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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097716/parental-knowledge-of-antibiotic-use-in-children-with-respiratory-infections-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Lourdes Cantarero-Arévalo, Mia Pavelics Hallas, Susanne Kaae
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing global problem. AMR threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics (AB) is the major contributor to the emergence of resistant bacteria in humans. To present and describe characteristics in parents' knowledge about when and how to use AB for an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), their attitudes towards doctors and AB use in general, and their behaviour when their child suffers from an URTI...
February 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074125/shiga-vero-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-hospital-foods-virulence-factors-o-serogroups-and-antimicrobial-resistance-properties
#2
Reza Ranjbar, Mojtaba Masoudimanesh, Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi, Nematollah Jonaidi-Jafari, Ebrahim Rahimi
BACKGROUND: According to the presence of the weak, diabetic and immunosuppressive patients in hospitals, hospital foods should have a high quality and safety. Cooking a lot of foods higher than daily requirement, storage of cooked foods in an inappropriate condition and presence of nurses and servants in distribution of food to patients are the main reasons caused contamination of hospital foods. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the common cause of food poisoning in hospitals...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042214/study-of-invasive-pneumococcal-infection-in-adults-with-reference-to-penicillin-resistance
#3
Vrishali Avinash Muley, Dnyaneshwari Purushottam Ghadage, Gauri Eknath Yadav, Arvind Vamanrao Bhore
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal infections often prove rapidly fatal, even where good medical treatment is readily available. In developed countries, up to 20% of people who contract pneumococcal meningitis die; however, in developing world, mortality is closer to 50%, even among hospitalized patients. The World Health Organization estimated 600,000-800,000 adult deaths each year from pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. AIMS: This study aims to estimate isolation rate of invasive pneumococcal infection in adults, to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and to study the associated risk factors...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999667/antimicrobial-usage-and-resistance-in-beef-production
#4
REVIEW
Andrew Cameron, Tim A McAllister
Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harmless bacteria, but also opportunistic pathogens that may acquire and propagate resistance genes within the microbial community via horizontal gene transfer...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902389/antimicrobial-susceptibility-to-azithromycin-among-salmonella-enterica-typhi-and-paratyphi-a-isolates-from-india
#5
Richa Misra, Kashi Nath Prasad
Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) and multidrug resistance in typhoidal Salmonella isolates in areas of endemicity are significant therapeutic problems. Guidelines for azithromycin disc diffusion and MIC interpretive criteria for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published recently by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of azithromycin in 100 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (n=80), Paratyphi A (n=18) and B (n=2) recovered from bloodstream infections from January 2013 to December 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895019/nephrotoxicity-during-vancomycin-therapy-in-combination-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-or-cefepime
#6
W Cliff Rutter, Jessica N Cox, Craig A Martin, Donna R Burgess, David S Burgess
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have demonstrated that vancomycin (VAN) may lead to an increase in acute kidney injury (AKI) when combined with anti-pseudomonal beta-lactams. This study compared the incidence of AKI associated with VAN plus piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) or cefepime (FEP). METHODS: This was a retrospective, matched cohort study at an academic medical center between September 2010 and September 2014 including adult patients receiving TZP-VAN or FEP-VAN for at least 48 hours and without severe chronic or structural kidney disease, dialysis, pregnancy, cystic fibrosis, or hospital transfer...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872410/risk-of-mortality-of-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-caused-by-acinetobacter-species-is-early-removal-of-the-catheters-associated-with-a-better-survival-outcome
#8
Yi Lee, Yi-Tzu Lee, Yung-Chih Wang, Chung-Ting Chen, Jun-Ren Sun, Chang-Pan Liu, Yuan-Meng Liu, Shu-Chen Kuo, Chun-Hsiang Chiu, Ya-Sung Yang, Jung-Chung Lin, Te-Li Chen
PURPOSE: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by Acinetobacter species have been extensively reported, however, which majorly focused on respiratory tract infections. The risk of mortality and the effect of early catheter removal on survival in catheter-related BSIs (CRBSIs) caused by Acinetobacter spp. remain unclear. This study aims to investigate that. METHODS: This is a retrospective multicentric study conducted in Taiwan from 2012 to 2014. Patients with at least 1 positive blood culture and catheter culture for the same Acinetobacter spp...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828764/antimicrobial-stewardship-a-call-to-action-for-surgeons
#9
Massimo Sartelli, Therese M Duane, Fausto Catena, Jeffrey M Tessier, Federico Coccolini, Lillian S Kao, Belinda De Simone, Francesco M Labricciosa, Addison K May, Luca Ansaloni, John E Mazuski
Despite current antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) being advocated by infectious disease specialists and discussed by national and international policy makers, ASPs coverage remains limited to only certain hospitals as well as specific service lines within hospitals. The ASPs incorporate a variety of strategies to optimize antimicrobial agent use in the hospital, yet the exact set of interventions essential to ASP success remains unknown. Promotion of ASPs across clinical practice is crucial to their success to ensure standardization of antimicrobial agent use within an institution...
December 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825605/antimicrobial-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae-in-brazil-focus-on-%C3%AE-lactams-and-polymyxins
#10
REVIEW
Jorge Luiz Mello Sampaio, Ana Cristina Gales
During the last 30 years there has been a dissemination of plasmid-mediated β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are widely disseminated in the hospital setting and are detected in a lower frequency in the community setting. Cefotaximases are the most frequently detected ESBL type and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant species among ESBL producers. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae became widely disseminated in Brazil during the last decade and KPC production is currently the most frequent resistance mechanism (96...
