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Markéta Kubánková, Ismael López-Duarte, Darya Kiryushko, Marina K Kuimova
Amyloid deposits of aggregated beta-amyloid Aβ(1-42) peptides are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ(1-42) aggregates are known to induce biophysical alterations in cells, including disruption of plasma membranes. We investigated the microviscosity of plasma membranes upon interaction with oligomeric and fibrillar forms of Aβ(1-42). Viscosity-sensing fluorophores termed molecular rotors were utilised to directly measure the microviscosities of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) and plasma membranes of live SH-SY5Y and HeLa cells...
November 14, 2018: Soft Matter
Chunfang Wang, Ke Su, Yanyan Zhang, Weiwei Zhang, Qian Zhao, Danxia Chu, Ruixia Guo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC). However, it is not known how insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), cognate receptors for insulin and IGFs, respectively, regulate malignant behaviors of EC. In this study, we examined the biological effects of IR-A/IGF-1R, explored the downstream signaling cascades, and assessed the therapeutic potential of targeting IR-A/IGF-1R in vivo. METHODS: The expression levels of IR-A and IGF-1R were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting...
November 14, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Venkatesan Manigandan, Jagatheesan Nataraj, Ramachandran Karthik, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Ramachandran Saravanan, Arokyasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin
The present investigation was an attempt to study the effect of low molecular weight sulfated chitosan (LMWSC) on in vitro rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD) by evaluating cell viability, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis. Incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with 100 nm rotenone resulted in neuronal cell death, redox imbalanced mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA fragmentation, condensation, and apoptotic cellular morphology. Rotenone exposure enhanced the expression of preapoptotic (cytochrome C (cyto c), caspase-3, -8, -9, and Bax) and down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) markers...
November 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Kyungdo Han, Jae-Seung Yun, Yong-Moon Park, Yu-Bae Ahn, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Seon-Ah Cha, Seung-Hyun Ko
Purpose: There is a scarcity of long-term prediction models for severe hypoglycemia (SH) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, a model was developed and validated to predict the risk of SH in adult patients with T2DM. Patients and methods: Baseline and follow-up data from patients with T2DM who received health evaluations from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010 (n=1,676,885) were analyzed as development (n=1,173,820) and validation (n=503,065) cohorts using the National Health Insurance Database (DB) in Korea...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Lin Su, Junyan Tian, Jinsong Sun, Nuan Han, Lin Feng, Baohua Yu, Yuepeng Wang
Background: The overexpression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) is responsible for the progress of many cancers. However, the role of SPHK1 in the development and progression of neuroblastoma (NB) remain largely unknown. Here in this study, we explored whether silencing SPHK1 by lentivirus-mediated siRNA could be employed as a potential therapeutic target for NB. Materials and methods: Lentivirus was adopted to load SPHK1 siRNA. The results were obtained using RT-qPCR, Western blot, cell proliferation assay, transwell cell migration/invasion assays as well as in vivo xenograft tumor models in nude mice...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Hamid Reza Karimi, Kobra Janghorban, Mahmoud Raqamy, Homayoun Farahmand
In order to study in vitro propagation of some old Persian cypress genotypes ( Cupressus sempervirens L.), embryos of twenty old cypress accessions were cultured on MS and SH media containing 100 and 200 mg L-1 myo-inositol. Germination percentage and growth parameters of produced plantlets and their hardening off were evaluated. Results showed that the highest germination percentage and germination rate was obtained with MS medium containing 100 mg L-1 myo-inositol, although no significant difference was observed with MS containing 200 mg L-1 myo-inositol and SH containing 100 mg L-1 myo-inositol...
