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Shahenda A Abu ElEla, Evgenios Agathokleous, Nirvina A Ghazawy, Tarek R Amin, Wael M ElSayed, Takayoshi Koike
Tropospheric ozone (O3 ) is a naturally occurring gas in the atmosphere. However, the concentration of O3 increased in the twentieth century. Although the effects of O3 on vegetation have been extensively studied since the 1950s, limited information exists regarding the effects of O3 on insect herbivores. In particular, evidence is lacking regarding the effects of O3 on the biology of insect herbivores. Agelastica coerulea Baly (1874) is a coleopteran species that grazes on Betulaceae plants. In this study, to investigate the effects of O3 on A...
September 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
O L Khasanov, E S Dvilis, E F Polisadova, S A Stepanov, D T Valiev, V D Paygin, D V Dudina
The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of the ultrasonic treatment on the optical and cathodoluminescent properties of translucent ZrO2 -8 mol.% Y2 O3 (YSZ) ceramics obtained by conventional sintering of the pressed compacts. Treatment by intense ultrasound during dry pressing of the YSZ nanopowder leads to an increase in the relative density, a decrease in the pore size and an increase in the grain size of the sintered ceramics. It was shown that when the ultrasonic treatment is applied, the optical absorption cutoff wavelength of the sintered material is shifted to longer wavelengths, while the optical density of the material increases over the whole measurement spectrum...
September 12, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Qiong Wang, Tarik Benmarhnia, Huanhuan Zhang, Luke D Knibbs, Paige Sheridan, Changchang Li, Junzhe Bao, Meng Ren, Suhan Wang, Yiling He, Yawei Zhang, Qingguo Zhao, Cunrui Huang
Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with preterm birth (PTB), however, entire pregnancy or trimester-specific associations were generally reported, which may not sufficiently identify windows of susceptibility. Using birth registry data from Guangzhou, a megacity of southern China (population ~14.5 million), including 469,975 singleton live births between January 2015 and July 2017, we assessed the association between weekly air pollution exposure and PTB in a retrospective cohort study...
September 18, 2018: Environment International
Teresa Baumer, Amy E Hixon
Kinetic studies can improve our understanding of the environmental mobility of radionuclides by providing insight into sorption mechanisms occurring at the mineral-water interface. While nearly identical equilibrium europium sorption edges are obtained for gibbsite (γ-Al(OH)3 ), bayerite (α-Al(OH)3 ), corundum (α-Al2 O3 ), and γ-Al2 O3 , differences in surface acidity and crystal structure result in distinct reaction rates. Batch kinetic experiments were performed to investigate europium sorption to four aluminum (hydr)oxide minerals as a function of time (10-120 min), mineral concentration (0...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hanzhong Jia, Song Zhao, Yafang Shi, Xiaoyun Fan, Tiecheng Wang
Transformation of PAHs, i.e., anthracene, and production of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) on seven types of representative soils were investigated, focusing on the influences of soil characteristics and ambient conditions on these reactions. The transformation rate of anthracene exhibits the order of red earth > yellow earth > latosol ∼ fluvo-aquic soil > brown earth > chernozem > calcic brown soil, which is positively correlated with Fe content in soils...
September 9, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Tao Li, Guihua Sun, Chupeng Yang, Kai Liang, Shengzhong Ma, Lei Huang, Weidong Luo
Major and trace elemental concentrations in coastal marine sediments were incorporated into positive matrix factorization (PMF) to identify potential sources and source contributions. Transport pathways of fine-grained sediments and sediment-bound elements were inferred from sediment trend analysis (STA). The spatial distribution patterns of 21 elements (Co, Cu, Ni, Sr, Zn, V, Ba, Sc, Ga, Pb, Cr, Zr, SiO2 , Al2 O3 , Fe2 O3 , MgO, CaO, K2 O, MnO, TiO2 , and P2 O5 ) coupled with sediment grain sizes were investigated...
September 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Camille Guilleux, Peter G C Campbell, Claude Fortin
Silver nanoparticles, used mainly for their antibacterial properties, are among the most common manufactured nanomaterials. How they interact with aquatic organisms, especially how they cross biological membranes, remains uncertain. Free Ag+ ions, released from these nanoparticles, are known to play an important role in their overall bioavailability. In this project, we have studied the uptake of dissolved and nanoparticulate silver by liposomes. These unilamellar vesicles, composed of phospholipids, have long been used as models for natural biological membranes, notably to study the potential uptake of solutes by passive diffusion through the phospholipid bilayer...
