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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642499/comprehensive-analysis-and-reinterpretation-of-cenozoic-mesofossils-reveals-ancient-origin-of-the-snapping-claw-of-alpheid-shrimps
#1
Matúš Hyžný, Andreas Kroh, Alexander Ziegler, Arthur Anker, Martin Košťák, Ján Schlögl, Adam Culka, John W M Jagt, René H B Fraaije, Mathias Harzhauser, Barry W M van Bakel, Andrej Ruman
Alpheid snapping shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) constitute one of the model groups for inferences aimed at understanding the evolution of complex structural, behavioural, and ecological traits among benthic marine invertebrates. Despite being a super-diverse taxon with a broad geographical distribution, the alpheid fossil record is still poorly known. However, data presented herein show that the strongly calcified fingertips of alpheid snapping claws are not uncommon in the fossil record and should be considered a novel type of mesofossil...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640593/dna-condensation-induced-by-a-star-shaped-hexameric-cationic-surfactant
#2
Yaxun Fan, Hua Wang, Chengqian He, Fulin Qiao, Shu Wang, Yilin Wang
The interactions between a star-shaped hexameric cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant PAHB and calf thymus DNA and induced DNA condensation were investigated by ζ-potential, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, ethidium bromide exclusion assay, circular dichroism and cytotoxicity assay. With the addition of PAHB, long extended DNA molecules exhibit successive conformational transitions from elongated coil to partially condensed cluster-like aggregate, globules-on-a-string structure, and then to fully condensed globule until the saturation point of interaction between PAHB and DNA, which is slightly above their charge neutralization point...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632148/claw-foot-a-case-report
#3
Alessandro Innocenti, Francesco Ciancio, Cecilia Taverna, Sara Tanini, Aurelio Portincasa, Domenico Parisi, Marco Innocenti, Vincenzo De Giorgi
A cutaneous horn could be defined as a conical projection on the surface of skin made of cornified material and resembling an animal horn. These lesions most commonly affect light-skinned men aged between 50 to 89 years and usually appear in sun exposed areas. Radiation, chronic irritation and even human papilloma virus-2 infection may be precipitating factors. More than half of the cases originate from either malignant or premalignant lesions, therefore the base of the lesion must be carefully examined histologically...
June 8, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#4
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622790/early-life-risk-factors-identified-for-owner-reported-feline-overweight-and-obesity-at-around-two-years-of-age
#5
E C Rowe, W J Browne, R A Casey, T J Gruffydd-Jones, J K Murray
Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. This study used prospective data from a longitudinal study of pet cats ('C.L.A.W.S.', www.bristol.ac.uk/vetscience/claws) to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity occurring at around two years of age. Data were collected via five owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged two-six months, six months, 12 months, 18 months and two years respectively) completed between May 2011 and April 2015...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616199/global-realized-niche-divergence-in-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#6
Dennis Rödder, Flora Ihlow, Julien Courant, Jean Secondi, Anthony Herrel, Rui Rebelo, G J Measey, Francesco Lillo, F A De Villiers, Charlotte De Busschere, Thierry Backeljau
Although of crucial importance for invasion biology and impact assessments of climate change, it remains widely unknown how species cope with and adapt to environmental conditions beyond their currently realized climatic niches (i.e., those climatic conditions existing populations are exposed to). The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, native to southern Africa, has established numerous invasive populations on multiple continents making it a pertinent model organism to study environmental niche dynamics. In this study, we assess whether the realized niches of the invasive populations in Europe, South, and North America represent subsets of the species' realized niche in its native distributional range or if niche shifts are traceable...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614869/a-rosa-canina-urtica-dioica-harpagophytum-procumbens-zeyheri-combination-significantly-reduces-gonarthritis-symptoms-in-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#7
Margret Moré, Joerg Gruenwald, Ute Pohl, Ralf Uebelhack
The special formulation MA212 (Rosaxan) is composed of rosehip (Rosa canina L.) puree/juice concentrate, nettle (Urtica dioica L.) leaf extract, and devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex Meisn. or Harpagophytum zeyheri Decne.) root extract and also supplies vitamin D. It is a food for special medical purposes ([EU] No 609/2013) for the dietary management of pain in patients with gonarthritis.This 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-design study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of MA212 versus placebo in patients with gonarthritis...
