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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667478/retro-inverso-follicle-stimulating-hormone-peptide-mediated-polyethylenimine-complexes-for-targeted-ovarian-cancer-gene-therapy
#1
Mengyu Zhang, Mingxing Zhang, Jing Wang, Qingqing Cai, Ran Zhao, Yi Yu, Haiyan Tai, Xiaoyan Zhang, Congjian Xu
BACKGROUND: The development of nanoparticle drug delivery systems with targeted ligands has the potential to increase treatment efficiency in ovarian cancer. METHODS: We developed a 21-amino acid peptide, YTRDLVYGDPARPGIQGTGTF (L-FP21) conjugated to polyethylenimine (PEI) and methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) to prepare a nanoparticle drug vehicle to target follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in ovarian cancer. At the same time, we optimized the ligand of the nanoparticle vehicle using D-peptides, which consist of D-amino acids (D-FP21)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667346/in-situ-vaccination-harvesting-low-hanging-fruit-on-the-cancer-immunotherapy-tree
#2
REVIEW
Mee Rie Sheen, Steven Fiering
After 100 years of debate, it is clear that cancer is recognized by the immune system and this has generated immense interest in cancer immunotherapy. The systemic nature of the immune system gives immunotherapy the ability to treat metastatic disease, which currently requires chemotherapy that frequently fails. Like chemotherapy, most immunotherapy is systemically applied in an effort to generate systemic antitumor immune response. However, local administration of immunostimulatory reagents into a recognized tumor by in situ vaccination (ISV) can also generate systemic antitumor immunity to fight metastatic disease...
April 18, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667229/uc-1v150-a-potent-tlr7-agonist-capable-of-activating-macrophages-and-potentiating-mab-mediated-target-cell-deletion
#3
Lekh N Dahal, Adam Gadd, Alexander D Edwards, Mark S Cragg, Stephen A Beers
Toll like receptors (TLR) are critical mediators of the immune system with their activation linked to infection, inflammation and the pathogenesis of immune diseases including autoimmunity and cancer. For this reason, over the last two decades, TLR and their associated signalling pathways have been targeted therapeutically to enhance innate and adaptive immunity. Several TLR ligands, both endogenous and synthetic are at various phases of clinical testing, and new ligands are continually emerging. Agonists of TLR7 are known immune response modifiers, simultaneously stimulating several cell types, resulting in immune cell activation and cytokine and chemokine release...
April 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666839/the-structure-of-the-nucleus-in-normal-and-neoplastic-prostate-cells-untangling-the-role-of-type-2-dna-topoisomerases
#4
REVIEW
William G Nelson, Michael C Haffner, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian
Donald S. Coffey, a pioneer in the study of the structural basis of mammalian genome organization, was fascinated by DNA topoisomerases, chemo-mechanical enzymes that could catalyze changes in DNA structure. Work initiated in his laboratory and carried on with his influence and inspiration has led to the elucidation of specific roles for each of the two type 2 topoisomerases in DNA replication, RNA transcription, and androgen action in prostate cells. TOP2A principally acts in DNA synthesis elongation to prevent tangling of daughter DNA molecules during genome replication and mitotic segregation; TOP2B is required for androgen-stimulation of target gene transcription...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666833/resolving-the-coffey-paradox-what-does-the-androgen-receptor-do-in-normal-vs-malignant-prostate-epithelial-cells
#5
REVIEW
John T Isaacs
Donald Straley Coffey completed his 85 year life's journey on November 9, 2017. In his wake, he left a legion of inspired and loyal students, fellows, and faculty colleagues from all over the world to carry on his passion both for life in general and his 50 year quest to conquer cancer. Early in his career, Dr. Coffey developed a series of animal models to study how androgen regulates the growth of both normal and abnormal prostatic epithelium. As part of these early studies, Dr. Coffey uncovered a paradox in that anti-androgen treatment given at the "wrong" time paradoxically enhanced, not inhibited, normal prostate growth...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666579/d-dencichine-regulates-thrombopoiesis-by-promoting-megakaryocyte-adhesion-migration-and-proplatelet-formation