September 20, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Tianming Qiu, Pei Pei, Xiaofeng Yao, Liping Jiang, Sen Wei, Zhidong Wang, Jie Bai, Guang Yang, Ni Gao, Lei Yang, Shuangyue Qi, Rushan Yan, Xiaofang Liu, Xiance Sun
Arsenic exposure causes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Inflammation is a key contributor to the pathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including NASH. However, it is unclear how arsenic induces inflammation. In mouse livers, we show that arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) induced NASH, increased autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, increased lipid accumulation, and resulted in dysregulation of lipid-related genes. Supplemented with taurine (Tau) attenuated the inflammation and autophagy caused by As2 O3 ...
September 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Bharat Gwalani, Rizaldy M Pohan, Junho Lee, Bin Lee, Rajarshi Banerjee, Ho Jin Ryu, Soon Hyung Hong
A significant increase in compressive yield strength of the Al0.3 CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) from 979 MPa to 1759 MPa was observed upon the introduction of 3 vol.% Y2 O3 . The HEAs were processed using spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed powders. Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography confirmed the presence of compositionally complex nano-dispersoids in the Y2 O3 -added HEA. The significant increase in strength can be attributed to the nano-dispersoid strengthening coupled with grain refinement...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liudmyla Masliuk, Manfred Swoboda, Gerardo Algara-Siller, Robert Schlögl, Thomas Lunkenbein
We present a versatile grid reactor setup for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which is able to track catalytic conversion on TEM amounts of sample. It is based on the concept of decoupling catalytic gas-phase reactions from the structural analysis of identical particles before and after reaction. The system has superior properties in terms of image resolution and long-term measurements compared to conventional in situ TEM analysis. Monitoring catalytic conversions on a TEM grid is enabled by proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry...
September 5, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Alex Fabiano Cortez Campos, Helena Augusta Lisboa de Oliveira, Fabiana Narciso da Silva, Franciscarlos Gomes da Silva, Priscilla Coppola, Renata Aquino, Alessio Mezzi, Jerome Depeyrot
Novel nanoadsorbents based on core-shell bimagnetic nanoparticles (CoFe2 O4 @ɣ-Fe2 O3 ) with two different mean sizes were elaborated, characterized and applied as potential sorbents for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions through magnetically assisted chemical separation. The nanoadsorbents were characterized by XRD, TEM, FTIR, XPS, potentiometric-conductometric titrations, BET and vibrating sample magnetometry. The influence of contact time, shaking rate, pH, pollutant concentration, temperature and competing ions on Cr(VI) adsorption were evaluated...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
W H Koppenol, R H Hider
A major form of toxicity arises from the ability of iron to redox cycle, that is, to accept an electron from a reducing compound and to pass it on to H2 O2 (the Fenton reaction). In order to do so, iron must be suitably complexed to avoid formation of Fe2 O3 . The ligands determine the electrode potential; this information should be known before experiments are carried out. Only one-electron transfer reactions are likely to be significant; thus two-electron potentials should not be used to determine whether an iron(III) complex can be reduced...
September 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Sadin Özdemir, Siham Abdullah Mohamedsaid, Ersin Kılınç, Mustafa Soylak
A new bio-MSPE sorbent based on the use of C. micaceus and γ-Fe2 O3 magnetic nanoparticle was prepared for the preconcentrations of Co(II) and Hg(II). Critical parameters including pH, flow rate, quantity of C. micaceus, quantity of γ-Fe2 O3 magnetic nanoparticle, eluent (type, concentration and volume), sample volume, and foreign ions were examined. Surface structure and variations after interaction with Co(II) and Hg(II) of bio-MSPE sorbent were investigated by FT-IR, SEM, and EDX. The impact of bio-MSPE column reusage was also tested...
January 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Jith Thomas, Josée Guénette, Errol M Thomson
Ozone (O3 ), a ubiquitous urban air pollutant, causes adverse pulmonary and extrapulmonary effects. A large variability in acute O3 -induced effects has been observed; however, the basis for interindividual differences in susceptibility is unclear. We previously demonstrated a role for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis and glucocorticoid response in acute O3 toxicity. Glucocorticoids have important anti-inflammatory actions, and have been shown to regulate lung inflammatory responses. We hypothesised that a hyporesponsive HPA axis would be associated with greater O3 -dependent lung inflammatory signaling...
