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Antonio Serrano, Gaspar Ros, Gema Nieto
The inflammatory processes associated with several chronic illnesses like cardiovascular disease and cancer have been the focus of mechanistic studies of the pathogenicity of these diseases and of the use of different pharmacological and natural methods to prevent them. In this study we review the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of natural extracts from as-yet little-studied traditional botanical species in alleviating the inflammation process associated with several chronic diseases. Additionally, the intention is to expose the known pathways of action and the potential synergistic effects of the constituent compounds of the discussed extracts...
July 16, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Katherine L Wozniak, Wesley A Phelps, Maiwase Tembo, Miler T Lee, Anne E Carlson
In externally fertilizing animals, such as sea urchins and frogs, prolonged depolarization of the egg immediately after fertilization inhibits the entry of additional sperm-a phenomenon known as the fast block to polyspermy. In the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis , this depolarization is driven by Ca2+ -activated Cl- efflux. Although the prominent Ca2+ -activated Cl- currents generated in immature X. laevis oocytes are mediated by X. laevis transmembrane protein 16a (xTMEM16A) channels, little is known about the channels that contribute to the fast block in mature eggs...
July 16, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Katherine L Wozniak, Maiwase Tembo, Wesley A Phelps, Miler T Lee, Anne E Carlson
The prevention of polyspermy is essential for the successful progression of normal embryonic development in most sexually reproducing species. In external fertilizers, the process of fertilization induces a depolarization of the egg's membrane within seconds, which inhibits supernumerary sperm from entering an already-fertilized egg. This fast block requires an increase of intracellular Ca2+ in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis , which in turn activates an efflux of Cl- that depolarizes the cell. Here we seek to identify the source of this intracellular Ca2+ Using electrophysiology, pharmacology, bioinformatics, and developmental biology, we explore the requirement for both Ca2+ entry into the egg from the extracellular milieu and Ca2+ release from an internal store, to mediate fertilization-induced depolarization...
July 16, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
D E K Campbell, V S Langlois
A series of ex vivo exposures using testicular and ovarian tissues of sexually mature Western clawed frogs (Silurana tropicalis) were designed to examine molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone (TH) and androgen crosstalk sans hypophyseal feedback as well as investigate potential sex-specific differences. Tissues were exposed ex vivo to either triiodothyronine (T3), iopanoic acid (IOP), one co-treatment of IOP + 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), 5α-DHT, 5β-dihydrotestosterone (5β-DHT), or testosterone (T)...
July 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
O Schmitt, E M Baxter, L A Boyle, K O'Driscoll
Management strategies are needed to optimise the number of piglets weaned from hyper-prolific sows. Nurse sow strategies involve transferring supernumerary new-born piglets onto a sow whose own piglets are either weaned or fostered onto another sow. Such 'nurse sows' have extended lactations spent in farrowing crates, which could have negative implications for their welfare. This study used 47 sows, 20 of which farrowed large litters and had their biggest piglets fostered onto nurse sows which were either 1 week (2STEP7, n=9) or 3 weeks into lactation (1STEP21, n=10)...
July 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Aakanksha Angra, Emily Weigel, Alison Onstine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Nathalia María Correa-Valencia, Iván Rodrigo Castaño-Aguilar, Jan K Shearer, Juan Carlos Arango-Sabogal, Gilles Fecteau
Lameness is a severe welfare problem in cattle and has a detrimental effect on longevity, productivity, and reproductive performance. This study aimed to describe the frequency and distribution of foot lesions in cattle using hoof trimming records over a period of 6 years in the Province of Antioquia (Colombia). The data collection instrument enabled differentiation between limbs, digits, and views. The Claw Lesion Identification in Dairy Cattle brochure was the reference for foot lesion identification. A total of 1814 foot lesions observations, recorded from 1120 cows in 71 herds, were analyzed and 11 different foot lesions were identified...
July 7, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Thomas Gross, Suvi Broholm, Annette Becker
One of the crucial steps in the life cycle of angiosperms is the development of carpels. They are the most complex plant organs, harbor the seeds, and, after fertilization, develop into fruits and are thus an important ecological and economic trait. CRABS CLAW (CRC), a YABBY protein and putative transcription factor, is one of the major carpel developmental regulators in A. thaliana that includes a C2C2 zinc finger and a domain with similarities to an HMG box. CRC is involved in the regulation of processes such as carpel fusion and growth, floral meristem termination, and nectary formation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kyoung Bo Lee, Bo Ra Kim, Kang Seong Lee
BACKGROUND: The feet make the initial contact with the ground when walking and critically control both posture and gait. Claw toe, a structural change in the foot that may develop after stroke, triggers functional changes affecting both the lower limbs and balance. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the effects of a toe spreader on foot pressure and gait in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: We enrolled 25 stroke patients. We used Gaitview AFA-50 and GAITRite instruments to measure plantar pressure distribution and gait with and without a tow spreader...
June 18, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Wilawan Promprom, Wannachai Chatan, Peerapol Saisaard
Sindora stipitata , a new species in the subfamily Detarioideae (Leguminosae), collected from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. The new species is morphologically similar to S. leiocarpa but differs in its smaller stature (3-5 m high), 6-foliolate paripinnate leaves, falcate persistent stipules, presence of a petal auricle, absence of a petal claw, stipitate ovary and capitate stigma. A key to the Thailand and Malesia species of Sindora is provided.
