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Xin Ye, Chise Tateno, Emily P Thi, Masakazu Kakuni, Nicholas M Snead, Yuji Ishida, Trisha R Barnard, Michael Sofia, Takashi Shimada, Amy C H Lee
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infects 10-20 million individuals worldwide and causes severe fulminant hepatitis with high likelihood of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HDV infection cannot occur in the absence of the surface antigen (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus. RNA interference is an effective mechanism by which to inhibit viral transcripts and siRNA therapeutics sharing this mechanism have begun to demonstrate clinical efficacy. Here we assessed the outcome of HBV-targeting siRNA intervention against HDV and compared it to a direct anti-HDV siRNA approach in dually-infected humanized mice...
November 8, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Özgür M Koc, Geert Robaeys, Beytullah Yildirim, Dirk Posthouwer, Niel Hens, Ger H Koek
Since the cultural diversity in Western Europe is growing, this study assessed whether foreign-born chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients have more cirrhosis than Dutch or Belgian-born patients, with a main focus on the Turkish population. Baseline characteristics (e.g. socioeconomic status), biological characteristics and disease outcome (e.g. cirrhosis) were collected for all patients. Between December 2009 and January 2015, 269 CHB patients participated from the outpatient departments of three hospitals in the Netherlands, Belgium and Turkey...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Abdurrahman Sahin, Suzan Gurocak, Nurettin Tunc, Ulvi Demirel, Orhan Kursat Poyrazoglu, Handan Akbulut, Mehmet Yalniz, Zulal Asci Toraman, Ibrahim Halil Bahcecioglu
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-HDV seropositivity among subjects who had previous hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: Subjects who were admitted to the gastroenterology inpatient clinic of our hospital between August 2016 and July 2017 were screened for previous HBV infection. The subjects who had HBV serology compatible with resolved HBV infection were recruited in the study, and the seroprevalance of anti-HDV was studied...
2018: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
Mohamed A Daw, Amina M Daw, Nadia E M Sifennasr, Aisha M Draha, Ahmed M Daw, Ali M Daw, Mohamed O Ahmed, Ebtisam S Mokhtar, Abdallah El-Bouzedi, Ibrahem M Daw
Background: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection has been considered a serious neglected pandemic, particularly in developing countries. The virus causes a more severe disease than mono infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The epidemiology of HDV is not well documented in North Africa, which is known to be endemic for HBV. In this study, we explored the prevalence of HDV infection and also attempted to identify factors associated with hepatitis D positive status among chronic hepatitis B patients in North Africa...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Christopher Koh, Theo Heller, Jeffrey S Glenn
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection of humans was first reported in 1977, and now it is now estimated that 15-20 million people are infected worldwide. Infection with HDV can be an acute or chronic process that occurs only in patients with an HBV infection. Chronic HDV infection commonly results in the most rapidly progressive form of viral hepatitis; it is the chronic viral infection that is most likely to lead to cirrhosis, and it is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. HDV infection is the only chronic human hepatitis virus infection without a therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration...
October 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
Giuseppina Brancaccio, Alessandra Nardi, Salvatore Madonia, Massimo Fasano, Gabriella Verucchi, Marco Massari, Sergio Maimone, Carlo Contini, Fabio Levantesi, Arianna Alfieri, Caius Gavrila, Pietro Andreone, Michele Milella, Giovanni B Gaeta
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. AIM: The study is aimed at updating the clinical and epidemiological profile of chronic HBV infection in Italy. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicenter prospective study enrolled consecutive HBsAg positive patients seen in 73 Italian centers in the period 2012-2015. Individual patient data were collected using an electronic platform and analyzed using standard statistical methods...
September 21, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Alexander J Stockdale, Collins Mitambo, Dean Everett, Anna Maria Geretti, Melita A Gordon
BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis is an important public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to rising mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and limited implementation of screening and treatment programmes, it has been characterised as a neglected tropical disease. Synthesis of the existing evidence on the epidemiology of viral hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi is required to inform policy and identify research gaps. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies reporting the epidemiology of viral hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi from 1990 to 2018...