September 8, 2018: Environmental Research
Chunzhe Duan, Evelyn Talbott, Maria Brooks, Sung Kyun Park, Rachel Broadwin, Karen Matthews, Emma Barinas-Mitchell
INTRODUCTION: Effects of more than one-year exposure to air pollution on atherosclerosis is seldom studied. This paper aims to examine the association between five-year exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 ), ozone (O3 ) and atherosclerosis observed about seven years later in late midlife women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted among 1188 women of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) from five sites, Detroit, MI; Oakland, CA; Pittsburgh, PA; Chicago, IL; and Newark, NJ, with available data on both air pollutant exposure and carotid ultrasound scans...
September 17, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Wen-Yuan Liu, Zhe-Bin Yu, Hai-Yan Qiu, Jian-Bing Wang, Xue-Yu Chen, Kun Chen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollutants has been related to preterm birth, but little evidence can be available for PM2.5 , O3 and CO in China. This study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of exposure to air pollutants on risk preterm birth during 2014-2016 in Ningbo, China. METHODS: We conducted a time-series study to evaluate the associations between daily preterm birth and major air pollutants (including PM2.5 , PM10 , SO2 , NO2 , O3 and CO) in Ningbo during 2014-2016...
September 20, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Rui Xue, Jinsong Feng, Lina Ma, Chunrong Liu, Ming Xian, Michael E Konkel, Shuo Wang, Xiaonan Lu
Two metal oxide (i.e., Al2 O3 and TiO2 ) nanoparticles and ajoene, a garlic-derived organosulfur compound, were identified to be effective antimicrobials against Campylobacter jejuni , a leading cause of human gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. A significant synergistic antimicrobial effect was observed using ajoene and Al2 O3 /TiO2 nanoparticles in a combined manner to cause at least 8 log10 CFU/mL reduction of C. jejuni cells. Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopic analyses revealed the antimicrobial mechanism and identified the roles of ajoene and metal oxide nanoparticles in the synergistic treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
HuiWen Xue, QiMing He, GuangZhong Jian, ShiBing Long, Tao Pang, Ming Liu
Gallium oxide (Ga2 O3 ) is a new semiconductor material which has the advantage of ultrawide bandgap, high breakdown electric field, and large Baliga's figure of merit (BFOM), so it is a promising candidate for the next-generation high-power devices including Schottky barrier diode (SBD). In this paper, the basic physical properties of Ga2 O3 semiconductor have been analyzed. And the recent investigations on the Ga2 O3 -based SBD have been reviewed. Meanwhile, various methods for improving the performances including breakdown voltage and on-resistance have been summarized and compared...
September 19, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Lu-Mei Pu, Xiao-Yan Li, Jing Hao, Yin-Xia Sun, Yang Zhang, Hai-Tao Long, Wen-Kui Dong
A highly selective fluorescent sensor H4 L based on a bis(salamo)-type compound with two N2 O2 chelating moieties as ionophore was successfully developed. Sensor H4 L was found to have excellent selectivity for B4 O7 2- over many other anions (Br- , CI- , CN- , CO3 2- , HCO3 - , H2 PO4 - , HSO4 - , NO3 - , OAc- , S2 O3 - , SCN- , SO4 2- , Hcy (homocysteine) and H2 O2 ), and it exhibited an approximately 150-fold enhancement of the fluorescence response to B4 O7 2- in Tris-HCl buffer (DMF/H2 O = 9:1, v/v, pH = 7) solutions...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shinnosuke Ishizuka, Yuki Kimura, Itsuki Sakon, Hiroshi Kimura, Tomoya Yamazaki, Shinsuke Takeuchi, Yuko Inatomi
Alumina (Al2 O3 ) is believed to be the first major condensate to form in the gas outflow from oxygen-rich evolved stars because of the refractoriness and that α-Al2 O3 (corundum, most stable polymorph) is a potential origin of a 13 μm feature that appears close to stars. However, no one has directly reproduced the 13 μm feature experimentally, and it has remained as a noteworthy unidentified infrared band. Here, we report nucleation experiments on Al2 O3 nanoparticles monitored by a specially designed infrared spectrometer in the microgravity environment of a sounding rocket...
September 19, 2018: Nature Communications
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