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Qi Yuan, Senchao Lai, Junwei Song, Xiang Ding, Lishan Zheng, Xinming Wang, Yan Zhao, Junyu Zheng, Dingli Yue, Liuju Zhong, Xiaojun Niu, Yingyi Zhang
Thirteen secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers of isoprene (SOAI ), monoterpenes (SOAM ), sesquiterpenes (SOAS ) and aromatics (SOAA ) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) were measured at a Pearl River Delta (PRD) regional site for one year. The characteristics including their seasonal cycles and the factors influencing their formation in this region were studied. The seasonal patterns of SOAI , SOAM and SOAS tracers were characterized over three enhancement periods in summer (I), autumn (II) and winter (III), while the elevations of SOAA tracer (i...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Lívia Caroline Dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Herrera Adarme, Bruno Eduardo Lobo Baêta, Leandro Vinícius Alves Gurgel, Sérgio Francisco de Aquino
Ozone pretreatment of coffee husks (CH) was evaluated to generate hydrolysates for biogas production and to preserve cellulose of the solid phase for 2G ethanol production. Pretreatment variables included liquid-to-solid ratio (LSR), pH and specific applied ozone load (SAOL). Considering single-stage anaerobic digestion (AD), the highest methane production (36 NmL CH4 /g CH) was achieved with the hydrolysate generated in the experiment using LSR 10 mL/g, pH 11 and SAOL 18.5 mg O3 /g CH, leading to 0...
May 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
S Amber Yousaf, M Ikram, S Ali
The wet chemical synthesis of chromium oxide (Cr2 O3 ) nanoparticles (NPs) and its application in active layer of inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is documented in this research. Chromium oxide NPs of 10-30 nm size range having a band gap of 2.9 eV were successfully synthesized. These NPs were used in inverted organic solar cells in amalgamation with P3HT:PCBM and PTB7:PCBM polymers. The fabricated hybrid devices improves PCE significantly for P3HT:PCBM and PTB7:PCBM systems. The photophysical energy levels, optoelectrical properties and microscopic images have been systematically studied for the fabricated devices...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Xiaoli Song, Juan You, Hongxia Shao, Caifeng Yan
As2 O3 -loaded nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Then Lactose acid (LA) and/or PEG were modified onto the NPs by chemical covalent coupling through -NH2 and -COOH. The FTIR results showed that LA and PEG could be successfully modified onto the surface of the NPs. All the As2 O3 -loaded PLGA NPs (As2 O3 @PLGA NPs) presented suitable physical stability, favorable size, and spherical shape. The in vitro release rate of As2 O3 from the NPs depended on the surface of the NPs...
May 21, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jin-Le Hou, Peng Huo, Zheng-Zhen Tang, Li-Na Cui, Qin-Yu Zhu, Jie Dai
The use of multiple sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells has been attractive as a promising way to achieve highly efficient photovoltaic performance. However, except for the complementary absorption, synergistic effects among the dye components have not been well understood. Herein, using ferrocene-1-carboxylate (FcCO2 ) and catechol (Cat) as dye ligands, two titanium oxo clusters (TOCs), [Ti3 O(Oi Pr)6 (Cat)(FcCO2 )2 ] (1) and [Ti7 O4 (Oi Pr)8 (Cat)5 (FcCO2 )2 ] (2), were synthesized and structurally characterized...
May 24, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Takayuki Ishii, Tsubasa Sakai, Hiroshi Kojitani, Daisuke Mori, Yoshiyuki Inaguma, Yoshitaka Matsushita, Kazunari Yamaura, Masaki Akaogi
We have investigated high-pressure, high-temperature phase transitions of spinel (Sp)-type MgV2 O4 , FeV2 O4 , and MnCr2 O4 . At 1200-1800 °C, MgV2 O4 Sp decomposes at 4-7 GPa into a phase assemblage of MgO periclase + corundum (Cor)-type V2 O3 , and they react at 10-15 GPa to form a phase with a calcium titanite (CT)-type structure. FeV2 O4 Sp transforms to CT-type FeV2 O4 at 12 GPa via decomposition phases of FeO wüstite + Cor-type V2 O3 . MnCr2 O4 Sp directly transforms to the calcium ferrite (CF)-structured phase at 10 GPa and 1000-1400 °C...
