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Deribachew Bekana, Rui Liu, Shasha Li, Yujian Lai, Jing-Fu Liu
Although great progress has been made on designing noble metal nanoparticle aggregates/assemblies as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates, an ever increasing research interest has focused on fabrication of hierarchical nanostructures for superior SERS performance. Here, we report effective decoration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto vertically and densely grown α-Fe2 O3 nanoflakes (NFs) as SERS active substrates. The SERS substrate was prepared by thermally annealing Fe foil at 450 °C to grow α-Fe2 O3 NFs and electroless deposition of AgNPs onto α-Fe2 O3 NFs, with excellent ability to control the particle size and density...
May 2, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Xiang Li, Kai Tang, Xu-Rui Jin, Ying Xiang, Jing Xu, Li-Li Yang, Nan Wang, Ya-Fei Li, Ai-Ling Ji, Lai-Xin Zhou, Tong-Jian Cai
Air pollution is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), exerting heavy economic burden on both individuals and societies. However, there is no apparent report regarding the influence of air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), and ozone (O3 ) on financial burden to individuals and societies suffering from T2D. This study aimed to determine whether short-term (no more than 16 d) air pollution exposure was associated with T2D-related length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization expenses incurred by patients...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Manman Zhang, Kang Chen, Zhiyan Hu, Qing Shen, Haixing Wang
A PRiME (process, robustness, improvements, matrix effects, ease of use) pass-through cleanup procedure was developed for the extraction and purification of silychristins A and B, silybins A and B, isosilybins A and B, and silydianin in Silybum marianum. After optimizing the extracting solvent types and the sample loading volume, the crude extract was diluted to 3 mL with 95% acetonitrile and then loaded on the PRiME cartridge. The eluate was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Bryan Trussell, Shane Trussell, Yan Qu, Fred Gerringer, Sangam Stanczak, Teresa Venezia, Israel Monroy, Fernanda Bacaro, Rhodes Trussell
Two column pairs filled with 3.05-m of a sandy soil from the Upper San Gabriel Valley were operated for a period of four and ½ years on municipal effluent from the San Jose Creek Water Reclamation Plant operated by the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (LACSD). One column pair was fed filtered, chlorinated effluent (tertiary effluent) for the entire period. The other pair was fed ozonated secondary effluent for 8-mo, ozonated secondary effluent filtered through biological activated carbon (O3 /BAC) for 7-mo and tertiary effluent for 38-mo...
July 5, 2018: Water Research
A Monteiro, M Russo, C Gama, C Borrego
Due to its dependence on fossil fuel combustion, emissions from the marine transport sector can significantly contribute to air pollution. This work aims to evaluate the impact of maritime transport emissions on air quality in Portugal using a numerical air quality modelling approach, with high-resolution emission data. Emissions from the European TNO inventory were compiled and pre-processed at hourly and high spatial (∼3 × 3 km2 ) resolutions. Scenarios with and without these maritime emissions were then simulated with the WRF-CHIMERE modelling system, extensively tested and validated for Portugal domain, in order to evaluate their impact on air quality...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Klara Slezakova, Cátia Peixoto, Maria do Carmo Pereira, Simone Morais
Associations between indoor air quality (IAQ) and health in sport practise environments are not well understood due to limited knowledge of magnitude of inhaled pollutants. Thus, this study assessed IAQ in four health clubs (HC1-HC4) and estimated inhaled doses during different types of activities. Gaseous (TVOCs, CO, O3 , CO2 ) and particulate pollutants (PM1 , PM4 ) were continuously collected during 40 days. IAQ was influenced both by human occupancy and the intensity of the performed exercises. Levels of all pollutants were higher when clubs were occupied (p < 0...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Lia Ooi, Takakazu Matsuura, Shintaro Munemasa, Yoshiyuki Murata, Maki Katsuhara, Takashi Hirayama, Izumi C Mori
Plants closing stomata in the presence of harmful gases is believed to be a stress avoidance mechanism. SO2 , one of the major airborne pollutants, has long been reported to induce stomatal closure, yet the mechanism remains unknown. Little is known about the stomatal response to airborne pollutants besides O3 . SLOW ANION CHANNEL-ASSOCIATED 1 (SLAC1) and OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) were identified as genes mediating O3 -induced closure. SLAC1 and OST1 are also known to mediate stomatal closure in response to CO2 , together with RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGs (RBOHs)...