#6
Shilan Ding, Min Wang, Song Fang, Huibo Xu, Huiting Fan, Yu Tian, Yadong Zhai, Shan Lu, Xin Qi, Fei Wei, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Life-threatening chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia can increase the risk of bleeding due to a dramatic low platelet count, which may limit or delay treatment schedules in cancer patients. The pressing need for the rapid alleviation of the symptoms of thrombocytopenia has prompted us to search for novel highly effective and safe thrombopoietic agents. Pharmacological investigations have indicated that dencichine can prevent and treat blood loss and increase the number of platelets. On the basis of the neurotoxicity of dencichine, D-dencichine is artificially synthesized in the laboratory...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666281/pathogenic-effects-of-ifit2-and-interferon-%C3%AE-during-fatal-systemic-candida-albicans-infection
#7
Marcin Stawowczyk, Shamoon Naseem, Valeria Montoya, Darren P Baker, James Konopka, Nancy C Reich
A balanced immune response to infection is essential to prevent the pathology and tissue damage that can occur from an unregulated or hyperactive host defense. Interferons (IFNs) are critical mediators of the innate defense to infection, and in this study we evaluated the contribution of a specific gene coding for IFIT2 induced by type I IFNs in a murine model of disseminated Candida albicans Invasive candidiasis is a frequent challenge during immunosuppression or surgical medical interventions, and C. albicans is a common culprit that leads to high rates of mortality...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665843/next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-receptor-type-tyrosine-kinase-genes-in-surgically-resected-colon-cancer-identification-of-gain-of-function-mutations-in-the-ret-proto-oncogene
#8
Duarte Mendes Oliveira, Katia Grillone, Chiara Mignogna, Valentina De Falco, Carmelo Laudanna, Flavia Biamonte, Rosa Locane, Francesco Corcione, Massimiliano Fabozzi, Rosario Sacco, Giuseppe Viglietto, Donatella Malanga, Antonia Rizzuto
BACKGROUND: Improvement in genetic characterization of Colon Cancer (CC) patients is required to propose new potential targets, since surgical resection coupled to chemotherapy, presents several limits such as cancer recurrence and drug resistance. Targeted therapies have more efficacy and less toxicity than standard treatments. One of the most relevant cancer-specific actionable targets are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) whose role in CC need to be better investigated. METHODS: We have analysed 37 CC patients using the Ion AmpliSeq™ Comprehensive Cancer Panel (CCP)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665748/low-or-undetectable-basal-thyroglobulin-levels-obviate-the-need-for-neck-ultrasound-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-patients-after-total-thyroidectomy-and-i-131-ablation
#9
Frederik Verburg, Uwe Maeder, Luca Giovanella, Markus Luster, Christoph Reiners
BACKGROUND: Neck ultrasound (NUS) is currently seen as a main component of follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and is usually performed regardless of non-stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a clinical benefit from such a routine NUS in DTC patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective database study of 3176 cervical ultrasound exams performed in 773 patients between June 15, 1996 and July 1, 2012...
April 18, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665672/regulatory-network-of-arf-in-cancer-development
#10
Aram Ko, Su Yeon Han, Jaewhan Song
ARF is a tumor suppressor protein that has a pivotal role in the prevention of cancer development through regulating cell proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis. As a factor that induces senescence, the role of ARF as a tumor suppressor is closely linked to the p53-MDM2 axis, which is a key process that restrains tumor formation. Thus, many cancer cells either lack a functional ARF or p53, which enables them to evade cell oncogenic stress-mediated cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis. In particular, the ARF gene is a frequent target of genetic and epigenetic alterations including promoter hypermethylation or gene deletion...