May 23, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Geoffrey Monet, Mohamed S Amara, Stéphan Rouzière, Erwan Paineau, Ziwei Chai, Joshua D Elliott, Emiliano Poli, Li-Min Liu, Gilberto Teobaldi, Pascale Launois
Determination of the atomic structure of inorganic single-walled nanotubes with complex stoichiometry remains elusive due to the too many atomic coordinates to be fitted with respect to X-ray diffractograms inherently exhibiting rather broad features. Here we introduce a methodology to reduce the number of fitted variables and enable resolution of the atomic structure for inorganic nanotubes with complex stoichiometry. We apply it to recently synthesized methylated aluminosilicate and aluminogermanate imogolite nanotubes of nominal composition (OH)3 Al2 O3 Si(Ge)CH3 ...
May 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Moteb M Alqahtani, Atif M Ali, Farid A Harraz, M Faisal, Adel A Ismail, Mahmoud A Sayed, M S Al-Assiri
Mesoporous α-Fe2 O3 has been synthesized via a simple sol-gel procedure in the presence of Pluronic (F-127) triblock copolymer as structure directing agent. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were deposited onto α-Fe2 O3 matrix by the photochemical reduction approach. Morphological analysis revealed the formation of Ag nanoparticles with small sizes < 20 nm onto the mesoporous structure of α-Fe2 O3 possessing < 50 nm semi-spherical shape. The XRD, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, PL, and N2 sorption isotherm studies confirmed the high crystallinity, mesoporosity, and optical characteristics of the synthesized product...
May 21, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Sung Keun Lee, Yong-Hyun Kim, Paul Chow, Yunming Xiao, Cheng Ji, Guoyin Shen
Structural transition in amorphous oxides, including glasses, under extreme compression above megabar pressures (>1 million atmospheric pressure, 100 GPa) results in unique densification paths that differ from those in crystals. Experimentally verifying the atomistic origins of such densifications beyond 100 GPa remains unknown. Progress in inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) provided insights into the pressure-induced bonding changes in oxide glasses; however, IXS has a signal intensity several orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic X-rays, posing challenges for probing glass structures above 100 GPa near the Earth's core-mantle boundary...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bilal Ahmed, Mohammad Saghir Khan, Javed Musarrat
The present study for the first time demonstrated the interactions of metal oxide (MO) nano-pollutants (CuO and Al2 O3 -NPs) with tissues and cellular DNA of tomato plants grown in soil sand: silt: clay (667:190:143) and Hoagland-hydroponic system and assessed the hazardous effects of NPs on cell physiology and biochemistry. Results of SEM equipped with EDX revealed attachment of variably shaped CuO-NPs (18 nm) and Al2 O3 -NPs (21 nm) on roots, and internalization followed by translocation in plants by ICP-MS and TEM...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Héctor H Vigil-Castillo, Aracely Hernández-Ramírez, Jorge L Guzmán-Mar, Norma A Ramos-Delgado, Minerva Villanueva-Rodríguez
Photocatalytic degradation of p-Cresol was evaluated using the mixed oxide Bi2 O3 /TiO2 (containing 2 and 20% wt. Bi2 O3 referred as TB2 and TB20) and was compared with bare TiO2 under simulated solar radiation. Materials were prepared by the classic sol-gel method. All solids exhibited the anatase phase by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The synthesized materials presented lower crystallite size and Eg value, and also higher surface area as Bi2 O3 amount was increased. Bi content was quantified showing near to 70% of theoretical values in TB2 and TB20...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wouter Vijselaar, Roald M Tiggelaar, Han Gardeniers, Jurriaan Huskens
Most photoanodes commonly applied in solar fuel research (e.g., of Fe2 O3 , BiVO4 , TiO2 , or WO3 ) are only active and stable in alkaline electrolytes. Silicon (Si)-based photocathodes on the other hand are mainly studied under acidic conditions due to their instability in alkaline electrolytes. Here, we show that the in-diffusion of nickel into a 3D Si structure, upon thermal annealing, yields a thin (sub-100 nm), defect-free nickel silicide (NiSi) layer. This has allowed us to design and fabricate a Si microwire photocathode with a NiSi interlayer between the catalyst and the Si microwires...
May 11, 2018: ACS Energy Letters
Xinyu Li, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Liang Zeng, Jiubing Zhao, Hao Tian, Sai Chen, Kang Li, Sier Sang, Jinlong Gong
La2 O3 exhibits good performance for various catalytic applications, such as oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) and dry reforming of methane (DRM), during which coke formation may lead to the deactivation of catalysts. Typically, the reaction between CO2 adsorbed on La2 O3 and coke is the rate-determining step of the coke elimination process. This paper describes the influence of Ce addition on the CO2 adsorption and activation over La2 O3 . Combined with in situ and ex situ characterization and density functional theory (DFT) calculation, we show that Ce addition promotes the formation of bidentate carbonate on La2 O3 via tuning CO2 adsorption energy...
