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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914100/transient-immunological-and-clinical-effectiveness-of-treating-mice-bearing-premalignant-oral-lesions-with-pd-1-antibodies
#1
Corinne A Levingston, M Rita I Young
A carcinogen-induced premalignant oral lesion model that progresses to oral cancer was used to examine the impact of blocking PD-1 on cytokine expression and on progression of lesions to cancer. The results of this study show increased production of IL-2 and the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α by spleen cells of lesion-bearing mice that were treated with PD-1 antibody for one week compared to cytokine production by spleen cells of lesion-bearing mice treated with control antibody. Production of IFN-γ increased at 3 weeks of PD-1 antibody treatment, although production of the other Th1 and inflammatory mediators declined...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914067/5q-syndrome-like-features-as-the-first-manifestation-of-myelodysplastic-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-an-unbalanced-whole-arm-translocation-der-5-19-p10-q10
#2
Hiroshi Ureshino, Haruna Kizuka, Kana Kusaba, Haruhiko Sano, Atsujiro Nishioka, Takero Shindo, Yasushi Kubota, Toshihiko Ando, Kensuke Kojima, Shinya Kimura
Derivative (5;19)(p10;q10) [der(5;19)(p10;q10)] is a rare chromosomal abnormality in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and is genetically similar to deletion 5q [del(5q)]. However, MDS with der(5;19)(p10;q10) and 5q- syndrome are generally characterized as distinct subtypes. Here, we report a case of a patient with 5q- syndrome-like features as the first manifestation of MDS with der(5; 19)(p10;q10). A 59-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for anemia without leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She had received chemotherapy comprising carboplatin and docetaxel for endometrial cancer eight years before...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913676/translational-control-by-mtor-independent-routes-how-eif6-organizes-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
Annarita Miluzio, Sara Ricciardi, Nicola Manfrini, Roberta Alfieri, Stefania Oliveto, Daniela Brina, Stefano Biffo
Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the interconnection between translation and metabolism. Important oncogenic pathways, like those elicited by c-Myc transcription factor and mTOR kinase, couple the activation of the translational machinery with glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis. Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) is a factor necessary for 60S ribosome maturation. eIF6 acts also as a cytoplasmic translation initiation factor, downstream of growth factor stimulation. eIF6 is up-regulated in several tumor types...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913525/checkpoint-inhibition-in-myeloma
#4
Don M Benson
Historically, attempts at cancer immunotherapy have emphasized strategies designed to stimulate or augment the immune system into action. In the past decade, a complementary approach has developed, that of releasing immune cells from inhibitory restraint. Discoveries in the fundamental biology of how immunity is regulated, how the immune system interfaces with malignancy, and how cancer cells may exploit these processes to evade detection have all been translated into the rapidly growing field of therapeutic immune checkpoint inhibition for cancer...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913448/targeting-inflammation-in-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Jelena Todoric, Laura Antonucci, Michael Karin
Inflammation is associated with the development and malignant progression of most cancers. As most of the cell types involved in cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913196/nf-kb-regulated-exosomal-mir-155-promotes-the-inflammation-associated-with-arsenite-carcinogenesis
#6
Chao Chen, Fei Luo, Xinlu Liu, Lu Lu, Hui Xu, Qianlei Yang, Junchao Xue, Le Shi, Jun Li, Aihua Zhang, Qizhan Liu
In the cancer microenvironment, extracellular communication allows various types of cells to coordinate and execute biological functions. Emerging evidence indicates that exosomes, as mediators of cell communication, are involved in tumor progression. Little is known, however, about the mechanism by which exosomal miRNAs regulate inflammatory infiltration in arsenite-induced liver cancer. The present research aimed to determine if miRNAs secreted from arsenite-transformed human hepatic epithelial (L-02) cells are transferred into normal L-02 and THLE-3 cells, which are functionally active in the recipient cells...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913195/breast-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-pro-angiogenic-behavior-of-adipose-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Young Hye Song, Christine Warncke, Sung Jin Choi, Siyoung Choi, Aaron E Chiou, Lu Ling, Han-Yuan Liu, Susan Daniel, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione, Claudia Fischbach
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are abundantly present in the mammary microenvironment and can promote breast cancer malignancy by differentiating into myofibroblasts. However, it remains largely unclear which role tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) play in this process. Here, we used microfabricated, type I collagen-based 3-D tissue culture platforms to investigate the effect of breast cancer cell-derived TEVs on ASCs myofibroblast differentiation and consequential changes in extracellular matrix remodeling and vascular sprouting...