November 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Fung-Yu Kuo, Ying-Chen Lin, Ling-Yi Ke, Chuen-Jinn Tsai, Da-Jeng Yao
A device to monitor particulate matter of size 2.5 μm (PM2.5) that has been designed and developed includes a surface-acoustic-wave sensor operating in a shear horizontal mode (SH-SAW) combined with a cyclone separator. In our tests, aerosols generated as incense smoke were first separated and sampled inside a designed cyclone separator; the sampled PM2.5 was then introduced into the sensing area of an SH-SAW sensor for detection. The use of microcentrifuge tubes as a cyclone separator effectively decreases the size and power consumption of the device; the SAW sensor in a well design and operating at 122 MHz was fabricated with MEMS techniques...
August 12, 2018: Micromachines
Manasa Nune, Shivaprasad Manchineella, Govindaraju T, Narayan K S
Nerve restoration and repair in the central nervous system is complicated and requires several factors to be considered while designing the scaffolds like being bioactive as well as having neuroinductive, neuroconductive and antioxidant properties. Aligned electrospun nanofibers provide necessary guidance and topographical cues required for directing the axonal and neurite outgrowth during regeneration. Conduction of nerve impulses is a mandatory feature of a typical nerve. The neuro-conductive property can be imparted by blending the biodegradable, bioactive polymers with conductive polymers...
January 1, 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Ranran Zhou, Guanghua Lu, Zhenhua Yan, Runren Jiang, Jie Shen, Xuhui Bao
Ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) is one of the major organic ultraviolet (UV) filter pollutants in the environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the parental transfer of EHMC and induced biochemical responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to EHMC solution (1, 10, and 100 μg/L) for 4 months until sexual maturation. Then male and female parents were paired to lay eggs. F1 generations were divided into 2 categories: with and without continued EHMC exposure...
November 3, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Bar Kohavi, Marco Beato, Lior Laver, Tomas T Freitas, Linda H Chung, Antonio Dello Iacono
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week progressive resistance training program on hip joint muscles' strength measures, using the Copenhagen adduction (CA) and the sliding hip (SH) exercises. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Sport training and medical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two young male football athletes (age 17.5 ± 1.1 years; height 178.3 ± 3...
October 29, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Esperanza Naredo, Iolanda Maria Rutigliano, Iustina Janta, Chiara Scirocco, Lara Valor, Fabiana Figus, Luis Carreño, Jesús Garrido, Annamaria Iagnocco
OBJECTIVES: To compare colour Doppler (CD) versus power Doppler (PD) semiquantitative and quantitative scoring of synovial vascularisation and to evaluate the relationship between semiquantitative and quantitative scores in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: One hundred RA patients underwent B-mode, PD, and CD assessments of 12 joints at two European centres. Each joint with synovial hypertrophy (SH) detected on B-mode was semiquantitatively scored (0-3) for PD (SPD score) and CD (SCD score) synovial signal...
November 5, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Yan Zhang, Wei-Yu Zhou, Xiao-Yu Song, Guo-Dong Yao, Shao-Jiang Song
As a part of our ongoing search for neuroprotective compounds from natural products, two new iridoid glycosides, vibsansuspenside A-B (1-2), along with five known terpenoids (3-7), were isolated from the dry leaves of Viburnum odoratissimum. Their chemical structures were well determined by means of NMR spectroscopic data as well as HRESIMS analysis. All compounds were detected for their neuroprotective effects against H2 O2 -induced damage in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Among them, compound 3 displayed the most potent neuroprotective ability, and further investigation by Annexin V/PI and Western blot analysis demonstrated that compound 3 could protect SH-SY5Y cells from oxidative damage through inhibiting cell apoptosis...
November 10, 2018: Natural Product Research
Rebecca Duit, Tim J Hawkins, Arto Määttä
Thioglycolate is a potent depilatory agent. In addition, it has been proposed to be useful as a penetration enhancer for transepidermal drug delivery. However, the effects on hair structure and stress responses it elicits in epidermal keratinocytes have not been fully characterized. We have used label-free confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging supported by electron microscopy to demonstrate how thioglycolate damages hair cuticle cells by generating breakages along the endocuticle and leading to swelling of cortex cells...
