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Judicious antimicrobial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770051/agriculture-and-agri-food-canada-s-research-program-on-antimicrobial-resistance
#1
E Topp
A key strategy for attenuating the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is ensuring judicious use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine and in agriculture. Research on AMR in agriculture includes risk assessment, risk management, and identifying the role of agricultural practices in development of AMR. Risk assessment includes an impact assessment of antimicrobial use in livestock and on the environment; for example, many antimicrobials are excreted unchanged and thus reach the environment through manure application...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712661/incidence-of-acute-kidney-injury-among-patients-treated-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-or-meropenem-in-combination-with-vancomycin
#2
W Cliff Rutter, David S Burgess
Acute kidney injury increases during empiric antimicrobial therapy with the combination of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) and vancomycin (VAN) when compared to monotherapy or the combination of cefepime and VAN. Limited data regarding the impact of meropenem (MEM) combined with VAN exist. This study examined the AKI incidence among patients treated with MEM+VAN or TZP+VAN. Data were collected from the University of Kentucky Center for Clinical and Translational Science Enterprise Data Trust from September 2007 through October 2015...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706149/management-of-sexually-transmissible-infections-in-the-era-of-multiplexed-molecular-diagnostics-a-primary-care-survey
#3
Tal Brosh-Nissimov, Ron Kedem, Nimrod Ophir, Omri Shental, Nathan Keller, Sharon Amit
Background: Data regarding sexually transmissible infections (STI) often originate from STI clinics, screening programs or laboratory-based studies, thus are biased for specific risk groups or lack clinical details. This real-life observational study presents sample data of most young adult Israeli population by exploiting the centralised diagnostic and documentation platforms resulting from a mandatory military service at the age of 18 years for both genders. Methods: All STI diagnoses of Israeli Defence Forces soldiers during a 6-month period were reviewed...
April 30, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685438/antimicrobials-usage-assessments-in-commercial-poultry-and-local-birds-in-north-central-nigeria-associated-pathways-and-factors-for-resistance-emergence-and-spread
#4
N B Alhaji, A E Haruna, B Muhammad, M K Lawan, T O Isola
The World Health Organization's Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recommended monitoring of antimicrobial use (AMU) through surveillance and research to help mitigate AMR. This survey was aimed at assessing poultry owners' knowledge/awareness and practices regarding AMU, identified pathways for AMR emergence and spread in small-scale commercial poultry farms and free-range local bird flocks in North-central Nigeria. An interview questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on commercial poultry farmers and local bird flock keepers in 2017...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682542/gut-microbial-changes-interactions-and-their-implications-on-human-lifecycle-an-ageing-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Ravichandra Vemuri, Rohit Gundamaraju, Madhur D Shastri, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Krishnakumar Kalpurath, Madeleine Ball, Stephen Tristram, Esaki M Shankar, Kiran Ahuja, Rajaraman Eri
Gut microbiota is established during birth and evolves with age, mostly maintaining the commensal relationship with the host. A growing body of clinical evidence suggests an intricate relationship between the gut microbiota and the immune system. With ageing, the gut microbiota develops significant imbalances in the major phyla such as the anaerobic Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as a diverse range of facultative organisms, resulting in impaired immune responses. Antimicrobial therapy is commonly used for the treatment of infections; however, this may also result in the loss of normal gut flora...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629697/rapid-diagnostic-tests-in-childhood-infections
#6
Ritabrata Kundu
Presumptive treatment of infections often results in irrational antimicrobial use resulting in detrimental spread of drug resistance and untoward side effects. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is a test that delivers a result earlier than conventional testing methods employed in the past to identify the offending microorganism. RDTs help in early definitive therapy, reduction in hospital stay and cost, and in degree of morbidity and mortality associated with the infection. To select a proper RDT, one should consider how specific and sensitive the test is...
March 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625943/drug-utilization-and-prescribing-pattern-of-antibiotics-in-a-tertiary-care-setups-trends-and-practices
#7
Huma Ali, Farya Zafar, Shazia Alam, Anwar Ejaz Beg, Rabia Bushra, Ammara Manzoor, Ghazala R Naqvi, Riffat Yasmeen, Yousra Shafiq, Anum Tariq, Saba Zubair, Saima Saleem
Irrational, over and misuse of antibiotics arise as global concern in both hospital and community settings and lead to adverse events including antimicrobial resistance, associated health problems, amplified hospitalization stay and cost. Hence, Drug Utilization Evaluation (DUE) studies are designed to evaluate and improve the prescribing, administration and the rational use of medications. The present study was designed to assess the pattern of antimicrobial drug utilization in in-patients cohort of tertiary care setup in Karachi, Pakistan...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604109/procalcitonin-monitoring-as-a-guide-for-antimicrobial-therapy-a-review-of-current-literature
#8
Elizabeth W Covington, Megan Z Roberts, Jenny Dong
Effective antimicrobial stewardship practices are increasingly essential to best utilize the current arsenal of antimicrobials for the shortest necessary duration to minimize the development of antimicrobial resistance, secondary infections, and health care costs. Monitoring of serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels represents an effective antimicrobial stewardship strategy to differentiate bacterial infections from viral infections and noninfectious inflammatory conditions. Current literature illustrates the merits of PCT monitoring in reducing duration of antibiotic therapy without detrimental effects on mortality or infection relapses...
