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Mohamed Abdulkadir Hassan-Kadle, Mugtaba Sulaiman Osman, Pavel Petrovich Ogurtsov
AIM: To provide a clear understanding of viral hepatitis epidemiology and their clinical burdens in Somalia. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted as Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive literature search of published studies on viral hepatitis was performed from 1977-2016 in PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, World Health Organization African Index Medicus and the Africa Journals Online databases, as well as on the Ministry of Health website...
September 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hai-Yan Chen, Dan-Ting Shen, Dong-Ze Ji, Pei-Chun Han, Wei-Ming Zhang, Jian-Feng Ma, Wen-Sen Chen, Hemant Goyal, Shiyang Pan, Hua-Guo Xu
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective virus that completes its life cycle only with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The HBV with HDV super-infection has been considered as one of the most severe forms of the chronic viral hepatitis. However, there is a scarcity of data on the global burden of HDV infection. DESIGN: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China Knowledge Resource Integrated databases from 1 January 1977 to 31 December 2016. We included studies with a minimum sample size of 50 patients...
September 18, 2018: Gut
Andrew Vaillant
Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) are broad spectrum antiviral agents whose antiviral activity in HBV infection is derived from their ability to block the release of HBsAg. This pharmacological activity effectively blocks replenishment of HBsAg in the circulation, allowing host mediated clearance. This effect has important clinical significance as the clearance of circulating HBsAg dramatically potentiates the ability of immunotherapies to restore functional control of HBV infection which persists after antiviral therapy is removed...
September 10, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Ashish Goyal, Ethan Obie Romero-Severson
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D virus (HDV), which requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), is a deadly yet neglected disease that rapidly leads to liver cancer and disease-induced mortality. This co-dependence creates complex transmission dynamics that make it difficult to predict the efficacy of interventions aimed at HBV and/or HDV control in endemic regions, such as certain municipalities of Brazil, where up to 65% of HBV-infected persons are co-infected. METHODOLOGY: We created a mathematical model that captures the joint transmission dynamics of HBV and HDV, incorporating mother-to-child, sexual and household transmission...
2018: PloS One
S Gourari, S Brichler, F Le Gal, S M Abdou-Chekaraou, M A Beloufa, R Khelifa, H Djaballah, M Boufekane, A Nani, N Afredj, N Debzi, P Deny, E Gordien, M Tazir
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health concern with more than 240 million individuals chronically infected worldwide1 . Individuals with chronic hepatitis B are exposed to a risk of complications such as cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma2 . The HBV genome is characterized by a high genetic variability due to the replication error of the viral DNA during the virus' multiplication as the proofreading function of the viral polymerase is lacking3 . This article is protected by copyright...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Patrizia Farci, Grazia Anna Niro
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its assembly, release, and transmission. HDV is highly pathogenic, causing the least common, but most severe, form of chronic viral hepatitis at all ages. Although significant advances have been made in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, targeting HDV remains a major challenge because of the unconventional nature of this virus and the severity of its disease. The virus contains a ribonucleoprotein complex formed by the RNA genome with a single structural protein, delta antigen (HDAg), which exists in 2 forms (small and large HDAg) and is coated by HBsAg...
June 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mianzhi Chen, Dan Du, Wen Zheng, Mingheng Liao, Ge Liang, Lu Zhang, Meng Gong
Liver co-infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) can result in a severe form of hepatocellular carcinoma with poor prognosis. Co-infection with HDV and HBV causes more deleterious effects than infection with HBV alone. Clinical research has shown that glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), a tumor suppressor gene, is typically down-regulated in liver samples from hepatitis-infected patients. In the present study, our data indicated that small HDV antigen (s-HDAg) could specifically bind to GSTP1 mRNA and significantly down-regulate GSTP1 protein expression...
August 28, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Soraya Groc, Jessica Lee Abbate, Frédéric Le Gal, Athenaïs Gerber, Edouard Tuaillon, Jean-Louis Albert, Dieudonné Nkoghé, Eric M Leroy, Benjamin Roche, Pierre Becquart
Although central Africa is classified as having a high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection, there is paucity of prevalence studies. For the first time on a country-wide level in Central Africa, we show in Gabon an overall 7.4% prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and that more than 25% of the HBsAg-positive population are infected by HDV. Although HBV prevalence did not differ significantly between provinces, there is a north-south split in the distribution of HDV seroprevalence, with the highest rates (>66...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Sam Trinh, An K Le, Ellen T Chang, Joseph Hoang, Donghak Jeong, Mimi Chung, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Uerica Wang, Linda Henry, Ramsey Cheung, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is unclear whether drugs used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection cause significant renal impairment. We compare adjusted mean estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR; mL/min/1.73 m2 ) of patients with chronic HBV infection treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) vs patients treated with entecavir. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with chronic HBV infections treated with TDF (n=239) or entecavir (n=171), from 2000 through 2016, followed for a mean time of 43-46 months...