July 16, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Dehong Luo, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Renle Du, Wenjuan Gao, Na Luo, Shuangtao Zhao, Yi Li, Rui Chen, Hui Wang, Yonghua Bao, Wancai Yang, Daishun Liu, Wenzhi Shen
Arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) induces cell apoptosis and reduces the invasive and metastatic activities in various cancer types. However, the role of As2 O3 in ovarian cancer angiogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of As2 O3 in ovarian cancer angiogenesis and found that a low concentration of As2 O3 causes no effects on epithelial ovarian cancer cell viability or apoptosis. Moreover, we found that As2 O3 -treated epithelial ovarian cancer cells demonstrate a reduced tube formation of endothelial cells in Matrigel...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Haihong Bao, Congzhe Zhang, Yinping Miao, Wei Jin
Light-gas interaction can be enhanced by using disordered porous materials since multiple random scattering increases light intensity near the surface of the material. Here we report signal enhancement of photoacoustic gas spectroscopy with disordered porous ceramics. The amplitude and frequency characteristics of photoacoustic signal due to gas absorption in disordered materials are modeled theoretically. Experiment with a porous Al2 O3 sample demonstrates photoacoustic signal enhancement of ~ 4 times at 5 kHz...
July 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shian Guan, Aline Rougier, Oudomsack Viraphong, Dominique Denux, Nicolas Penin, Manuel Gaudon
Highly crystallized monoclinic vanadium dioxide, VO2 (M), is successfully synthesized by a two-step thermal treatment: thermolysis of vanadyl ethylene glycolate (VEG) and postannealing of the poorly crystallized VO2 powder. In the first thermolysis step, the decomposition of VEG at 300 °C is investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A poorly crystallized VO2 powder is obtained at a strict time of 3 min, and it is found that the residual carbon content in the powder played a critical role in the post crystallization of VO2 (M)...
July 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Hai Thi Huynh, Huu Trong Phan, Po-Jen Hsu, Jien-Lian Chen, Hock Seng Nguan, Shang-Ting Tsai, Thantip Roongcharoen, Chia Yen Liew, Chi-Kung Ni, Jer-Lai Kuo
Collision-induced dissociation of sodiated α-glucose, β-glucose, α-galactose, β-galactose, α-mannose, and β-mannose was studied using electronic structure calculations and resonance excitation in a low-pressure linear ion trap. We made an extensive search of conformers and transition states in calculations to ensure the transition state with the lowest barrier height for each dissociation channel could be located. The major dissociation channels, in addition to desodiation, are cross-ring dissociation and dehydration...
July 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Aleksandra Man-Kupisinska, Anna S Swierzko, Anna Maciejewska, Monika Hoc, Antoni Rozalski, Malgorzata Siwinska, Czeslaw Lugowski, Maciej Cedzynski, Jolanta Lukasiewicz
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin), the main surface antigen and virulence factor of Gram-negative bacteria, is composed of lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O-specific polysaccharide (O-PS) regions. Each LPS region is capable of complement activation. We have demonstrated that LPS of Hafnia alvei , an opportunistic human pathogen, reacts strongly with human and murine mannose-binding lectins (MBLs). Moreover, MBL-LPS interactions were detected for the majority of other Gram-negative species investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shichang Sun, Xiaofei Huang, Junhao Lin, Rui Ma, Lin Fang, Peixin Zhang, Junle Qu, Xianghua Zhang, Yilin Liu
In order to enhance the immobilization of heavy metals in the bio-char during microwave pyrolysis, the immobilization efficiency and mechanism of heavy metals in the microwave pyrolysis of sludge with different alkaline catalysts were explored. Results showed that the leaching concentrations of heavy metals reduced greatly after pyrolysis, which were lower when catalyzed by CaO than those of Fe2 O3 . CaO was more favorable for the immobilization of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni while Fe2 O3 was more favorable for Cd...
July 2018: Waste Management
Ayman Hijazi, Cassia Boyadjian, Mohammad N Ahmad, Joseph Zeaiter
The solar pyrolysis of waste tire rubber was investigated with the application of heterogeneous photocatalysts including TiO2 , Pd/TiO2 , Pt/TiO2 , Pd-Pt/TiO2 , and Bi2 O3 /SiO2 /TiO2 . Experiments were performed at temperatures ranging between 550 and 570 °C under solar irradiations of 950-1050 W/m2 . The gas yield from non-catalytic solar pyrolysis was at 20% while the use of TiO2 catalyst increased the gas yield to 27%. Doping of TiO2 with noble metals and Bi2 O3 /SiO2 metal oxides enhanced further the cracking ability of the catalyst...