April 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Chun-Wai Tse, Yungen Liu, Toby Wai-Shan Chow, Chaoqun Ma, Wing-Ping Yip, Xiao-Yong Chang, Kam-Hung Low, Jie-Sheng Huang, Chi-Ming Che
We report the first examples of ruthenium complexes cis -[(N4 )RuIII Cl2 ]+ and cis -[(N4 )RuII (OH2 )2 ]2+ supported by chiral tetradentate amine ligands (N4 ), together with a high-valent cis -dioxo complex cis -[(N4 )RuVI (O)2 ]2+ supported by the chiral N4 ligand mcp (mcp = N , N '-dimethyl- N , N '-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine). The X-ray crystal structures of cis -[(mcp)RuIII Cl2 ](ClO4 ) ( 1a ), cis -[(Me2 mcp)RuIII Cl2 ]ClO4 ( 2a ) and cis -[(pdp)RuIII Cl2 ](ClO4 ) ( 3a ) (Me2 mcp = N , N '-dimethyl- N , N '-bis((6-methylpyridin-2-yl)methyl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine, pdp = 1,1'-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-2,2'-bipyrrolidine)) show that the ligands coordinate to the ruthenium centre in a cis -α configuration...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Nan Xie, Liqun Zou, Lei Ye
To explore the association of weather conditions and air pollutants with incidence risk of acute aortic dissection (AAD), we included patients who consecutively admitted to the emergency units of our hospital for AAD between Dec. 1, 2013, and Apr. 30, 2017. Their medical records were reviewed. The meteorological data (daily precipitation, minimal and maximal temperatures, mean atmospheric pressure, relative humidity) and air pollutants values [air daily index (AQI), aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mm or less (PM2...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Chris C Lim, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn, Yongzhao Shao, Debra T Silverman, Rena R Jones, Cynthia Garcia, George D Thurston
OBJECTIVE: Recent mechanistic and epidemiological evidence implicates air pollution as a potential risk factor for diabetes; however, mortality risks have not been evaluated in a large US cohort assessing exposures to multiple pollutants with detailed consideration of personal risk factors for diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the effects of long-term ambient air pollution exposures on diabetes mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a cohort of approximately a half million subjects across the contiguous U...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Research
Xukai Li, Weirui Chen, Yiming Tang, Laisheng Li
Fe-MCM-48 catalyst with a three-dimensional cubic pore structure was directly synthesized via a hydrothermal method, and the mineralization efficiency of diclofenac (DCF) in the catalytic ozonation process (Fe-MCM-48/O3 ) was assessed. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterizations revealed that Fe existed in the framework of MCM-48, and Fe-MCM-48 possessed a large surface area and a highly ordered cubic mesoporous structure, which could accelerate reactants and products diffusion...
May 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Yiyi Wang, Yaqun Zu, Lin Huang, Hongliang Zhang, Changhui Wang, Jianlin Hu
Air pollution in China has been very serious during the recent decades. However, few studies have investigated the effects of short-term exposure to PM2.5 and O3 on daily outpatient visits for respiratory diseases. We examined the effects of PM2.5 and O3 on the daily outpatient visits for respiratory diseases, explored the sensitivities of different population subgroups and analyzed the relative risk (RR) of PM2.5 and O3 in different seasons in Shanghai during 2013-2016. The generalized linear model (GLM) was applied to analyze the exposure-response relationship between air pollutants (daily average PM2...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ligang Luo, Jing Yang, Guodong Yao, Fangming Jin
Catalytic depolymerization of kraft lignin was successfully carried out in isopropanol/water mixture system over Rh/La2 O3 /CeO2 -ZrO2 catalyst at 373 °C for 2 h with Fe as reductant. The selectivity of in-situ H2 was increasing from 67 wt% to 98 wt% by changing the proportion of isopropanol and water with metal Fe. A one-to-one correspondence was established between liquid products distribution and H2 . It was an efficient method for predicting the composition of the liquid oil by H2 selectivity detection or converting kraft lignin to desirable liquid products optionally, which administered to reduce the dependence on the specific catalysts...
March 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yeongkwon Son, Álvaro R Osornio-Vargas, Marie S O'Neill, Perry Hystad, José L Texcalac-Sangrador, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Qingyu Meng, Stephan Schwander
The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is one of the largest and most populated urban environments in the world and experiences high air pollution levels. To develop models that estimate pollutant concentrations at fine spatiotemporal scales and provide improved air pollution exposure assessments for health studies in Mexico City. We developed finer spatiotemporal land use regression (LUR) models for PM2.5 , PM10 , O3 , NO2 , CO and SO2 using mixed effect models with the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO)...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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