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Sonja Axmann, Karin Hummel, Katharina Nöbauer, Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli, Karin Zitterl-Eglseer
Devil's claw is used for the treatment of inflammatory symptoms and degenerative disorders in horses since many years, but without the substantive pharmacokinetic data. The pharmacokinetic parameters of harpagoside, the main active constituent of Harpagophytum procumbens DC ex Meisn., were evaluated in equine plasma after administration of Harpagophytum extract FB 8858 in an open, single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, randomized cross-over design. Six horses received a single dose of Harpagophytum extract, corresponding to 5 mg/kg BM harpagoside, and after 7 days washout period, 10 mg/kg BM harpagoside via nasogastric tube...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Alexey G Desnitskiy
The published data on cell cycles during the initial (pregastrular) period of embryonic development in representatives of the class Amphibia have been critically discussed. We have also used the literature data on ontogenetic diversity of these animals. The relatively small eggs of two principal model species for amphibian embryology, the Mexican axolotl and the African clawed frog, undergo the extensive series of rapid synchronous cleavage divisions, after which the midblastula transition (MBT) takes place: the rate of divisions slows down, the cell synchrony is lost, and the initiation of major transcriptional genomic activation occurs...
September 18, 2018: Bio Systems
Qiang Ou, Georg Mayer
Cambrian marine lobopodians are generally considered as predecessors of modern panarthropods (onychophorans, tardigrades, and arthropods). Hence, further study of their morphological diversity and early radiation may enhance our understanding of the ground pattern and evolutionary history of panarthropods. Here, we report a rare lobopodian species, †Lenisambulatrix humboldti gen. et sp. nov. ("Humboldt lobopodian"), from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte and describe new morphological features of †Diania cactiformis, a coeval armoured lobopodian nicknamed "walking cactus"...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hector Baños, Nathaniel Bushek, Ruth Davidson, Elizabeth Gross, Pamela E Harris, Robert Krone, Colby Long, Allen Stewart, Robert Walker
Mixtures of group-based Markov models of evolution correspond to joins of toric varieties. In this paper, we establish a large number of cases for which these phylogenetic join varieties realize their expected dimension, meaning that they are nondefective. Nondefectiveness is not only interesting from a geometric point-of-view, but has been used to establish combinatorial identifiability for several classes of phylogenetic mixture models. Our focus is on group-based models where the equivalence classes of identified parameters are orbits of a subgroup of the automorphism group of the abelian group defining the model...
September 17, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Derek J Siveter, Derek E G Briggs, David J Siveter, Mark D Sutton, David Legg
The Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte (approx. 430 Myr BP) has yielded, among many exceptionally preserved invertebrates, a wide range of new genera belonging to crown-group Panarthropoda. Here, we increase this panarthropod diversity with the lobopodian Thanahita distos , a new total-group panarthropod genus and species. This new lobopodian preserves at least nine paired, long, slender appendages, the anterior two in the head region and the posterior seven representing trunk lobopods. The body ends in a short post-appendicular extension...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Sabrina Ruchti, Andrea R Meier, Hanno Würbel, Gilles Kratzer, Sabine G Gebhardt-Henrich, Sonja Hartnack
In rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), pododermatitis is a chronic multifactorial skin disease that appears mainly on the plantar surface of the hind legs. In later stages, it causes pain leading to poor welfare of affected animals. Pododermatitis is commonly observed in commercial rabbit production in breeding does housed with wire mesh flooring. However, the prevalence in breeding does that are housed in groups on litter and plastic slats is not known. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the frequency, the severity and possible risk factors of pododermatitis in group housed breeding does in Switzerland on litter and plastic slats...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J Lajoie, V Glimois, T Petit, R Amelie, F Varenne, P Fournie, V Pagot Mathis, F Malecaze, M Wargny, A Gallini, V Soler
PURPOSE: The goal of our retrospective, single-center study of a case series was to compare the total, corneal, and internal astigmatism, and the visual acuity at one year after combined or stand-alone surgery consisting of iris fixation of an iris-claw intraocular lens (ARTISAN aphakia) in aphakic patients, according to whether the lens was fixated to the anterior (n=21) or posterior (n=51) surface of the iris. RESULTS: We did not find a significant difference between these two types of fixation for any of the studied variables...
