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Judicious antimicrobial

Ana Flores-Carrero, Indira Labrador, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi, David R Peaper, Dana Towle, María Araque
Enterobacter spp. have emerged as an important group of pathogens linked to outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), usually involving strains expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to describe the first nosocomial bloodstream infection outbreak caused by Enterobacter ludwigii co-harbouring CTX-M-8, SHV-12 and TEM-15 in a NICU in a Venezuelan hospital. Initial bacterial identification was achieved by VITEK(®)2 system and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VITEK(®) MS) and was subsequently confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and hsp60 genotyping...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
S McDougall, C W R Compton, N Botha
AIMS: To determine the factors associated with the selection of antimicrobials by dairy veterinarians, and the attitudes of those veterinarians and dairy farmers to antimicrobial usage and resistance. METHODS: Facilitated focus groups of dairy farmers (n=22) and an anonymous online survey of dairy cattle veterinarians (n=206 respondents) were used to determine prescribing behaviour, factors affecting prescribing of antimicrobials, and the attitudes of veterinarians and farmers to the use of antimicrobials and the risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
October 16, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Getahun E Agga, John W Schmidt, Terrance M Arthur
: Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TET(r)) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC(r)) E. coli We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal health, TET(r) E. coli, and 3GC(r) E. coli A "control group" of cattle (n = 150) received no CTC, while a "CTC group" (n = 150) received in-feed CTC (10 mg/lb of body weight/day) from the 5th to the 9th day after feedlot arrival...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
October 7, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Diana Yap Fui Sing, Yang Liang Boo, Roshalina Mukhlis, Pek Woon Chin, Fan Kee Hoo
BACKGROUNDS & OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance is an alarming public health threat that requires urgent global solution. Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is an essential practice element for healthcare institutions in gate-keeping judicious antimicrobial use. This study highlighted the development, first year experience, and result of the implementation of ASP utilizing persuasive and restrictive approaches in a Malaysian district hospital. METHODS: An observational study was conducted between January 2015 to December 2015 on implementation of ASP among hospitalized inpatients age 12 years old and above...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Kristina M Angelo, Jared Reynolds, Beth E Karp, R Michael Hoekstra, Christina M Scheel, Cindy Friedman
INTRODUCTION:  Salmonella causes an estimated 100,000 antimicrobial-resistant infections annually in the United States. Salmonella antimicrobial resistance may result in bacteremia and poor outcomes. We describe antimicrobial resistance among nontyphoidal Salmonella blood isolates using data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. METHODS:  Human nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from 2003-2013 were classified as fully susceptible, resistant to ≥1 antimicrobial agent, or resistant to a first-line agent...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Keith D DeDonder, Dayna M Harhay, Michael D Apley, Brian V Lubbers, Michael L Clawson, Gennie Schuller, Gregory P Harhay, Brad J White, Robert L Larson, Sarah F Capik, Jim E Riviere, Ted Kalbfleisch, Ronald K Tessman
The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
K Rahim, M Qasim, H Rahman, T A Khan, I Ahmad, N Khan, A Ullah, A Basit, S Saleha
OBJECTIVE: Chronic wound infections impose major medical and economic costs on health-care systems, cause significant morbidity, mortality and prolonged hospitalisation. The presence of biofilm producing bacteria in these wounds is considered as an important virulence factor that leads to chronic implications including ulceration. The undertaken study aimed to isolate and identify the biofilm aerobic bacterial pathogens from patients with chronic wound infections, and determine their antibiotics resistance profiles Method: During this study, swab specimens were collected from patients with chronic wounds at teaching hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan between May 2013 and June 2014...
August 2016: Journal of Wound Care
S Rajkhowa, D K Sarma, S R Pegu
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of both humans and animal. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that causes serious infections both in hospitals and communities due to its multidrug resistance tendency. This study was undertaken to characterize the MRSA isolates from pigs and to determine the antimicrobial resistance of these isolates. Forty nine MRSA strains (one strain per positive pig) isolated from pigs of Northeast India were characterized by SCCmec typing and antimicrobial resistance...
July 23, 2016: Veterinary Research Communications
Greg Habing, Catherine Djordjevic, Gustavo M Schuenemann, Jeff Lakritz
Reductions in livestock antimicrobial use (AMU) can be achieved through identification of effective antimicrobial alternatives as well as accurate and stringent identification of cases requiring antimicrobial therapy. Objective measurements of selectivity that incorporate appropriate case definitions are necessary to understand the need and potential for reductions in AMU through judicious use. The objective of this study was to measure selectivity using a novel disease severity treatment threshold for calf diarrhea, and identify predictors of more selective application of antimicrobials among conventional dairy producers...
August 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kevin Messacar, Garrett Breazeale, Christine C Robinson, Samuel R Dominguez
The FilmArray Meningitis Encephalitis Panel, a multiplex PCR for testing of cerebrospinal fluid, was compared to conventional diagnostic methods in children with suspected central nervous system infections. The panel had comparable diagnostic yield (96% agreement) and improved time-to-diagnosis by 10.3 hours with potential for more judicious antimicrobial use, particularly acyclovir.
