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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785877/hepatitis-b-virus-lymphotropism-emerging-details-and-challenges
#1
Shivali S Joshi, Carla S Coffin
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is predominantly a hepatotropic virus but also infects cells of the lymphatic system. HBV genomes (DNA, messenger (m)RNA, covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA) and proteins have been found in extrahepatic sites such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid. HBV entry into hepatocytes occurs by binding of the HBV preS1 surface protein to its specific receptor, the bile acid transporter, sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP)...
May 22, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779957/de-novo-macrocyclic-peptide-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-cellular-entry
#2
Toby Passioura, Koichi Watashi, Kento Fukano, Satomi Shimura, Wakana Saso, Ryo Morishita, Yuki Ogasawara, Yasuhito Tanaka, Masashi Mizokami, Camille Sureau, Hiroaki Suga, Takaji Wakita
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) constitutes a significant public health burden, and currently available treatment options are not generally curative, necessitating the development of new therapeutics. Here we have applied random non-standard peptide integrated discovery (RaPID) screening to identify small macrocyclic peptide inhibitors of HBV entry that target the cell-surface receptor for HBV, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). In addition to their anti-HBV activity, these molecules also inhibit cellular entry by the related hepatitis D virus (HDV), and are active against diverse strains of HBV (including clinically relevant nucleos(t)ide analog-resistant and vaccine escaping strains)...
May 2, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775812/virus-entry-and-its-inhibition-to-prevent-and-treat-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-infections
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Tu, Stephan Urban
While chronic infection with the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) inflict major health burdens worldwide, current therapies cannot cure patients. One possible novel approach is blocking virus entry to prevent the establishment of infection in naïve hepatocytes. As HBV and HDV use identical viral envelope proteins and the same entry mechanisms, such a strategy would target both viruses. Entry inhibitors (e.g. neutralizing antibodies) have been relegated to the limited role of prophylaxis...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761607/epidemiology-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection-in-australia
#4
Kathy Jackson, Jennifer MacLachlan, Benjamin Cowie, Stephen Locarnini, D Scott Bowden, Nasra Higgins, Theo Karapanagiotidis, Suellen Nicholson, Margaret Littlejohn
BACKGROUND: The incidence and trends in hepatitis D virus (HDV) in Australia have not been recently assessed and the circulating genotypes have never been determined. AIM: This study aimed to characterise the current virology and epidemiology of HDV. METHODS: Notifiable disease surveillance and laboratory testing data were analysed to assess demographics, risk factors, and trends. HDV serology and RNA testing were performed on requested samples from 2010-2016...
May 14, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761292/-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-d-delta-current-and-future-treatments
#5
REVIEW
N Wortmann, C Höner Zu Siederdissen, M Cornberg
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is among the 30 leading causes of death, despite effective vaccination and therapeutic options. Chronic hepatitis delta (coinfection with hepatitis D virus) leads to a rapid disease progression. AIMS: Based on current international guidelines and studies, an overview about present and future therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis B and delta is provided. RESULTS: Therapy with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues leads to nearly complete HBV DNA suppression, which is associated with regression of liver fibrosis and a lower risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma...
