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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332185/mechanism-of-prolactin-inhibition-of-mir-135b-via-methylation-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#1
Zhi Chen, Jun Luo, ChangHui Zhang, Yue Ma, Shuang Sun, Tianyin Zhang, Juan J Loor
Prolactin is an important endocrine activator of lactogenesis. This study investigated the function and mechanism of miR-135b in the enhancement of lactation by prolactin in goat mammary epithelial tissue. We utilized S-Poly (T) sequencing to evaluate changes in gene regulation in the goat mammary gland after incubation with 2.5 ug/ml prolactin and 2.5 ug/ml IGF-1 by examining highly expressed miRNAs during early-lactation and late-lactation. The results illustrated that miR-135b is highly expressed in the goat mammary gland during early-lactation and late-lactation, and also after treatment with 2...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331947/-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-brain-tumors
#2
P Ditter, E Hattingen
BACKGROUND: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under consideration of clinical information enables the correct diagnosis and therapy for the majority of cerebral space-occupying lesions. Some important differential diagnoses, e. g. low vs. high-grade tumors, require additional MRI methods. OBJECTIVE: This article critically discusses the importance of magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in brain tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The concentration of normal and pathological brain metabolites can be non-invasively measured by (1)H-MRS...
March 22, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328069/autophagy-maintains-the-integrity-of-endothelial-barrier-in-lps-induced-lung-injury
#3
Dan Zhang, Jian Zhou, Le Chi Ye, Jing Li, Zhenzhou Wu, Yuping Li, Chichi Li
Understanding the role and underlying regulation mechanism of autophagy in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury (LPS-LI) may provide potentially new pharmacological targets for treatment of acute lung injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of autophagy in LPS-LI. The autophagy of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) and mice was inhibited before they were challenged with LPS. In vitro, permeability, vitality and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release rate of the cells were detected, the zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) expression and the stress fiber formation were determined...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327992/cyst-fluid-from-cystic-malignant-brain-tumors-a-reservoir-of-nutrients-including-growth-factor-like-nutrients-for-tumor-cells
#4
Daniel Dahlberg, Eduard A Struys, Erwin E Jansen, Lars Mørkrid, Øivind Midttun, Bjørnar Hassel
BACKGROUND: Brain tumors may have cysts, whose content of nutrients could influence tumor cell microenvironment and growth. OBJECTIVE: To measure nutrients in cyst fluid from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastatic brain tumors. METHODS: Quantification of nutrients in cyst fluid from 12 to 18 GBMs and 4 to 10 metastatic brain tumors. RESULTS: GBM cysts contained glucose at 2.2 mmol/L (median value; range <0.8-3...
January 25, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327516/an-extract-from-shrimp-processing-by-products-protects-sh-sy5y-cells-from-neurotoxicity-induced-by-a%C3%AE-25-35
#5
Yongping Zhang, Guangling Jiao, Cai Song, Shelly Gu, Richard E Brown, Junzeng Zhang, Pingcheng Zhang, Jacques Gagnon, Steven Locke, Roumiana Stefanova, Claude Pelletier, Yi Zhang, Hongyu Lu
Increased evidence suggests that marine unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) can protect neurons from amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) assays showed that the acetone extract 4-2A obtained from shrimp Pandalus borealis industry processing wastes contained 67.19% monounsaturated FAs and 16.84% polyunsaturated FAs. The present study evaluated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of 4-2A in Aβ25-35-insulted differentiated SH-SY5Y cells...
March 22, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320429/chrysin-inhibited-tumor-glycolysis-and-induced-apoptosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-targeting-hexokinase-2
#6
Dong Xu, Junzhe Jin, Hao Yu, Zheming Zhao, Dongyan Ma, Chundong Zhang, Honglei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Hexokinase-2(HK-2) plays dual roles in glucose metabolism and mediation of cell apoptosis, making it an attractive target for cancer therapy. Chrysin is a natural flavone found in plant extracts which are widely used as herb medicine in China. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor activity of chrysin against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the role of HK-2 played for chrysin to exert its function. METHODS: The expression of HK-2 in HCC cell line and tumor tissue was examined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319810/inhibitors-of-glut-slc2a-enhance-the-action-of-bcnu-and-temozolomide-against-high-grade-gliomas
#7
Alberto Azzalin, Giulia Nato, Elena Parmigiani, Francesca Garello, Annalisa Buffo, Lorenzo Magrassi
Glucose transport across glioblastoma membranes plays a crucial role in maintaining the enhanced glycolysis typical of high-grade gliomas and glioblastoma. We tested the ability of two inhibitors of the glucose transporters GLUT/SLC2A superfamily, indinavir (IDV) and ritonavir (RTV), and of one inhibitor of the Na/glucose antiporter type 2 (SGLT2/SLC5A2) superfamily, phlorizin (PHZ), in decreasing glucose consumption and cell proliferation of human and murine glioblastoma cells. We found in vitro that RTV, active on at least three different GLUT/SLC2A transporters, was more effective than IDV, a specific inhibitor of GLUT4/SLC2A4, both in decreasing glucose consumption and lactate production and in inhibiting growth of U87MG and Hu197 human glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures of human glioblastoma...