April 18, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665654/hypericin-affects-cancer-side-populations-via-competitive-inhibition-of-bcrp
#11
Jana Vargová, Jaromír Mikeš, Rastislav Jendželovský, Lucia Mikešová, Barbora Kuchárová, Ľubomír Čulka, Radek Fedr, Ján Remšík, Karel Souček, Alois Kozubík, Peter Fedoročko
OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) are considered a root of tumorigenicity and resistance. However, their identification remains challenging. The use of the side population (SP) assay as a credible marker of CSLCs remains controversial. The SP assay relies on the elevated activity of ABC transporters that, in turn, can be modulated by hypericin (HYP), a photosensitizer and bioactive compound of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), a popular over-the-counter antidepressant. Here we aimed to comprehensively characterize the SP phenotype of cancer cells and to determine the impact of HYP on these cells...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665011/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-blockade-improves-the-efficacy-of-chemotherapy-against-human-neuroblastoma-in-the-absence-of-t-lymphocytes
#12
Matthew W Webb, Jianping Sun, Michael A Sheard, Wei-Yao Liu, Hong-Wei Wu, Jeremy R Jackson, Jemily Malvar, Richard Sposto, Dylan Daniel, Robert C Seeger
Tumor-associated macrophages can promote growth of cancers. In neuroblastoma, tumor-associated macrophages have greater frequency in metastatic versus loco-regional tumors, and higher expression of genes associated with macrophages helps to predict poor prognosis in the 60% of high-risk patients who have MYCN-non-amplified disease. The contribution of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to anti-neuroblastoma immune responses may be limited by low MHC class I expression and low exonic mutation frequency. Therefore, we modelled human neuroblastoma in T-cell deficient mice to examine whether depletion of monocytes/macrophages from the neuroblastoma microenvironment by blockade of CSF-1R can improve the response to chemotherapy...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664568/the-role-of-cytokines-in-t-cell-memory-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Miro E Raeber, Yves Zurbuchen, Daniela Impellizzieri, Onur Boyman
Upon stimulation with their cognate antigen, naive T cells undergo proliferation and differentiation into effector cells, followed by apoptosis or survival as precursors of long-lived memory cells. These phases of a T-cell response and the ensuing maintenance of memory T cells are shaped by cytokines, most notably interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-7, and IL-15 that share the common γ chain (γc ) cytokine receptor. Steady-state production of IL-7 and IL-15 is necessary for background proliferation and homeostatic survival of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663923/selenium-and-iron-oxide-nanocomposites-for-magnetically-targeted-anti-cancer-applications
#14
Halla Laufey Hauksdóttir, Thomas J Webster
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are already well-established in the medical field due to their ability to improve contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and for their external magnetic control in the body. Moreover, selenium has been shown to kill numerous cancer cells at lower concentrations that IONP (e.g., 1 μg/ml). Selenium is a trace mineral of growing interest in cancer treatment since it is an essential nutrient in the human body and can interfere with thiolcontaining proteins necessary for cancer cells to function...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663669/preliminary-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-chemohormonal-therapy-in-metastatic-hormone-na%C3%A3-ve-prostate-cancer-the-first-real-life-experience-in-asia
#15
Darren M C Poon, Tim Chan, Kuen Chan, Michelle Chan, Eric K C Lee, Kitty Law, Daisy Lam
INTRODUCTION: A substantial survival benefit with chemohormonal therapy has been proven by the CHAARTED and STAMPEDE studies, and this clinical approach has emerged as the standard of care for patients with metastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer (mHSPC). However, because its clinical efficacy and tolerability in Asian patients remains uncertain, this study aims to evaluate preliminary results of its use in Hong Kong. METHODS: The clinical records of mHSPC patients treated with chemohormonal therapy from all six public oncology centers in Hong Kong between January 2015 and July 2016 were reviewed...
