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Matej Čehovin, Alojz Medic, Jens Scheideler, Jörg Mielcke, Achim Ried, Boris Kompare, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn
Natural organic matter in drinking water is causing concern especially due to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) by chlorine, as these are proven to have adverse health effects on consumers. In this research, humic acid was used as a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in drinking water (up to 3mgL(-1)). The efficiency of DOC removal was studied by applying O3, H2O2/O3, H2O2/UV and O3/UV advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) alone and combined with hybrid hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), generated by an orifice plate, as this technology recently shows promising potential for the treatment of water, containing recalcitrant organic substances...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Nikolaos Angelis, Dionisios Spyratos, Kalliopi Domvri, Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Evangelia Samoli, Georgios Kalamaras, Anna Karakatsani, Georgios Grivas, Klea Katsouyanni, Despina Papakosta
OBJECTIVES: The study of short-term effects of environmental ozone exposure on nasal airflow, lung function, and airway inflammation METHODS:: Ninety one children-47 underwent rhinomanometry-were included. The study was carried out during the 2013 to 2014 academic year. Activity questionnaires and personal O3 samplers were distributed and 1 week later, respiratory measurements were performed. Daily measurements of outdoor ozone were also considered. RESULTS: A 10 μg/m increase in weekly personal ozone exposure concentrations was associated with a non-statistically significant 12...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Yuji Hirai, Hiroyuki Mayama, Yasutaka Matsuo, Masatsugu Shimomura
In nature, there exist a number of functional water-controlling surfaces, such as the water-repellent surface of lotus leaves, the superhydrophobic water-adhesive surface of rose petals, the water-harvesting surface of a beetle's back, and the water-transporting surface of the legs of Ligia exotica. These natural surfaces suggest that surface chemistry and hierarchical structures are essential for controlling water behavior. We have reported the preparation of superhydrophobic and anti-reflection silicon nanospike-array structures using self-organized honeycomb-patterned films as 3D dry etching masks...
April 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christopher T Reinhard, Stephanie L Olson, Edward W Schwieterman, Timothy W Lyons
Ocean-atmosphere chemistry on Earth has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes throughout its long history, with potentially significant ramifications for the emergence and long-term stability of atmospheric biosignatures. Though a great deal of work has centered on refining our understanding of false positives for remote life detection, much less attention has been paid to the possibility of false negatives, that is, cryptic biospheres that are widespread and active on a planet's surface but are ultimately undetectable or difficult to detect in the composition of a planet's atmosphere...
April 2017: Astrobiology
Guangsen Xia, Yujue Wang, Bin Wang, Jun Huang, Shubo Deng, Gang Yu
Previous studies indicate that effective generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from cathodic oxygen (O2) reduction is critical for the improved water treatment performance (e.g., enhanced pollutant degradation and reduced bromate formation) during the electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process (a combined process of electrolysis and ozonation). However, undesired reactions (e.g., O3, H2O2, and H2O reductions) may occur in competition with O2 reduction at the cathode. To get a better understanding of how these side reactions would affect the process, this study investigated the cathodic reaction mechanisms during electrolysis with O2/O3 gas mixture sparging using various electrochemical techniques (e...
April 4, 2017: Water Research
Dan Wu, Xukai Li, Yiming Tang, Ping Lu, Weirui Chen, Xiaoting Xu, Laisheng Li
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were prepared by a directly pyrolysis method and employed as catalyst for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) degradation. Comparative experiments were conducted to discuss the catalytic activity and flexibility of ZnO. After ZnO addition, the best PFOA degradation efficiency (70.5%) was achieved by ZnO/UV/O3 system, only 9.5% by sole ozonation and 18.2% by UV254 light irradiation. PFOA degradation was sensitive with pH value and temperature. The better PFOA removal efficiency was achieved at acidic condition...
