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Judicious antimicrobial

Debi Prasad Mohapatra, Santosh Kumar Singh, Minu Sahoo, Shashank Patole, Mitali Mishra, Nagen Kumar Debata, Harapriya Mohapatra
PURPOSE: Antibiotic resistance patterns often exhibit geographical variations. Periodic analyses of resistance spectra and phylogenetic trends are important guides for facilitating judicious use of therapeutic interventions. The present study retrospectively analysed the infection trends, resistance patterns, and clonal relationships between isolates of Klebsiella spp. from a tertiary care hospital. METHODOLOGY: Bacterial isolates were collected from January 2013 to June 2014 and their resistance profiles were identified using an automated bacterial identification system...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jonathan C Cho, Monika T Zmarlicka, Kristy M Shaeer, Joe Pardo
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, efficacy, administration, and considerations for clinical use of meropenem/vaborbactam (M/V). DATA SOURCES: A literature search using PubMed and (June 2013 to December 2017) was conducted using the search terms meropenem, vaborbactam, RPX7009, biapenem, RPX2003, and carbavance. References from relevant articles and conference abstracts were also reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
James A McKinnell, Shelby Corman, Dipen Patel, Grace H Leung, Lynne M Gordon, Thomas P Lodise
PURPOSE: Clinicians and stewardship programs are challenged with positioning of novel, higher priced antibiotic agents for the treatment of clinical infections. We developed a decision-analytic model to describe costs, including drug, total treatment costs, and health care outcomes, associated with telavancin (TLV) compared with vancomycin (VAN) for patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP). METHODS: This decision-analytic model assessed the treatment of SA-HABP with TLV versus VAN...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
David Sánchez-Fabra, Oliver J Dyar, José Luis Del Pozo, Juan Antonio Amiguet, Juan de Dios Colmenero, María Del Carmen Fariñas, Francisco López-Medrano, Joaquín Portilla, Julia Praena, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Céline Pulcini, José Ramón Paño-Pardo
INTRODUCTION: One of the main tools to optimize antibiotics use is education of prescribers. The aim of this article is to study undergraduate education in the field of infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship from the perspective of Spanish medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed among sixth grade students using different channels in Europe, within the ESGAP Student-Prepare survey...
February 8, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Nimmy Thakolkaran, A Veena Shetty, Neevan D R D'Souza, Avinash K Shetty
Background: Antibiotic overuse is a major public health challenge worldwide. Data from India related to physician antibiotic prescribing patterns are limited. Aims: We assessed antibiotic prescribing knowledge, attitudes, and practices among physicians in Mangalore, South India. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, physicians at academic tertiary hospitals completed an anonymous on-site survey. The survey items incorporated Likert scales, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 15...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Elisa Rampacci, Marco Bottinelli, Valentina Stefanetti, Doreene R Hyatt, Elisa Sgariglia, Mauro Coletti, Fabrizio Passamonti
OBJECTIVES: This work characterizes the antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens isolated from empirically treated dogs and cats. Within-household transmission of uropathogens can involve humans and companion animals. Knowledge on the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of isolates from canine and feline urine samples and the impact of prior antimicrobial treatment is important to prevent the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted selecting antibiotically treated companion animals...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Ronita Adams, Jackie Smith, Stephen Locke, Erica Phillips, Erdal Erol, Craig Carter, Agricola Odoi
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance limits traditional treatment options and increases costs. It is therefore important to estimate the magnitude of the problem so as to provide empirical data to guide control efforts. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and patterns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UKVDL) from 1993 to 2009. Retrospective data of 1711 equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the UKVDL during the time period 1993 to 2009 were included in the study...
February 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Reta Duguma Abdi, Barbara Erin Gillespie, Jacqueline Vaughn, Caitlin Merrill, Susan Ivory Headrick, Desta Beyene Ensermu, Doris Helen D'Souza, Getahun Ejeta Agga, Raul Antonio Almeida, Stephen Paul Oliver, Oudessa Kerro Dego
Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent and major contagious mastitis bacterial pathogen. The antibiotic treatment cure rates vary considerably from 4% to 92%. Staphylococcus aureus readily becomes resistant to antibiotics, resulting in persistent noncurable intramammary infection that usually results in culling of infected animals. Because of its notorious ability to acquire resistance to the commonly used as well as last resort antimicrobials such as methicillin and vancomycin and the development of multidrug-resistant strains, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in S...
