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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923100/effects-of-air-pollution-exposure-on-glucose-metabolism-in-los-angeles-minority-children
#1
C M Toledo-Corral, T L Alderete, R Habre, K Berhane, F W Lurmann, M J Weigensberg, M I Goran, F D Gilliland
OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. METHODS: Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921378/origin-of-the-excellent-performance-of-ru-on-nitrogen-doped-carbon-nanofibers-for-co2-hydrogenation-to-ch4
#2
Laura Roldán, Yanila Marco, Enrique García-Bordejé
Carbon materials have rarely been used as support for CO2 methanation, which is usually carried out using catalysts supported on metal oxides. Here, it is shown that Ru nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNF) provide competitive CH4 production rate and stability compared to Al2 O3 -supported catalysts. Contrary to the general belief about the inert nature of carbon supports, it is demonstrated that NCNF is a non-innocent spectator in CO2 methanation due to its ability to store a high amount of COad reaction intermediates...
December 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919530/sources-of-formaldehyde-and-their-contributions-to-photochemical-o3-formation-at-an-urban-site-in-the-pearl-river-delta-southern-china
#3
Z H Ling, J Zhao, S J Fan, X M Wang
Two models (the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model and a photochemical box model with Master Chemical Mechanism (PBM-MCM)) were applied to analyze the formaldehyde (HCHO) data collected in July 2006 at an urban site (GPEMC) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), southern China. Three major HCHO sources (secondary formation, vehicular exhaust, and solvent usage) were identified and they were found to contribute in average 53%, 31% and 16% respectively to the total HCHO loading at GPEMC. Alkenes was the most important group contributing to the secondary formation of HCHO, followed by aromatics and alkanes...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908452/kinetics-and-mechanisms-of-nitrate-and-ammonium-formation-during-ozonation-of-dissolved-organic-nitrogen
#4
Glen Andrew de Vera, Wolfgang Gernjak, Howard Weinberg, Maria José Farré, Jurg Keller, Urs von Gunten
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an emerging concern in oxidative water treatment because it exerts oxidant demand and may form nitrogenous oxidation/disinfection by-products. In this study, we investigated the reactions of ozone with DON with a special emphasis on the formation of nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)). In batch ozonation experiments, the formation of NO3(-) and NH4(+) was investigated for natural organic matter standards, surface water, and wastewater effluent samples. A good correlation was found between NO3(-) formation and the O3 exposure (R(2) > 0...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899751/air-pollution-is-associated-with-ischemic-stroke-via-cardiogenic-embolism
#5
Jong-Won Chung, Oh Young Bang, Kangmo Ahn, Sang-Soon Park, Tai Hwan Park, Jae Guk Kim, Youngchai Ko, SooJoo Lee, Kyung Bok Lee, Jun Lee, Kyusik Kang, Jong-Moo Park, Yong-Jin Cho, Keun-Sik Hong, Hyun-Wook Nah, Dae-Hyun Kim, Jae-Kwan Cha, Wi-Sun Ryu, Dong-Eog Kim, Joon-Tae Kim, Jay Chol Choi, Mi-Sun Oh, Kyung-Ho Yu, Byung-Chul Lee, Ji Sung Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Hong-Kyun Park, Beom Joon Kim, Moon-Ku Han, Hee-Joon Bae
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assessed the impact of short-term exposure to air pollution on ischemic stroke subtype, while focusing on stroke caused via cardioembolism. METHODS: From a nationwide, multicenter, prospective, stroke registry database, 13 535 patients with acute ischemic stroke hospitalized to 12 participating centers were enrolled in this study. Data on the hourly concentrations of particulate matter <10 μm, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) were collected from 181 nationwide air pollution surveillance stations...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893718/foxo3-is-essential-for-cd44-expression-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#6
M Kumazoe, M Takai, J Bae, S Hiroi, Y Huang, K Takamatsu, Y Won, M Yamashita, S Hidaka, S Yamashita, S Yamada, M Murata, S Tsukamoto, H Tachibana
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most fatal types of cancer and the 5-year survival rate is only 5%. Several studies have suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be involved in recurrence and metastasis and so it is essential to establish an approach targeting CSCs. Here we have demonstrated that cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) suppressed CD44 expression and the properties of CSCs in PDAC. Microarray analysis suggested that cGMP inhibited Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3), which is known as a tumor suppressor...