September 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
S E Dumas, H M French, S N Lavergne, C R Ramirez, L J Brown, C R Bromfield, E F Garrett, D D French, B M Aldridge
Surgical site infections (SSI) are an uncommon, but significant, consequence of surgical interventions. There are very few studies investigating SSI risk in veterinary medicine, and even fewer in cattle, despite the fact that major surgeries are commonly conducted on livestock. Furthermore, the suboptimal conditions under which such surgeries are frequently performed on livestock could be considered an important risk factor for the development of SSIs. With increasing public concern over the contribution of veterinary-prescribed antimicrobials to the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in people, there is widespread scrutiny and criticism of antimicrobial use in livestock production medicine systems...
June 25, 2016: Veterinary Record
Michelle L McDonald, Jill Buckley
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current antimicrobial administration practice patterns for urethroplasty among genitourinary reconstruction experts. Improper use of antimicrobials is a global concern. The American Urological Association suggests that for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis, a single dose of intravenous cephalosporin be administered for open surgery involving the urinary system. No specific guidelines exist for urethral reconstruction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A 27-question survey was designed to assess antimicrobial practice patterns and was administered to 40 international members of the Society of Genitourinary Reconstructive Surgeons who commonly perform urethroplasty...
August 2016: Urology
K S Jackson, G E Carstens, L O Tedeschi, W E Pinchak
Methods to improve accuracy of preclinical detection of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are needed to reduce the economic impact of this disease, improve animal welfare, and promote more judicious use of antimicrobials in beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to retrospectively characterize time-series deviations in DMI and feeding behavior patterns preceding the display of observed clinical symptoms associated with BRD and to identify those feeding behavior traits that would be most predictive of BRD...
April 2016: Journal of Animal Science
K Weiss, A Simon, N Graf, J Schöpe, C M Meier
BACKGROUND: Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP) is an important target for internal audits, concerning the judicious use of antibiotics. Paediatric oncology patients face an increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after implantation of long term central venous catheters (CVAD). PATIENTS: All PATIENTS<18 years admitted to the paediatric oncology centre (POC) with implantation of a CVAD. METHODS: Systematic audit in 2 groups: retrospective (Jan 01, 2012 - March 31, 2014) and prospective (April 01, 2014 - March 31, 2015) referring to an internal PAP guideline, invented in Jan 2014...
May 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
Shweta Sharma, Nirmaljit Kaur, Shalini Malhotra, Preeti Madan, Wasim Ahmad, Charoo Hans
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pediatric population are associated with high morbidity and long term complications. In recent years, there is increased prevalence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains producing extended spectrum β-lactamase, Amp C, and Metallo β-lactamase, making the clinical management even more difficult. This study was aimed to detect the serotypes and to determine antimicrobial susceptibility profile of E. coli isolates from urine samples of children <10 yrs old. A total of 75 pure E...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Richa Gupta, Abida Malik, Meher Rizvi, S Moied Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas spp. have been reported to be the important cause of ICU infections. The appearance of ESBL, AmpC and MBL genes and their spread among bacterial pathogens is a matter of great concern. Biofilm production also attributes to antimicrobial resistance due to close cell to cell contact that permits bacteria to more effectively transfer plasmids to one another. This study aimed at determining the incidence of ESBL, AmpC, MBL and biofilm producing Pseudomonas spp...
January 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Andre Palmeira, Luciana Ruschel dos Santos, Anderlise Borsoi, Laura Beatriz Rodrigues, Max Calasans, Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento
Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Marc H Scheetz, Page E Crew, Cristina Miglis, Elise M Gilbert, Sarah H Sutton, J Nick O'Donnell, Michael Postelnick, Teresa Zembower, Nathaniel J Rhodes
Benchmarks for judicious use of antimicrobials are needed. Metrics such as defined daily doses (DDDs) and days of therapy (DOTs) quantify antimicrobial consumption. However, benchmarking with these metrics is complicated by interhospital variability. Thus, it is important for each hospital to monitor its own temporal consumption trends. Time series analyses allow trends to be detected; however, many of these methods are complex. We present simple regressive methods and caveats in using them to define potential antibiotic over- and underutilizations...
June 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
László Szabó, Tünde Tóth, Tekla Engelhardt, Gergely Rácz, Csilla Mohácsi-Farkas, Erzsébet Takács, László Wojnárovits
Advanced oxidation processes are promising technologies for removal of antibiotic residues from wastewater in terms of their high efficacy. However, recent studies have reported the remaining antibacterial activity of the products at early-stages of treatment. The present study investigates the effect of such products of model β-lactams (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin) on bacteria introducing structure-based, and biological approaches involving Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Chemical analysis revealed the destruction of the β-lactam pharmacophore in competition with the reaction at the aromatic ring...
May 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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