April 16, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663325/a-new-approach-to-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-targeting-the-receptor-for-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone
#16
Joaquin J Jimenez, Gina M DelCanto, Petra Popovics, Aymee Perez, Ailin Vila Granda, Irving Vidaurre, Ren-Zhi Cai, Ferenc G Rick, Ronan T Swords, Andrew V Schally
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus and acts on the pituitary gland to stimulate the release of growth hormone (GH). GHRH can also be produced by human cancers, in which it functions as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. We have previously shown that synthetic antagonistic analogues of GHRH are able to successfully suppress the growth of 60 different human cancer cell lines representing over 20 cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of GHRH and its receptors in leukaemias has never been examined...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663037/polyfunctionality-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes-is-increased-after-chemoradiotherapy-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
J Doescher, S Jeske, S E Weissinger, C Brunner, S Laban, E Bölke, T K Hoffmann, T L Whiteside, P J Schuler
BACKGROUND: For head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC), standard therapy consists of surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy. Antineoplastic immunotherapy could be an option in an adjuvant setting and is already in palliation. A functional immune system is a prerequisite for successful immunotherapy. However, effects of the standard-of-care therapy on the patients' immune system are not fully understood. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from patients with HNSCC (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 10)...
April 16, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662615/transcriptome-and-proteome-profiling-reveals-stress-induced-expression-signatures-of-imiquimod-treated-tasmanian-devil-facial-tumor-disease-dftd-cells
#18
Amanda L Patchett, Richard Wilson, Jac C Charlesworth, Lynn M Corcoran, Anthony T Papenfuss, Bruce A Lyons, Gregory M Woods, Cesar Tovar
As a topical cancer immunotherapy, the toll-like receptor 7 ligand imiquimod activates tumor regression via stimulation of immune cell infiltration and cytotoxic responses. Imiquimod also exerts direct pro-apoptotic effects on tumor cells in vitro , but a role for these effects in imiquimod-induced tumor regression remains undefined. We previously demonstrated that cell lines derived from devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), a transmissible cancer threatening the survival of the Tasmanian devil ( Sarcophilus harrisii ), are sensitive to imiquimod-induced apoptosis...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662190/autocrine-activation-of-jak2-by-il-11-promotes-platinum-drug-resistance
#19
Wei Zhou, Wei Sun, Mingo M H Yung, Sheng Dai, Yihua Cai, Chi-Wei Chen, Yunxiao Meng, Jennifer B Lee, John C Braisted, Yinghua Xu, Noel T Southall, Paul Shinn, Xuefeng Huang, Zhangfa Song, Xiulei Chen, Yan Kai, Xin Cai, Zongzhu Li, Qiang Hao, Annie N Y Cheung, Hextan Y S Ngan, Stephanie S Liu, Stephanie Barak, Jing Hao, Zhijun Dai, Alexandros Tzatsos, Weiqun Peng, Huadong Pei, Zhiyong Han, David W Chan, Wei Zheng, Wenge Zhu
Antineoplastic platinum agents are used in first-line treatment of ovarian cancer, but treatment failure frequently results from platinum drug resistance. Emerging observations suggest a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the resistance of cancer drugs including platinum drugs. However, the molecular link between ROS and cellular survival pathway is poorly understood. Using quantitative high-throughput combinational screen (qHTCS) and genomic sequencing, we show that in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer elevated ROS levels sustain high level of IL-11 by stimulating FRA1-mediated IL-11 expression and increased IL-11 causes resistance to platinum drugs by constitutively activating JAK2-STAT5 via an autocrine mechanism...
April 17, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662124/stag2-deficiency-induces-interferon-responses-via-cgas-sting-pathway-and-restricts-virus-infection
#20
Siyuan Ding, Jonathan Diep, Ningguo Feng, Lili Ren, Bin Li, Yaw Shin Ooi, Xin Wang, Kevin F Brulois, Linda L Yasukawa, Xingnan Li, Calvin J Kuo, David A Solomon, Jan E Carette, Harry B Greenberg
Cohesin is a multi-subunit nuclear protein complex that coordinates sister chromatid separation during cell division. Highly frequent somatic mutations in genes encoding core cohesin subunits have been reported in multiple cancer types. Here, using a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening approach to identify host dependency factors and novel innate immune regulators of rotavirus (RV) infection, we demonstrate that the loss of STAG2, an important component of the cohesin complex, confers resistance to RV replication in cell culture and human intestinal enteroids...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
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