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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550793/acute-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-treatment-enhances-extinction-memory-in-male-rats
#1
L Y Maeng, M B Taha, K K Cover, S S Glynn, M Murillo, K Lebron-Milad, M R Milad
Leuprolide acetate (LEU), also known as Lupron, is commonly used to treat prostate cancer in men. As a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonist, it initially stimulates the release of gonadal hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol. This surge eventually suppresses these hormones, preventing the further growth and spread of cancer cells. Individuals receiving this treatment often report anxiety and cognitive changes, but LEU's effects on the neural mechanisms that are involved in anxiety during the trajectory of treatment are not well known...
May 17, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550454/oncogenic-roles-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-axis
#2
Masahiro Aoki, Teruaki Fujishita
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in various human cancers and has been considered a promising therapeutic target. Many of the positive regulators of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis, including the catalytic (p110α) and regulatory (p85α), of class IA PI3K, AKT, RHEB, mTOR, and eIF4E, possess oncogenic potentials, as demonstrated by transformation assays in vitro and by genetically engineered mouse models in vivo. Genetic evidences also indicate their roles in malignancies induced by activation of the upstream oncoproteins including receptor tyrosine kinases and RAS and those induced by the loss of the negative regulators of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway such as PTEN, TSC1/2, LKB1, and PIPP...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549783/irinotecan-temozolomide-with-temsirolimus-or-dinutuximab-in-children-with-refractory-or-relapsed-neuroblastoma-cog-anbl1221-an-open-label-randomised-phase-2-trial
#3
Rajen Mody, Arlene Naranjo, Collin Van Ryn, Alice L Yu, Wendy B London, Barry L Shulkin, Marguerite T Parisi, Sabah-E-Noor Servaes, Mitchell B Diccianni, Paul M Sondel, Julia G Bender, John M Maris, Julie R Park, Rochelle Bagatell
BACKGROUND: Outcomes for children with relapsed and refractory neuroblastoma are dismal. The combination of irinotecan and temozolomide has activity in these patients, and its acceptable toxicity profile makes it an excellent backbone for study of new agents. We aimed to test the addition of temsirolimus or dinutuximab to irinotecan-temozolomide in patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma. METHODS: For this open-label, randomised, phase 2 selection design trial of the Children's Oncology Group (COG; ANBL1221), patients had to have histological verification of neuroblastoma or ganglioneuroblastoma at diagnosis or have tumour cells in bone marrow with increased urinary catecholamine concentrations at diagnosis...
May 23, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549350/an-anti-cancer-wxxxe-containing-azurin-polypeptide-inhibits-rac1-dependent-stat3-and-erk-gsk-3%C3%AE-signaling-in-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Zhe Zhang, Zhiyong Luo, Wenpu Min, Lin Zhang, Yaqun Wu, Xiaopeng Hu
In our previous study, we characterized a mycoplasmal small GTPase-like polypeptide of 240 amino acids that possesses an N-terminal WVLGE sequence. The N-terminal WVLGE sequence promotes activation of Rac1 and subsequent host cancer cell proliferation. To investigate the function of the WxxxE motif in the interaction with Rac1 and host tumor progression, we synthesized a 35-amino acid WVLGE-containing polypeptide derived from a cell-penetrating peptide derived from the azurin protein. We verified that the WVLGE-containing polypeptide targeted MCF-7 cells rather than MCF-10A cells...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549346/functional-heterogeneity-in-tumor-derived-human-pancreatic-stellate-cells-differential-expression-of-hgf-and-implications-for-mitogenic-signaling-and-migration-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#5
Vegard Tjomsland, Monica Aasrum, Thoralf Christoffersen, Ivar P Gladhaug
The pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) is the principal cell type of the desmoplastic stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PSCs interact with cancer cells and influence the progression of the disease through a complex network of signaling molecules including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Functional heterogeneity of PSCs within a tumor might conceivably influence tumor progression. We investigated PSC populations isolated from different human PDACs and examined the effects of PSC-conditioned medium on BxPC-3 and AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells...