November 28, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893376/a-modulated-excitation-imaging-system-for-intravascular-ultrasound
#7
Weibao Qiu, Xingying Wang, Yan Chen, Qiang Fu, Min Su, Lining Zhang, Jingjing Xia, Jiyan Dai, Yaonan Zhang, Hairong Zheng
Advances in methodologies and tools often lead to new insights into cardiovascular diseases. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a well-established diagnostic method that provides high-resolution images of the vessel wall and atherosclerotic plaques. High-frequency (>50 MHz) ultrasound enables the spatial resolution of IVUS to approach that of optical imaging methods. However, the penetration depth decreases when using higher imaging frequencies due to the greater acoustic attenuation. An imaging method that improves the penetration depth of high-resolution IVUS would therefore be of major clinical importance...
November 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891713/influence-of-glass-composition-on-sims-instrumental-mass-fractionation-for-si-and-ca-isotopic-analyses
#8
Laurent Tissandier, Claire Rollion-Bard
RATIONALE: In-situ SIMS analysis requires the use of standards to unravel the instrumental mass fractionation (IMF) induced by the analytical procedures. Part of this IMF might be caused by the nature of the sample and the differences in composition and structure between the sample and the standards. This "matrix effect" has been tentatively corrected for by using standards with chemical compositions equivalent to the samples, or by the empirical use of chemical parameters. However, these corrections can only be applied to a narrow compositional range and fail to take proper account of the matrix effect when a wider chemical field is tested...
November 28, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890411/effect-of-hydrolysis-of-n2o5-on-nitrate-and-ammonium-formation-in-beijing-china-wrf-chem-model-simulation
#9
Xing Su, Xuexi Tie, Guohui Li, Junji Cao, Rujin Huang, Tian Feng, Xin Long, Ruiguang Xu
Beijing, the capital of China, is a mega city with a population of >20 million. In recent years, the city has experienced heavy air pollution, with particulate matter (PM) being one of its top pollutants. In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to characterize the sources, properties, and processes of PM in Beijing. Despite progress made by previous studies, there are still some important questions to be answered and addressed. The focus of this research is to study the impact of the heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on the formation of nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) in Beijing...
November 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889952/effects-of-different-doses-of-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-modified-fe2-o3-nanoparticles-on-intercalated-discs-in-engineered-cardiac-tissues
#10
Yongchao Mou, Shuanghong Lv, Fei Xiong, Yao Han, Yuwei Zhao, Junjie Li, Ning Gu, Jin Zhou
Although iron oxide nanoparticles (IRONs) were applied in clinical magnetic resonance imaging in vivo and magnetic tissue engineering in vitro widely, the underlying effects of IRONs on the development of cardiomyocytes especially the intercellular junctions, intercalated discs (IDs), remain an unknown issue. Given the critical role of three-dimensional (3D) engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs) in evaluation of nanoparticles toxicology, it remained necessary to understand the effects of IRONs on IDs assembly of cardiomyocytes in 3D environment...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887812/chlorobenzene-degeradation-by-non-thermal-plasma-combined-with-eg-tio2-zno-as-a-photocatalyst-effect-of-photocatalyst-on-co2-selectivity-and-byproducts-reduction
#11
Farshid Ghorbani Shahna, Abdulrahman Bahrami, Iraj Alimohammadi, Rassuol Yarahmadi, Babak Jaleh, Mastaneh Gandomi, Hossein Ebrahimi, Kamal Ad-Din Abedi