November 29, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913140/comparative-analysis-of-tcdd-induced-ahr-mediated-gene-expression-in-human-mouse-and-rat-primary-b-cells
#8
Natalia Kovalova, Rance Nault, Robert Crawford, Timothy R Zacharewski, Norbert E Kaminski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental pollutant that activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) resulting in altered gene expression. In vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that B cells are directly impaired by TCDD, and are a sensitive target as evidenced by suppression of antibody responses. The window of sensitivity to TCDD-induced suppression of IgM secretion among mouse, rat and human B cells is similar. Specifically, TCDD must be present within the initial 12h post B cell stimulation, indicating that TCDD disrupts early signaling network(s) necessary for B lymphocyte activation and differentiation...
November 29, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912844/heparanase-from-basic-research-to-therapeutic-applications-in-cancer-and-inflammation
#9
Israel Vlodavsky, Preeti Singh, Ilanit Boyango, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Michael Elkin, Ralph D Sanderson, Neta Ilan
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Heparanase expression is enhanced in almost all cancers examined including various carcinomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies. Numerous clinical association studies have consistently demonstrated that upregulation of heparanase expression correlates with increased tumor size, tumor angiogenesis, enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, knockdown of heparanase or treatments of tumor-bearing mice with heparanase-inhibiting compounds, markedly attenuate tumor progression further underscoring the potential of anti-heparanase therapy for multiple types of cancer...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912102/toyocamycin-induces-apoptosis-via-the-crosstalk-between-reactive-oxygen-species-and-p38-erk-mapks-signaling-pathway-in-human-prostate-cancer-pc-3-cells
#10
Sul-Gi Park, Sang-Hun Kim, Kwang-Youn Kim, Sun-Nyoung Yu, Hyeun-Deok Choi, Young-Wook Kim, Hyo-Won Nam, Young-Kyo Seo, Soon-Cheol Ahn
BACKGROUND: Toyocamycin, an antibiotic agent isolated from Streptomyces species, has been shown to have anticancer and chemopreventive effects on various cancer cells. Until now, Toyocamycin-induced apoptosis has not been reported to be involved in the regulation between mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. METHODS: Cell viability assay, western blot, cell-cycle arrest, annexin V/propidium iodide assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) flux were assayed...
October 24, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911956/adenosine-stimulate-proliferation-and-migration-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#11
Miriam Fernandez-Gallardo, Ricardo González-Ramírez, Alejandro Sandoval, Ricardo Felix, Eduardo Monjaraz
Emerging evidence suggests that the adenosine (Ado) receptors may play crucial roles in tumor progression. Here, we show that Ado increases proliferation and migration in a triple negative breast cancer model, the MDA-MB 231 cell line. The use of specific agonists and antagonists evidenced that these effects depend on the activation of the A2B receptor, which then triggers an intracellular response mediated by the adenylate cyclase/PKA/cAMP signaling pathway. Ado also increases the expression of NaV1.5 channels, a potential biomarker in breast cancer...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911104/upregulation-of-t-cell-immunoglobulin-and-mucin-domain-containing-3-tim-3-in-monocytes-macrophages-associates-with-gastric-cancer-progression
#12
Zhenxin Wang, Ni Yin, Zixiang Zhang, Yi Zhang, Guangbo Zhang, Weichang Chen
T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (Tim-3) is an important immune regulatory molecule in cancer immune system. However, expression and function of Tim-3 in monocytes/macrophages in cancer progression mainly remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed Tim-3 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 62 gastric cancer patients and 45 healthy controls using flow cytometry and then associated Tim-3 levels with clinical pathological data from patients. We found Tim-3 level was significantly upregulated in monocytes from gastric cancer patients compared with those from healthy controls, and that upregulated Tim-3 levels associated with depth of tumor invasion and tumor lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stages of gastric cancer patients...
December 2, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909249/mortalin-mediated-and-erk-controlled-targeting-of-hif-1%C3%AE-to-mitochondria-confers-resistance-to-apoptosis-under-hypoxia
#13
Ilias Mylonis, Maria Kourti, Martina Samiotaki, George Panayotou, George Simos
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the main transcriptional activator of the cellular response to hypoxia and an important target of anticancer therapy. Phosphorylation by ERK stimulates the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α by inhibiting its CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation by ERK also regulates the association of HIF-1α with a novel interaction partner identified as mortalin (GRP75) which mediates non-genomic involvement of HIF-1α in apoptosis. Mortalin binds specifically to HIF-1α lacking modification by ERK and their complex is localized outside the nucleus...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908969/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-the-new-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-selective-radioligand-18f-fhnp-comparison-with-18f-fes
#14
Inês F Antunes, Aren van Waarde, Rudi A Dierckx, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Geke A P Hospers, Erik F de Vries
: Estrogen receptors (ER) are targets for endocrine treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. The ER consists of 2 isoforms, ERα and ERβ, which have distinct biological functions. While activation of ERα stimulates cell proliferation and cell survival, ERβ promotes apoptosis. Positron emission tomography (PET) of ERα and ERβ levels could provide more insight in response to hormonal treatment. 16α-(18)F-Fluoro-17β-estradiol ((18)F-FES) is a PET tracer for ER with relative selectivity for ERα...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908934/gata6-promotes-hair-follicle-progenitor-cell-renewal-by-genome-maintenance-during-proliferation
#15
Alex B Wang, Ying V Zhang, Tudorita Tumbar
Cell proliferation is essential to rapid tissue growth and repair, but can result in replication-associated genome damage. Here, we implicate the transcription factor Gata6 in adult mouse hair follicle regeneration where it controls the renewal of rapidly proliferating epithelial (matrix) progenitors and hence the extent of production of terminally differentiated lineages. We find that Gata6 protects against DNA damage associated with proliferation, thus preventing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that in vivo Gata6 stimulates EDA-receptor signaling adaptor Edaradd level and NF-κB pathway activation, known to be important for DNA damage repair and stress response in general and for hair follicle growth in particular...
