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M Kulik, D Kołodyńska, A Bayramov, A Drozdziel, A Olejniczak, J Żuk
The surfaces of (100) GaAs were irradiated with In+ ions. The implanted samples were isobaric annealed at 800°C and then of dielectric function, the surface atomic concentrations of atoms and also the chemical composition of the near surface layers in these implanted semiconductor samples were obtained. The following investigation methods were used: spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses (RBSA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in the study of the above mentioned quantities, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Qiushi Li, Jihui Wang, Xuteng Xing, Wenbin Hu
The corrosion behavior of X65 steel was investigated in the seawater inoculated with sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) under the aerobic environment by electrochemical impedance techniques and immersion tests. The corroded morphologies and the composition of the corrosion products were investigated. The variation of the solution parameters including the bacterium number, the pH value and the soluble iron concentration were also investigated. The results indicated that in the SRB-containing system, the impedance responses presented a depressed semi-circle in the initial period, which then turned into the blocked electrode characteristic during the later immersion...
March 11, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Raúl Cassia, Macarena Nocioni, Natalia Correa-Aragunde, Lorenzo Lamattina
Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth's surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxides (Nx O) and ozone (O3 ). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sue Kimbrough, R Chris Owen, Michelle Snyder, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
The nitrogen dioxide/oxides of nitrogen (NO2 /NOX ) ratio is an important surrogate for NO to NO2 chemistry in dispersion models when estimating NOX impacts in a near-road environment. Existing dispersion models use different techniques and assumptions to represent NO to NO2 conversion and do not fully characterize all of the important atmospheric chemical and mechanical processes. Thus, "real-world" ambient measurements must be analyzed to assess the behavior of NO2 /NOX ratios near roadways. An examination of NO2 /NOX ratio data from a field study conducted in Las Vegas, Nevada (NV), from mid-December, 2008 through mid-December, 2009 provides insights into the appropriateness of assumptions about the NO2 /NOX ratio included in dispersion models...
September 7, 2017: Atmospheric Environment
Morgane Dolhen, Masayuki Tanaka, Vincent Couderc, Sébastien Chenu, Gaëlle Delaizir, Tomokatsu Hayakawa, Julie Cornette, François Brisset, Maggy Colas, Philippe Thomas, Jean-René Duclère
We report on the laser emission of the polycrystalline ceramic obtained from the full and congruent crystallization of the parent glass 1Nd3+ :75TeO2 -12.5Bi2 O3 -12.5Nb2 O5 composition. In particular, the current work underlines the importance of carefully controlling the heat treatment in order to solely crystallize the Bi0.8 Nb0.8 Te2.4 O8 cubic phase and consequently avoid the formation of the BiNbTe2 O8 orthorhombic phase that would be detrimental for optical purpose. The structure, microstructure and photoluminescence properties of the resulting transparent tellurite ceramics are characterized...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yilong Hua, Wei Wang, Xiaoyue Huang, Tianhang Gu, Dexin Ding, Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
Bicarbonate, ubiquitous in natural and waste waters is an important factor regulating the rate and efficiency of pollutant separation and transformation. For example, it can form complexes with U(VI) in the aqueous phase and at the solid-water interface. In this work, we investigated the effect of bicarbonate on the aging of nanoscale zero-valent (nZVI) in the context of U(VI) reduction and removal from wastewater. For fresh nZVI, over 99% aqueous uranium was separated in less than 10 min, of which 83% was reduced from U(VI) to U(IV)...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
M Murali, P Athif, P Suganthi, A Sadiq Bukhari, H E Syed Mohamed, H Basu, R K Singhal
In the present study, freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus were exposed to sub lethal concentrations (120, 150 and 180 ppm) of Aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2 O3 NPs) for 96 h. Histological abnormalities were not observed in the organs of control fishes whereas severe damages and extensive architectural loss was found in the brain, gill, intestine, kidney and muscle tissues of treated fishes with more pronounced effects in 180 ppm. The results showed that the acute exposure to Al2 O3 NPs altered the histoarchitecture in various fish tissues...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sencer Ayas, Gokhan Bakan, Erol Ozgur, Kemal Celebi, Gamze Torunoglu, Aykutlu Dana