September 11, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Nina Seifert, Roberto Ambrosini, Luana Bontempo, Federica Camin, Felix Liechti, Diego Rubolini, Chiara Scandolara, Nicola Saino, Steffen Hahn
Knowledge on whereabouts within the annual cycle of migratory species is prerequisite for many aspects in ecology and biological conservation. Spatial assignments of stable isotopes archived in tissues allows for later inference on sites where the specific tissue had been grown. It has been rarely tested whether spatial assignments match directly tracked non-breeding residences, especially for migratory songbirds. We here compare assignments of stable isotopes from feathers of Palaearctic Barn swallows Hirundo rustica with their African non-breeding residence sites tracked by geolocation...
2018: PloS One
Peng Xiang, Yu Wang, Ruixiang Chen, Liyuan Zhao, Chunguang Wang, Mao Lin
Pelagic ostracods are one of the main groups of zooplankton and are abundant in marine ecosystems worldwide. The record of marine planktonic ostracod species in the central and southern part of the South China Sea accounts over for one-third of the total recorded marine planktonic ostracods in seas around China. In this study, we examined and compared the specimens from a recent cruise in this region that appeared to be different from previously described species of genus Conchoecissa , and then confirmed them as a new bathypelagic species Conchoecissa nigromaculatus ...
2018: PeerJ
Jarad P Cochran, David L Haskins, Naya A Eady, Matthew T Hamilton, Melissa A Pilgrim, Tracey D Tuberville
Coal combustion is a major energy source in the US. The solid waste product of coal combustion, coal combustion residue (CCR), contains potentially toxic trace elements. Before 1980, the US primarily disposed of CCR in aquatic settling basins. Animals use these basins as habitat and can be exposed to CCR, potentially affecting their physiology. To investigate the effects of CCR on eastern mud turtles (Kinosternon subrubrum), we sampled 30 turtles exposed to CCRs and 17 unexposed turtles captured in 2015-2016 from the Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC, USA)...
August 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sara Dallarés, María Constenla, Maite Carrassón
Hamaticolax juanji n. sp. is described from specimens collected from the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus Delaroche 1809 (Scorpaeniformes: Sebastidae). It is the second Hamaticolax species described and reported from the Mediterranean Sea, after Ha. resupinus Pérez-i-García, Carrassón and Boxshall, 2017. It is distinguished from Ha. resupinus by the presence of only one dorsal naked seta on the third segment of the antennule (vs. four), two unequal short naked setae in distal part of the antenna (vs...
September 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
Kareem Morsy, Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar, Abdel-Rahman Bashtar, Saad Bin Dajem, Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Marwa Mostafa
This report introduced the description of two different species of digenean parasites isolated from the intestine of Rhinopoma hardwickii with new host and locality records in Egypt. The recovered helminthes were studied morphologically and morphometrically by light microscopy and the surface topography of the two species was elucidated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Urotrema scabridum had an elongated body, testes were tandem, ovaries were pretesticular, and vitelline follicles were observed in 2 lateral fields...
August 30, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Nico J Wolmarans, Louis H Du Preez, Yared Beyene Yohannes, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Mayumi Ishizuka, Nico J Smit, Victor Wepener
Organochlorine pesticides are highly persistent in aquatic ecosystems. Amphibians, specifically anurans, play an intricate part in the aquatic food web, and have very permeable skin which makes them prone to bioaccumulation of persistent pollutants. In this study the bioaccumulation of various legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), currently used for malaria vector control (MVC)-was assessed along with a set of biomarker responses in Müller's clawed frog Xenopus muelleri collected from the lower Phongolo River floodplain in South Africa...
September 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Benjamin Oehme, S M Geiger, S Grund, K Hainke, J Munzel, C K W Mülling
BACKGROUND: Mechanical interactions between hard floorings and the sole of bovine claws can be reasonable to cause traumatic claw lesions. In this ex vivo study, the direct kinetic impact of concrete and three types of rubber mats on the sole of dairy cattle claws was analyzed. In order to apply uniform loads, isolated distal hind limbs of adult Holstein Friesian dairy cows were functionally trimmed according to the Dutch method and attached to a load applicator. Kinetic data were recorded using a thin, foil-based pressure measurement system (Hoof™ System, Tekscan®)...
