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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822546/genetic-evaluation-of-claw-health-traits-accounting-for-potential-preselection-of-cows-to-be-trimmed
#1
Iola Croué, Freddy Fikse, Kjell Johansson, Emma Carlén, Gilles Thomas, Hélène Leclerc, Vincent Ducrocq
Claw lesions are one of the most important health issues in dairy cattle. Although the frequency of claw lesions depends greatly on herd management, the frequency can be lowered through genetic selection. A genetic evaluation could be developed based on trimming records collected by claw trimmers; however, not all cows present in a herd are usually selected by the breeder to be trimmed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the importance of the preselection of cows for trimming, to account for this preselection, and to estimate genetic parameters of claw health traits...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821240/avbd1-nucleotide-polymorphisms-peptide-antimicrobial-activities-and-microbial-colonisation-of-the-broiler-chicken-gut
#2
Kevin Cadwell, Sherko S Niranji, Vanessa L Armstrong, Catherine A Mowbray, Richard Bailey, Kellie A Watson, Judith Hall
BACKGROUND: The importance of poultry as a global source of protein underpins the chicken genome and associated SNP data as key tools in selecting and breeding healthy robust birds with improved disease resistance. SNPs affecting host peptides involved in the innate defences tend to be rare, but three non-synonymous SNPs in the avian β-defensin (AvBD1) gene encoding the variant peptides NYH, SSY and NYY were identified that segregated specifically to three lines of commercial broiler chickens Line X (LX), Line Y(LY) and Line Z...
August 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820835/simultaneous-stiles-bunnell-tendon-transfer-enhances-intrinsic-function-of-the-second-toe-transplantations
#3
Yu-Te Lin, Charles Yuen Yung Loh, Shwu-Huei Lien, Chih-Hung Lin, Fu-Chan Wei
Claw finger is sequelae of fingers without intrinsic function. Claw toe deformity is common after toe transfers as simultaneous intrinsic reconstruction has yet to be reported in the literature. We present our experience of simultaneous tendon transfers during the second toe transplantation. Seven 2nd toe transfers were performed in 5 metacarpal-like and metacarpal hands. The Stiles-Bunnell tendon transfer was incorporated into toe transfers. Toe lumbrical tendons were repaired to the Flexor Digitorum Sublimis of the same recipient digit...
August 8, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819785/assessment-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-primary-retropupillary-fixation-of-iris-claw-intraocular-lenses-in-children-with-large-lens-subluxations
#4
Anju Rastogi, Apurva Goray, Prolima Thacker, Kamlesh, Babita
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether retropupillary fixation of the iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) is a safe and effective treatment option in children with large lens subluxations. METHODS: Fourteen eyes of children between the ages of 8-17 years with lens subluxations more than 7 clock hours underwent pars plana lensectomy-vitrectomy with implantation of the iris-claw IOL in the retropupillary position as a primary procedure. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal endothelial count (EC) and the lens position using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) were assessed pre- and postoperatively...
August 17, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819603/bilateral-ankle-fusion-in-leak-syndrome-induced-deformity-a-case-report
#5
Luis Sobral, Ana C Ângelo, Afonso Caetano, Joaquim Rodeia, Isabel Rosa
INTRODUCTION: Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare condition of unknown etiology defined by sudden episode of hypotension, high hematocrit, and low serum protein concentration due to capillary hyperpermeability. Several treatments have been published for this pathology and eventual compartment syndrome but not for the disabling consequences. This clinical case highlights the negative orthopedic consequences of a severe systemic attack and reports a subsequent deformity treatment option that resulted in the patient quality of life improvement...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819071/genetic-and-non-genetic-factors-associated-with-protein-abundance-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-in-human-liver
#6
Meijuan Xu, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Catherine K Yeung, Katrina G Claw, Amarjit S Chaudhry, Andrea Gaedigk, Robin E Pearce, Ulrich Broeckel, Roger Gaedigk, Debbie Nickerson, Erin Schuetz, Allan E Rettie, Steven Leeder, Kenneth E Thummel, Bhagwat Prasad
Hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) metabolizes a broad array of nucleophilic heteroatom (e.g., N or S)-containing xenobiotics (e.g., amphetamine, sulindac, benzydamine, ranitidine, tamoxifen, nicotine, and ethioniamide), as well as endogenous compounds (e.g., catecholamine and trimethylamine). To predict the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on the hepatic metabolism of FMO3 substrates, we quantified FMO3 protein abundance in human liver microsomes (HLM; n=445) by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Genotyping/gene-resequencing, mRNA expression, and functional activity (with benzydamine as a probe substrate) of FMO3 were also performed...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810137/time-gated-luminescence-imaging-of-singlet-oxygen-photoinduced-by-fluoroquinolones-and-functionalized-graphenes-in-daphnia-magna
#7
Tianlie Luo, Jingwen Chen, Bo Song, Hua Ma, Zhiqiang Fu, Willie J G M Peijnenburg
Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) can be photogenerated by photoactive xenobiotics and is capable of causing adverse effects due to its electrophilicity and its high reactivity with biological molecules. Detection of the production and distribution of (1)O2 in living organisms is therefore of great importance. In this study, a luminescent probe ATTA-Eu(3+) combined with time-gated luminescence imaging was adopted to detect the distribution and temporal variation of (1)O2 photoinduced by fluoroquinolone antibiotics and carboxylated/aminated graphenes in Daphnia magna...
