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Cancer stimulants

Charles Muteshi, Tim Child, Eric Ohuma, Muhammad Fatum
OBJECTIVES: To determine response to controlled ovarian stimulation in a random start cycle and utilisation of cryopreserved oocytes and embryos in cancer patients. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was carried out in an assisted reproductive treatment centre. Participants included 137 cancer patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation between 1 Feb 2003 and 30 June 2016. The primary outcome variable was number of oocytes retrieved...
September 11, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Si-Qi Qiu, Stijn J H Waaijer, Mieke C Zwager, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Bert van der Vegt, Carolien P Schröder
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are important tumor-promoting cells in the breast tumor microenvironment. Preclinically TAMs stimulate breast tumor progression, including tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. TAMs also induce resistance to multiple types of treatment in breast cancer models. The underlying mechanisms include: induction and maintenance of tumor-promoting phenotype in TAMs, inhibition of CD8+ T cell function, degradation of extracellular matrix, stimulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of phagocytosis...
August 28, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Saeed M Hashimi, Brock Grant, Naif Alqurashi, Faisal Alowaidi, Ming Q Wei
Cancer cells have been known to overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hence relevant multiple‑targeted therapies have been developed, with a recent clinical application of the antibody‑mediated inhibition of the EGFR. However, this strategy is not useful in cancer cells with mutations in KRAS; a GTPase downstream of EGFR which constitutively activates the pathway without EGF stimulation. Furthermore, mutations in EGFR also reduce the binding of monoclonal antibodies and thereby render them ineffective...
September 6, 2018: Oncology Reports
Keisuke Taniuchi, Mutsuo Furihata, Seiji Naganuma, Toshiji Saibara
Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 4 (ARHGEF4) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for Rac1 and Cdc42. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ARHGEF4 in the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. Evaluation of an immunohistochemical staining of 102 resected pancreatic cancer samples demonstrated that high ARHGEF4 expression was correlated with an independent predictor of worse overall survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. Immunofluorescence analyses and Matrigel invasion assays demonstrated that suppression of ARHGEF4 inhibited the formation of membrane protrusions, and in turn inhibited cell motility and invasion...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Elena Milkina, Arina Ponomarenko, Maria Korneyko, Irina Lyakhova, Yulia Zayats, Sergey Zaitsev, Polina Mischenko, Marina Eliseikina, Yuri Khotimchenko, Valeryi Shevchenko, Hari Sharma, Igor Bryukhovetskiy
The majority of modern treatment methods for malignant brain tumors are not sufficiently effective, with a median survival time varying between 9 and 14 months. Metastatic and invasive processes are the principal characteristics of malignant tumors. The most important pathogenic mechanism is epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), which causes epithelial cells to become more mobile, and capable of invading the surrounding tissues and migrating to distant organs. Transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) serves a key role in EMT‑inducing mechanisms...
August 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
Agneta Rannug, Ulf Rannug
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is not essential to survival, but does act as a key regulator of many normal physiological events. The role of this receptor in toxicological processes has been studied extensively, primarily employing the high-affinity ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, regulation of physiological responses by endogenous AHR ligands remains to be elucidated. Here, we review developments in this field, with a focus on 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), the endogenous ligand with the highest affinity to the receptor reported to date...
September 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Eunson Hwang, Pei Lin, Hien T T Ngo, Wei Gao, Yu-Shuai Wang, Hong-Shan Yu, Tae-Hoo Yi
Icariin (ICA) and icaritin (ICT) exhibit many pharmacological functions including anti-osteoporosis, anti-cardiovascular, and anti-cancer activities; however, there are few comprehensive studies that track the detailed effects on UVB-induced photoaging. The recovery effects of ICA and ICT were investigated in UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaTs). The results indicated that ICT and ICA showed strong radical scavenging activity, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity of ICT was superior...