March 17, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317631/lactic-acidosis-a-rare-oncological-emergency-in-solid-tumors-at-presentation
#8
Ranjit Nair, Usman Shah
Lactic acidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication characterized by accumulation of blood lactate resulting in low arterial pH. The majority of lactic acidosis in malignancies are reported in association with hematologic malignancies. It may result from an imbalance between lactate production and hepatic lactate utilization, but the exact pathophysiology is far more complex than what we can fathom from current micromolecular studies. We report a case of a 71-year-old male with metastatic lung cancer presenting with fatal lactic acidosis in the absence of liver involvement...
April 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315323/increased-serotonin-signaling-contributes-to-the-warburg-effect-in-pancreatic-tumor-cells-under-metabolic-stress-and-promotes-growth-of-pancreatic-tumors-in-mice
#9
Shu-Heng Jiang, Jun Li, Fang-Yuan Dong, Jian-Yu Yang, De-Jun Liu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Ya-Hui Wang, Min-Wei Yang, Xue-Liang Fu, Xiao-Xin Zhang, Qing Li, Xiu-Feng Pang, Yan-Miao Huo, Jiao Li, Jun-Feng Zhang, Ho-Young Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Wen-Xin Qin, Jian-Ren Gu, Yong-Wei Sun, Zhi-Gang Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The desmoplasia and poor vascularity cause severe metabolic stress in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions that contributes to tumorigenesis. We investigated the role of 5-HT signaling in the growth of pancreatic tumors. METHODS: We measured the levels of proteins that regulate 5-HT synthesis, packaging, and degradation in pancreata from Kras(G12D/+); Trp53(R172H/+); Pdx1-Cre; (KPC) mice, which develop pancreatic tumors, as well as in PDAC cell lines and a tissue microarray containing 81 human PDAC samples...
March 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306598/comparing-the-effects-of-particulate-matter-on-the-ocular-surfaces-of-normal-eyes-and-a-dry-eye-rat-model
#10
Ji Yun Han, Boram Kang, Youngsub Eom, Hyo Myung Kim, Jong Suk Song
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of exposure to particulate matter on the ocular surface of normal and experimental dry eye (EDE) rat models. METHODS: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were used as the particulate matter. Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, TiO2 challenge group of the normal model, EDE control group, and TiO2 challenge group of the EDE model. After 24 hours, corneal clarity was compared and tear samples were collected for quantification of lactate dehydrogenase, MUC5AC, and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations...
March 16, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298227/metabolomics-approaches-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-tumor-metabolism-profiling-predicts-clinical-outcome-of-patients
#11
S Battini, F Faitot, A Imperiale, A E Cicek, C Heimburger, G Averous, P Bachellier, I J Namer
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PAs) have very poor prognoses even when surgery is possible. Currently, there are no tissular biomarkers to predict long-term survival in patients with PA. The aims of this study were to (1) describe the metabolome of pancreatic parenchyma (PP) and PA, (2) determine the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on PP and PA, and (3) find tissue metabolic biomarkers associated with long-term survivors, using metabolomics analysis. METHODS: (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using intact tissues was applied to analyze metabolites in PP tissue samples (n = 17) and intact tumor samples (n = 106), obtained from 106 patients undergoing surgical resection for PA...
March 16, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295515/two-cases-of-melanomas-paradoxically-metastasizing-to-the-intestinal-tract-during-nivolumab-therapy
#12
Hajime Miyazawa, Teruki Yanagi, Yasuyuki Yamaguchi, Keisuke Imafuku, Shinya Kitamura, Hiroo Hata, Jiro Uehara, Nobuki Ichikawa, Yosuke Ohno, Tadashi Yoshida, Shigenori Homma, Hideki Kawamura, Akinobu Taketomi, Hiroshi Shimizu
We report two cases of melanomas in patients who developed intestinal metastasis despite other metastatic sites responding to nivolumab and despite the patients having favorable findings such as vitiligo and normal lactate dehydrogenase. The first case is an 85-year-old man who had been administrated nivolumab for lung/cutaneous metastases. After 22 courses of nivolumab therapy, fever and anorexia had appeared and his bodyweight had decreased. An intussusception on the ileocecal valve was revealed by computed tomography, and emergency surgery revealed metastatic lesions on the colon...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295007/-anogenital-mammary-like-glands-and-related-lesions-part-1-benign-tumors-and-tumor-like-disorders
#13
A M Konstantinova, I E Belousova, D Katserovska, M Mikhal, K V Shelekhova, D V Kazakov
Anogenital mammary-like glands represent a normal anatomic constituent of the anogenital area and may give rise to many benign and malignant tumors that morphologically mimic similar breast diseases. The literature review is complemented by a description of 286 cases of benign tumors and tumor-like processes in the mammary-like glands. The paper presents the clinical and morphological characteristics of papillary hidradenoma, fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes tumor, lactating adenoma, sclerosing adenosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, etc...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293396/the-mir-383-ldha-axis-regulates-cell-proliferation-invasion-and-glycolysis-in-hepatocellular-cancer
#14