August 18, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Livia Melo Villar, Flavio Augusto Pádua Milagres, Elisabeth Lampe, Helena Medina Cruz, Leticia de Paula Scalioni, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, Anselmo Rocha Romão, Renata Gracie, Vanessa Salete de Paula
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HDV in urban populations and Amerindians living in the state of Tocantins (Eastern Amazon). METHODS: A total of 948 individuals were recruited in Tocantinopolis city (Tocantins state) of whom 603 were Amerindians (from 6 tribes) and 345 were non-Amerindians (6 urban areas of Tocantinópolis city). Anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-delta antibodies were determined using enzyme immunoassay...
August 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Carla Eller, Laura Heydmann, Che C Colpitts, Eloi R Verrier, Catherine Schuster, Thomas F Baumert
Chronic hepatitis B, C and D virus (HBV, HCV and HDV) infections are a major cause of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Despite employing distinct replication strategies, the three viruses are exclusively hepatotropic, and therefore depend on hepatocyte-specific host factors. The sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), a transmembrane protein highly expressed in human hepatocytes that mediates the transport of bile acids, plays a key role in HBV and HDV entry into hepatocytes. Recently, NTCP has been shown to modulate HCV infection of hepatocytes by regulating innate antiviral immune responses in the liver...
August 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Emily K Butler, Mary A Rodgers, Kelly E Coller, Devin Barnaby, Elizabeth Krilich, Ana Olivo, Michael Cassidy, Dora Mbanya, Lazare Kaptue, Nicaise Ndembi, Gavin Cloherty
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV), infects an estimated 15-20 million people worldwide and confers a greater risk for accelerated progression to liver disease. However, limited HDV surveillance data are available in sub-Saharan Africa where HDV diversity is high. To determine the prevalence and diversity of HDV in Cameroon, serological and molecular characterization was performed on 1928 HBsAg positive specimens selected from retrospective viral surveillance studies conducted in Cameroon from 2010-2016...
August 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yueran Yu, Shangda Li, Weifeng Liang
Hepatitis B infections have become a serious public health issue globally, and the current first-line antiviral treatment for this disease is not a true cure. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), a liver-specific bile acid transporter, was identified as a bona fide receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its satellite virus, hepatitis delta virus (HDV). Identification of the HBV receptor has led to the development of robust cell cultures and provides a potential target for new treatments...
July 26, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Chenxuan Liu, Guangwei Xu, Zhenchao Gao, Zhongmin Zhou, Guilan Guo, Dan Li, Zhiyi Jing, Jianhua Sui, Wenhui Li
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is a functional receptor for human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its satellite virus Hepatitis D virus (HDV). Physiologically, NTCP is responsible for the majority of sodium-dependent bile acids uptake by hepatocytes. The p.Ser267Phe (S267F) variant of NTCP is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) previously found to cause substantial loss of ability to support HBV and HDV infection and its taurocholic acid uptake function in vitro. Intriguingly, ten individuals were identified as S267F homozygotes in population studies of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients...
September 2018: Virology
Sarah Coghill, John McNamara, Marion Woods, Krispin Hajkowicz
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of those with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in Queensland, Australia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of individuals tested for HDV between 1997 and 2016 in the public healthcare system in Queensland. RESULTS: 179 individuals recorded positive HDV serology between 1997 and 2016, with a total of 4407 individuals undergoing testing (seroprevalence 4...
September 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Raffaella Romeo, Arnolfo Petruzziello, Eve Isabel Pecheur, Floriana Facchetti, Riccardo Perbellini, Enrico Galmozzi, Najeeb Ullah Khan, Lucia Di Capua, Rocco Sabatino, Gerardo Botti, Giovanna Loquercio
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that depends on the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for the creation of new virions and propagation of the infection to hepatocytes. Chronic infection with HDV is usually associated with a worsening of HBV infection, leading more frequently to cirrhosis, increased risk of liver decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence. In spite of a progressive declining prevalence of both acute and chronic HDV infection observed over several years, mainly due to increased global health policies and mass vaccination against HBV, several European countries have more recently observed stable HDV prevalence mainly due to migrants from non-European countries...