May 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548955/exploring-brusatol-as-a-new-anti-pancreatic-cancer-adjuvant-biological-evaluation-and-mechanistic-studies
#6
Zheng Lu, Zheng-Quan Lai, Albert W N Leung, Po Sing Leung, Zhao-Shen Li, Zhi-Xiu Lin
Pancreatic cancer is highly resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and is known to have a poor prognosis. The development of new therapeutic entities is badly needed for this deadly malignancy. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that brusatol, a natural quassinoid isolated from a Chinese herbal medicine named Bruceae Fructus, possessed potent cytotoxic effect against different pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. Its anti-pancreatic cancer effect was comparable to that of the first-line chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, with a more favorable safety profile...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548950/enolase-1-stimulates-glycolysis-to-promote-chemoresistance-in-gastric-cancer
#7
Xiaoling Qian, Wenxia Xu, Jinye Xu, Qiqi Shi, Jiaqiu Li, Yu Weng, Zhinong Jiang, Lifeng Feng, Xian Wang, Jianwei Zhou, Hongchuan Jin
Chemotherapy is the major choice for the cancer treatment of early and advanced stages. However, intrinsic or acquired drug resistance significantly restricts the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy. It is critical to develop novel approaches to detect and overcome drug resistance. In this study, we demonstrated that accelerated glycolysis played a pivotal role in both intrinsic and acquired cisplatin-resistance of gastric cancer cells. The metabolic reprogramming of cisplatin-resistant cells was characterized by increased glycolysis dependence...
May 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548937/nac1-promotes-self-renewal-of-embryonic-stem-cells-through-direct-transcriptional-regulation-of-c-myc
#8
Yan Ruan, Jianrong He, Wei Wu, Ping He, Yanping Tian, Lan Xiao, Gaoke Liu, Jiali Wang, Yuda Cheng, Shuo Zhang, Yi Yang, Jiaxiang Xiong, Ke Zhao, Ying Wan, He Huang, Junlei Zhang, Rui Jian
The pluripotency transcriptional network in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is composed of distinct functional units including the core and Myc units. It is hoped that dissection of the cellular functions and interconnections of network factors will aid our understanding of ESC and cancer biology. Proteomic and genomic approaches have identified Nac1 as a member of the core pluripotency network. However, previous studies have predominantly focused on the role of Nac1 in psychomotor stimulant response and cancer pathogenesis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548080/discovery-of-first-in-class-reversible-dual-small-molecule-inhibitors-against-g9a-and-dnmts-in-hematological-malignancies
#9
Edurne San José-Enériz, Xabier Agirre, Obdulia Rabal, Amaia Vilas-Zornoza, Juan A Sanchez-Arias, Estibaliz Miranda, Ana Ugarte, Sergio Roa, Bruno Paiva, Ander Estella-Hermoso de Mendoza, Rosa María Alvarez, Noelia Casares, Victor Segura, José I Martín-Subero, François-Xavier Ogi, Pierre Soule, Clara M Santiveri, Ramón Campos-Olivas, Giancarlo Castellano, Maite Garcia Fernandez de Barrena, Juan Roberto Rodriguez-Madoz, Maria José García-Barchino, Juan Jose Lasarte, Matias A Avila, Jose Angel Martinez-Climent, Julen Oyarzabal, Felipe Prosper
The indisputable role of epigenetics in cancer and the fact that epigenetic alterations can be reversed have favoured development of epigenetic drugs. In this study, we design and synthesize potent novel, selective and reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the G9a and DNMTs methyltransferase activity. In vitro treatment of haematological neoplasia (acute myeloid leukaemia-AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-ALL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-DLBCL) with the lead compound CM-272, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, inducing interferon-stimulated genes and immunogenic cell death...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546760/analysis-of-immune-status-after-iodine-125-permanent-brachytherapy-in-prostate-cancer
#10
E Du, Lin Wang, Chang-Ying Li, Chang-Wen Zhang, Yan-Chun Qu, Ran-Lu Liu, Yong Xu, Kuo Yang, Zhi-Hong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) is an effective treatment choice for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer (PCa). However, the impact of PPB on tumor immune status is still poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the immune status in PCa patients before and at different time points after PPB (1, 3, 6, and 12 months). METHODS: Blood was collected from 32 patients with low and intermediate risk PCa and 12 healthy volunteers. The frequency of immunocompetent cells was identified by flow cytometry...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545868/ameliorative-effect-of-atractylenolide-iii-in-the-mast-cell-proliferation-induced-by-tslp
#11
Myoung-Schook Yoou, Sun-Young Nam, Mu Hyun Jin, So Young Lee, Mi-Sun Kim, Seok Seon Roh, In Hwa Choi, Nariyah Woo, SeokWon Lim, Dong Hyun Kim, Jae-Bum Jang, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
Atractylenolide III (ATL-III) is an active compound of Atractylodes lancea, which has been widely used for the treatment of cancer. Cancer is closely connected with inflammation, and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used to treat cancer. We investigated the influence of ATL-III on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-induced inflammatory reactions. Pretreatment with ATL-III suppressed murine double minute 2 levels and promoted p53 levels in TSLP-treated human mast cell, HMC-1 cells. Mast cell proliferation increased by TSLP or IL-3 stimulation was significantly decreased by ATL-III pretreatment...
