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Cancer stimulants

Qingxin Yao, Zhentao Huang, Dongdong Liu, Jiali Chen, Yuan Gao
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death, which has continuously stimulated the development of numerous functional biomaterials with anticancer activities. Herein is reviewed one recent trend of biomaterials focusing on the advances in enzyme-instructed supramolecular self-assembly (EISA) with anticancer activity. EISA relies on enzymatic transformations to convert designed small-molecular precursors into corresponding amphiphilic residues that can form assemblies in living systems. EISA has shown some advantages in controlling cell fate from three aspects...
November 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
Mojgan Karimabad Noroozi, Mehdi Mahmoodi, Abdolah Jafarzadeh, Ali Darekordi, Mohamad Reza Hajizadeh, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi
The indole-3-carbinol (I3C) displays anti-proliferative and anti-cancer activities against human cancer cells. Cellular proliferation is an important event associated with cancer development and continued progression. This manifest is described by altered expression and/or functions of cell cycle related proteins. The constitutive activation of many signal transduction pathways also stimulates cell growth. The immediate stages in tumor development are accompanied by a fibrogenic response and the progression of a hypoxic environment, is in favor of the survival and proliferatory functions of cancer stem cells...
November 16, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Yuxing Zhu, Yanni Ma, Honghua Peng, Lian Gong, Mengqin Xiao, Liang Xiang, Dong He, Ke Cao
MiR-130b and SAM and SH3 domain containing 1 (SASH1) play an important role in many types of human cancers. The aim of our research was to study their interactions in the process of the proliferation and aggressiveness of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Microarray analysis was done to screen the differentially expressed genes in the ESCC tissues. miR-130b and SASH1 mRNA levels in the ESCC tissues and cells were detected by qRT-PCR. Dual luciferase reporter system was used to verify the target relationship between miR-130b and SASH1...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Atasi De Chatterjee, Debarshi Roy, Priscilla Guevara, Rituraj Pal, Mahesh Naryan, Sukla Roychowdhury, Siddhartha Das
Background: The migration of tumor cells is critical in spreading cancers through the lymphatic nodes and circulatory systems. Although arachidonic acid (AA) and its soluble metabolites have been shown to induce the migration of breast and colon cancer cells, the mechanism by which it induces such migration has not been fully understood. Objective: The effect of AA on migratory responses of the MDA-MB-231 cell line (a triple-negative breast cancer cell) was examined and compared with MCF-7 (estrogen-receptor positive) breast cancer cells to elucidate the mechanism of AA-induced migration...
2018: Clinical Cancer Drugs
Tatyana Veremeyko, Amanda W Y Yung, Daniel C Anthony, Tatyana Strekalova, Eugene D Ponomarev
The process of macrophage polarization is involved in many pathologies such as anti-cancer immunity and autoimmune diseases. Polarized macrophages exhibit various levels of plasticity when M2/M(IL-4) macrophages are reprogrammed into an M1-like phenotype following treatment with IFNγ and/or LPS. At the same time, M1 macrophages are resistant to reprogramming in the presence of M2-like stimuli. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the macrophages polarization, plasticity of M2 macrophages, and lack of plasticity in M1 macrophages remain unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Giovanni Germano, Nabil Amirouchene-Angelozzi, Giuseppe Rospo, Alberto Bardelli
The mismatch repair (MMR) system which detects and corrects base mismatches and insertions and deletions that occur during DNA synthesis is deregulated in approximately 20% of human cancers. MMR-deficient tumors have peculiar properties, including early-onset metastatic potential but generally favorable prognosis, and remarkable response to immune therapy. The functional basis of these atypical clinical features has recently started to be elucidated. Here, we discuss how the biological and clinical features of MMR-deficient tumors might be traced back to their ability to continuously produce new somatic mutations, leading to increased levels of neoantigens, which in turn stimulate immune surveillance...