October 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Luna Colagrossi, Romina Salpini, Rossana Scutari, Luca Carioti, Arianna Battisti, Lorenzo Piermatteo, Ada Bertoli, Lavinia Fabeni, Carmine Minichini, Pascale Trimoulet, Hervé Fleury, Elena Nebuloso, Maria De Cristofaro, Giuseppina Cappiello, Alberto Spanò, Vincenzo Malagnino, Terenzio Mari, Angelo Barlattani, Nerio Iapadre, Miriam Lichtner, Claudio Mastroianni, Ilaria Lenci, Caterina Pasquazzi, Giuseppe Maria De Sanctis, Alfonso Galeota Lanza, Maria Stanzione, Gianfranca Stornaiuolo, Massimo Marignani, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni, Mario Angelico, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Carlo-Federico Perno, Nicola Coppola, Valentina Svicher
Chronic HBV + HDV infection is associated with greater risk of liver fibrosis, earlier hepatic decompensation, and liver cirrhosis hepatocellular carcinoma compared to HBV mono-infection. However, to-date no direct anti-HDV drugs are available in clinical practice. Here, we identified conserved and variable regions in HBsAg and HDAg domains in HBV + HDV infection, a critical finding for the design of innovative therapeutic agents. The extent of amino-acid variability was measured by Shannon-Entropy (Sn) in HBsAg genotype-d sequences from 31 HBV + HDV infected and 62 HBV mono-infected patients (comparable for demographics and virological-parameters), and in 47 HDAg genotype-1 sequences...
July 9, 2018: Viruses
Oidov Baatarkhuu, Tsagaantsooj Gerelchimeg, Dashchirev Munkh-Orshikh, Badamnachin Batsukh, Ganbold Sarangua, Jazag Amarsanaa
Mongolia is located between Russia and China. The total population of Mongolia as of December 2017 is estimated to be 3.2 million people. According to our previous study results, the prevalence of HBV was 11.8%, and anti-HDV was detected in 4.8% among the HBsAg-positive subjects. Interestingly, most HCV infection is caused by genotype 1b. Among all HBV DNA-positive samples, 98.5% were classified into genotype D, and regarding HDV genotypes, all HDV RNA-positive samples, 100%, were classified into genotype I...
January 2018: Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
Benjamin Y Winer, Elham Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Yaron Bram, Julie Sellau, Benjamin E Low, Heath Johnson, Tiffany Huang, Gabriela Hrebikova, Brigitte Heller, Yael Sharon, Katja Giersch, Sherif Gerges, Kathleen Seneca, Mihai-Alexandru Pais, Angela S Frankel, Luis Chiriboga, John Cullen, Ronald G Nahass, Marc Lutgehetmann, Jared E Toettcher, Michael V Wiles, Robert E Schwartz, Alexander Ploss
Chronic delta hepatitis, caused by hepatitis delta virus (HDV), is the most severe form of viral hepatitis, affecting at least 20 million hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients worldwide. HDV/HBV co- or superinfections are major drivers for hepatocarcinogenesis. Antiviral treatments exist only for HBV and can only suppress but not cure infection. Development of more effective therapies has been impeded by the scarcity of suitable small-animal models. We created a transgenic (tg) mouse model for HDV expressing the functional receptor for HBV and HDV, the human sodium taurocholate cotransporting peptide NTCP...
June 27, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Yan Wang, Jeffrey S Glenn, Mark A Winters, Li-Ping Shen, Ingrid Choong, Ya-Lun Shi, Sheng-Li Bi, Li-Ying Ma, Hui Zeng, Fu-Jie Zhang
In this study, a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) assay targeting 2 genetic segments was established to detect HDV RNA. Utilizing the World Health Organization International Standard for Hepatitis D Virus RNA, the lower limit of detection was 575 IU/mL, and the linearity of quantification ranged from 575,000 IU/mL to 575 IU/mL. 384 HBsAg-positive samples collected from China were tested by this method and HDV antibody detection. Eleven samples were positive for anti-HDV IgG which may persist after HDV resolution, 6 samples were HDV RNA positive, and 5 samples were positive for anti-HDV IgM...
October 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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