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Judicious antimicrobial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339182/widespread-and-indiscriminate-nanosilver-use-genuine-potential-for-microbial-resistance
#1
Cindy Gunawan, Christopher P Marquis, Rose Amal, Georgios A Sotiriou, Scott A Rice, Elizabeth J Harry
In this era of increasing antibiotic resistance, the use of alternative antimicrobials such as silver has become more widespread. Superior antimicrobial activity has been provided through fabrication of silver nanoparticles or nanosilver (NAg), which imparts cytotoxic actions distinct from those of bulk silver. In the wake of the recent discoveries of bacterial resistance to NAg and its rising incorporation in medical and consumer goods such as wound dressings and dietary supplements, we argue that there is an urgent need to monitor the prevalence and spread of NAg microbial resistance...
March 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300643/draft-genome-sequence-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-brancaster-strain-ps01-isolated-from-chicken-meat-malaysia
#2
Pui San Chin, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan
OBJECTIVES: Salmonella spp. represent one of the main diarrhoeal pathogens that are transmitted via the food supply chain. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Brancaster (PS01) that was isolated from poultry meat in Malaysia. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from Salmonella strain PS01 and was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The generated reads were de novo assembled using CLC Genomics Workbench...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295646/the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-national-kidney-transplant-centre
#3
C Kennedy, C Waldron, M Skally, L Gaughan, C Magee, K Burns, F Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of CDI in a national kidney transplant centre from 2008-2015. METHODS: Adult kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients were included for analysis if they met the surveillance CDI case definition. Rates of new healthcare-associated CDI (HA-CDI) were expressed per 10,000 KTR/KTPR bed days used (BDU) to facilitate comparisons. RESULTS: Fifty-two cases of CDI were identified in 42 KTRs and KPTRs...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293153/susceptibility-profile-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-linezolid-in-clinical-isolates
#4
Ali Shariq, Syed Bilal Tanvir, Atif Zaman, Salman Khan, Armeena Anis, Misha Aftab Khan, Sumaira Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To determine the resistance and sensitivity pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates to linezolid (LZD) along with its prevalence in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out. This study lasted for about 1 year. Prevalence and sensitivity of LZD, vancomycin, and oxacillin was tested against isolates of MRSA. RESULTS: Out of total 369 specimens 165 were found to be MRSA making the prevalence in our study 44...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251510/risk-factors-for-drug-resistant-cap-in-immunocompetent-patients
#5
REVIEW
Francisco Arancibia, Mauricio Ruiz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increase in drug-resistant community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important problem all over the world. This article explores the current state of antimicrobial resistance of different bacteria that cause CAP and also assesses risk factors to identify those pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last two decades, it has been documented that there is a significant increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria causing CAP...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208859/diphtheroids-important-nosocomial-pathogens
#6
Reshmi Chandran, Dinju Raj Puthukkichal, Ethel Suman, Shashidhar Kotian Mangalore
INTRODUCTION: Diphtheroids are defined as aerobic, non-sporulating, pleomorphic Gram-positive bacilli which are more uniformly stained than Corynebacterium diphtheriae, lack the metachromatic granules and are arranged in a palisade manner. They are usually commensals of the skin and mucous membranes. They differ from C.diphtheriae in biochemical rea-ctions as well as in toxin production. Since, they are usually found as commensals on the skin, they are often considered as mere contaminants when isolated from clinical samples...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182801/acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-treated-with-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#7
W Cliff Rutter, Donna R Burgess, Jeffery C Talbert, David S Burgess
BACKGROUND: Empiric antimicrobial therapy often consists of the combination of gram-positive coverage with vancomycin (VAN) and gram-negative coverage, specifically an antipseudomonal beta-lactam such as piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ). Nephrotoxicity is commonly associated with VAN therapy; however, recent reports show higher nephrotoxicity rates among patients treated with the combination of VAN and PTZ. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of the VAN/PTZ combination on acute kidney injury (AKI) compared to VAN and PTZ monotherapies...