July 29, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804266/modulational-instability-beak-shaped-rogue-waves-multi-dark-dark-solitons-and-dynamics-in-pair-transition-coupled-nonlinear-schr%C3%A3-dinger-equations
#8
Guoqiang Zhang, Zhenya Yan, Xiao-Yong Wen
The integrable coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with four-wave mixing are investigated. We first explore the conditions for modulational instability of continuous waves of this system. Secondly, based on the generalized N-fold Darboux transformation (DT), beak-shaped higher-order rogue waves (RWs) and beak-shaped higher-order rogue wave pairs are derived for the coupled model with attractive interaction in terms of simple determinants. Moreover, we derive the simple multi-dark-dark and kink-shaped multi-dark-dark solitons for the coupled model with repulsive interaction through the generalizing DT...
July 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802114/embryonic-and-fetal-morphology-in-the-lowland-paca-cuniculus-paca-a-precocial-hystricomorph-rodent
#9
Hani Rocha El Bizri, Frederico Ozanan Barros Monteiro, Rafael Dos Santos de Andrade, João Valsecchi, Diva Anelie de Araújo Guimarães, Pedro Mayor
In mammals, the embryonic and fetal development of a species has evolved to maximize neonatal survival. In this study, we use a sample of 132 embryos/fetuses of wild lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), obtained over a period of 15 years through collaborative methods with local hunters in the Amazon to describe the intrauterine development of external and internal morphology of this Neotropical rodent. We also compare the newborn survival strategy in this species with other rodents. The crown-rump length (CRL) ranged between 0...
August 3, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794675/ten-new-genera-of-agathidini-hymenoptera-braconidae-agathidinae-from-southeast-asia
#10
Michael J Sharkey, Eric Chapman
The Agathidini (Braconidae: Agathidinae) genera of Southeast Asia are revised based on a phylogenetic analysis of COI and 28S. Ten new genera are proposed, i.e., Agathigma, Asperagathis, Chimaeragathis, Cymagathis, Liragathis, Leuroagathis, Scabagathis, Trochantagathis, Xanthagathis, and Zosteragathis. An illustrated key to the Southeast Asian genera of this tribe is presented. Species from Thailand are keyed and described for all genera of Agathidini except Bassus and Zosteragathis which have too many species for this publication and will be dealt with separately...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794227/the-metabolic-cost-of-carrying-a-sexually-selected-trait-in-the-male-fiddler-crab-uca-pugilator
#11
Alexa Tullis, Corinne H T Straube
Models proposed to explain sexually selected structures assume that these traits are costly. However, studies investigating the impact of such structures on locomotory costs have produced inconsistent results. Male fiddler crabs possess a large sexually selected claw and are ideal for assessing the impact of a sexually selected trait on the cost of locomotion. Here, we measure the energy expenditure of clawed, declawed, and artificially loaded crabs during sustained exercise by measuring oxygen consumption and blood lactate levels...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780107/validation-of-2-noninvasive-markerless-reconstruction-techniques-in-biplane-high-speed-fluoroscopy-for-3-dimensional-research-of-bovine-distal-limb-kinematics
#12
M Weiss, E Reich, S Grund, C K W Mülling, S M Geiger
Lameness severely impairs cattle's locomotion, and it is among the most important threats to animal welfare, performance, and productivity in the modern dairy industry. However, insight into the pathological alterations of claw biomechanics leading to lameness and an understanding of the biomechanics behind development of claw lesions causing lameness are limited. Biplane high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography is a new approach for the analysis of skeletal motion. Biplane high-speed videos in combination with bone scans can be used for 3-dimensional (3D) animations of bones moving in 3D space...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777439/combining-cytotoxicity-assessment-and-xenopus-laevis-phenotypic-abnormality-assay-as-a-predictor-of-nanomaterial-safety
#13
Karamallah Al-Yousuf, Carl A Webster, Grant N Wheeler, Francesca Baldelli Bombelli, Victoria Sherwood
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, has been used as an efficient pre-clinical screening tool to predict drug safety during the early stages of the drug discovery process. X. laevis is a relatively inexpensive model that can be used in whole organism high-throughput assays whilst maintaining a high degree of homology to the higher vertebrate models often used in scientific research. Despite an ever-increasing volume of biomedical nanoparticles (NPs) in development, their unique physico-chemical properties challenge the use of standard toxicology assays...