May 14, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743374/common-and-distinct-capsid-and-surface-protein-requirements-for-secretion-of-complete-and-genome-free-hepatitis-b-virions
#6
Xiaojun Ning, Laurie Luckenbaugh, Kuancheng Liu, Volker Bruss, Camille Sureau, Jianming Hu
During the morphogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV), an enveloped virus, two types of virions are secreted: (1) a minor population of complete virions containing a mature nucleocapsid with the characteristic, partially double-stranded, relaxed circular DNA genome and (2) a major population containing an empty capsid with no DNA or RNA (empty virions). Secretion of both types of virions requires interactions between the HBV capsid or core protein (HBc) and the viral surface or envelope proteins. We have studied the requirements from both HBc and envelope proteins for empty virion secretion, in comparison with those for secretion of complete virions...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735294/entecavir-or-tenofovir-monotherapy-prevents-hbv-recurrence-in-liver-transplant-recipients-a-5-year-follow-up-study-after-hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-withdrawal
#7
Matteo A Manini, Gavin Whitehouse, Matthew Bruce, Matteo Passerini, Tiong Y Lim, Ivana Carey, Aisling Considine, Pietro Lampertico, Abid Suddle, Nigel Heaton, Michael Heneghan, Kosh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that oral third-generation nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) monoprophylaxis following hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) withdrawal may be effective to prevent HBV reinfection after liver transplantation (LT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 01/2010 and 03/2012, all HBV monoinfected and HBV/HDV co-infected LT patients followed in our centre withdrew HBIg ± NA and were commenced on either ETV or TDF as monotherapy. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included in the study (55% TDF, 45% ETV)...
April 13, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722445/review-article-the-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
C-L Lin, J-H Kao
BACKGROUND: Ample evidence indicates an aetiological association of persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several viral, host and external risk factors for the development of HBV-related HCC have been documented. AIMS: To summarise and discuss the risk stratification and the preventive strategies of HBV-related HCC. METHODS: Recent published studies identified from PubMed were comprehensively reviewed...
May 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698488/hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-infections-in-the-central-african-republic-twenty-five-years-after-a-fulminant-hepatitis-outbreak-indicate-continuing-spread-in-asymptomatic-young-adults
#9
Narcisse Patrice Komas, Sumantra Ghosh, Mariama Abdou-Chekaraou, Pierre Pradat, Nasser Al Hawajri, Alexandre Manirakiza, Gina Laure Laghoe, Claudine Bekondi, Ségolène Brichler, Jean-Omer Ouavéné, Abdoulaye Sépou, Brice Martial Yambiyo, Jean Chrysostome Gody, Valentin Fikouma, Athénais Gerber, Natali Abeywickrama Samarakoon, Dulce Alfaiate, Caroline Scholtès, Nora Martel, Frédéric Le Gal, Hugo Lo Pinto, Ikram Amri, Olivier Hantz, David Durantel, Jean-Louis Lesbordes, Emmanuel Gordien, Philippe Merle, Tudor Drugan, Christian Trépo, Fabien Zoulim, Jean-Claude Cortay, Alan Campbell Kay, Paul Dény
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) increases morbidity in Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. In the mid-eighties, an outbreak of HDV fulminant hepatitis (FH) in the Central African Republic (CAR) killed 88% of patients hospitalized in Bangui. We evaluated infections with HBV and HDV among students and pregnant women, 25 years after the fulminant hepatitis (FH) outbreak to determine (i) the prevalence of HBV and HDV infection in this population, (ii) the clinical risk factors for HBV and/or HDV infections, and (iii) to characterize and compare the strains from the FH outbreak in the 1980s to the 2010 HBV-HDV strains...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663447/evolution-of-hbv-s-gene-in-the-backdrop-of-hdv-co-infection
#10
Samina Baig, Syed H Abidi, Zahid Azam, Shahid Majid, Saeed Khan, Muhammad R Khanani, Syed Ali
BACKGROUND: HBV-HDV co-infected people have a higher chance of developing cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to those infected only with HBV. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate HBV genotypes and phylogeny among HBV mono-infected and HBV-HDV co-infected patients, as well as analyze mutations in the surface gene of HBV in mono-infected and co-infected patients. METHODS: A total of 100 blood samples (50 co-infected with HBV and HDV, and 50 mono-infected with HBV only) were collected for this study...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644712/evolution-of-hbv-s-gene-in-the-backdrop-of-hdv-co-infection