Zhixiong Fang, Langqiu He, Hui Jia, Qiusheng Huang, Dan Chen, Zhiwei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the correlation between expression patterns and functions of miR-383 and LDHA in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We detected the expression of miR-383 and LDHA in 30 HCC tissues and their matched adjacent normal tissues using qRT-PCR. Then we performed MTT assay, foci formation assay, transwell migration assay, glucose uptake assay and lactate production assay to explore the function of miR-383 in cell proliferation, invasion and glycolysis in HCC cell lines...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292926/management-of-endocrine-disease-acromegaly-and-pregnancy-a-contemporary-review
#15
Julio Abucham, M D Bronstein, Monike Lourenço Dias
Although fertility is frequently impaired in women with acromegaly, pregnancy is apparently becoming more common due to improvement in acromegaly treatment as well as in fertility therapy. As a result, several studies on pregnancy in patients with acromegaly have been published in recent years adding new and relevant information to the preexisting literature. Also, new GH assays with selective specificities and the knowledge of the expression of the various GH genes have allowed a better understanding of somatotrophic axis function during pregnancy...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290700/metabolic-response-to-everolimus-in-patient-derived-triple-negative-breast-cancer-xenografts
#16
Leslie R Euceda, Deborah K Hill, Endre Stokke, Rana Hatem, Rania El Botty, Ivan Bièche, Elisabetta Marangoni, Tone F Bathen, Siver A Moestue
Patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are unresponsive to endocrine and anti-HER2 pharmacotherapy, limiting their therapeutic options to chemotherapy. TNBC is frequently associated with abnormalities in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; drugs targeting this pathway are currently being evaluated in these patients. However, response is variable, partly due to heterogeneity within TNBC, conferring a need to identify biomarkers predicting response and resistance to targeted therapy. In this study, we used a metabolomics approach to assess response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in a panel of TNBC patient-derived xenografts (PDX) (n=103 animals)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282874/serum-cystatin-c-as-a-biomarker-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#17
Nada E Hammouda, Manal A Salah El-Din, Mamdouh M El-Shishtawy, Amal M El-Gayar
Elevated serum levels of cystatin C are found to be related to poor outcome and metastatic potential of some malignant disorders. To evaluate the clinical prominence of serum cystatin C in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), blood samples were obtained from 58 patients at the time of diagnosis and paired blood samples were obtained from 22 patients at the time of remission. Also, serum cystatin C level was measured in matched healthy controls. Serum cystatin C levels were significantly more elevated in DLBCL patients than in controls (p < 0...
March 8, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281102/glutamine-addiction-in-gliomas
#18
Javier Márquez, Francisco J Alonso, José M Matés, Juan A Segura, Mercedes Martín-Rufián, José A Campos-Sandoval
Cancer cells develop and succeed by shifting to different metabolic programs compared with their normal cell counterparts. One of the classical hallmarks of cancer cells is their higher glycolysis rate and lactate production even in the presence of abundant O2 (Warburg effect). Another common metabolic feature of cancer cells is a high rate of glutamine (Gln) consumption normally exceeding their biosynthetic and energetic needs. The term Gln addiction is now widely used to reflect the strong dependence shown by most cancer cells for this essential nitrogen substrate after metabolic reprogramming...
March 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274156/folic-acid-ameliorates-celecoxib-cardiotoxicity-in-a-doxorubicin-heart-failure-rat-model
#19
Shafique Ahmad, Bibhu Prasad Panda, Kanchan Kohli, Mohammad Fahim, Kiran Dubey
CONTEXT: The cardiotoxic effect of selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors is well known. While rofecoxib and valdecoxib have been withdrawn, celecoxib remains on the market. Folic acid, a naturally occurring vitamin, has been shown to reduce myocardial ischemia and post-reperfusion injury in rats. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the cardiac effects of celecoxib and folic acid on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiomyopathy was induced in male Wistar rats with six intraperitoneal injections of 2...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271402/cortical-bilateral-adaptations-in-rats-submitted-to-focal-cerebral-ischemia-emphasis-on-glial-metabolism
#20
Yasmine Nonose, Pedro E Gewehr, Roberto F Almeida, Jussemara S da Silva, Bruna Bellaver, Leo A M Martins, Eduardo R Zimmer, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C Da Costa, André Quincozes-Santos, Luc Pellerin, Diogo O de Souza, Adriano M de Assis
This study was performed to evaluate the bilateral effects of focal permanent ischemia (FPI) on glial metabolism in the cerebral cortex. Two and 9 days after FPI induction, we analyze [(18)F]FDG metabolism by micro-PET, astrocyte morphology and reactivity by immunohistochemistry, cytokines and trophic factors by ELISA, glutamate transporters by RT-PCR, monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) by western blot, and substrate uptake and oxidation by ex vivo slices model. The FPI was induced surgically by thermocoagulation of the blood in the pial vessels of the motor and sensorimotor cortices in adult (90 days old) male Wistar rats...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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