December 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822762/clinical-practice-audit-concerning-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-paediatric-neurosurgery-results-from-a-german-paediatric-oncology-unit
#11
Katja Weiss, Arne Simon, Norbert Graf, Jakob Schöpe, Joachim Oertel, Stefan Linsler
BACKGROUND: Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP) has been identified as an important target for internal audits, concerning the judicious use of antibiotics. Paediatric oncology patients with brain tumours face an increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after neurosurgery and receive routine PAP in this setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients younger than 18 years admitted to the paediatric oncology centre (POC) with a neurosurgical intervention...
November 7, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807211/a-survey-of-veterinary-antimicrobial-prescribing-practices-washington-state-2015
#12
H Fowler, M A Davis, A Perkins, S Trufan, C Joy, M Buswell, T F McElwain, D Moore, R Worhle, P M Rabinowitz
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health issue. It is also a recognised problem in veterinary medicine. Between September and December 2015 the authors administered a cross-sectional survey to licensed veterinarians in Washington State to assess factors affecting antimicrobial prescribing practices among veterinarians in Washington State. Two hundred and three veterinarians completed the survey. The majority of respondents (166, 82 per cent) were engaged in small animal or exotic animal practice...
December 24, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750157/nosocomial-outbreak-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacter-ludwigii-co-harbouring-ctx-m-8-shv-12-and-tem-15-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-venezuela
#13
Ana Flores-Carrero, Indira Labrador, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi, David R Peaper, Dana Towle, María Araque
Enterobacter spp. have emerged as an important group of pathogens linked to outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), usually involving strains expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to describe the first nosocomial bloodstream infection outbreak caused by Enterobacter ludwigii co-harbouring CTX-M-8, SHV-12 and TEM-15 in a NICU in a Venezuelan hospital. Initial bacterial identification was achieved by VITEK(®)2 system and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VITEK(®) MS) and was subsequently confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and hsp60 genotyping...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748166/factors-influencing-antimicrobial-prescribing-by-veterinarians-and-usage-by-dairy-farmers-in-new-zealand
#14
S McDougall, C W R Compton, N Botha
AIMS: To determine the factors associated with the selection of antimicrobials by dairy veterinarians, and the attitudes of those veterinarians and dairy farmers to antimicrobial usage and resistance. METHODS: Facilitated focus groups of dairy farmers (n=22) and an anonymous online survey of dairy cattle veterinarians (n=206 respondents) were used to determine prescribing behaviour, factors affecting prescribing of antimicrobials, and the attitudes of veterinarians and farmers to the use of antimicrobials and the risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
October 16, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736789/effects-of-in-feed-chlortetracycline-prophylaxis-in-beef-cattle-on-animal-health-and-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli
#15
Getahun E Agga, John W Schmidt, Terrance M Arthur
: Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TET(r)) Escherichia coli and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC(r)) E. coli We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal health, TET(r) E. coli, and 3GC(r) E. coli A control group of cattle (n = 150) received no CTC, while a CTC group (n = 150) received in-feed CTC (10 mg/lb of body weight/day) from the 5th to the 9th day after feedlot arrival...
December 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712137/an-update-on-the-management-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-era-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#16
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
October 7, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648056/antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-malaysian-district-hospital-first-year-experience
#17
Diana Yap Fui Sing, Yang Liang Boo, Roshalina Mukhlis, Pek Woon Chin, Fan Kee Hoo
BACKGROUNDS & OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance is an alarming public health threat that requires urgent global solution. Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is an essential practice element for healthcare institutions in gate-keeping judicious antimicrobial use. This study highlighted the development, first year experience, and result of the implementation of ASP utilizing persuasive and restrictive approaches in a Malaysian district hospital. METHODS: An observational study was conducted between January 2015 to December 2015 on implementation of ASP among hospitalized inpatients age 12 years old and above...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609807/antimicrobial-resistance-among-nontyphoidal-salmonella-isolated-from-blood-in-the-united-states-2003-2013
#18
Kristina M Angelo, Jared Reynolds, Beth E Karp, R Michael Hoekstra, Christina M Scheel, Cindy Friedman
INTRODUCTION:  Salmonella causes an estimated 100,000 antimicrobial-resistant infections annually in the United States. Salmonella antimicrobial resistance may result in bacteremia and poor outcomes. We describe antimicrobial resistance among nontyphoidal Salmonella blood isolates using data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. METHODS:  Human nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from 2003-2013 were classified as fully susceptible, resistant to ≥1 antimicrobial agent, or resistant to a first-line agent...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527782/observations-on-macrolide-resistance-and-susceptibility-testing-performance-in-field-isolates-collected-from-clinical-bovine-respiratory-disease-cases
#19
Keith D DeDonder, Dayna M Harhay, Michael D Apley, Brian V Lubbers, Michael L Clawson, Gennie Schuller, Gregory P Harhay, Brad J White, Robert L Larson, Sarah F Capik, Jim E Riviere, Ted Kalbfleisch, Ronald K Tessman
The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523661/antimicrobial-resistance-among-aerobic-biofilm-producing-bacteria-isolated-from-chronic-wounds-in-the-tertiary-care-hospitals-of-peshawar-pakistan
#20
K Rahim, M Qasim, H Rahman, T A Khan, I Ahmad, N Khan, A Ullah, A Basit, S Saleha
OBJECTIVE: Chronic wound infections impose major medical and economic costs on health-care systems, cause significant morbidity, mortality and prolonged hospitalisation. The presence of biofilm producing bacteria in these wounds is considered as an important virulence factor that leads to chronic implications including ulceration. The undertaken study aimed to isolate and identify the biofilm aerobic bacterial pathogens from patients with chronic wound infections, and determine their antibiotics resistance profiles Method: During this study, swab specimens were collected from patients with chronic wounds at teaching hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan between May 2013 and June 2014...
August 2016: Journal of Wound Care
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