October 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Johanna Landahl, Jan Hendrik Bockmann, Christoph Scheurich, Christin Ackermann, Verena Matzat, Janna Heide, Tungalag Nuurei, Gianluca D'Antonio, Johann von Felden, Alessandro Sette, Sven Peine, Ansgar W Lohse, Marc Luetgehetmann, Matthias Marget, John Sidney, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch
Background: This study aimed to comprehensively define the breadth and specificity of the HDV-specific T-cell response in patients at different stages of chronic co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and delta virus (HDV). Methods: Following in vitro stimulation with an overlapping set of 21 HDV-specific 20mer peptides and exogenous IL-2, HDV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell response of 32 HDV-infected patients were analyzed by ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining for interferon-γ production on a single peptide level...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chiara Spertilli Raffaelli, Barbara Rossetti, Lorenzo Zammarchi, David Redi, Francesca Rinaldi, Andrea De Luca, Francesca Montagnani
The case reports multiple helmintiasis and chronic hepatitis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis D virus (HDV) in an immunocompetent immigrant male. It highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of neglected infectious diseases in low endemic areas, besides difficulties that Western countries encounter in responding to immigrants' health needs.
September 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Carlos Augusto Pinho-Nascimento, Martin W Bratschi, Rene Höfer, Caroline Cordeiro Soares, Louisa Warryn, Jūlija Pečerska, Jacques C Minyem, Izabel C N P Paixão, Marcia Terezinha Baroni de Moraes, Alphonse Um Boock, Christian Niel, Gerd Pluschke, Katharina Röltgen
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 257 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), with approximately 15 million of them being coinfected with hepatitis D virus (HDV). To investigate the prevalence and transmission of HBV and HDV within the general population of a rural village in Cameroon, we analyzed serum samples from most (401/448) of the villagers. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected in 54 (13.5%) of the 401 samples, with 15% of them also containing anti-HDV antibodies...
September 2018: MSystems
Mohamed Abdulkadir Hassan-Kadle, Mugtaba Sulaiman Osman, Pavel Petrovich Ogurtsov
AIM: To provide a clear understanding of viral hepatitis epidemiology and their clinical burdens in Somalia. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted as Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive literature search of published studies on viral hepatitis was performed from 1977-2016 in PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, World Health Organization African Index Medicus and the Africa Journals Online databases, as well as on the Ministry of Health website...
September 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hai-Yan Chen, Dan-Ting Shen, Dong-Ze Ji, Pei-Chun Han, Wei-Ming Zhang, Jian-Feng Ma, Wen-Sen Chen, Hemant Goyal, Shiyang Pan, Hua-Guo Xu
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective virus that completes its life cycle only with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The HBV with HDV super-infection has been considered as one of the most severe forms of the chronic viral hepatitis. However, there is a scarcity of data on the global burden of HDV infection. DESIGN: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China Knowledge Resource Integrated databases from 1 January 1977 to 31 December 2016. We included studies with a minimum sample size of 50 patients...
September 18, 2018: Gut
Andrew Vaillant
Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) are broad spectrum antiviral agents whose antiviral activity in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is derived from their ability to block the release of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). This pharmacological activity blocks replenishment of HBsAg in the circulation, allowing host mediated clearance. This effect has important clinical significance as the clearance of circulating HBsAg dramatically potentiates the ability of immunotherapies to restore functional control of HBV infection which persists after antiviral therapy is removed...
October 5, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Ashish Goyal, Ethan Obie Romero-Severson
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D virus (HDV), which requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), is a deadly yet neglected disease that rapidly leads to liver cancer and disease-induced mortality. This co-dependence creates complex transmission dynamics that make it difficult to predict the efficacy of interventions aimed at HBV and/or HDV control in endemic regions, such as certain municipalities of Brazil, where up to 65% of HBV-infected persons are co-infected. METHODOLOGY: We created a mathematical model that captures the joint transmission dynamics of HBV and HDV, incorporating mother-to-child, sexual and household transmission...