February 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154813/the-effect-of-selective-d-or-n-%C3%AE-methyl-arginine-substitution-on-the-activity-of-the-proline-rich-antimicrobial-peptide-chex1-arg20
#8
Wenyi Li, Zhe Sun, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Laszlo Otvos, Eric C Reynolds, Mohammed A Hossain, Frances Separovic, John D Wade
In vivo pharmacokinetics studies have shown that the proline-rich antimicrobial peptide, A3-APO, which is a discontinuous dimer of the peptide, Chex1-Arg20, undergoes degradation to small fragments at positions Pro6-Arg7 and Val19-Arg20. With the aim of minimizing or abolishing this degradation, a series of Chex1-Arg20 analogs were prepared via Fmoc/tBu solid phase peptide synthesis with D-arginine or, in some cases, peptide backbone N(α)-methylated arginine, substitution at these sites. All the peptides were tested for antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110792/effect-of-enrofloxacin-on-haemophilus-parasuis-infection-disease-and-immune-response
#9
Nubia Macedo, Maxim C J Cheeran, Albert Rovira, Andrew Holtcamp, Montserrat Torremorell
Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glasser's disease, is a pathogen that colonizes the upper respiratory tract (URT) of pigs, invades the bloodstream and causes polyserositis. Because antimicrobials are highly effective against H. parasuis, we hypothesized that they could have a detrimental effect on the establishment of an immune response if given at the time of URT colonization. In this study, we characterized clinical outcomes and antibody and IFN-γ responses to H. parasuis in pigs treated with enrofloxacin before or after low dose inoculation with a pathogenic H...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097716/parental-knowledge-of-antibiotic-use-in-children-with-respiratory-infections-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Lourdes Cantarero-Arévalo, Mia Pavelics Hallas, Susanne Kaae
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing global problem. AMR threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics (AB) is the major contributor to the emergence of resistant bacteria in humans. To present and describe characteristics in parents' knowledge about when and how to use AB for an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), their attitudes towards doctors and AB use in general, and their behaviour when their child suffers from an URTI...
February 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074125/shiga-vero-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-hospital-foods-virulence-factors-o-serogroups-and-antimicrobial-resistance-properties
#11
Reza Ranjbar, Mojtaba Masoudimanesh, Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi, Nematollah Jonaidi-Jafari, Ebrahim Rahimi
BACKGROUND: According to the presence of the weak, diabetic and immunosuppressive patients in hospitals, hospital foods should have a high quality and safety. Cooking a lot of foods higher than daily requirement, storage of cooked foods in an inappropriate condition and presence of nurses and servants in distribution of food to patients are the main reasons caused contamination of hospital foods. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the common cause of food poisoning in hospitals...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042214/study-of-invasive-pneumococcal-infection-in-adults-with-reference-to-penicillin-resistance
#12
Vrishali Avinash Muley, Dnyaneshwari Purushottam Ghadage, Gauri Eknath Yadav, Arvind Vamanrao Bhore
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal infections often prove rapidly fatal, even where good medical treatment is readily available. In developed countries, up to 20% of people who contract pneumococcal meningitis die; however, in developing world, mortality is closer to 50%, even among hospitalized patients. The World Health Organization estimated 600,000-800,000 adult deaths each year from pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. AIMS: This study aims to estimate isolation rate of invasive pneumococcal infection in adults, to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and to study the associated risk factors...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999667/antimicrobial-usage-and-resistance-in-beef-production
#13
REVIEW
Andrew Cameron, Tim A McAllister
Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harmless bacteria, but also opportunistic pathogens that may acquire and propagate resistance genes within the microbial community via horizontal gene transfer...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902389/antimicrobial-susceptibility-to-azithromycin-among-salmonella-enterica-typhi-and-paratyphi-a-isolates-from-india
#14
Richa Misra, Kashi Nath Prasad
Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) and multidrug resistance in typhoidal Salmonella isolates in areas of endemicity are significant therapeutic problems. Guidelines for azithromycin disc diffusion and MIC interpretive criteria for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published recently by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of azithromycin in 100 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (n=80), Paratyphi A (n=18) and B (n=2) recovered from bloodstream infections from January 2013 to December 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895019/nephrotoxicity-during-vancomycin-therapy-in-combination-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-or-cefepime
#15
W Cliff Rutter, Jessica N Cox, Craig A Martin, Donna R Burgess, David S Burgess
Recent reports have demonstrated that vancomycin (VAN) may lead to an increase in the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) when it is combined with antipseudomonal beta-lactams. This study compared the incidence of AKI associated with VAN plus piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) or cefepime (FEP). This was a retrospective, matched cohort study that was conducted at an academic medical center between September 2010 and September 2014 and that included adult patients without severe chronic or structural kidney disease, dialysis, pregnancy, cystic fibrosis, or a hospital transfer receiving TZP-VAN or FEP-VAN for at least 48 h...