Metal films covered with ultrathin lossy dielectrics can exhibit strong interference effects manifested as the broad absorption of the incident light resulting in distinct surface colors. Despite their simple bilayer structures, such surfaces have only recently been scrutinized and applied mainly to color printing. Here, we report the use of such surfaces for colorimetric detection of ultrathin dielectrics. Upon deposition of a nanometer-thick dielectric on the surface, the absorption peak red shifts, changing the surface color...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Prabha R Nair, Revathy S Ajayakumar, Liji Mary David, Imran A Girach, Kavitha Mottungan
This paper presents the first observational results from an Indian station on the long-term changes in surface ozone (O3 )-a major environmental pollutant and green house gas-over a period of about 40 years. It is based on the in situ measurements carried out during 1973-1975, 1983-1985, 1997-1998 and 2004-2014 at the tropical coastal station, Thiruvananthapuram. From 1973 to 1997, surface O3 shows a slow increase of ~ 0.1 ppb year-1 and a faster increase of 0.4 ppb year-1 afterwards till 2009 after which it showed a levelling off till 2012 followed by a minor decrease...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ali Abdolahnejad, Negar Jafari, Amir Mohammadi, Mohammad Miri, Yaghoub Hajizadeh
Background: The presence of air pollutants such as CO, NO2 , SO2 , O3 , and PM in the ambient air mainly emitted from fossil fuels combustion has become a major health concern. The aims of this study were to estimate the attribution of NO2 , SO2 , and O3 in the premature deaths and prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Isfahan in 2013-2014. Methods: In this study, short-term health effects (total mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute myocardial infarction) of exposure NO2 , SO2 , and O3 on the population of Isfahan were assessed using AirQ 2...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Kaituo Liu, Xiaoming Huang, Evgeny A Pidko, Emiel J M Hensen
The catalytic hydrogenation of lactic acid to 1,2-propanediol with supported Ru catalysts in water was investigated. The influence of catalyst support (activated carbon, γ-Al2 O3 , SiO2 , TiO2 , and CeO2 ) and promoters (Pd, Au, Mo, Re, Sn) on the catalytic performance was evaluated. Catalytic tests revealed that TiO2 yields the best Ru catalysts. With a monometallic Ru/TiO2 catalyst, a 1,2-propanediol yield of 70 % at 79 % lactic acid conversion was achieved at 130 °C after 20 h reaction. Minor byproducts of the hydrogenation reaction were propionic acid, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol...
February 21, 2018: ChemCatChem
Bin Zhao, Jun-Jie Xia, Lu-Min Wang, Chang Gao, Jia-Li Li, Jia-Yin Liu, Qi-Jun Cheng, Chen Dai, Qi-Lin Ma, Zhong-Quan Qi, Ben-Hua Zhao
The role of arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) in inhibiting immune rejection and prolonging islet allograft survival has been identified in islet allotransplantation. This study aims to explore the role of As2 O3 in islet xenotransplantation and the action mechanism. The streptozotocin (STZ) was used in C57BL/6 mice to induce the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) for xenotransplantation models establishment. Donor islets were isolated by digesting. The flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze lymphocyte types. The blood sugar level was detected by using intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT)...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Shabeeb Hussain, Mohammad Mahdi Tavakoli, Aashir Waleed, Umar Siddique Virk, Shihe Yang, Amir Waseem, Zhiyong Fan, Muhammad Arif Nadeem
We demonstrate for the first time the application of p-NiFe2 O4 /n-Fe2 O3 composite thin films as anode materials for light-assisted electrolysis of water. The p-NiFe2 O4 /n-Fe2 O3 composite thin films were deposited on planar fluorinated tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass as well as on 3D array of nanospike (NSP) substrates. The effect of substrate (planar FTO and 3D-NSP) and percentage change of each component (i.e., NiFe2 O4 and Fe2 O3 ) of composite was studied on photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation reaction...
