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Parkinson's executive function

Ruben Smith, Michael Schöll, Elisabet Londos, Tomas Ohlsson, Oskar Hansson
Mixed pathologies of α-synuclein, β-amyloid and tau are relatively common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). We therefore wanted to study the retention patterns of18 F-AV-1451 in PD, PD-dementia (PDD), and DLB. To do this 44 healthy controls, 11 non-demented patients with PD, 18 patients with PDD, and six patients with DLB underwent MRI and18 F-AV-1451 PET scanning and cognitive testing. We found that parietal18 F-AV-1451 retention was increased in patients with DLB compared to controls and PD patients, while18 F-AV-1451 uptake was reduced in the substantia nigra in PDD...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ruwei Ou, Qianqian Wei, Bei Cao, Wei Song, Yanbing Hou, Hui Liu, Xiaoqin Yuan, Bi Zhao, Ying Wu, Huifang Shang
Objective: To explore the clinical predictors of freezing of gait (FOG) in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: This study included 225 patients with PD who completed a three-year follow-up visit. The end-point was the presence of FOG (freezers), which was assessed during the follow-up visit. Group comparisons were conducted, followed by a further forward binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Eighty-five patients with PD (38%) had developed FOG at the end of study...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Ondrej Bezdicek, Tommaso Ballarini, Filip Růžička, Jan Roth, Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Matthias L Schroeter
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects approximately one-third of non-demented Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients. We aimed at investigating the neural correlates of MCI in PD combining multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with large-scale data from the literature. We analyzed 31 PD patients and 30 matched controls. The standard neuropsychological assessment of PD-MCI covered memory, attention, executive functions, language and visuospatial abilities. Following validated criteria, 16 patients were classified as showing MCI...
March 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Anand Rughani, Jason M Schwalb, Christos Sidiropoulos, Julie Pilitsis, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Jennifer A Sweet, Sandeep Mittal, Alberto J Espay, Jorge Gonzalez Martinez, Aviva Abosch, Emad Eskandar, Robert Gross, Ron Alterman, Clement Hamani
QUESTION 1: Is bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) more, less, or as effective as bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as measured by improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (UPDRS-III) scores? RECOMMENDATION: Given that bilateral STN DBS is at least as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (as measured by improvements in UPDRS-III scores), consideration can be given to the selection of either target in patients undergoing surgery to treat motor symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Shu-Hong Jia, Kai Li, Wen Su, Shu-Hua Li, Hai-Bo Chen
Objective: Patients with Parkinson's disease have prospective memory impairments. However, little is known about distinct phases of prospective memory in these patients. This study was designed to elucidate the specific phase(s) of prospective memory that are impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: The study included 31 Parkinson's disease patients and 27 healthy controls. The four phases of prospective memory (intention formation, retention, initiation, and execution) were examined in a complex prospective memory task...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the relationship between the sub-regional pattern of striatal dopamine depletion and cognitive impairment in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD), and determine the effect of striatal dopamine density on cognitive prognosis. METHODS: Patients with drug-naïve non-demented PD were divided into mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n = 129) and cognitively normal (PD-CogN; n = 182) groups. Using quantification of the dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in each striatal sub-region with18 F-FP-CIT PET scans, we performed inter-group comparative analysis of DAT availability and multivariate linear regression analysis to assess the association between DAT availability and cognitive performance...
March 2, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Antonio Daniele, Giordano Lacidogna
Among non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive and behavioural symptoms may precede the appearance of motor symptoms and become increasingly severe over disease progression. In patients with PD, mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) refers to a condition characterized by variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction, which does not significantly interfere with independence in daily living activities. PD-MCI may occur in at least 9% of patients in early disease stages1 , is a risk factor for PD dementia (PDD), and may present with a variety of patterns of impairment across several cognitive domains (executive functions, attention/working memory, episodic memory, visuospatial skills, language)...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Nicolaas I Bohnen, Michel J Grothe, Nicola J Ray, Martijn L T M Müller, Stefan J Teipel
Purpose of review: Although the cholinergic hypothesis of dementia provided a successful paradigm for the development of new drugs for dementia, this hypothesis has waned in popularity. Cholinergic brain imaging may provide novel insights into the viability of this hypothesis. Recent findings: Cholinergic receptor and forebrain volumetric studies suggest an important role of the cholinergic system in maintaining brain network integrity that may deteriorate with cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) and Lewy body disorders (LBD)...
March 2018: Current Geriatrics Reports
Peter Manza, Guy Schwartz, Mala Masson, Sarah Kann, Nora D Volkow, Chiang-Shan R Li, Hoi-Chung Leung
Dopaminergic medications improve the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but their effect on response inhibition, a critical executive function, remains unclear. Previous studies primarily enrolled patients in more advanced stages of PD, when dopaminergic medication loses efficacy, and patients were typically on multiple medications. Here, we recruited 21 patients in early-stage PD on levodopa monotherapy and 37 age-matched controls to perform the stop-signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Chiara Zucchella, Angela Federico, Alice Martini, Michele Tinazzi, Michelangelo Bartolo, Stefano Tamburin
Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features...