May 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545586/disulfide-high-mobility-group-box-1-causes-bladder-pain-through-bladder-toll-like-receptor-4
#12
Fei Ma, Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Katherine L Meyer-Siegler, Karin N Westlund, David E Hunt, Pedro L Vera
BACKGROUND: Bladder pain is a prominent symptom in several urological conditions (e.g. infection, painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis, cancer). Understanding the mechanism of bladder pain is important, particularly when the pain is not accompanied by bladder pathology. Stimulation of protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) in the urothelium results in bladder pain through release of urothelial high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). HGMB1 has two functionally active redox states (disulfide and all-thiol) and it is not known which form elicits bladder pain...
May 25, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545567/cancer-immunotherapy-by-targeting-immune-checkpoints-mechanism-of-t-cell-dysfunction-in-cancer-immunity-and-new-therapeutic-targets
#13
REVIEW
Hwei-Fang Tsai, Ping-Ning Hsu
Immune checkpoints or coinhibitory receptors, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 and programmed death (PD)-1, play important roles in regulating T cell responses, and they were proven to be effective targets in treating cancer. In chronic viral infections and cancer, T cells are chronically exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This is often associated with deterioration of T cell function with constitutive activation of immune checkpoints, a state called 'exhaustion', which is commonly associated with inefficient control of tumors and persistent viral infections...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545562/the-inhibition-of-fgf-receptor-1-activity-mediates-sorafenib-antiproliferative-effects-in-human-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-tumor-initiating-cells
#14
Alessandra Pattarozzi, Elisa Carra, Roberto E Favoni, Roberto Würth, Daniela Marubbi, Rosa Angela Filiberti, Luciano Mutti, Tullio Florio, Federica Barbieri, Antonio Daga
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer, characterized by rapid progression and high mortality. Persistence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs, or cancer stem cells) after cytotoxic drug treatment is responsible for tumor relapse, and represents one of the main reasons for the poor prognosis of mesothelioma. In fact, identification of the molecules affecting TIC viability is still a significant challenge. METHODS: TIC-enriched cultures were obtained from 10 human malignant pleural mesotheliomas and cultured in vitro...
May 25, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544611/detection-of-nitric-oxide-from-living-cells-using-polymeric-zinc-organic-framework-derived-zinc-oxide-composite-with-conducting-polymer
#15
Min-Yeong Kim, Malenahalli Halappa Naveen, Nanjanagudu Ganesh Gurudatt, Yoon-Bo Shim
Sensitive and selective detection of nitric oxide (NO) in the human body is crucial since it has the vital roles in the physiological and pathological processes. This study reports a new type of electrochemical NO biosensor based on zinc-dithiooxamide framework derived porous ZnO nanoparticles and polyterthiophene-rGO composite. By taking advantage of the synergetic effect between ZnO and poly(TTBA-rGO) (TTBA = 3'-(p-benzoic acid)-2,2':5',2″-terthiophene, rGO = reduced graphene oxide) nanocomposite layer, the poly(TTBA-rGO)/ZnO sensor probe displays excellent electrocatalytic activity and explores to detect NO released from normal and cancer cell lines...