April 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Shuguang Wang, Robert M Augé, Heather D Toler
We quantitatively evaluated the effects of elevated O3 on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formation and on AM role in promoting plant growth in regard to several moderating variables (O3 levels, O3 exposure duration, plant types, AM fungi family, and additional stress) by means of meta-analysis of published data. The analysis consisted of 117 trials representing 20 peer-reviewed articles and 16 unpublished trials. Relative to non-mycorrhizal controls, AM inoculation did not significantly alter plant growth (shoot biomass, root biomass, total biomass and plant height) when O3 concentration was less than 80 ppb, but at concentrations above 80 ppb symbiosis was associated with increases of 68% in shoot biomass and 131% in root biomass...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Arthit Phosri, Kayo Ueda, Saira Tasmin, Reiko Kishikawa, Masahiko Hayashi, Keiichiro Hara, Yamato Uehara, Vera Ling Hui Phung, Shusuke Yasukouchi, Shoko Konishi, Akiko Honda, Hirohisa Takano
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed the interactive effects of airborne pollen and particulate matter on the daily consultations for pollinosis, but it is uncertain which compositions are responsible. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effects of specific PM2.5 compositions and airborne pollen on the daily number of clinic visits for pollinosis in Fukuoka. METHODS: We obtained daily data on pollen concentrations, PM2.5 compositions, PM2.5 mass, gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, and O3), and weather variables monitored in Fukuoka between February and April, 2002-2012...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Research
Supriya Tiwari
Present-day climate change scenario has intensified the problem of continuously increasing ground-level ozone (O3), which is responsible for causing deleterious effects on growth and development of plants. Studies involving use of ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical with antiozonant properties, have given some promising results in evaluating O3 injury in plants. The use of EDU is especially advantageous in developing countries which face a more severe problem of ground-level O3, and technical O3-induced yield loss assessment techniques like open-top chambers cannot be used...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
B K Butland, R W Atkinson, S Crichton, B Barratt, S Beevers, A Spiridou, U Hoang, F J Kelly, C D Wolfe
BACKGROUND: Few European studies investigating associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and incident stroke have considered stroke subtypes. Using information from the South London Stroke Register for 2005-2012, we investigated associations between daily concentrations of gaseous and particulate air pollutants and incident stroke subtypes in an ethnically diverse area of London, UK. METHODS: Modelled daily pollutant concentrations based on a combination of measurements and dispersion modelling were linked at postcode level to incident stroke events stratified by haemorrhagic and ischaemic subtypes...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Meijuan Zheng, Guozhen Zhang, Xiao Wang, Jiaxian Wan, Hao Wu, Chang Liu
GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with ZrO2 as the dielectric layer have been prepared by atomic layer deposition. The accumulation and depletion regions can be clearly distinguished when the voltage was swept from -4 to 4 V. Post-annealing results suggested that the capacitance in accumulation region went up gradually as the annealing temperature increased from 300 to 500 °C. A minimum leakage current density of 3 × 10(-9) A/cm(2) at 1 V was obtained when O3 was used for the growth of ZrO2...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Mohamed N A Meshref, Nikolaus Klamerth, Md Shahinoor Islam, Kerry N McPhedran, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Ozonation at high doses is a costly treatment for oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) naphthenic acids (NAs) degradation. To decrease costs and limit doses, different peroxone (hydrogen peroxide/ozone; H2O2:O3) processes using mild-ozone doses of 30 and 50 mg/L were investigated. The degradation efficiency of Ox-NAs (classical (O2-NAs) + oxidized NAs) improved from 58% at 30 mg/L ozone to 59%, 63% and 76% at peroxone (1:1), 50 mg/L ozone, and peroxone (1:2), respectively. Suppressing the hydroxyl radical (•OH) pathway by adding tert-butyl alcohol did significantly reduce the degradation in all treatments, while molecular ozone contribution was around 50% and 34% for O2-NAs and Ox-NAs, respectively...
March 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Mariana Aliceda Ferraz, Aline Vecchio Alves, Cynthia de Cássia Muniz, Fabio Hermes Pusceddu, Paloma Kachel Gusso-Choueri, Aldo Ramos Santos, Rodrigo Brasil Choueri
Domestic sewage is a major problem in highly urbanized coastal areas worldwide. In the current study, TIE phases I and II were applied to sediment interstitial water (IW) from two locations along the São Paulo coast in southeastern Brazil: the sewage outfall of the city of Santos, a densely urbanized area and a less urbanized area (the city of Bertioga). An adapted microscale sea urchin embryo-larval development bioassay was employed. TIE-I manipulations were (i) EDTA addition, (ii) aeration at modified pH, (iii) C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE), and the (iv) addition of Na2 S2 O3 ...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ning Liu, Xue Feng, Wenbo Wang, Xingkai Zhao, Xia Li
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Paeonol (Pae) is a phenolic compound found in many traditional Chinese medicine remedies. However, the effects of Pae on TNF-α-stimulated FLS and the underlying molecular mechanism are unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effect of Pae against activated FLS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rheumatoid arthritis FLS (RA-FLS) were pre-treated with different doses (25, 50, and 100 µM) of Pae or miR-155 inhibitor for 30 min or transfected with miR-155 mimic, and then treated with 50 ng/mL of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) for 1 h...
