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Qingcai Chen, Haoyao Sun, Zhen Mu, Yuqin Wang, Yanguang Li, Lixin Zhang, Mamin Wang, Zimeng Zhang
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are a new class of environmental risk substances that can stably exist in atmospheric particles and pose a potential threat to human health. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to study the concentration levels, species characteristics, and sources of EPFRs in PM2.5 in Xi'an in 2017. The results showed that the concentrations of EPFRs in PM2.5 in Xi'an in 2017 ranged from 9.8 × 1011 to 6.9 × 1014 spins/m3 . The highest concentration of EPFRs occurred in winter when the average concentration was 2...
January 7, 2019: Environmental Pollution
J J H A VAN Hest, A V Agronskaia, J Fokkema, F Montanarella, A Gregorio Puig, C DE Mello Donega, A Meijerink, G A Blab, H C Gerritsen
Fiducial markers are used in correlated light and electron microscopy (CLEM) to enable accurate overlaying of fluorescence and electron microscopy images. Currently used fiducial markers, e.g. dye-labelled nanoparticles and quantum dots, suffer from irreversible quenching of the luminescence after electron beam exposure. This limits their use in CLEM, since samples have to be studied with light microscopy before the sample can be studied with electron microscopy. Robust fiducial markers, i.e. luminescent labels that can (partially) withstand electron bombardment, are interesting because of the recent development of integrated CLEM microscopes...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Microscopy
Han-Min Wang, Bing Wang, Dan Sun, Quentin Shi, Lu Zheng, Shuang-Fei Wang, Shi-Jie Liu, Rui-Rui Xia, Run-Cang Sun
Efficient deconstruction of the lignocellulose is vitally important for the biorefinery industries, in which the lignin structures play a crucial role in the high value-added conversion of lignin. In this study, an integrated process based on hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP) and Kraft delignification was proposed to deconstruct the lignocellulosic biomass. It was found that the HTP not only facilitated the production of xylo-oligosaccharides, but also reduced the chemicals dosage of the following delignification...
January 15, 2019: ChemSusChem
Shinichi Enami, Shinnosuke Ishizuka, Agustín J Colussi
Many chemical reactions in Nature, the laboratory, and chemical industry occur in solvent mixtures that bring together species of dissimilar solubilities. Solvent mixtures are visually homogeneous, but are not randomly mixed at the molecular scale. In the all-important binary water-hydrotrope mixtures, small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal the existence of short-lived (<50 ps), short-ranged (∼1 nm) concentration fluctuations. The presence of hydrophobic solutes stabilizes and extends such fluctuations into persistent, mesoscopic (10-100 nm) inhomogeneities...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Chemical Physics
Gang Wang, Si Xiao, Yuhui Peng, Yingwei Wang, Cailei Yuan, Jun He
The broadband nonlinear absorption in ZnO nanocrystals embedded in Al2 O3 matrix was investigated by Z-scan and pump-probe techniques from 400 nm to 800 nm. The effective two-photon absorption and three-photon absorption coefficients were determined to be ∼1.1×103   cm/GW at 400 nm and ∼1.1×10-1   cm3 /GW2 at 800 nm, respectively, which are at least two orders of magnitude greater than that in ZnO bulk crystal. It may be attributed to the defect-states-mediated multiphoton absorption process, which was proofed by comparison experiments with different densities of interfacial defect states...
January 1, 2019: Optics Letters
Sonika Sharma, Banshi Dhar Gupta
A novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based fiber optic arsenic [As (III)] sensor is presented using α-Fe2 O3 /SnO2 core-shell nanostructure [abbreviated as (α-Fe/Sn) CS] synthesized using hydrolysis. Due to its extraordinary properties, such as very large surface area, great adsorption capabilities, and chemical reactivity, α-Fe2 O3 nanoparticles offer excellent sensitivity and selectivity for As (III), while SnO2 shows great catalytic properties. To achieve the best sensing performance, the (α-Fe/Sn) CS is synthesized at different temperatures, and its morphological study is carried out using transmission electron microscopy...
