II) and Zn(II). However, neither the four-fold coordination of Hg nor the existence of Hg-Hg atomic pairs have ever been demonstrated, and the Hg(II) partitioning among the two protein domains is unknown. Using high energy-resolution XANES spectroscopy, MP2 geometry optimization, and biochemical analysis, we provide evidence for the coexistence of two-coordinate Hg-thiolate complex and four-coordinate Hg-thiolate cluster with a metacinnabar-type (β-HgS) structure in the α domain of separate metallothionein molecules from blue mussel under in vivo exposure...
November 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chiaki Kambayashi, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Takafumi Nakano
Torix is a leech genus containing freshwater proboscidate species, and several members of this taxon are ectoparasites specific to amphibians. Torix tukubana inhabits mountain streams in Japan, and only two frog species are known to be hosts. We collected this leech from two other amphibians, Onychodactylus japonicus (Japanese clawed salamander) and Rana ornativentris (montane brown frog), for the first time. This finding suggests that the host specificity of T. tukubana is low. The immature individuals of T...
November 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ayako Yamaguchi, Diana J Woller, Paulo Rodrigues
The central vocal pathway of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis , is a powerful vertebrate model to understand mechanisms underlying central pattern generation. However, fast and efficient methods of introducing exogenous genes into the neurons of adult X. laevis are currently not available. Here, we systematically tested methods of transgene delivery into adult X. laevis neurons. Although successfully used for tadpole neurons for over a decade, electroporation was not efficient in transfecting adult neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Neethu Sreenivasan, Diego Felipe Ulloa Gutierrez, Paolo Bifulco, Mario Cesarelli, Upul Gunawardana, Gaetano D Gargiulo
In developing countries, due to the high cost involved, amputees have limited access to prosthetic limbs. This constitutes a barrier for this people to live a normal life. To break this barrier, we are developing ultra-low-cost closed-loop myoactivated prostheses that are easy to maintain manufacture and that do not require electrodes in contact with the skin to work effectively. In this paper, we present the implementation for a simple but functional hand prosthesis. Our simple design consists of a low-cost embedded microcontroller (Arduino), a wearable stretch sensor (adapted from electroresistive bands normally used for "insulation of gaskets" against EM fields), to detect residual muscle contraction as direct muscle volumetric shifts and a handful of common, not critical electronic components...
2018: BioMed Research International
Thomas M Doherty-Bone, Alison M Dunn, Joel Brittain, Lee Eric Brown
Biological invasions have the potential to alter ecosystem processes profoundly, but invaders are rarely found alone. Interactions between different invasive alien species, and their cumulative impact on ecosystem functioning, have led to hypotheses of invasion meltdown whereby effects become additive leading to further ecosystem stress. Invasive riparian plants (e.g., Rhododendron ponticum ) deposit leaf litter in freshwaters, which may be unconsumed by indigenous species, potentially affecting habitat heterogeneity and flow of energy to the food web...
October 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Corey J Thorp, Mhairi E Alexander, James R Vonesh, John Measey
Predators can play an important role in regulating prey abundance and diversity, determining food web structure and function, and contributing to important ecosystem services, including the regulation of agricultural pests and disease vectors. Thus, the ability to predict predator impact on prey is an important goal in ecology. Often, predators of the same species are assumed to be functionally equivalent, despite considerable individual variation in predator traits known to be important for shaping predator-prey interactions, like body size...
2018: PeerJ
Yan-Yao Li, Xiao-Lu Xie, Xing-Yuan Ma, Hai-Peng Liu
Caspase, an aspartate specific proteinase mediating apoptosis, plays a key role in immune response. In our previous study, the expression of a caspase gene was up-regulated in a transcriptome library from the haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells of red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus post white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. To further reveal the effect of caspase on WSSV infection, we cloned this caspase gene (denominated as CqCaspase) with an open reading frame of 1062 bp, which encoded 353 amino acids with a caspase domain (CASc) containing a p20 subunit and a p10 subunit...