December 1, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908834/gamma-secretase-inhibitor-impairs-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-induced-by-tgf-%C3%AE-in-ovarian-tumor-cell-lines
#16
M C Pazos, D Abramovich, A Bechis, P Accialini, F Parborell, M Tesone, G Irusta
Ovarian cancer is characterized by being highly metastatic, a feature that represents the main cause of failure of the treatment. This study investigated the effects of γ-secretase inhibition on the TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in ovarian cancer cell lines. SKOV3 cells incubated in the presence of TGF-β showed morphological and biochemical changes related to EMT, which were blocked by co-stimulation with TGF-β and the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. In SKOV3 and IGROV1 cells, the co-stimulation blocked the cadherin switch and the increase in the transcription factors Snail, Slug, Twist and Zeb1 induced by TGF-β...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908592/activation-of-gpr30-stimulates-gtp-binding-of-g%C3%AE-i1-protein-to-sustain-activation-of-erk1-2-in-inhibition-of-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-and-modulates-metastatic-properties
#17
Lau Kin-Mang, Ma Fanny Man-Ting, Xia Jenny Tian, Chan Queeny Kwan Yi, Ng Chi-Fai, To Ka-Fai
Previously, we reported that GPR30 activation by the receptor-specific, non-estrogenic ligand G-1 inhibited in vitro and in vivo growth of prostate cancer (PCa) cells via sustained Erk1/2 activation. Mechanism underlying the sustained Erk1/2 activation for PCa cell growth inhibition remains unclear. Here we report that G-1, through GPR30, activated Gαi1 proteins to sustain Erk1/2 activation but failed to activate adenylyl cyclase (AC) for cAMP production in PCa cells. The chemical-induced activation of AC-cAMP-PKA signaling attenuated Erk1/2 activity and blocked the cell growth inhibitory effects of G-1...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908167/computer-aided-prognosis-for-cell-death-categorization-and-prediction-in-vivo-using-quantitative-ultrasound-and-machine-learning-techniques
#18
M J Gangeh, A Hashim, A Giles, L Sannachi, G J Czarnota
PURPOSE: At present, a one-size-fits-all approach is typically used for cancer therapy in patients. This is mainly because there is no current imaging-based clinical standard for the early assessment and monitoring of cancer treatment response. Here, the authors have developed, for the first time, a complete computer-aided-prognosis (CAP) system based on multiparametric quantitative ultrasound (QUS) spectroscopy methods in association with texture descriptors and advanced machine learning techniques...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907070/modulation-by-ethanol-of-cigarette-smoke-clastogenicity-in-cells-of-adult-mice-and-of-transplacentally-exposed-fetuses
#19
Roumen Balansky, Sebastiano La Maestra, Rosanna T Micale, Marietta Iltcheva, Krassimir Kirov, Silvio De Flora
Cigarette smoke (CS) and ethanol (EtOH) are known to synergize in the causation of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and of the liver. Little is known about possible interactions between these agents in other organs. These premises prompted us to evaluate the clastogenic effects resulting from the inhalation for 3 weeks of mainstream CS and oral administration of EtOH, which were tested either individually or in combination in cells of adult BDF1 mice and their fetuses. CS exerted clastogenic effects in haematopoietic cells of adult male mice by increasing the frequency of micronucleated erythroid cells both in bone marrow and in peripheral blood as well as the frequency of micronucleated and polynucleated pulmonary alveolar macrophages...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906859/recent-advances-in-nuclear-medicine-in-endocrine-oncology
#20
Markus Luster, Andreas Pfestroff, Frederik A Verburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review recent advances concerning the role of nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: For I therapy of thyroid cancer a thyrotropin (TSH) more than 30 mU/l has for many years been deemed a condition sine qua non. However, new data show that patients with lower TSH levels at the time of ablation have the same rate of successful ablation as those with TSH more than 30 mU/l.I-124 combined integrated positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography was shown to be highly accurate in predicting findings on posttherapy radioiodine scanning and was shown to have a high prognostic power...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
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