March 14, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Mona Dawood, Sami Hamdoun, Thomas Efferth
Arsenic trioxide is a traditional remedy in Chinese Medicine since ages. Nowadays, it is clinically used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) by targeting PML/RARA. However, the drug's activity is broader and the mechanisms of action in other tumor types remain unclear. In this study, we investigated molecular modes of action by classical and network pharmacological approaches. CEM/ADR5000 resistance leukemic cells were similar sensitive to As2 O3 as their wild-type counterpart CCRF-CEM (resistance ratio: 1...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sheryl Magzamen, Assaf P Oron, Emily R Locke, Vincent S Fan
BACKGROUND: Studies have linked ambient air pollution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) healthcare encounters. However, the association between air quality and rescue medication use is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the role of air pollution exposure for increased short-acting beta-2-agonist (SABA) use in patients with COPD through use of remote monitoring technology. METHODS: Participants received a portable electronic inhaler sensor to record the date, time and location for SABA use over a 3-month period...
March 13, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Yuxuan Zuo, Biao Li, Ning Jiang, Wangsheng Chu, Hao Zhang, Ruqiang Zou, Dingguo Xia
A high capacity cathode is the key to the realization of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. The anionic oxygen redox induced by activation of the Li2 MnO3 domain has previously afforded an O3-type layered Li-rich material used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries with a notably high capacity of 250-300 mAh g-1 . However, its practical application in lithium-ion batteries has been limited due to electrodes made from this material suffering severe voltage fading and capacity decay during cycling. Here, it is shown that an O2-type Li-rich material with a single-layer Li2 MnO3 superstructure can deliver an extraordinary reversible capacity of 400 mAh g-1 (energy density: ≈1360 Wh kg-1 )...
March 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Nayereh Askari, Mardali Yousefpour, Masoud Rajabi
In this research work hydroxyapatite/alumina/YSZ bio nanocomposite coatings on titanium substrate were created by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and reaction bonding process. By using the EPD process, uniform green form coatings containing HA, YSZ and aluminum particles were produced on titanium. After oxidation of aluminum at 660 ˚C and sintering at 850 ˚C, a dense and adherent HA/Al2 O3 /YSZ coating was produced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometric (XRD) and mechanical tests were employed to investigate the morphologies, compositions, hardness, toughness and bonding strength of the coatings...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
R Moalla, S Cueff, J Penuelas, B Vilquin, G Saint-Girons, N Baboux, R Bachelet
Epitaxial PbZr0.52 Ti0.48 O3 (PZT) layers were integrated on Si(001) with single PZT {001} orientation, mosaïcity below 1° and a majority of a-oriented ferroelectric domains (∼65%). Ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties are determined along both the out-of-plane and in-plane directions through parallel-plate capacitor and coplanar interdigital capacitor along the <100>PZT direction. A large anisotropy in these properties is observed. The in-plane remnant polarization (21.5 µ ) is almost twice larger than that measured along the out-of-plane direction (13...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Antonio N da Silva, Antonio B S Neto, Alcemira C Oliveira, Manoel C Junior, Jose A L Junior, Paulo T C Freire, Josué M Filho, Alcineia C Oliveira, Rossano Lang
High temperature and pressure effects on the physicochemical properties of binary oxides catalysts were investigated. The nanocomposites catalysts comprising of CeAl, CeMn and NiAl were characterized through various physicochemical techniques. A study of the temperature and pressure induced phenomena monitored by Raman spectroscopy was proposed and discussed. Spectral modifications of the Raman modes belonging to the CeMn suggest structural changes in the solid due to the MnO2 phase oxidation with increasing temperature...
February 26, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Qi Guo, Xiaoguang Xu, Fang Wang, Yunhao Lu, Jikun Chen, Yanjun Wu, Kangkang Meng, Yong Wu, Jun Miao, Yong Jiang
We report the in-plane electric field controlled ferromagnetism of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) films epitaxially deposited on [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 (PMN-PT) (001), (011) and (111) single crystal substrates. The in-plane coercivities (Hc∥) and remanences of the LSMO films greatly depend on the in-plane electric field applied on the PMN-PT (001) and (011) substrates. The experimental change of Hc∥ is consistent with Stoner-Wohlfarth model and first principle calculation with the electric field varying from -10 to 10 kV/cm...
March 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
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