#11
Samina Baig, Syed H Abidi, Zahid Azam, Shahid Majid, Saeed Khan, Muhammad R Khanani, Syed Ali
BACKGROUND: HBV-HDV co-infected people have a higher chance of developing cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to those infected only with HBV. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate HBV genotypes and phylogeny among HBV mono-infected and HBV-HDV co-infected patients, as well as analyze mutations in the surface gene of HBV in mono-infected and co-infected patients. METHODS: A total of 100 blood samples (50 co-infected with HBV and HDV, and 50 mono-infected with HBV only) were collected for this study...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602929/clinical-and-laboratory-characteristics-of-hepatitis-d-in-republic-of-sakha-yakutia
#12
Vadim G Krivoshapkin, Sergei I Semenov, Svetlana S Maximova, Nadegda N Tihonova, Anna I Sivtseva, Snegana S Sleptsova
OBJECTIVE: Inrtroduction: The epidemiological situation for hepatitis D has changed significantly. Reduced population authors infection due to a sharp decline in hospitalizations from Central Asia regions, the Caucasus and Moldova, which are known to be endemic for hepatitis D. Currently, the incidence of chronic hepatitis D (HGD) in Russia is 1%, while in the countries of Central Asia, and in particular in Turkmenistan, the share of HGD among chronic viral hepatitis is 8%. The aim of research was to establish the clinical features, depending on the activity of the replication of hepatitis viruses B and D...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596839/hepatitis-d-diagnostics-utilization-and-testing-in-the-united-states
#13
Parham Safaie, Sanam Razeghi, Susan D Rouster, Isaac Privitera, Kenneth E Sherman
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection may accompany acute or chronic hepatitis B virus infection. While HDV infection in the United States is thought to be uncommon, there are limited data regarding frequency of testing, and prevalence of HDV antibody and HDV RNA. We evaluated the use of HDV antibody testing using electronic medical record (EMR) data. Among 1007 HBsAg positive patients, only 121 ha d been tested for HDV antibody. Testing was performed primarily by gastroenterologists/hepatologists and limited testing was performed in identifiable high risk groups including those with HBV/HIV coinfection...
March 26, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589547/implication-of-b23-nucleophosmin-in-viral-infections-potential-uses-of-b23-npm1-inhibitors-as-antiviral-therapy
#14
Yadira Lobaina, Yasser Perera
BACKGROUND: B23/nucleophosmin (B23/NPM1) is an abundant multifunctional protein mainly located in the nucleolus but constantly shuttling between the nucleus and cytosol. As a consequence of its constitutive expression, intracellular dynamics and binding capacities, B23/NPM1 interacts with multiple cellular factors in different cellular compartments, but also with viral proteins from both DNA and RNA viruses. B23/NPM1 influences overall viral replication of viruses like HIV, HBV, HCV, HDV and HPV by playing functional roles in different stages of viral replication including nuclear import, viral genome transcription and assembly, as well as final particle formation...
March 27, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577518/quantification-of-serum-markers-of-hepatitis-b-hbv-and-delta-virus-hdv-infections-in-patients-with-chronic-hdv-infection
#15
Gabriele Ricco, Delia Codruta Popa, Daniela Cavallone, Speranta Iacob, Antonio Salvati, Daniela Tabacelia, Filippo Oliveri, Giovanni Mascolo, Ferruccio Bonino, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia, Liana Gheorghe, Maurizia Rossana Brunetto
The interplay between hepatitis B (HBV) and Delta (HDV) viruses is complex and not always characterized during chronic HDV infection. We assessed the clinical usefulness of new quantitative assays for HBV and HDV serum markers in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Sera obtained from 122 HDV-genotype-1 and HBV-genotype-D co-infected, anti-HIV-negative patients [71 males; median age 49.8 (21.7-66.9) years], recruited consecutively in two geographic areas (Italy 69 patients, Romania 53) with different HBV and HDV epidemiology, were tested for HBsAg, HBV-DNA, HBcrAg, total anti-HBc, HDV-RNA, IgM and total anti-HDV using quantitative assays...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524530/hepatitis-d-virus-replication-is-sensed-by-mda5-and-induces-ifn-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-responses-in-hepatocytes