March 31, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595430/surveillance-software-and-prospective-audit-and-feedback-rounds-advance-antimicrobial-stewardship-at-an-acute-care-community-hospital
#9
Anna Lee, Susan John, Reena Lovinsky
Antimicrobial stewardship is a key strategy to facilitate judicious antimicrobial use. Software that can amalgamate prescribing and microbiology information in near real-time reporting and track antimicrobial resistance patterns aids timely interventions. This article examines the impact of a clinical surveillance software used to identify patients for prospective audit and feedback rounds by an antimicrobial stewardship team on antibiotic utilization, patient outcomes and workload efficiencies at an acute care community hospital...
January 2018: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588605/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-use-of-prophylactic-topical-antibiotics-for-the-prevention-of-uncomplicated-wound-infections
#10
REVIEW
Qiao-Jing Tong, Kimberly Dp Hammer, Erika M Johnson, Milagros Zegarra, Michihiko Goto, Tze Shien Lo
Background: The prescription of topical antibiotics for the prevention of infections in uncomplicated wounds is common. However, the efficacy is not well reported. Therefore, the objective of the study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence on prevention of uncomplicated wound infections by prophylactic topical antibiotics. Materials and methods: The search included Pubmed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Embase, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588108/how-to-avoid-the-inappropriate-use-of-antibiotics-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-a-position-statement-from-an-expert-panel
#11
Otávio Bejzman Piltcher, Eduardo Macoto Kosugi, Eulalia Sakano, Olavo Mion, José Ricardo Gurgel Testa, Fabrizio Ricci Romano, Marco Cesar Jorge Santos, Renata Cantisani Di Francesco, Edson Ibrahim Mitre, Thiago Freire Pinto Bezerra, Renato Roithmann, Francini Greco Padua, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira Valera, José Faibes Lubianca Neto, Leonardo Conrado Barbosa Sá, Shirley Shizue Nagata Pignatari, Melissa Ameloti Gomes Avelino, Juliana Alves de Souza Caixeta, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo-Lima, Edwin Tamashiro
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial resistance burden has increased in the past years, mainly due to inappropriate antibiotic use. Recently it has become an urgent public health concern due to its impact on the prolongation of hospitalization, an increase of total cost of treatment and mortality associated with infectious disease. Almost half of the antimicrobial prescriptions in outpatient care visits are prescribed for acute upper respiratory infections, especially rhinosinusitis, otitis media, and pharyngotonsillitis...
February 25, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573830/gastric-mucormycosis-in-a-liver-and-kidney-transplant-recipient-case-report-and-concise-review-of-literature
#12
G Alfano, F Fontana, D Francesca, G Assirati, P Magistri, G Tarantino, R Ballarin, G Rossi, E Franceschini, M Codeluppi, G Guaraldi, C Mussini, F Di Benedetto, G Cappelli
Mucormycosis is an uncommonly encountered fungal infection in solid organ transplantation. The infection is severe and often results in a fatal outcome. The most common presentations are rhino-sino-orbital and pulmonary disease. We describe a rare case of gastric mucormycosis in a patient with a combined liver-kidney transplant affected by glycogen storage disease type Ia. A 42-year-old female patient presented with gastric pain and melena 26 days after transplantation. Evaluation with upper endoscopy showed two bleeding gastric ulcers...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521617/retrospective-study-on-clonal-relationship-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-spp-indicates-closed-circulation-and-initiation-of-clonal-divergence
#13
Debi Prasad Mohapatra, Santosh Kumar Singh, Minu Sahoo, Shashank Patole, Mitali Mishra, Nagen Kumar Debata, Harapriya Mohapatra
PURPOSE: Antibiotic resistance patterns often exhibit geographical variations. Periodic analyses of resistance spectra and phylogenetic trends are important guides for facilitating judicious use of therapeutic interventions. The present study retrospectively analysed the infection trends, resistance patterns, and clonal relationships between isolates of Klebsiella spp. from a tertiary care hospital. METHODOLOGY: Bacterial isolates were collected from January 2013 to June 2014 and their resistance profiles were identified using an automated bacterial identification system...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514462/meropenem-vaborbactam-the-first-carbapenem-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-combination
#14
Jonathan C Cho, Monika T Zmarlicka, Kristy M Shaeer, Joe Pardo
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, efficacy, administration, and considerations for clinical use of meropenem/vaborbactam (M/V). DATA SOURCES: A literature search using PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov (June 2013 to December 2017) was conducted using the search terms meropenem, vaborbactam, RPX7009, biapenem, RPX2003, and carbavance. References from relevant articles and conference abstracts were also reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454592/effective-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-cost-effective-utilization-of-telavancin-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hospital-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
James A McKinnell, Shelby Corman, Dipen Patel, Grace H Leung, Lynne M Gordon, Thomas P Lodise
PURPOSE: Clinicians and stewardship programs are challenged with positioning of novel, higher priced antibiotic agents for the treatment of clinical infections. We developed a decision-analytic model to describe costs, including drug, total treatment costs, and health care outcomes, associated with telavancin (TLV) compared with vancomycin (VAN) for patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP). METHODS: This decision-analytic model assessed the treatment of SA-HABP with TLV versus VAN...