2018: PloS One
Samir Gourari, Ségolène Brichler, Frédéric Le Gal, Mariama Abdou-Chekaraou, Mohamed Amine Beloufa, Rim Khelifa, Hafida Djaballah, Mounira Boufekane, Abdelbasset Nani, Nawel Afredj, Nabil Debzi, Paul Dény, Emmanuel Gordien, Mohamed Tazir
BACKGROUND: Little is known about molecular characteristics of HBV strains circulating in Algeria and there are few data regarding HDV infection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe the genetic diversity of HBV and HDV strains existing in Algeria and to determine the seroprevalence of HDV infection. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma samples from 134 patients were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay method for HBV and HDV serological markers. Genotyping of HBV and HDV strains were performed using direct sequencing followed by phylogenetic analyses of the PreS1 and R0 region of the HBV and HDV genome respectively...
January 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Patrizia Farci, Grazia Anna Niro
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its assembly, release, and transmission. HDV is highly pathogenic, causing the least common, but most severe, form of chronic viral hepatitis at all ages. Although significant advances have been made in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, targeting HDV remains a major challenge because of the unconventional nature of this virus and the severity of its disease. The virus contains a ribonucleoprotein complex formed by the RNA genome with a single structural protein, delta antigen (HDAg), which exists in 2 forms (small and large HDAg) and is coated by HBsAg...
June 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mianzhi Chen, Dan Du, Wen Zheng, Mingheng Liao, Ge Liang, Lu Zhang, Meng Gong
Liver co-infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) can result in a severe form of hepatocellular carcinoma with poor prognosis. Co-infection with HDV and HBV causes more deleterious effects than infection with HBV alone. Clinical research has shown that glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), a tumor suppressor gene, is typically down-regulated in liver samples from hepatitis-infected patients. In the present study, our data indicated that small HDV antigen (s-HDAg) could specifically bind to GSTP1 mRNA and significantly down-regulate GSTP1 protein expression...
August 28, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Soraya Groc, Jessica Lee Abbate, Frédéric Le Gal, Athenaïs Gerber, Edouard Tuaillon, Jean-Louis Albert, Dieudonné Nkoghé, Eric M Leroy, Benjamin Roche, Pierre Becquart
Although central Africa is classified as having a high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection, there is paucity of prevalence studies. For the first time on a country-wide level in Central Africa, we show in Gabon an overall 7.4% prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and that more than 25% of the HBsAg-positive population are infected by HDV. Although HBV prevalence did not differ significantly between provinces, there is a north-south split in the distribution of HDV seroprevalence, with the highest rates (>66...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Sam Trinh, An K Le, Ellen T Chang, Joseph Hoang, Donghak Jeong, Mimi Chung, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Uerica Wang, Linda Henry, Ramsey Cheung, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is unclear whether drugs used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection cause significant renal impairment. We compare adjusted mean estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR; mL/min/1.73 m2 ) of patients with chronic HBV infection treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) vs patients treated with entecavir. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with chronic HBV infections treated with TDF (n=239) or entecavir (n=171), from 2000 through 2016, followed for a mean time of 43-46 months...
August 18, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Livia Melo Villar, Flavio Augusto Pádua Milagres, Elisabeth Lampe, Helena Medina Cruz, Leticia de Paula Scalioni, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, Anselmo Rocha Romão, Renata Gracie, Vanessa Salete de Paula
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HDV in urban populations and Amerindians living in the state of Tocantins (Eastern Amazon). METHODS: A total of 948 individuals were recruited in Tocantinopolis city (Tocantins state) of whom 603 were Amerindians (from 6 tribes) and 345 were non-Amerindians (6 urban areas of Tocantinópolis city). Anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-delta antibodies were determined using enzyme immunoassay...
August 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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