May 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544544/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signaling-is-responsible-for-cathepsin-g-induced-aggregation-of-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells
#16
Riyo Morimoto-Kamata, Satoru Yui
Cathepsin G (CG), a neutrophil serine protease, induces cell migration and multicellular aggregation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in a process that is dependent on E-cadherin and CG enzymatic activity. While these tumor cell aggregates can cause tumor emboli that could represent intravascular growth and extravasation into the surrounding tissues, resulting in metastasis, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains poorly characterized. In this study, we aimed to identify the signaling pathway that is triggered during CG-mediated stimulation of cell aggregation...
May 24, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544312/c-x-c-motif-chemokine-receptor-4-promotes-tumor-angiogenesis-in-gastric-cancer-via-activation-of-jak2-stat3
#17
Qing Zhang, Feng Xu, Yi Shi, Yi-Wen Chen, Hai-Ping Wang, Xue Yu, Yong Li
C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) overexpression promotes gastric cancer growth and metastasis. In this study, we determined its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. We overexpressed CXCR4 in gastric cancer cells and examined the effects of conditioned medium on endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. The effects of CXCR4 overexpression on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation were analyzed...
May 24, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543974/neck-sonography-and-suppressed-thyroglobulin-have-high-sensitivity-for-identifying-recurrent-persistent-disease-in-patients-with-low-risk-thyroid-cancer-treated-with-total-thyroidectomy-and-radioactive-iodine-ablation-making-stimulated-thyroglobulin-unnecessary
#18
José M Domínguez, Flavia Nilo, Tania Contreras, Rocío Carmona, Nicolás Droppelmann, Hernán González, Virginia Iturrieta, R Michael Tuttle
OBJECTIVES: Follow-up of patients with low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer treated with total thyroidectomy and radioiodine requires neck sonography and thyroglobulin (Tg). The need to stimulate Tg is controversial. The goal of this study was to compare the diagnostic performances of sonography plus suppressed or stimulated Tg in low-risk thyroid cancer. METHODS: After total thyroidectomy and radioiodine, patients with low-risk thyroid cancer were retrospectively identified as having structural or biochemical persistence/recurrence...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543074/wwc3-regulates-the-wnt-and-hippo-pathways-via-dvls-and-lats1-to-suppress-lung-cancer-invasion-and-metastasis
#19
Qiang Han, Xuyong Lin, Xiupeng Zhang, Guiyang Jiang, Yong Zhang, Yuan Miao, Xuezhu Rong, Xiaoying Zheng, Yong Han, Xu Han, Jingjing Wu, Joachim Kremerskothen, Enhua Wang
The scaffolding protein WWC (WW and C2-domain containing) family is known to regulate cell proliferation and organ size via the Hippo signalling pathway. However, the expression level of WWC3 in human tumours and the mechanisms underlying its role in cellular signal transduction have not yet been reported. Herein, we explored the potential roles of WWC3 in lung cancer cells and the corresponding molecular mechanisms. We found low WWC3 expression in both lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer specimens, which was associated with low differentiation, advanced p-TNM stage, positive lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542880/suicidal-death-of-erythrocytes-in-cancer-and-its-chemotherapy-a-potential-target-in-the-treatment-of-tumor-associated-anemia
#20
REVIEW
Elisabeth Lang, Rosi Bissinger, Syed M Qadri, Florian Lang
In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling. Eryptotic erythrocytes are rapidly cleared from circulating blood and may adhere to the vascular wall. Stimulation of eryptosis thus impairs microcirculation and leads to anemia as soon as the loss of erythrocytes cannot be fully compensated by enhanced erythropoiesis. Signaling stimulating eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) -activity, ceramide, caspases, calpain, p38-kinase, protein-kinase C, Janus-activated kinase 3, casein-kinase 1α, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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