November 11, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Ekrem-Murat Gonulalan, Omer Bayazeid, Funda-Nuray Yalcin, Lutfiye-Omur Demirezer
The roots of Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) are used for treating sleep disorders and/or mild nerve tension. The effect of valerenic acid on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has not yet been studied, although it is known that gamma-amino butyric acid A (GABAA ) receptor is regulated by BDNF, which modulates the depressive-like behavior and neurogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of V. officinalis root extract (VO), its main constituents valerenic acid (VA) and acetoxy valerenic acid (AVA) as well as valerenic acid-free (VAF), acetoxy valerenic acid-free (AVAF) extracts and increasing amounts of valerenic acid containing extracts on the BDNF expression in SH-SY5Y cell lines...
November 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Gyulli Sh Farzalieva, Pavel S Nefediev
A new lithobiomorph species, Shikokuobiusaltaicus sp. n. , is described from the Altai Mountains in southwestern Siberia, Russia. This is the first record of the genus Shikokuobius Shinohara, 1982 in continental Asia, all previous reports being from Japan. The distribution of Shikokuobius is mapped.
2018: ZooKeys
Preethi Menon, Suprakash Chaudhury, Daniel Saldanha, Samiksha Sahu, Vasdev Singh, Vinayak Pathak
Background: Medical studies are very challenging. As a result of the demands placed on them, students may be under stress, and this may affect their behavior and performance. Not many Indian studies have delved into this problem. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the levels of stress and its associated adverse behavioral effects in undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study included medical students from 2nd to 4th year who had given informed consent to participate in the study...
January 2018: Industrial Psychiatry Journal
Lingshuai Meng, Guang Xin, Bin Li, Dongnan Li, Xiyun Sun, Tingcai Yan, Li Li, Lin Shi, Sen Cao, Xianjun Meng
We investigated the cytoprotective effects of anthocyanins in Aronia melanocarpa against apoptosis induced by Aβ1-42, a key mediator of AD pathophysiology. We measured intracellular calcium with a colorimetric kit, cellular apoptosis with DAPI, intracellular ROS with the fluorescent marker 2,3-dimethoxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone, mitochondrial membrane potential with JC-1, and ATP with a colorimetric kit. Gene transcription and protein expression levels of calmodulin, cytochrome c, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blotting...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Da Hye Song, Gyeong-Ji Kim, Kwon Jai Lee, Jae Soo Shin, Dong-Hee Kim, Byung-Jun Park, Jeung Hee An
Parkinson's disease (PD), a common adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with complex pathological mechanisms, is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. The present study demonstrated that the herbal medicines Hepad 1 and 2 protected against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice and SH-SY5Y cells. Hepad 1 and 2 remarkably alleviated the enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, macrophage-1, and phosphorylated iκB-α) and apoptotic signals (Bcl-2-associated X protein, caspase-3, and poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1)...
November 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tiffany S Pinho, Sónia C Correia, George Perry, António Francisco Ambrósio, Paula I Moreira
Uncover the initial cause(s) underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is imperative for the development of new therapeutic interventions to counteract AD-related symptomatology and neuropathology in a timely manner. The early stages of AD are characterized by a brain hypometabolic state as denoted by faulty glucose uptake and utilization and abnormal mitochondrial function and distribution which, ultimately, culminates in synaptic "starvation" and neuronal degeneration. Importantly, it was recently recognized that the post-translational modification β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modulates mitochondrial function, motility and distribution being proposed to act as a nutrient sensor that links glucose and the metabolic status to neuronal function...
November 6, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Catherine A S Deane, Ian R Brown
HSPA6 (Hsp70B') is an inducible member of the Hsp70 (HSPA) family of heat shock proteins that is present in the human genome and not found in mouse and rat. Hence it is lacking in current animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. To advance knowledge of the little studied HSPA6, differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells were treated with the proteotoxic stress-inducing agent MG132. A robust induction of HSPA6 was apparent which localized to the periphery of MG132-induced protein aggregates in the neuronal cytoplasm...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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