2018: PhytoKeys
Sunwhi Kimm, June-Seek Choi
BACKGROUND: Despite the wide variations in defensive behaviors displayed by rats during predator encounters, most laboratory studies have focused on a limited number of behaviors, such as immobility in a small enclosure. Other defensive behaviors such as withdrawal and avoidance have been less investigated. NEW METHOD: Rats repeatedly encountered a fast threatening motion (snapping claws) of a robot predator. The robot was equipped with infrared sensors (millisecond resolution) to detect head entry...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Yu N Yusef, S N Yusef, K S Avetisov, A S Vvedenskiy, N Yu Shkolyarenko, E V Reznikova, K Alkhumidi
Prevention and treatment of cataract surgery complications in patients with lens subluxation remains one of the current problems of phaco surgeries. PURPOSE: To develop and to test the surgical technique for reimplantation of in-the-bag dislocated intraocular lenses (IOL) or sulcus-fixated IOL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Surgical outcomes of 150 patients (150 eyes) with in-the-bag IOL dislocation (122 eyes) or sulcus fixated IOL dislocation (28 eyes) were analyzed. The follow-up period lasted 1-3 years...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Héloïse Guillot, Xavier Bonnet, Paco Bustamante, Carine Churlaud, Jacques Trotignon, François Brischoux
We assessed trace elements concentration in European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) from Brenne Natural Park (France). We sampled road-killed turtles (N = 46) to measure the concentrations of 4 non-essential (Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb) and 10 essential (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, V, and Zn) elements in muscle, skin, liver and claws. Body size or sex did not influence the concentrations of most elements; except for Hg (liver, skin and claws) and Zn (muscle) which increased with body size. We found relatively high concentrations of Hg and Zn, possibly linked to fish farming...
June 8, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Akira Hikosaka, Seigo Konishi
Background: DNA transposons are generally destroyed by mutations and have short lifespans in hosts, as they are neutral or harmful to the host and therefore not conserved by natural selection. The clawed frog Xenopus harbors many DNA transposons and certain families, such as T2-MITE, have extremely long lives. These have ancient origins, but have shown recent transposition activity. In addition, certain transposase genes may have been "domesticated" by Xenopus and conserved over long time periods by natural selection...
2018: Zoological Letters
Doug M Boyer, Stephanie A Maiolino, Patricia A Holroyd, Paul E Morse, Jonathan I Bloch
Euprimates are unusual among mammals in having fingers and toes with flat nails. While it seems clear that the ancestral stock from which euprimates evolved had claw-bearing digits, the available fossil record has not yet contributed a detailed understanding of the transition from claws to nails. This study helps clarify the evolutionary history of the second pedal digit with fossils representing the distal phalanx of digit two (dpII), and has broader implications for other digits. Among extant primates, the keratinized structure on the pedal dpII widely varies in form...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Francis R Cui, Blanche C Ip, Jeffrey R Morgan, Anubhav Tripathi
Technological advances in solid organ tissue engineering that rely on the assembly of small tissue-building parts require a novel transport method suited for soft, deformable, living objects of submillimeter- to centimeter-length scale. We describe a technology that utilizes membrane flow through a gripper to generate optimized pressure differentials across the top and bottom surfaces of microtissue so that the part may be gripped and lifted. The flow and geometry parameters are developed for automation by analyzing the fluid mechanics framework by which a gripper can lift tissue parts off solid and porous surfaces...
June 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
Katrina G Claw, Renee D George, Michael J MacCoss, Willie J Swanson
BACKGROUND: Genomic data from various organisms have been used to study how sexual selection has shaped genetic diversity in reproductive proteins, and in particular, to elucidate how mating systems may have influenced evolution at the molecular and phenotypic levels. However, large-scale proteomic data including protein identifications and abundances are only now entering the field of evolutionary and comparative genomics. Variation in both protein sequence and expression level may play important roles in the evolution of sexual traits and behaviors...
June 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
Tonje K Sørdalen, Kim T Halvorsen, Hugo B Harrison, Charlie D Ellis, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad, Halvor Knutsen, Even Moland, Esben M Olsen
Removing individuals from a wild population can affect the availability of prospective mates and the outcome of competitive interactions, with subsequent effects on mating patterns and sexual selection. Consequently, the rate of harvest-induced evolution is predicted to be strongly dependent on the strength and dynamics of sexual selection, yet there is limited empirical knowledge on the interplay between selective harvesting and the mating systems of exploited species. In this study, we used genetic parentage assignment to compare mating patterns of the highly valued and overexploited European lobster ( Homarus gammarus ) in a designated lobster reserve and nearby fished area in southern Norway...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Mannkyu Hong, Yoseph Kim, Hyejin Kim, Hee Jin Cho, Mu-Hyun Baik, Youngjo Kim
Novel scorpionate-type organocatalysts capable of effectively coupling carbon dioxide and epoxides under mild conditions to afford cyclic propylene carbonates were developed. Based on a combined experimental and computational study, a precise mechanistic proposal was developed and rational optimization strategies were identified. The epoxide ring-opening, which requires an iodide as a nucleophile, was enhanced by utilizing an immonium functionality that can form an ion pair with iodide, making the ring-opening process intramolecular...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Yichi Zhang, Simon G English, Kenneth B Storey
Xenopus laevis, otherwise known as the African clawed frog, undergoes natural dehydration of up to 30% of its total body water during the dry season in sub-Saharan Africa. To survive under these conditions, a variety of physiological and biochemical changes take place in X. laevis. We were interested in understanding the role that the calcineurin-NFAT pathway plays during dehydration stress response in the skeletal muscles of X. laevis. Immunoblotting was performed to characterize the protein levels of NFATc1-4, calcium signalling proteins, in addition to myogenic proteins (MyoD, MyoG, myomaker)...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
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