February 22, 2018: Practical Neurology
Moria Dagan, Talia Herman, Rachel Harrison, Junhong Zhou, Nir Giladi, Giulio Ruffini, Brad Manor, Jeffrey M Hausdorff
BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex may ameliorate freezing of gait. However, the effects of multitarget simultaneous stimulation of motor and cognitive networks are mostly unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of multitarget transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on freezing of gait and related outcomes. METHODS: Twenty patients with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait received 20 minutes of transcranial direct current stimulation on 3 separate visits...
February 13, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Laura Alonso-Recio, Pilar Martín-Plasencia, Miguel Ruiz, Juan Manuel Serrano
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairments are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients without dementia. These deficits are quite heterogeneous, which makes it difficult to recognize and treat them. For this reason, many authors have attempted to classify patients into more homogeneous groups with diverse results. The present study was designed to analyze the cognitive heterogeneity in PD patients using a novel data-driven approach, latent profile analysis (LPA), to classify patients according to cognitive characteristics...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Cettina Allone, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Lilla Bonanno, Rosanna Palmeri, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Angela Marra, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
AIM: Cognitive impairment is present in several neurodegenerative disorders. The clock-drawing test (CDT) represents a useful screening instrument for assessing the evolution of cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of the CDT in monitoring and differentiating the evolution of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's dementia (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This study involved 139 patients, including 39 patients with PD and mild cognitive impairment, 16 demented PD patients, 21 VaD patients with mild cognitive impairment, 17 patients with VaD, 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD, and 13 patients with probable AD...
March 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Sonia Marcone, Jean-François Gagnon, Catherine Desjardins, Annie-Claude David, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Sven Joubert, Isabelle Rouleau
OBJECTIVE: The ability to execute delayed intentions, known as prospective memory (PM), is crucial to everyday living. PM failures are reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Parkinson's disease, however, no study to date has investigated PM functioning in individuals at high risk of developing these conditions, precisely those diagnosed with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). We aimed to assess PM in iRBD according to patients' cognitive status and to determine the underlying nature of their difficulties...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Carolina R A Silveira, Eric A Roy, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: Deficits in executive functions are highly prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although chronic physical exercise has been shown to improve executive functions in PD, evidence of acute exercise effects is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an acute bout of exercise on cognitive processes underlying executive functions in PD. METHODS: Twenty individuals with PD were assessed in both a Control and an Exercise conditions. In each condition, individuals started performing a simple and a choice reaction time (RT) task...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
M Muthuraman, A Schnitzler, S Groppa
Tremor is clinically defined as a rhythmic, oscillating movement of parts of the body, which functionally leads to impairment of the coordination and execution of targeted movements. It can be a symptom of a primary disease, such as resting tremor in Parkinson's disease or occur as an independent disease, such as essential or orthostatic tremor. For the development of tremor, cerebral components as well as mechanisms at the spinal and muscular level play an important role. This review presents the results of new imaging and electrophysiological studies that have led to important advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of tremor...
February 5, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Ryan Shickman, Jessica Famula, Flora Tassone, Maureen Leehey, Emilio Ferrer, Susan M Rivera, David Hessl
BACKGROUND: Fragile X premutation carriers are at increased risk for fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), but to date we know little about prediction of onset and rate of progression and even less about treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. Thus, the longitudinal study of carriers, and the identification of potential biomarkers and prodromal states, is essential. Here we present results of baseline assessments from an ongoing longitudinal project. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 73 men, 48 with the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation (55-200 cytosine-cytosine-guanine or CGG repeats) and 25 well-matched controls (< 40 repeats) aged between 40 and 75 years...
February 1, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Hua Wang, Tessandra Stewart, Jon B Toledo, Carmen Ginghina, Lu Tang, Anzari Atik, Patrick Aro, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Douglas R Galasko, Steven Edland, Poul H Jensen, Min Shi, Jing Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) features a dynamic sequence of amyloid deposition, neurodegeneration, and cognitive impairment. A significant fraction of AD brains also displays Lewy body pathology, suggesting that addition of classically Parkinson's disease-related proteins to the AD biomarker panel may be of value. To determine whether addition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total α-synuclein and its form phosphorylated at S129 (pS129) to the AD biomarker panel [Amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ42), tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181)] improves its performance, we examined CSF samples collected longitudinally up to 7 years as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Michael Adamaszek, Federico D'Agata, Christopher J Steele, Bernhard Sehm, Cornelia Schoppe, Karl Strecker, Hartwig Woldag, Horst Hummelsheim, Ken C Kirkby
Introduction Research indicates that widespread cortical-subcortical networks are involved in the recognition and discrimination of emotional contents of facial and vocal expression. The cerebellum and basal ganglia are two subcortical regions implicated in these networks but evidence as to their specific contributions is limited. To investigate this we compared patients with circumscribed cerebellar lesions and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on a range of neuropsychological measures, we studied subjects of both clinical entities by an approved test battery...
January 29, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Kamin Kim, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Martijn L T M Müller, Cindy Lustig
Executive functions are complex both in the cognitive operations involved and in the neural structures and functions that support those operations. This complexity makes executive function highly vulnerable to the detrimental effects of aging, brain injury, and disease, but may also open paths to compensation. Neural compensation is often used to explain findings of additional or altered patterns of brain activations by older adults or patient populations compared to young adults or healthy controls, especially when associated with relatively preserved performance...
January 11, 2018: NeuroImage
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