February 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872410/risk-of-mortality-of-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-caused-by-acinetobacter-species
#17
Yi Lee, Yi-Tzu Lee, Yung-Chih Wang, Chung-Ting Chen, Jun-Ren Sun, Chang-Pan Liu, Yuan-Meng Liu, Shu-Chen Kuo, Chun-Hsiang Chiu, Ya-Sung Yang, Jung-Chung Lin, Te-Li Chen
PURPOSE: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by Acinetobacter species have been extensively reported, however, which majorly focused on respiratory tract infections. The risk of mortality and the effect of early catheter removal on survival in catheter-related BSIs (CRBSIs) caused by Acinetobacter spp. remain unclear. This study aims to investigate that. METHODS: This is a retrospective multicentric study conducted in Taiwan from 2012 to 2014. Patients with at least 1 positive blood culture and catheter culture for the same Acinetobacter spp...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828764/antimicrobial-stewardship-a-call-to-action-for-surgeons
#18
Massimo Sartelli, Therese M Duane, Fausto Catena, Jeffrey M Tessier, Federico Coccolini, Lillian S Kao, Belinda De Simone, Francesco M Labricciosa, Addison K May, Luca Ansaloni, John E Mazuski
Despite current antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) being advocated by infectious disease specialists and discussed by national and international policy makers, ASPs coverage remains limited to only certain hospitals as well as specific service lines within hospitals. The ASPs incorporate a variety of strategies to optimize antimicrobial agent use in the hospital, yet the exact set of interventions essential to ASP success remains unknown. Promotion of ASPs across clinical practice is crucial to their success to ensure standardization of antimicrobial agent use within an institution...
December 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825605/antimicrobial-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae-in-brazil-focus-on-%C3%AE-lactams-and-polymyxins
#19
REVIEW
Jorge Luiz Mello Sampaio, Ana Cristina Gales
During the last 30 years there has been a dissemination of plasmid-mediated β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are widely disseminated in the hospital setting and are detected in a lower frequency in the community setting. Cefotaximases are the most frequently detected ESBL type and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant species among ESBL producers. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae became widely disseminated in Brazil during the last decade and KPC production is currently the most frequent resistance mechanism (96...
December 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822762/clinical-practice-audit-concerning-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-paediatric-neurosurgery-results-from-a-german-paediatric-oncology-unit
#20
Katja Weiss, Arne Simon, Norbert Graf, Jakob Schöpe, Joachim Oertel, Stefan Linsler
BACKGROUND: Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP) has been identified as an important target for internal audits, concerning the judicious use of antibiotics. Paediatric oncology patients with brain tumours face an increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after neurosurgery and receive routine PAP in this setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients younger than 18 years admitted to the paediatric oncology centre (POC) with a neurosurgical intervention...
January 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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