June 14, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610161/the-amazing-diversity-of-the-genus-i-monospilus-i-sars-1862-crustacea-branchiopoda-aloninae-in-south-america
#8
Francisco Diogo R Sousa, Lourdes M A Elmoor-Loureiro, Eliana A Panarelli
The main goal of this paper is to describe three new species of the genus Monospilus Sars, 1862 (Crustacea: Cladocera). Monospilus macroerosus sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus in several peculiar morphological traits, the most striking being the presence of a saw-shaped pecten of teeth on the postabdominal claw. This species inhabits semiterrestrial habitats (wet leaf litter on hydromorphic soil from gallery forest), exhibiting adaptations related to movement and food handling in this type of habitat...
March 13, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610043/-i-scapanoclypeus-i-i-bicoloratus-i-new-species-from-hardap-namibia%C3%A2-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-melolonthinae-tanyproctini
#9
Richard Sehnal
Scapanoclypeus Evans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Tanyproctini) was established with Trichinopus aberrans Frey designated as its type species and included five additional species: S. testaceus Evans, S. carinatus Evans, S. cornutus Evans, S. brunneus Evans, and S. aulacocoleatus Evans. Scapanoclypeus, Trichinopus Waterhouse, and Oedanomerus Waterhouse are distinguished from other African Tanyproctini by their small size (12 mm or less), reduced mouthparts, and antennae with 8-10 antennomeres (Evans 1987)...
March 30, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609855/two-new-species-of-tardigrada-eutardigrada-ramazzottiidae-macrobiotidae-from-the-supralittoral-zone-of-the-atlantic-iberian-peninsula-rocky-shores
#10
Paulo Fontoura, Marcos Rubal, Puri Veiga
Two new species of Eutardigrada were found in supralittoral lichens, growing on rocky shores at two localities of the Western Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Ramazzottius littoreus sp. nov., found in San Cibrao (North of Spain), has the dorsal cuticle sculptured with small tubercles and claws with accessory points similar to R. oberhaeuseri. It can be distinguished from all the other known Ramazzottius species with the same type of cuticular sculpture by the dotted egg shell and the peculiar reticulation visible at the bulbous base of egg processes...
May 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603933/pretarsal-structures-in-leiodidae-and-agyrtidae-coleoptera-staphylinoidea
#11
Pedro Gnaspini, Caio Antunes-Carvalho, Richard A B Leschen
We analysed pretarsal characters of 87 species of Leiodidae (including 10 cholevines and representatives of all tribes and ca. 60% of the genera of non-cholevines), five species of Agyrtidae, and nine representatives of outgroup taxa (Hydraenidae, Staphylinidae, Hydrophilidae, and Histeridae) using scanning electron microscopy. We focused our observations on the architecture of the empodium (including the sclerites and associated setae), the shape and composition of the medial projection of the distal margin of the terminal tarsomere, and the armature of the claws, which were considered a promising source of information for delimiting supraspecific taxa in our previous study...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602753/enhanced-toughening-of-the-crossed-lamellar-structure-revealed-by-nanoindentation
#12
Christopher L Salinas, Enrique Escobar de Obaldia, Chanhue Jeong, Jessica Hernandez, Pablo Zavattieri, David Kisailus
Gastropods shells have evolved to resist the threat of increasingly stronger predators that smash, peal, and crush their shells. Their shells are most commonly constructed from a crossed lamellar microstructure, which consists of an exquisitely architected arrangement of aragonitic mineral and organic encompassing at least four orders of hierarchy. It is this careful control of mineral and organic placement within the entire crossed lamellar structure that yields a four-order of magnitude increase in fracture toughness versus abiotic aragonite...
May 31, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600394/tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-in-early-vertebrate-development
#13
Joseph Zinski, Benjamin Tajer, Mary C Mullins
TGF-β family ligands function in inducing and patterning many tissues of the early vertebrate embryonic body plan. Nodal signaling is essential for the specification of mesendodermal tissues and the concurrent cellular movements of gastrulation. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling patterns tissues along the dorsal-ventral axis and simultaneously directs the cell movements of convergence and extension. After gastrulation, a second wave of Nodal signaling breaks the symmetry between the left and right sides of the embryo...