August 4, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770904/traumatic-dislocation-of-phakic-anterior-chamber-iris-claw-intraocular-lens-a-case-report
#14
Nauman Hashmani, Mariam Saleem, Hina Rajani, Sharif Hashmani
We are presenting a traumatic dislocation of a Phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) secondary to a blunt trauma to the right eye. The patient presented with a sudden blurring of vision with no other associated injury. His slit lamp examination showed disenclavation of the temporal clip and pre-operatively his best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 6/36. The patient was brought to the operating room where his lens was repositioned and re-enclaved. He had a complete restoration of vision with a BSCVA of 6/9 and an endothelial cell count of 2786/mm2...
July 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764494/bio-inspired-piezoelectric-linear-motor-driven-by-a-single-phase-harmonic-wave-with-an-asymmetric-stator
#15
Qiaosheng Pan, Enming Miao, Bingxuan Wu, Weikang Chen, Xiujun Lei, Liangguo He
A novel, bio-inspired, single-phase driven piezoelectric linear motor (PLM) using an asymmetric stator was designed, fabricated, and tested to avoid mode degeneracy and to simplify the drive mechanism of a piezoelectric motor. A piezoelectric transducer composed of two piezoelectric stacks and a displacement amplifier was used as the driving element of the PLM. Two simple and specially designed claws performed elliptical motion. A numerical simulation was performed to design the stator and determine the feasibility of the design mechanism of the PLM...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761792/plantar-pressure-distribution-of-ostrich-during-locomotion-on-loose-sand-and-solid-ground
#16
Rui Zhang, Dianlei Han, Songsong Ma, Gang Luo, Qiaoli Ji, Shuliang Xue, Mingming Yang, Jianqiao Li
BACKGROUND: The ostrich is a cursorial bird with extraordinary speed and endurance, especially in the desert, and thus is an ideal large-scale animal model for mechanic study of locomotion on granular substrate. METHODS: The plantar pressure distributions of ostriches walking/running on loose sand/solid ground were recorded using a dynamic pressure plate. RESULTS: The center of pressure (COP) on loose sand mostly originated from the middle of the 3rd toe, which differed from the J-shaped COP trajectory on solid ground...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755930/locomotion-characteristics-of-dairy-cows-walking-on-pasture-and-the-effect-of-artificial-flooring-systems-on-locomotion-comfort
#17
M Alsaaod, S Huber, G Beer, P Kohler, G Schüpbach-Regula, A Steiner
The locomotion comfort of dairy cows depends on the floor of the walking alleys. Optimal locomotion comfort is given when cows walk on pasture, allowing freedom from discomfort and pain and the expression of normal behavior. This study examined the characteristics of locomotion behavior on pasture (gold standard with optimal locomotion comfort) and compared it with behaviors of cows walking on mastic asphalt or solid rubber mats before and after a routine claw trimming session. Our hypotheses were (1) that gait variables were different on pasture versus mastic asphalt and on mastic asphalt versus rubber, and (2) that claw trimming had an effect on gait variables of cows walking on mastic asphalt...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750325/cryo-em-maps-reveal-five-fold-channel-structures-and-their-modification-by-gatekeeper-mutations-in-the-parvovirus-minute-virus-of-mice-mvm-capsid
#18
Suriyasri Subramanian, Lindsey J Organtini, Alec Grossman, Phillip P Domeier, Javier O Cifuente, Alexander M Makhov, James F Conway, Anthony D'Abramo, Susan F Cotmore, Peter Tattersall, Susan Hafenstein
In minute virus of mice (MVM) capsids, icosahedral five-fold channels serve as portals mediating genome packaging, genome release, and the phased extrusion of viral peptides. Previous studies suggest that residues L172 and V40 are essential for channel function. The structures of MVMi wildtype, and mutant L172T and V40A virus-like particles (VLPs) were solved from cryo-EM data. Two constriction points, termed the mid-gate and inner-gate, were observed in the channels of wildtype particles, involving residues L172 and V40 respectively...
July 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746452/first-parasitological-study-of-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis-amphibia-in-chile
#19
Cristóbal Castillo, Gabriel Lobos, Daniel González-Acuña, Lucila Moreno, Cynthya Elizabeth González, Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque
Introduced species can arrive into new territories with parasites; however, these species are expected to face lower parasite richness than in their original regions. Both introduced hosts and parasites can affect native fauna. Since their release into the wild in Chile following laboratory use, Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 has widely spread throughout central Chile. The only pathogen described on the host is the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier, Nichols, 1999; thus, this is the first parasitological study of this species in Chile...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739369/genomic-regression-of-claw-keratin-taste-receptor-and-light-associated-genes-provides-insights-into-biology-and-evolutionary-origins-of-snakes
#20
Christopher A Emerling
Regressive evolution of anatomical traits often corresponds with the regression of genomic loci underlying such characters. As such, studying patterns of gene loss can be instrumental in addressing questions of gene function, resolving conflicting results from anatomical studies, and understanding the evolutionary history of clades. The evolutionary origins of snakes involved the regression of a number of anatomical traits, including limbs, taste buds and the visual system, and by analyzing serpent genomes, I was able to test three hypotheses associated with the regression of these features...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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