The non-thermal plasma (NTP) technique, which suffers from low selectivity in complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds to CO2 and H2O, creates unwanted and harmful byproducts. NTP in concert with photocatalyst can resolve this limitation due to additional oxidation. TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles were coated on the surface of the expanded graphite and placed downstream of the NTP reactor under UV light. In this study, to compare the performance of NTP and the combined system, chlorobenzene removal, selectivity of CO2 and byproducts formation were investigated...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887621/pediatric-emergency-department-visits-and-ambient-air-pollution-in-the-u-s-state-of-georgia-a-case-crossover-study
#12
Qingyang Xiao, Yang Liu, James A Mulholland, Armistead G Russell, Lyndsey A Darrow, Paige E Tolbert, Matthew J Strickland
BACKGROUND: Estimating the health effects of ambient air pollutant mixtures is necessary to understand the risk of real-life air pollution exposures. METHODS: Pediatric Emergency Department (ED) visit records for asthma or wheeze (n = 148,256), bronchitis (n = 84,597), pneumonia (n = 90,063), otitis media (n = 422,268) and upper respiratory tract infection (URI) (n = 744,942) were obtained from Georgia hospitals during 2002-2008. Spatially-contiguous daily concentrations of 11 ambient air pollutants were estimated from CMAQ model simulations that were fused with ground-based measurements...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885809/selective-production-of-toluene-from-biomass-derived-isoprene-and-acrolein
#13
Tao Dai, Changzhi Li, Bo Zhang, Haiwei Guo, Xiaoli Pan, Lin Li, Aiqin Wang, Tao Zhang
Toluene is a basic chemical that is currently produced from petroleum resources. In this paper, we report a new route for the effective synthesis of toluene from isoprene and acrolein, two reactants readily available from biomass, through a simple two-step reaction. The process includes Diels-Alder cycloaddition of isoprene and acrolein in a Zn-containing ionic liquid at room temperature to produce methylcyclohex-3-enecarbaldehydes (MCHCAs) as intermediates, followed by M (M=Pt, Pd, Rh)/Al2 O3 -catalyzed consecutive dehydrogenation-decarbonylation of the MCHCAs at 573 K to generate toluene with an overall yield up to 90...
November 25, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884187/a-simulation-study-to-quantify-the-impacts-of-exposure-measurement-error-on-air-pollution-health-risk-estimates-in-copollutant-time-series-models
#14
Kathie L Dionisio, Howard H Chang, Lisa K Baxter
BACKGROUND: Exposure measurement error in copollutant epidemiologic models has the potential to introduce bias in relative risk (RR) estimates. A simulation study was conducted using empirical data to quantify the impact of correlated measurement errors in time-series analyses of air pollution and health. METHODS: ZIP-code level estimates of exposure for six pollutants (CO, NOx, EC, PM2.5, SO4, O3) from 1999 to 2002 in the Atlanta metropolitan area were used to calculate spatial, population (i...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882641/hydrogen-permeable-tubular-membrane-reactor-promoting-conversion-and-product-selectivity-for-non-oxidative-activation-of-methane-over-an-fe%C3%A2-sio2-catalyst
#15
Mann Sakbodin, Yiqing Wu, Su Cheun Oh, Eric D Wachsman, Dongxia Liu
Non-oxidative methane conversion over Fe©SiO2 catalyst was studied for the first time in a hydrogen (H2 ) permeable tubular membrane reactor. The membrane reactor is composed of a mixed ionic-electronic SrCe0.7 Zr0.2 Eu0.1 O3-δ thin film (≈20 μm) supported on the outer surface of a one-end capped porous SrCe0.8 Zr0.2 O3-δ tube. Significant improvement in CH4 conversion was achieved upon H2 removal from the membrane reactor compared to that in a fixed-bed reactor. The Fe©SiO2 catalyst in the H2 permeable membrane reactor demonstrated a stable ≈30 % C2+ single-pass yield, with up to 30 % CH4 conversion and 99 % selectivity to C2 (ethylene and acetylene) and aromatic (benzene and naphthalene) products, at the tested conditions...