June 9, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591285/iris-claw-intraocular-lens-implantation-in-children-with-ectopia-lentis
#14
Sadık Görkem Çevik, Muhammer Özgür Çevik, Ahmet Tuncer Özmen
Purpose: Artisan iris-claw lens implantation (AICLI) is a surgical technique for treating ectopia lentis. We aimed to compare visual outcomes and possible long-term complications of AICLI surgery in pediatric patients with ectopia lentis with or without a diagnosable hereditary disease. Methods: Seventeen children with non-traumatic ectopia lentis were retros pectively classified into two groups: group 1 included children with a diagnosable hereditary disease (11 patients, 65%), and group 2 included children without any definable hereditary disease (six patients, 35%)...
March 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579157/compound-mechanism-of-fatal-neck-injury-a-case-report-of-a-tiger-attack-in-a-zoo
#15
Łukasz Szleszkowski, Agata Thannhäuser, Tomasz Jurek
Fatal injuries caused by attacks by large wild cats are extremely rare in forensic medical practice in Europe. There are very few cases described in the forensic medical literature concerning incidents in zoos similar to the tiger attack on a 58-year-old male zoo employee that we present here. While preparing a runway for tigers, the man was attacked by a male Sumatran tiger. Another zoo employee was an eyewitness to the accident; in his testimony he described the sequence of events in detail. The autopsy showed the injuries typical of a tiger attack: traces of claws and canine teeth indicating that the victim of the attack was knocked down from behind, along with deep and extensive fatal wounds to the neck...
May 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579046/pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-toe-lesions-in-cattle-including-nonhealing-toe%C3%A2-lesions
#16
REVIEW
Johann Kofler
Toe lesions in cattle include apical white line disease, thin soles, toe ulcers, toe necrosis, digital dermatitis-associated toe ulcers/toe necrosis, and fracture of the claw capsule and the apex of the distal phalanx. For anatomic reasons, the early stages of toe abnormalities (thin sole, apical white line disease, toe ulcer) are at risk of developing into a bone infection. The prevalence of toe lesions differs in dairy herds and feedlots: it is low at the animal level in feedlots and dairies; however, the herd prevalence of toe lesions can reach 50% in dairy herds with endemic digital dermatitis infection...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579044/diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-common-disorders-involving-the-proximal-limb
#17
REVIEW
André Desrochers
Claw diseases are the principal cause of lameness in cattle. They can be easily diagnosed by examining the feet while the animal is in the trimming chute. Lameness originating from the proximal limb is more challenging because it is less visible. The author describes a systematic approach to diagnose upper limb lameness. The most common causes of lameness are reviewed with special emphasis on physical examinations and appropriate diagnostic tools.
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566356/functional-morphology-of-tarsal-adhesive-pads-and-attachment-ability-in-ticks-ixodes-ricinus-arachnida-acari-ixodidae
#18
Dagmar Voigt, Stanislav Gorb
The presence of well-developed, elastic claws on ticks and widely pilose hosts led us to hypothesise that ticks are mostly adapted to attachment and locomotion on rough, strongly corrugated and hairy, felt-like substrates. However, by using a combination of morphological and experimental approaches, we visualised the ultrastructure of attachment devices of Ixodes ricinus and showed that this species adheres more strongly to smooth surfaces than to rough ones. Between paired, elongated, curved, elastic claws, I...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560138/arthroscopically-assisted-modified-jones-procedure
#19
Tun Hing Lui
The modified Jones procedure is the classic operative treatment of symptomatic clawed hallux. It is composed of transfer of the extensor hallucis longus tendon to the first metatarsal neck and fusion of the hallux interphalangeal joint. The purpose of this technical note is to report the technique of an arthroscopically assisted modified Jones procedure. This can be combined with other minimally invasive bone and soft-tissue procedures to correct all aspects of the complex cavus foot deformity.
December 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552705/metabolic-costs-of-the-mechanical-components-of-the-apparent-specific-dynamic-action-in-the-dungeness-crab-cancer-magister
#20
Iain J McGaw, Travis E Van Leeuwen
The specific dynamic action (SDA) describes the postprandial increase in metabolism. It is a composite of mechanical and chemical digestion, nutrient transport and protein synthesis. How these individual events contribute to the overall SDA has not been worked out fully for any organism. The mechanical events associated with the SDA were investigated in Dungeness crabs, Cancer magister. Following consumption of a meal, oxygen consumption (MO2) remained elevated for several hours. When the crabs were presented with fish scent there was a 2 fold increase in MO2, which rapidly decreased once the stimulus was removed...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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