September 18, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Sonja Schötterl, Stephan M Huber, Hans Lentzen, Michel Mittelbronn, Ulrike Naumann
Viscum album L. extracts (VE) are applied as complementary cancer therapeutics for more than one century. Extracts contain several compounds like mistletoe lectins (ML) 1-3 and viscotoxins, but also several minor ingredients. Since ML-1 has been described as one of the main active components harboring antitumor activity, purified native or recombinant ML-1 has been also used in clinical trials in the last years. The present study examined and compared the immunoboosting effects of three ML-1 containing drugs (the extract ISCADOR Qu, the recombinant ML-1 Aviscumine, and purified native ML-1) in the context of the T-cell mediated killing of glioma cells...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Zahra Kafi, Hamid Cheshomi, Omid Gholami
Hormesis is a new concept in dose-response relationship. Despite of traditional dose-response curves, there is a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition in this case. Hormesis effect in apoptosis induction/inhibition by natural compounds is reported previously. Here, we searched this effect for myeloid cell leukemia type-1 (Mcl-1) gene expression by phytochemicals 7-isopenthenyloxycoumarin (7-IP), arctigenin (Arg), and hesperidin (Hsp). For this purpose, first we tested the cytotoxicity of various doses of these compounds against K562 leukemia cell lines for different times by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method...
July 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Di Huang, Jianing Chen, Linbin Yang, Qian Ouyang, Jiaqian Li, Liyan Lao, Jinghua Zhao, Jiang Liu, Yiwen Lu, Yue Xing, Fei Chen, Fengxi Su, Herui Yao, Qiang Liu, Shicheng Su, Erwei Song
Activation-induced cell death (AICD) of T lymphocytes can be exploited by cancers to escape immunological destruction. We demonstrated that tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and type 1 helper T (TH 1) cells, rather than type 2 helper T cells and regulatory T cells, were sensitive to AICD in breast and lung cancer microenvironments. NKILA, an NF-κB-interacting long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), regulates T cell sensitivity to AICD by inhibiting NF-κB activity. Mechanistically, calcium influx in stimulated T cells via T cell-receptor signaling activates calmodulin, thereby removing deacetylase from the NKILA promoter and enhancing STAT1-mediated transcription...
September 17, 2018: Nature Immunology
Sonia Manca, Cole P Frisbie, Chad A LaGrange, Carol A Casey, Jean-Jack M Riethoven, Armen Petrosyan
Multiple epidemiological observations and meta-analysis clearly indicate the link between alcohol abuse and the incidence and progression of prostate cancer (PCa); however, the mechanism remains enigmatic. Recently it was found that ethanol (EtOH) induces disorganization of the Golgi complex caused by impaired function of the largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin (GOLGB1), which, in turn, alters the Golgi docking of resident Golgi proteins. Here, it is determined that in normal prostate cells, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), the known regulator of androgen receptor (AR)-signaling, localizes in the cytoplasm and nucleus, while its kinase, glycogen synthase kinase β (GSK3β), primarily resides in the Golgi...
September 17, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Taisiia Yurchuk, Maryna Petrushko, Barry Fuller
The modern successes of reproductive medicine are based on the achievements in the fields of artificial fertilization and cryobiology over the last 50years. Cryopreservation of oocytes makes it possible to preserve their reproductive potential after surgical interventions, treatment of cancer, for delayed pregnancy and to use cells for donation. Cryopreservation of embryos allows not only to reduce the multiple pregnancies rate and to increase the cumulative pregnancy rate as a result of embryo transfer in the following favorable cycles of the patient, but is also a necessary procedure in case of genetic diagnosis or in the case of contraindications for embryo transfer in the stimulated cycle due to possible complications...
September 14, 2018: Early Human Development
Y Yoshida, K Komori, M Aoki, M Sandou, M Takagi, E Uejima
Chemotherapy is among the standard treatments for esophageal cancer. The docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and cisplatin (DCF) protocol yields a better response rate than 5-fluorouracil plus cisplatin. However, the incidence of side effects, such as febrile neutropenia and hematologic toxicity, is also significantly high with the DCF protocol. The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and pegfilgrastim are prophylactically administered to prevent febrile neutropenia. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy and safety of pegfilgrastim in patients receiving DCF therapy...
October 1, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Abdeljabar El Andaloussi, Prosper Igboeli, Amero Amer, Ayman Al-Hendy
Cancer treatment with specific chemotherapeutic agents has been well documented to have an adverse impact on female fertility leading to premature ovarian failure (POF). The objective of this study is to investigate if chemotherapeutic induced POF can be reversed by the infusion of autologous nucleated peripheral blood cells (PBMC). To reach our goal, mice were treated with a single intraperitoneal injections of busulfan and cyclophosphamide to induce POF. This was followed by transfusion of PBMC. The ovarian morphology and functional parameters were monitored by radioimmunoassay, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analysis...