February 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Hong Li, Zhenzhen Gu, Liyu Yang, Yadong Tian, Xiangtao Kang, Xiaojun Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accumulating evidences have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) play important roles in hepatic lipid metabolism in mammals. However, no systematic screening of the potential lncRNAs in the livers of laying hens has been performed, and few studies have been reported concerning the effects of the lncRNAs on lipid metabolism in the livers of chickens during egg-laying period. The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in lncRNA expression in the livers of pre-laying and peak-laying hens at the age of 20 and 30 weeks old by transcriptome sequencing and to investigate the interaction networks among lncRNAs, mRNAs and miRNAs...
November 1, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Sandip A Shelke, Yaming Shao, Artur Laski, Deepak Koirala, Benjamin P Weissman, James R Fuller, Xiaohong Tan, Tudor P Constantin, Alan S Waggoner, Marcel P Bruchez, Bruce A Armitage, Joseph A Piccirilli
The DIR2s RNA aptamer, a second-generation, in-vitro selected binder to dimethylindole red (DIR), activates the fluorescence of cyanine dyes, DIR and oxazole thiazole blue (OTB), allowing detection of two well-resolved emission colors. Using Fab BL3-6 and its cognate hairpin as a crystallization module, we solved the crystal structures of both the apo and OTB-SO3 bound forms of DIR2s at 2.0 Å and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively. DIR2s adopts a compact, tuning fork-like architecture comprised of a helix and two short stem-loops oriented in parallel to create the ligand binding site through tertiary interactions...
October 31, 2018: Nature Communications
Zhineng Li, Yingjie Jiang, Daofeng Liu, Jing Ma, Jing Li, Mingyang Li, Shunzhao Sui
Wintersweet ( Chimonanthus praecox ) is a well-known traditional fragrant plant and a winter-flowering deciduous shrub that originated in China. The five different developmental stages of wintersweet, namely, flower-bud period (FB), displayed petal stage (DP), open flower stage (OF), later blooming period (LB), and wilting period (WP) were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the distribution characteristics of aroma-emitting nectaries. Results showed that the floral scent was probably emitted from nectaries distributed on the adaxial side of the innermost and middle petals, but almost none on the abaxial side...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rosalina D James, Kathleen M West, Katrina G Claw, Abigail EchoHawk, Leah Dodge, Adrian Dominguez, Maile Taualii, Ralph Forquera, Kenneth Thummel, Wylie Burke
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities harbor understandable mistrust of research. Outside researchers have historically controlled processes, promulgating conclusions and recommended policies with virtually no input from the communities studied. Reservation-based communities can apply sovereignty rights conferred by the federal government to change this research trajectory. Many tribes now require review and approval before allowing research activities to occur, in part through the development of regulatory codes and oversight measures...
December 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Sudarshan Khokhar, Manish Mahabir
In this new technique of cataract surgery in patients with iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens with cataract, phakic IOL is explanted at the end of surgery. Phakic IOL remains stable and securely enclaved to the iris during phacoemulsification which is performed through a small 2.2 mm incision. Endothelial protection is provided by viscodispersive OVD above the phakic IOL and space for surgery is created by high molecular weight viscocohesive OVD beneath the phakic IOL. This technique provides significant advantages from the previously described techniques in terms of chamber stability, endothelial protection, iris trauma and surgical ease...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Jonathan G Pattrick, David Labonte, Walter Federle
Claws are the most widespread attachment devices in animals, but comparatively little is known about the mechanics of claw attachment. A key morphological parameter in determining attachment ability is claw sharpness; however, there is a conflict between sharpness and fracture resistance. Sharper claws can interlock on more surfaces but are more likely to break. Body size interacts with this conflict such that larger animals should have much blunter claws and consequently poorer attachment ability than smaller animals...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Benjamin L S Furman, Utkarsh J Dang, Ben J Evans, G Brian Golding