December 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Shin-Ichi Ohkoshi, Kenta Imoto, Asuka Namai, Marie Yoshikiyo, Seiji Miyashita, Hongsong Qiu, Shodai Kimoto, Kosaku Kato, Makoto Nakajima
Light- or electromagnetic wave-responsive magnetism is an attractive issue in spin chemistry and optical materials science. Herein we show the magnetization reversal induced by visible-light pulsed laser and the ultrafast dynamic magnetooptical effect caused by terahertz (THz) pulsed laser irradiation onto chemically synthesized magnetic films based on gallium-titanium-cobalt-substituted ε-Fe2 O3 (GTC-ε-Fe2 O3 ) and ε-Fe2 O3 nanoparticles. Visible-light pulsed laser irradiation switches the sign of the Faraday effect in GTC-ε-Fe2 O3 films...
January 15, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yassin Mbululo, Jun Qin, Zhengxuan Yuan, Fatuma Nyihirani, Xiang Zheng
This study used daily air pollution data (PM2.5 , PM10 , SO2 , NO2 , CO, and O3 ) from nine monitoring stations in Wuhan city to calculate the air quality index (AQI) from 2013 to 2017. Together with this data, L-band sounding data, ground meteorological data, and air mass back trajectories were also used to describe the dynamics of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) during pollution process. Analysis of the results shows that, even though the city is still polluted, the number of polluted days was decreasing...
January 14, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Honghong Yi, Yonghai Huang, Xiaolong Tang, Shunzheng Zhao, Fengyu Gao, Xizhou Xie, Jiangen Wang, Zhongyu Yang
Cooking oil fumes (COFs) which contains a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is noxious not only to the environment but also to human health. Among COFs, the Non-methane Hydrocarbon (NMHC) removal rate is an index of the removal rate of COFs in the latest COFs purification standard (DB 11/1488-2018). Ultrasonic treatment can assist the synthesis of catalysts by creating "cavitation", which can improve the surface microtopography of catalysts. The research results in this paper revealed that the NMHC conversion of catalysts with ultrasonic treatment increased significantly...
December 31, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Liu Yao, Cui LiangLiang, Liu JinYue, Song WanMei, Su Lili, Li YiFan, Li HuaiChen
BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies have explored the effects of air pollution on the risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short and long term residential concentrations of ambient air pollutants (particulate matter <10 μm in diameter (PM10 ) and particulate matter≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), ozone (O3 ), and carbon monoxide (CO)) in relation to the risk of DR-TB in a typical air pollution city, Jinan city, China...
January 11, 2019: Environment International
Kateryna B Fuks, Anke Hüls, Dorothea Sugiri, Hicran Altug, Andrea Vierkötter, Michael J Abramson, Jan Goebel, Gert G Wagner, Ilja Demuth, Jean Krutmann, Tamara Schikowski
During the last two decades, it has been well established that a short-term exposure to ozone (O3 ) elicits an oxidative stress response in human and mouse skin, which leads to aberrant transcriptional expression of genes consistent with increased skin aging. Whether a long-term exposure to ambient O3 is associated with any skin aging traits, has remained unclear. We addressed this question in two elderly German cohorts: the SALIA study (806 women aged 66-79 years), and the BASE-II study (1207 men and women aged 60-84 years)...
January 11, 2019: Environment International
S Zhang, L C Lim
Complete sets of elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of flux grown rhombohedral Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.0475, 0.055 and 0.065) single crystals poled along [001] crystal direction have been determined in the present work. Their phase transformation temperatures, coercive fields and mechanical quality factors are also provided. The results show that [001]-poled rhombohedral PZN-PT single crystals exhibit superior longitudinal piezoelectric properties (k33 ≥ 0.90, d33 ≈ 1580-2500 pC/N)...
January 11, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Youru Yao, Cheng He, Shiyin Li, Weichun Ma, Shu Li, Qi Yu, Na Mi, Jia Yu, Wei Wang, Li Yin, Yong Zhang
Characteristics of the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollutants may reveal the cause of air pollution, especially for large regions where the anthropogenic pollutant emission is concentrated. This study addresses this issue by focusing on Shandong province, which has the highest air pollutant emissions in China. First, the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of the observed concentrations of conventional pollutants are analyzed in detail. The most prominent indicator of the problem (PM2...
January 4, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Sabit Cakmak, Chris Hebbern, Jennifer Vanos, Dan Lawson Crouse, Michael Tjepkema
There is evidence that local traffic density and living near major roads can adversely affect health outcomes. We aimed to assess the relationship between local road length, proximity to primary highways, and cause-specific mortality in the 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC). In this long-term study of 2.6 million people, based on completion of the long-form census in 1991 and followed until 2011, we used annual residential addresses to determine the total length of local roads within 200 m of postal code representative points and the postal code's distance to primary highways...