September 15, 2018: Biomedicines
Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Magdalena Wojewoda-Korbelak, Martyna Borowczyk, Malgorzata Kaluzna, Barbara Brominska, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, Rafal Czepczynski, Maciej Baczyk, Marek Ruchala
BACKGROUND: Although differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has relatively favorable course, factors predicting the course of the disease are intensively searched. The aim of the study was to identify the clinical factors determining incomplete response to radioiodine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 385 consecutive patients with DTC treated and followed-up at a single tertiary reference center. We investigated clinical factors detectable during first hospitalization 3-6 months following total thyroidectomy due to DTC, which may serve as prognostic factors determining response to DTC therapy in a long-term follow-up...
September 13, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jen-Der Lin, Miaw-Jene Liou, Hsung-Ling Hsu, Kong-Kit Leong, Yu-Ting Chen, Ying-Ru Wang, Wei-Shan Hung, Hsing-Ying Lee, Hui-Ju Tsai, Ching-Ping Tseng
<b><i>Background</i></b>: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine tumor and generally has relatively good clinical outcomes. However, 15-20% of patients ultimately develop recurrence or disease-related death. The appropriate prognostic factors for thyroid cancer are still elusive. This study evaluated whether the number of circulating tumor cells/circulating epithelial cells (CECs) expressing either epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), podoplanin (PDPN), or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is related to remission and disease-specific mortality (DSM) of patients with thyroid cancer...
September 15, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Priscilla de Graaff, Coen Govers, Harry Wichers, Reno Debets
Adoptive T-cell treatments of solid cancers have evolved into a robust therapy with objective response rates surpassing those of standardized treatments. Unfortunately, only a limited fraction of patients shows durable responses, which is considered to be due to a T cell-suppressive tumour microenvironment (TME). Here we argue that naturally occurring β-glucans can enable reversion of such T cell suppression by engaging innate immune cells and enhancing numbers and function of lymphocyte effectors. Areas covered: This review summarizes timely reports with respect to absorption, trafficking and immune stimulatory effects of β-glucans, particularly in relation to innate immune cells...
September 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Paola Giglio, Mara Gagliardi, Nicola Tumino, Fernanda Antunes, Soraya Smaili, Diego Cotella, Claudio Santoro, Roberta Bernardini, Maurizio Mattei, Mauro Piacentini, Marco Corazzari
The immunogenic cell death (ICD) process represents a novel therapeutic approach to treat tumours, in which cytotoxic compounds promote both cancer cell death and the emission of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) from dying cells, to activate the immune system against the malignancy. Therefore, we explored the possibility to stimulate the key molecular players with a pivotal role in the execution of the ICD program in melanoma cells. To this aim, we used the pro-ICD agents mitoxantrone and doxorubicin and found that both agents could induce cell death and stimulate the release/exposure of the strictly required DAMPs in melanoma cells: i) calreticulin (CRT) exposure on the cell membrane; ii) ATP secretion; iii) type I IFNs gene up-regulation and iv) HMGB1 secretion, highlighting no interference by oncogenic BRAF...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Fei Huang, Junying Chen, Ruilong Lan, Zeng Wang, Ruiqing Chen, Jingan Lin, Lurong Zhang, Lengxi Fu
As classical therapy method of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not effective enough, HCC immunotherapy is a hot spot for research in recent years. Although in recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors are focused in cancer therapy, vaccines and adoptive cell therapy (ACT), as traditional immunotherapy methods for HCC are still promising. We found that δ-Catenin might be a new tumor-associated antigen for HCC, for it could be upregulated as a stress associated protein under hypoxia and irradiation treatment...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Richard A Anderson, Rachel Remedios, Amy A Kirkwood, Pip Patrick, Linsey Stevens, Laura Clifton-Hadley, Tom Roberts, Chris Hatton, Nagesh Kalakonda, Don W Milligan, Pam McKay, Clare Rowntree, Fiona M Scott, Peter W M Johnson
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects on reproductive function are a key concern in young women treated with chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma. We aimed to identify risk factors for the extent of ovarian damage in women with Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with different chemotherapy regimens to inform accurate advice on options for fertility preservation. METHODS: We recruited female participants from the randomised phase 3 RATHL trial, aged 18-45 years, based on availability of participants at recruiting sites in the UK...
September 13, 2018: Lancet Oncology
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