November 15, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Ruth Ladenstein, Ulrike Pötschger, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Roberto Luksch, Victoria Castel, Isaac Yaniv, Genevieve Laureys, Penelope Brock, Jean Marie Michon, Cormac Owens, Toby Trahair, Godfrey Chi Fung Chan, Ellen Ruud, Henrik Schroeder, Maja Beck Popovic, Guenter Schreier, Hans Loibner, Peter Ambros, Keith Holmes, Maria Rita Castellani, Mark N Gaze, Alberto Garaventa, Andrew D J Pearson, Holger N Lode
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy with the chimeric anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody dinutuximab, combined with alternating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and intravenous interleukin-2 (IL-2), improves survival in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. We aimed to assess event-free survival after treatment with ch14.18/CHO (dinutuximab beta) and subcutaneous IL-2, compared with dinutuximab beta alone in children and young people with high-risk neuroblastoma. METHODS: We did an international, open-label, phase 3, randomised, controlled trial in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma at 104 institutions in 12 countries...
November 12, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Banchob Sripa, Amonrat Jumnainsong, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Melissa R Haswell
Human liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Mekong countries such as Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Myanmar with over 10 million infected through consumption of fish containing infective metacercariae. With no tissue migration phase and living entirely within the larger secondary (intrahepatic) bile ducts, liver flukes are only exposed to a biliary mucosal immune response, while their excretory and secretory products also stimulate chronic inflammation of biliary epithelium...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Kimberly D van der Willik, Vincent Koppelmans, Michael Hauptmann, Annette Compter, M Arfan Ikram, Sanne B Schagen
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is an important candidate mechanism underlying cancer and cancer treatment-related cognitive impairment. We investigated levels of blood cell-based inflammatory markers in breast cancer survivors on average 20 years after chemotherapy and explored the relation between these markers and global cognitive performance. METHODS: One hundred sixty-six breast cancer survivors who received post-surgical radiotherapy and six cycles of adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) chemotherapy on average 20 years before enrollment were compared with 1344 cancer-free women from a population-based sample (50-80 years old)...
November 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Qi Luo, Guangyu Wei, Xiaoqing Wu, Kai Tang, Mengdi Xu, Yulu Wu, Yun Liu, Xiaoqian Li, Zengtian Sun, Wen Ju, Kunming Qi, Chong Chen, Zhiling Yan, Hai Cheng, Feng Zhu, Zhenyu Li, Lingyu Zeng, Kailin Xu, Jianlin Qiao
BACKGROUND: Platycodin D (PD) is one of the major bioactive components of the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and possesses multiple biological and pharmacological properties, such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. However, whether it affects platelet function remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the role of PD in platelet function and thrombus formation. METHODS: Platelets were treated with PD followed by measuring platelet aggregation, activation, spreading, clot retraction, expression of glycoprotein receptors...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Irene Del Molino Del Barrio, Georgina C Wilkins, Annette Meeson, Simi Ali, John A Kirby
Upon binding with the chemokine CXCL12, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been shown to promote breast cancer progression. This process, however, can be affected by the expression of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3. Given ACKR3's ability to form heterodimers with CXCR4, we investigated how dual expression of both receptors differed from their lone expression in terms of their signalling pathways. We created single and double CXCR4 and/or ACKR3 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transfectants. ERK and Akt phosphorylation after CXCL12 stimulation was assessed and correlated with receptor internalization...
November 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Emanuele Perra, Adrien Rapeaux, Konstantin Nikolic
Neurostimulations which use High Frequency Alternating Current (HFAC) block show great promise for neuromodulatory therapies. Treatments have been developed for various health conditions including obesity and obesity related health risks, and now even stomach cancer treatments are being considered. However the mechanism of the block is still not completely clear, as well as how various neural and electrode parameters affect it. In order to study conduction block during HF stimulation in mammalian axons, we describe a detailed computational model and perform comprehensive simulations...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Hyein Seo, Dong-Ho Cho
The development of new sequencing technology has stimulated the cancer-related genome analysis. Copy number variation is one of the most important features that represents the structural variation. In this paper, we suggest the metastasis identification method of melanoma using copy number variations. The identification marker is defined in consideration of the presence and the type of copy number variations in primary and metastatic tumors. The optimization of marker is also provided and classification performances of developed markers are compared using the linear classifier...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
M Berni, P Gigante, S Bussolati, F Grasselli, S Grolli, R Ramoni, G Basini
The high-volume-produced plastic monomer Bisphenol A (BPA) has been in the spotlight in the last years because of its endocrine disruptor (ED) behavior, leading to disclosure of the association between the widespread human and wildlife exposure to BPA and reproductive, metabolic, and developmental disorders and hormone-dependent cancer onset. These evidences caused restrictions and prohibitions of BPA industrial uses and prompted investigation of harmless alternative compounds. Above all, several countries have substituted the parental analogue with Bisphenol S (BPS) in baby care product manufacturing, even if its structural homology to BPA suggests similar ED properties not yet completely ruled out...