November 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880028/effect-of-different-surface-treatments-on-bond-strength-of-resin-cement-to-a-cad-cam-restorative-material
#16
Kubilay Barutcigil, Çağatay Barutcigil, Esra Kul, Mehmet Mustafa Özarslan, Ulviye Sebnem Buyukkaplan
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of various surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A novel hybrid ceramic restorative material (Vita Enamic) was used in this study. Sixty resin block specimens were prepared and separated into six groups for each surface treatment method (n = 10); group 1: control group, no treatment applied; group 2: sandblasted by 30 μm silicate-coated alumina particles (CoJet Sandblasting); group 3: 50 μm Al2 O3 sandblasting; group 4: 10% hydrofluoric acid; group 5: no surface treatment + universal adhesive (3M Single Bond Universal); group 6: 200 mJ, 10 Hz 2W Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871798/the-association-of-air-pollution-and-greenness-with-mortality-and-life-expectancy-in-spain-a-small-area-study
#17
Carmen de Keijzer, David Agis, Albert Ambrós, Gustavo Arévalo, Jose M Baldasano, Stefano Bande, Jose Barrera-Gómez, Joan Benach, Marta Cirach, Payam Dadvand, Stefania Ghigo, Èrica Martinez-Solanas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Ennio Cadum, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been associated with an increase in mortality rates, but few studies have focused on life expectancy, and most studies had restricted spatial coverage. A limited body of evidence is also suggestive for a beneficial association between residential exposure to greenness and mortality, but the evidence for such an association with life expectancy is still very scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of exposure to air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain...
November 18, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869401/yersiniosis-in-poland-in-2014
#18
Sylwia Kamińska, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to present the epidemiological situation of yersiniosis in Poland in 2014 and compare it with the situation in the previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The evaluation was based on analysis of data from the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland” for the period 2009-2014 (MP Czarkowski et al., National Institute of Hygiene and GIS – Chief Sanitary Inspectorate), interviews of individual yersiniosis cases, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations from the whole country and the data on deaths from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866746/how-does-elevated-ozone-reduce-methane-emissions-from-peatlands
#19
Sylvia Toet, Viktoria Oliver, Phil Ineson, Sophie McLoughlin, Thorunn Helgason, Simon Peacock, Andrew W Stott, Jeremy Barnes, Mike Ashmore
The effects of increased tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution levels on methane (CH4) emissions from peatlands, and their underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. In this study, we exposed peatland mesocosms from a temperate wet heath dominated by the sedge Schoenus nigricans and Sphagnum papillosum to four O3 treatments in open-top chambers for 2.5years, to investigate the O3 impacts on CH4 emissions and the processes that underpin these responses. Summer CH4 emissions, were significantly reduced, by 27% over the experiment, due to summer daytime (8hday(-1)) O3 exposure to non-filtered air (NFA) plus 35ppb O3, but were not significantly affected by year-round, 24hday(-1), exposure to NFA plus 10ppb or NFA plus 25ppb O3...
November 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863795/decomposition-of-acetaminophen-in-water-by-a-gas-phase-dielectric-barrier-discharge-plasma-combined-with-tio2-rgo-nanocomposite-mechanism-and-degradation-pathway
#20
Guyu Zhang, Yabing Sun, Chunxiao Zhang, Zhongqing Yu
Acetaminophen (APAP) served as the model pollutant to evaluate the feasibility of pollutant removal by gas phase dielectric barrier discharge plasma combined with the titanium dioxide-reduced Graphene Oxide (TiO2-rGO) nanocomposite. TiO2-rGO nanocomposite was prepared using the modified hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM and XPS before and after plasma process. The results indicated that the APAP degradation efficiency was significantly improved to 92% after 18min of discharge plasma treatment coupling 0...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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