August 31, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Wenya Li, Danli Liu, Shuqi Tang, Donghua Li, Ruili Han, Yadong Tian, Hong Li, Guoxi Li, Wenting Li, Xiaojun Liu, Xiangtao Kang, Zhuanjian Li
Many studies have reported that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) is involved in the cell cycle. However, the function of CDKN3 has not been well elucidated in organisms. In this study, a multiallelic indel caused by a 19-bp fragment and a 2 × 19 bp fragment was shown for the first time to be inserted into the promoter of the CDKN3 gene in 1994 chickens from 9 different breeds. In addition, 6 genotypes (C5C5, C4C4, C3C3, C4C5, C3C4, and C3C5) were observed (C3C3, C4C4, C5C5 have 3 × 19 bp, 4 × 19 bp, and 5 × 19 bp, respectively)...
August 31, 2018: Poultry Science
Sébastien Enault, David Muñoz, Paul Simion, Stéphanie Ventéo, Jean-Yves Sire, Sylvain Marcellini, Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud
BACKGROUND: The molecular bases explaining the diversity of dental tissue mineralization across gnathostomes are still poorly understood. Odontodes, such as teeth and body denticles, are serial structures that develop through deployment of a gene regulatory network shared between all gnathostomes. Dentin, the inner odontode mineralized tissue, is produced by odontoblasts and appears well-conserved through evolution. In contrast, the odontode hypermineralized external layer (enamel or enameloid) produced by ameloblasts of epithelial origin, shows extensive structural variations...
August 30, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Yuwan Yang, Mo Li, Jin Tong, Yunhai Ma
A mole is a born digger spending its entire existence digging tunnels. The five claws of a mole's hand are combinative to cut soil powerfully and efficiently. However, little was known in detail about the interaction between the soil and the five-claw combination. In this study, we simulated the soil cutting process of the five-claw combination using the discrete element method (DEM) as an attempt for the potential design of soil-engaging tools to reduce soil resistance. The five-claw combination moved horizontally in the soil bin...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Ernani V Rodrigues, Júlia R Riguette, Henrique R C Pereira, Juliétty A Tesch, Ary G Silva
The buzzing foraging behavior of female bees for pollen harvesting called the attention of early pollination biologists. Flower types that demand this buzzing behavior comprise about 20,000 species of different and phylogenetically unrelated plant taxa, suggesting that it had independently evolved many times among the flowering plants. Between the late 1970s and early 1980s, theoretical papers had modeled the energetics of buzz pollination, but, up to this moment, no hypothesis was experimentally tested concerning the theoretical basis of the energetics of buzz pollination...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Matthew J Zdilla, Julia E Paulet, Jessica J Lear, Kristina M Addie, H Wayne Lambert
The extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscle/tendon complex has been used in a variety of tendon transfer and tenodesis surgeries to correct iatrogenic hallux varus deformity, equinovarus foot deformity, clawed hallux associated with a cavus foot, and dynamic hyperextension of the hallux and, even, to prevent pedal imbalance after transmetatarsal amputation. Although it is usually considered a unipennate muscle inserting into the dorsum of the base of the distal phalanx of the hallux, a vast majority of EHL muscles possess ≥1 accessory tendinous slips that insert into other neighboring bones, muscles, or tendons, which can complicate these surgeries...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Helena Fieseler, Romy Weck, Matthias Kaiser, Hendrik Müller, Joachim Spilke, Norbert Mielenz, Gerd Möbius, Alexander Starke
OBJECTIVE: The assessment of pain in sheep is a clinical challenge, because being a prey species, they tend to mask it. Since pain in animals cannot be measured directly, various methods are applicable to detect its effects on physiological, biochemical and ethological processes. Clinicians experienced in behavioural assessment are able to reliably determine the level of pain endured by an animal. The objective of this study was to identify behaviours that reflect acute and chronic pain as well as stress in sheep...
August 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
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