August 23, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Lifei Xie, Yang Yang, Jie Meng, Tao Wen, Jian Liu, Haiyan Xu
Macrophages are predominant immune cells in the tumor microenvironment where they display an immunosuppressive M2 phenotype to support tumor growth. Reprogramming M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to antitumor M1 phenotype represents as a promising strategy in cancer immunotherapy. In this work we reported that one cationic polysaccharide spermine modified pullulan (PS) could act as an effective immunological stimulator to modulating either naïve (M0) or M2 macrophages towards M1 phenotype. We showed that PS upregulated the expression of TLR1/3/4 and promoted the phosphorylation of Akt, Erk, JNK, following the activation of NF-κB, which led to the polarization towards M1...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Haijun Zhao, Zhifeng Li, Shiting Xie, Yiming Luo, Yong Zhou, Manman Deng, Hanyan Zeng, Jintao Zhao, Lian Yu, Bing Xu
Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are attractive candidates for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we examined the characteristics of type I NKT cells in patients with adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We first identified type I NKT cells as Vα24-Jα18 and Vβ11 double-positive CD3+ lymphocytes. Using this method, we found that the adult B-cell ALL patients presented significantly lower level of type I NKT cells than the age- and sex-matching control subjects. The expression of IL-21 by type I NKT cells was then examined using intracellular flow cytometry, which showed that with α-GalCer stimulation, the adult B-cell ALL patients presented significantly lower level of IL-21+ type I NKT cells than control subjects...
November 12, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Yu-Heng Lai, Hao-Yun Liu, Chun-Yao Huang, Yat-Pang Chau, Semon Wu
Mitochondrial (mt) DNA has been long suggested to contribute to carcinogenesis, and a variety of mutations in mtDNA have been confirmed to be related to various early stages of cancers; these data revealed that the detection of mtDNA in clinical samples may be a promising approach for cancer diagnosis. In the present study, the serum mtDNA in healthy donors and groups of patients with cancer was detected. It was revealed that patients with lung cancer without metastasis had more mtDNA in serum compared to patients with metastasis...
November 9, 2018: Oncology Reports
Ning Ji, Yuqi Yang, Zi-Ning Lei, Chao-Yun Cai, Jing-Quan Wang, Pranav Gupta, Xiaomeng Xian, Dong-Hua Yang, Dexin Kong, Zhe-Sheng Chen
Ulixertinib (BVD-523) is a highly potent, selective, and reversible ERK1/2 inhibitor and is currently in clinical development for the treatment of advanced solid tumors. In this study, we investigated whether ulixertinib could antagonize multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The results showed that ulixertinib, at non-toxic concentrations, significantly reversed ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1)- and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2)-mediated MDR...
October 26, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Elias Fares, Cindy B McCloskey, Andres Gutierrez, Michael Princiotta, Linda J Salinas, Douglas A Drevets
BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne, facultative intracellular bacterium that causes severe diseases such as sepsis and meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised hosts. Because it stimulates robust T-lymphocyte-mediated responses, attenuated L. monocytogenes are candidate vaccine vectors for tumor immunotherapy. CASE: We report a case of bacteremia caused by vaccine strain L. monocytogenes (Axalimogene filolisbac) occurring 31 months after immunization against human papilloma virus (HPV) associated cervical cancer...
November 14, 2018: Infection
Farzana Ibrahim, Per Sandström, Bergthor Björnsson, Anna Lindhoff Larsson, Jenny Drott
PURPOSE: Patients' involvement in their own care is important for those with upper abdominal tumours. Care is often conducted according to standardized fast-track care programs (FTCP), and a shorter hospital stay is one of the goals. However, there is no research providing an in-depth perspective on patients' experiences of involvement in care. In this qualitative study, we explored experiences of involvement among patients who had surgery for upper abdominal tumours and were cared for according to an FTCP...
November 14, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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