#16
Zhenfeng Zhang, Christina Filzmayer, Yi Ni, Holger Sültmann, Pascal Mutz, Marie-Sophie Hiet, Florian W R Vondran, Ralf Bartenschlager, Stephan Urban
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and D virus (HDV) co-infections cause the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV induces an innate immune response, but it is unknown how the host cell senses HDV and if this defense affects HDV replication. We aim to characterize interferon (IFN) activation by HDV, identify the responsible sensor and evaluate the effect of IFN on HDV replication. METHODS: HDV and HBV susceptible hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were used for infection studies...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516244/molecular-characterization-of-the-full-length-genome-sequences-of-hdv-strains-circulating-in-tunisia
#17
Lamia Yacoubi, Ségolène Brichler, Frédéric Le Gal, Henda Triki, Emmanuel Gordien
While Tunisia is endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV), a recent large-scale retrospective study, revealed a very low prevalence (2%) of hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) (Yacoubi et al. in J Clin Virol 72:126-132, 2015). All strains were classified within the genotype 1 (HDV-1) as assessed by nucleotide sequencing of the so-called 'R0' region of the genome described previously. In this study, we aimed to determine the full-length genome sequence of HDV isolates in order to fully characterize the HDV strains spreading in Tunisia...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486716/characterization-of-hepatitis-b-and-delta-coinfection-in-israel
#18
Rachel Shirazi, Daniela Ram, Aviya Rakovsky, Efrat Bucris, Yael Gozlan, Yaniv Lustig, Pninit Shaked-Mishan, Orit Picard, Yonat Shemer-Avni, Haim Ben-Zvi, Ora Halutz, Yoav Lurie, Ella Veizman, Matthias Carlebach, Marius Braun, Michal Cohen- Naftaly, Amir Shlomai, Rifaat Safadi, Ella Mendelson, Ella H Sklan, Ziv Ben-Ari, Orna Mor
BACKGROUND: Characteristics of hepatitis B (HBV) and delta (HDV) coinfection in various geographical regions, including Israel, remain unclear. Here we studied HDV seroprevalence in Israel, assessed HDV/HBV viral loads, circulating genotypes and hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) conservation. METHODS: Serological anti HDV IgG results from 8969 HBsAg positive individuals tested in 2010-2015 were retrospectively analyzed to determine HDV seroprevalence. In a cohort of HBV/HDV coinfected (n=58) and HBV monoinfected (n=27) patients, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and sequencing were performed to determine viral loads, genotypes and hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) protein sequence...
February 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471567/targeting-hepatitis-d
#19
Mario Rizzetto
New therapeutic strategies to treat chronic hepatitis D are directed to deprive the hepatitis D virus (HDV) of functions necessary to complete its life cycle that are provided by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and by the host. Current options are (1) the block by the synthetic peptide Myrcludex B of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) entry into cells through the inhibition of the sodium taurocholate cotransporting receptor; (2) the inhibition with lonafarnib of the farnesylation of the large HD antigen, required for virion assembly; (3) the presumed reduction by the nucleic acid polymer REP 2139 of the release of the HBsAg and subviral HBV particles necessary for HD virion morphogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453472/prevalence-of-hepatitis-d-among-patients-with-hepatitis-b-viral-infection-attending-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-nepal
#20
Kiran Regmi, Jeetendra Kaji Shrestha, Sudhamshu Kc, Bikash Jaishi, Niyanta Karki, Dipendra Khadka, Sandip Khadka
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide there is variation in prevalence of Hepatitis D viral infection. Superinfection and co infection with hepatitis B viral infection is known to occur in 15-20 million people. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital based study carried out in NAMS, Bir hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from period of January 2017 to June 2017. Consecutive patients of chronic hepatitis B viral infection of HBsAg positive with more than two-time upper normal limit of ALT were enrolled and tested for HDV IgG...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
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