Whole genome duplication (WGD), the doubling of the nuclear DNA of a species, contributes to biological innovation by creating ge-netic redundancy. One mode of WGD is allopolyploidization, wherein each genome from two ancestral species becomes a 'subgenome' of a polyploid descendant species. The evolutionary trajectory of a dupli-cated gene that arises from WGD is influenced both by natural selec-tion, that may favour redundant, new, or partitioned functions, and by gene silencing (pseudogenization). Here, we explored how these two phenomena varied over time and within allopolyploid genomes in several allotetraploid clawed frog species (Xenopus)...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
V Bay, B Griffiths, S Carter, N J Evans, L Lenzi, R C Bicalho, G Oikonomou
Lameness represents an intractable problem for the dairy industry. Complicated claw horn disruption lesions, interdigital hyperplasia, and interdigital phlegmon are important lameness causing foot lesions. Their aetiology is multifactorial, but infectious processes are likely implicated in disease pathogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the bacterial profiles of these lesions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of samples obtained from 51 cattle across ten farms in the UK. In this study, interdigital hyperplasia, interdigital hyperplasia with signs of interdigital dermatitis, interdigital phlegmon, complicated sole ulcers, complicated toe ulcers lesions, and complicated white line lesions were investigated; corresponding healthy skin control samples were also analysed...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Franziska Ostner, Theresa Hergt, Sandrina Klein, Dorian Patzkéwitsch, Sven Reese, Andreas Brühschwein, Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg, Benjamin Schade, Brigitte Böhm, Rudolf Eisenreich, Anja Rostalski, Kay-Uwe Götz, Michael Erhard, Mathias Ritzmann, Susanne Zöls
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the first part of the present study was to specify risk factors for the development of adventitious bursae on the limbs of weaning and finishing pigs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 192 pigs were examined weekly, recording the following parameters: general condition, number, size and localization of adventitious bursae on the limbs and sternum, gait and claws. RESULTS: Adventitious bursae can occur at 13 positions on the limbs or sternum...
October 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Ole Kristian Alhaug, Gøran Berdal, Elisabeth Ellingsen Husebye, Kjetil Hvaal
BACKGROUND: The transfer of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon (FHL) is an established method for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. An extensive examination of power, strength, endurance and complications related to this procedure is presented. METHODS: 21 patients treated with open FHL transfer for chronic Achilles tendon rupture were studied retrospectively. Medical records were reviewed. The patients were examined with a test battery for triceps surae strength, functional tests and PROMs...
July 18, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Gaël Gaudin, Jean-Yves Coillard, Marc Augoyard, Yves Tourné, Tristan Meusnier, Philippe Beaudet, Jean-Noël Bernard, Romain Augoyard, Jean-Luc Besse
INTRODUCTION: First metatarsophalangeal (MTP1) joint arthrodesis, described as a safe and effective procedure, has complications that may require surgical revision. These complications are rarely studied. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and outcomes of revision surgery after MT1 arthrodesis. HYPOTHESIS: The incidence of surgical revision after MTP1 arthrodesis is not insignificant; however, the outcomes are satisfactory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study between January 2014 and December 2015, 190 forefoot revisions in patients who had previously undergone MTP1 arthrodesis were included by 8 surgeons...
October 11, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Tesla A Monson, Jeffrey L Coleman, Leslea J Hlusko
A growing body of literature demonstrates that genetic patterning mechanisms underlie the relative proportions of the mammalian postcanine dentition, with the third molar being key to understanding variation within the molar row. With this relatively recent insight, there has been renewed interest in mammalian taxa that have lost the third molars. Within platyrrhines, the marmosets and tamarins (Callitrichidae family) are characterized by small body size, claw-like nails, twinning, and reduced molar number...
October 13, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Vladimir PeŠiĆ, Andrzej Zawal
Majumderatax was originally established by Vidrine (1993) as a subgenus of Unionicola Haldeman, 1842 with U. hankoi Szalay, 1927 as type species. It is probably a monophyletic clade (Gerecke et al. 2016), characterized by the following features: (i) I-L-5 with a characteristic, blade-like distoventral seta, and (ii) P-5 short and stocky, with a strong, bifurcated claw.
August 8, 2018: Zootaxa
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