March 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429753/perspective-of-spanish-medical-students-regarding-undergraduate-education-in-infectious-diseases-bacterial-resistance-and-antibiotic-use
#16
David Sánchez-Fabra, Oliver J Dyar, José Luis Del Pozo, Juan Antonio Amiguet, Juan de Dios Colmenero, María Del Carmen Fariñas, Francisco López-Medrano, Joaquín Portilla, Julia Praena, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Céline Pulcini, José Ramón Paño-Pardo
INTRODUCTION: One of the main tools to optimize antibiotics use is education of prescribers. The aim of this article is to study undergraduate education in the field of infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship from the perspective of Spanish medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed among sixth grade students using different channels in Europe, within the ESGAP Student-Prepare survey...
February 8, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417002/antibiotic-prescribing-knowledge-attitudes-and-practice-among-physicians-in-teaching-hospitals-in-south-india
#17
Nimmy Thakolkaran, A Veena Shetty, Neevan D R D'Souza, Avinash K Shetty
Background: Antibiotic overuse is a major public health challenge worldwide. Data from India related to physician antibiotic prescribing patterns are limited. Aims: We assessed antibiotic prescribing knowledge, attitudes, and practices among physicians in Mangalore, South India. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, physicians at academic tertiary hospitals completed an anonymous on-site survey. The survey items incorporated Likert scales, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 15...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408407/antimicrobial-susceptibility-survey-on-bacterial-agents-of-canine-and-feline-urinary-tract-infections-weight-of-the-empirical-treatment
#18
Elisa Rampacci, Marco Bottinelli, Valentina Stefanetti, Doreene R Hyatt, Elisa Sgariglia, Mauro Coletti, Fabrizio Passamonti
OBJECTIVES: This work characterizes the antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens isolated from empirically treated dogs and cats. Within-household transmission of uropathogens can involve humans and companion animals. Knowledge on the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of isolates from canine and feline urine samples and the impact of prior antimicrobial treatment is important to prevent the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted selecting antibiotically treated companion animals...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402294/an-epidemiologic-study-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-staphylococcus-species-isolated-from-equine-samples-submitted-to-a-diagnostic-laboratory
#19
Ronita Adams, Jackie Smith, Stephen Locke, Erica Phillips, Erdal Erol, Craig Carter, Agricola Odoi
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance limits traditional treatment options and increases costs. It is therefore important to estimate the magnitude of the problem so as to provide empirical data to guide control efforts. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and patterns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UKVDL) from 1993 to 2009. Retrospective data of 1711 equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the UKVDL during the time period 1993 to 2009 were included in the study...
February 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394099/antimicrobial-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-dairy-cows-and-genetic-diversity-of-resistant-isolates
#20
Reta Duguma Abdi, Barbara Erin Gillespie, Jacqueline Vaughn, Caitlin Merrill, Susan Ivory Headrick, Desta Beyene Ensermu, Doris Helen D'Souza, Getahun Ejeta Agga, Raul Antonio Almeida, Stephen Paul Oliver, Oudessa Kerro Dego
Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent and major contagious mastitis bacterial pathogen. The antibiotic treatment cure rates vary considerably from 4% to 92%. Staphylococcus aureus readily becomes resistant to antibiotics, resulting in persistent noncurable intramammary infection that usually results in culling of infected animals. Because of its notorious ability to acquire resistance to the commonly used as well as last resort antimicrobials such as methicillin and vancomycin and the development of multidrug-resistant strains, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in S...
February 2, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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