July 2018: Waste Management
Adriana Ramos-Ruiz, James A Field, Wenjie Sun, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a material widely used in electronic devices. Disposal of electronic waste containing GaAs in municipal solid waste landfills raises concerns about the public health and ecological risks associated with the potential release of toxic arsenic (As) species. In this study, different tests were performed to investigate the leaching behavior of particulate GaAs in aqueous solutions. In the U.S. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and California Waste Extraction Test (WET), the concentrations of As released from the GaAs particles were about 2...
July 2018: Waste Management
Bruna Gomes Maciel, Romário Justino da Silva, Alicia Elizabeth Chávez-Guajardo, Juan Carlos Medina-Llamas, José Jarib Alcaraz-Espinoza, Celso Pinto de Melo
We examined the properties of the nanocomposite γ-Fe2 O3 @Chi@Pani as an adsorbent of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). As a model system, we used an aqueous solution of salmon sperm DNA, whose decreasing concentration was followed by monitoring the 260 nm UV-vis absorption. After adjusting the data collected to a Langmuir isotherm curve, we estimated the adsorption capacity (qe ) of the nanocomposite as 49.5 mg/g. We also observed that the kinetic model of the DNA capture presents a mixed character, with both chemical mechanisms and intraparticle diffusion processes involved...
October 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Micah P Prange, Xin Zhang, Eugene S Ilton, Libor Kovarik, Mark H Engelhard, Sebastien N Kerisit
Aluminum-bearing minerals show different hydrogen evolution and dissolution properties when subjected to radiation, but the complicated sequence of events following interaction with high-energy radiation is not understood. To gain insight into the possible mechanisms of hydrogen production in nanoparticulate minerals, we study the electronic response and determine the bandgap energies of three common aluminum-bearing minerals with varying hydrogen content: gibbsite (Al(OH)3 ), boehmite (AlOOH), and alumina (Al2 O3 ) using electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and first-principles electronic structure calculations employing hybrid density functionals...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Hui Li, Fengkui Duan, Yongliang Ma, Kebin He, Lidan Zhu, Tao Ma, Siqi Ye, Shuo Yang, Tao Huang, Takashi Kimoto
Continuous haze monitoring was conducted from 12:00 3 April to 12:00 8 April 2016 in Beijing, China to develop a more detailed understanding of spring haze characteristics. The PM2.5 concentration ranged from 6.30 to 165 μg m-3 with an average of 63.8 μg m-3 . Nitrate was the most abundant species, accounting for 36.4% of PM2.5 , followed by organic carbon (21.5%), NH4 + (19.3%), SO4 2- (18.8%), and elemental carbon (4.10%), indicating the key role of nitrate in this haze event. Species contribution varied based on the phase of the haze event...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Donglin He, Xiaojuan Wu, Yanfeng Chen, Yue Situ, Li Zhong, Hong Huang
γ-FeOOH was grown in situ on the surface of rod Bi2 O3 to construct a perfect cycle coupling photocatalysis and heterogeneous Fenton-like process. The degradation efficiency of this system was detected under the irradiation of visible light. γ-FeOOH/Bi2 O3 showed better degradation efficiency than pure Bi2 O3 and γ-FeOOH, and the amount of TOC was decreased to 4.3, suggesting that the system exhibits outstanding oxidation ability that MO and phenol could be degraded to CO2 and H2 O totally. PL spectra, trapping experiments and ESR test were also carried out to confirm the mechanism of photocatalysis with heterogeneous Fenton-like process, and the suitable conduction band (CB) of Bi2 O3 matches the electric potential of iron ions was proved to be the key to keep the perfect cycle...
June 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Nobutaka Oi, Masafumi Inaba, Satoshi Okubo, Ikuto Tsuyuzaki, Taisuke Kageura, Shinobu Onoda, Atsushi Hiraiwa, Hiroshi Kawarada
Power semiconductor devices require low on-resistivity and high breakdown voltages simultaneously. Vertical-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) meet these requirements, but have been incompleteness in diamond. Here we show vertical-type p-channel diamond MOSFETs with trench structures and drain current densities equivalent to those of n-channel wide bandgap devices for complementary inverters. We use two-dimensional hole gases induced by atomic layer deposited Al2 O3 for the channel and drift layers, irrespective of their crystal orientations...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
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