February 2, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Jianyun Wu, Daniel Taylor, Ludmila Ovchinikova, Aine Heaney, Tessa Morgan, Jonathan Dartnell, Rachel Holbrook, Lauren Humphreys, Lynn Weekes, Suzanne Blogg
Objective NPS MedicineWise aims to ensure that medicines are prescribed and used in a manner consistent with current evidence-based best practice. A series of nationwide educational and advertising interventions for general practitioners and consumers were implemented in Australia between 2009 and 2015 with the aim of reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). The work described in this paper quantifies the change in antibiotic dispensing following these interventions...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Mohammad M Obaidat, Alaa E Bani Salman, Margaret A Davis, Amira A Roess
This study aimed to determine the major diseases, antimicrobial use, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in dairy cattle in Jordan. Forty-three (large, n = 21; small, n = 22) farms were surveyed. A validated questionnaire was administered to the herdsmen to elicit information about disease prevalence, antimicrobial knowledge, and antimicrobial use. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 5 lactating animals on each farm. A total of 520 E. coli isolates were tested for resistance to 12 antimicrobials...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Abdulaziz Zorgani, Hiyam Daw, Najib Sufya, Abdullah Bashein, Omar Elahmer, Chedly Chouchani
Introduction: Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), including the AmpC type, are important mechanisms of resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of AmpC-type β-lactamase producers isolated from two hospitals in Tripoli, Libya. Methods: All clinical isolates (76 K. pneumoniae and 75 E. coli) collected over two years (2013-2014) were evaluated for susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials and were analyzed phenotypically for the ESBL and AmpC phenotype using E-test and ESBL and AmpC screen disc test...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
T Ikebe, R Okuno, M Sasaki, Y Kanda, H Otsuka, R Kawahara, H Ohya, M Suzuki, K Uchida, H Nihonmatsu, M Ohnishi
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multiorgan failure, and high mortality. Although STSS is mainly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, group G streptococcus identified as S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causing STSS has also been reported; however, no study has analyzed >100 isolates of SDSE causing STSS. Therefore, we characterized the emm genotype of 173 SDSE isolates obtained from STSS patients in Japan during 2014-2016 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the broth microdilution method and emm gene typing...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Amber B Clemmons, Arpita S Gandhi, Benjamin Albrecht, Stephanie Jacobson, Jeremy Pantin
Background Patients immediately post-hematopoietic cell transplantation are at high risk for bacteremia. Judicious prophylactic antimicrobial utilization must balance anticipated benefits (reduction infections) versus risk (bacterial resistance, Clostridium difficile) . Objective To compare infectious outcomes (primary: incidence bacteremia; secondary: febrile neutropenia, C. difficile, susceptibility of bacteremia, time to discharge and 30-day mortality) between hematopoietic cell transplantation who received fluoroquinolone prophylaxis to those who did not...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Tabitha A Hutton, Gabriel K Innes, Josée Harel, Philippe Garneau, Andrew Cucchiara, Dieter M Schifferli, Shelley C Rankin
Escherichia coli isolates from infections outside the gastrointestinal tract are termed extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and can be divided into different subpathotypes; one of these is uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). The frequency with which UPEC strains cause urinary tract infections in dogs and cats is not well documented. We used an oligonucleotide microarray to characterize 60 E. coli isolates associated with the urinary tract of dogs ( n = 45) and cats ( n = 15), collected from 2004 to 2007, into ExPEC and UPEC and to correlate results with patient clinical characteristics...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Oluwasola Lawal, Howbeer Muhamadali, Waqar Ahmed, Iain R White, Tamara M E Nijsen, Royston Goodacre, Stephen J Fowler
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a healthcare-acquired infection arising from the invasion of the lower respiratory tract by opportunistic pathogens in critically ill ventilated patients. The current method of diagnosis requires the culture of an airway sample such as bronchoalveolar lavage, which is invasive to obtain and may take up to seven days to identify a causal pathogen, or indeed rule out infection. While awaiting results, patients are administered empirical antibiotics; risks of this approach include lack of effect on the causal pathogen, contribution to the development of antibiotic resistance and downstream effects such as increased length of intensive care stay, cost, morbidity and mortality...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Heather L Narver
Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs has become a global health crisis. Physicians and veterinarians are embracing the concept of 'antimicrobial stewardship' (AMS) to preserve the efficacy of antibiotics for future generations. Antimicrobials are used in laboratory animals to treat clinical disease, to protect populations that may be vulnerable to infection, and in research projects including studies of the microbiome and to influence expression in genetically engineered animals. This overview provides a critical look at the use of antimicrobials in contemporary vivaria, with special attention to rodents because they are the most commonly used species in research and because antimicrobial use in rodents is not straightforward...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Gayathri Raman, Brendan McMullan, Peter Taylor, Kylie-Ann Mallitt, Sean E Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by resistant organisms are increasing which poses challenges when selecting empirical antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study is to determine risk factors for multiresistant Escherichia coli UTIs in children. DESIGN: We included all reported urinary isolates from a children's hospital collected between January 2010 and June 2013. Patients who had multiresistant E. coli UTIs were identified and a retrospective review of medical records performed...
September 12, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Amit Vikram, Pablo Rovira, Getahun E Agga, Terrance M Arthur, Joseph M Bosilevac, Tommy L Wheeler, Paul S Morley, Keith E Belk, John W Schmidt
The specific antimicrobial resistance (AMR) decreases that can be expected from reducing antimicrobial (AM) use in United States (US) beef production have not been defined. To address this data gap, feces were recovered from 36 lots of "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and 36 lots of "conventional" (CONV) beef cattle. Samples (N = 719) were collected during harvest and distributed over a year. AMR was assessed by: i) culture of six AM-resistant bacteria (ARB); ii) qPCR for 10 AMR genes (ARGs); iii) an qPCR array of 84 ARGs; and iv) metagenomic sequencing...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Sojib Bin Zaman, Muhammed Awlad Hussain, Rachel Nye, Varshil Mehta, Kazi Taib Mamun, Naznin Hossain
Antibiotics are the 'wonder drugs' to combat microbes. For decades, multiple varieties of antibiotics have not only been used for therapeutic purposes but practiced prophylactically across other industries such as agriculture and animal husbandry. Uncertainty has arisen, as microbes have become resistant to common antibiotics while the host remains unaware that antibiotic resistance has emerged. The aim of this review is to explore the origin, development, and the current state of antibiotic resistance, regulation, and challenges by examining available literature...
June 28, 2017: Curēus
James Wabwire Oguttu, Daniel Nenene Qekwana, Agricola Odoi
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistant Staphylococcus are becoming increasingly important in horses because of the zoonotic nature of the pathogens and the associated risks to caregivers and owners. Knowledge of the burden and their antimicrobial resistance patterns are important to inform control strategies. This study is an exploratory descriptive investigation of the burden and antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of Staphylococcus isolates from horses presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in South Africa...
August 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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