April 11, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Maria Francesca Peruzy, Nicoletta Murru, Anna Giannina Perugini, Federico Capuano, Elisabetta Delibato, Raffaelina Mercogliano, Hannu Korkeala, Yolande Therese Rose Proroga
Yersinia enterocolitica comprises six biotypes 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The virulence of the strains belonging to biotypes 1B and 2-5 depends on the presence of both chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes. Strains belonging to biotype 1A do not carry the virulence plasmid pYV. However, they carry other virulence genes, such as ystB and hreP. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of yadA, virF, inv, ystA, ystB, myfA, hreP and ymoA virulence genes in Y. enterocolitica strains in order to select the target genes that could be used for the development of a probe-specific real-time PCR to determine the presence of Y...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
A Saiz-Lopez, R Borge, A Notario, J A Adame, D de la Paz, X Querol, B Artíñano, F J Gómez-Moreno, C A Cuevas
Atmospheric oxidants such as ozone (O3), hydroxyl and nitrate radicals (OH and NO3) determine the ability of the urban atmosphere to process organic and inorganic pollutants, which have an impact on air quality, environmental health and climate. Madrid city has experienced an increase of 30-40% in ambient air O3 levels, along with a decrease of 20-40% in NO2, from 2007 to 2014. Using air pollution observations and a high-resolution air quality model, we find a large concentration increase of up to 70% and 90% in OH and NO3, respectively, in downtown Madrid (domain-wide average increase of 10% and 32% for OH and NO3, respectively)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zeyu Chen, Limei Zheng, Wenwu Cao, Xiaoyang Chen, Ruimin Chen, Runze Li, Kirk Shung, Qifa Zhou
Lead-free (Na,K)(Nb,Ta)O3 (KNNT) piezoelectric single crystal has been successfully grown using the top-seeded solution growth technique. The electromechanical coupling factors are very high ( k33 = 0.827, kt = 0.646), and the dielectric loss tangent is as low as 0.004. Acoustic impedance was calculated to be 26.5 MRayl. From the single crystal, a single element transducer was fabricated. The transducer achieved a 57.6% -6 dB bandwidth and 32.3 µm axial resolution at the center frequency of 45.4 MHz, which can identify the cornea of porcine eyeball with high resolution...
April 1, 2017: Ultrasonic Imaging
Bin Peng, Ziyao Zhou, Tianxiang Nan, Guohua Dong, Mengmeng Feng, Qu Yang, Xinjun Wang, Shishun Zhao, Dan Xian, Zhuang-De Jiang, Wei Ren, Zuo-Guang Ye, Nian X Sun, Ming Liu
One of the central challenges in realizing multiferroics-based magnetoelectric memories is to switch perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with a control voltage. In this study, we demonstrate electrical flipping of magnetization between the out-of-plane and the in-plane directions in (Co/Pt)3/(011) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 multiferroic heterostructures through a voltage-controllable spin reorientation transition (SRT). The SRT onset temperature can be dramatically suppressed at least 200 K by applying an electric field, accompanied by a giant electric-field-induced effective magnetic anisotropy field (ΔHeff) up to 1100 Oe at 100 K...
April 12, 2017: ACS Nano
Elizabeth A Pillar, Marcelo I Guzman
Anthropogenic activities contribute benzene, toluene and anisole to the environment, which in the atmosphere are converted into the respective phenols, cresols, and methoxyphenols by fast gas-phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). Further processing of the latter species by HO(•) decreases their vapor pressure as a second hydroxyl group is incorporated to accelerate their oxidative aging at interfaces and in aqueous particles. This work shows how catechol, pyrogallol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 3-methoxycatechol -all proxies for oxygenated aromatics derived from benzene, toluene and anisole- react at the air-water interface with increasing O3(g) during τc ~1 μs contact time and contrasts their potential for electron transfer and in situ production of HO(•) using structure-activity relationships...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiaocan Zhao, Liming Wang
Furfural is emitted into the atmosphere because of its potential applications as an intermediate to alkane fuels from biomass, industrial usages, and biomass burning. The kinetic and mechanistic information on the furfural chemistry is necessary to assess the fate of furfural in the atmosphere and its impact on the air quality. Here we studied the atmospheric oxidation mechanisms of furfural initiated by the OH radicals using quantum chemistry and kinetic calculations. The reaction of OH and furfural was initiated mainly by OH additions to C2 and C5 positions, forming R2 and R5 adducts, which could undergo rapid ring-breakage to form R2B and R5B, respectively...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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