January 9, 2019: Environment International
Shenbo Wang, Shasha Yin, Ruiqin Zhang, Liuming Yang, Qingyan Zhao, Leishi Zhang, Qishe Yan, Nan Jiang, Xiaoyan Tang
Episodic haze is frequently observed in Zhengzhou, China. Such haze typically contains secondary inorganic aerosols. In this paper, we explore the formation mechanisms of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) in Zhengzhou from January 3 to 25, 2018 based on the results of a series of online instruments and a size-segregated filter sampler. Our results document the remarkable contributions of SNA to winter haze episodes in Zhengzhou, where they account for about 50% of PM2.5 mass concentration. SNA were mainly concentrated in droplet-mode particles, which increased remarkably with the aggravation of the haze episode...
January 4, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Virginia Arroyo, Cristina Linares, Julio Díaz
BACKGROUND: Premature birth (<37 weeks of gestation) is the principal indicator of neonatal death during the first month of life and the second cause of death of children under age five. There are 15 million premature births (PTB) worldwide. Air pollution in cities, primarily the result of urban traffic, greatly impacts PTBs, though there are few studies carried out on this topic at the country level. The objective of this study is to quantify the relative risks (RR) and the population attributable risk (PAR) of concentrations of contaminants on PTBs in Spain, and to analyze the most susceptible trimesters...
January 3, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Mata Shweta, Rajput Shivshankar, Galib, D B Vaghela
BACKGROUND: Laghu Sutashekhara Rasa (LSR) is a herbo mineral formulation containing Shuddha Gairika (Fe2 O3 ) and Shunthi (Zingiber officinale Roxb.) with the levigation of Nagawalli Swarasa (fresh juice of Piper betel Linn.) prepared as per the reference of Rasatarangini Parishistha. This is an important formulation in Ayurveda therapeutics, but its shelf life is not evaluated till date. The Govt. of India Gazette specifies the shelf life of various Ayurvedic medicines. However, there is a need to revalidate the shelf life of individual formulations by following parameters prevalent in respective scenario...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Yulin Gan, Dennis Valbjørn Christensen, Yu Zhang, Hongrui Zhang, Dileep Krishnan, Zhicheng Zhong, Wei Niu, Damon James Carrad, Kion Norrman, Merlin von Soosten, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Baogen Shen, Nicolas Gauquelin, Johan Verbeeck, Jirong Sun, Nini Pryds, Yunzhong Chen
The metallic interface between two oxide insulators, such as LaAlO3 /SrTiO3 (LAO/STO), provides new opportunities for electronics and spintronics. However, due to the presence of multiple orbital populations, tailoring the interfacial properties such as the ground state and metal-insulator transitions remains challenging. Here, an unforeseen tunability of the phase diagram of LAO/STO is reported by alloying LAO with a ferromagnetic LaMnO3 insulator without forming lattice disorder and at the same time without changing the polarity of the system...
January 13, 2019: Advanced Materials
Yin-Hsiu Chen, Bhramar Mukherjee, Veronica J Berrocal
Distributed lag models (DLMs) have been widely used in environmental epidemiology to quantify the lagged effects of air pollution on a health outcome of interest such as mortality and morbidity. Most previous DLM approaches only consider one pollutant at a time. In this article, we propose distributed lag interaction model (DLIM) to characterize the joint lagged effect of two pollutants. One natural way to model the interaction surface is by assuming that the underlying basis functions are tensor products of the basis functions that generate the main-effect distributed lag functions...
January 2019: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied Statistics
Avi Auslender, Mahdi Halabi, George Levi, Oswaldo Diéguez, Amit Kohn
The mean inner potential (MIP) of a single crystal α-Al2 O3 sapphire was measured using off-axis electron holography. To measure the MIP, we use mechanically polished wedge specimens for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This approach also enabled us to measure the plasmon mean free path for inelastic scattering (IMFP). The wedge specimen, chosen here at an angle of approximately 45°, allows to determine the MIP by measuring the gradient of phase variations of the reconstructed electron wave over extended regions across the sample...
December 30, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
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