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Parkinson's executive function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331916/aerobic-exercise-is-more-effective-than-goal-based-exercise-for-the-treatment-of-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Carolina R A Silveira, Eric A Roy, Brittany N Intzandt, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how different exercise modalities influence cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, the focus of previous investigations on examining the effects of exercise mainly on executive functions and the exclusion of individuals with cognitive impairment may limit the potential to define exercise as a treatment for cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and goal-based exercise on five cognitive domains in cognitively normal and impaired individuals with PD...
January 10, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325626/fragile-x-syndrome-and-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#2
Deborah A Hall, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
Fragile X-associated disorders encompass several conditions, which are caused by expansion mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited etiology of intellectual disability and results from a full mutation or >200 CGG repeats in FMR1. It is associated with developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and seizures. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in premutation carriers of 55-200 CGG repeats in FMR1 and is characterized by kinetic tremor, gait ataxia, parkinsonism, executive dysfunction, and neuropathy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318974/-understanding-the-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-during-neurodegeneration-for-new-therapeutics-opportunities
#3
Amalia Merelli, Julio Cesar Garcia Rodriguez, Jaume Folch, Marcelo R Regueiro, Antoni Camins, Lazarowski Alberto
Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated with NDG. Since other pathologies such as refractory epilepsy, brain infections, or hereditary diseases such as "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation", also lead to chronic brain inflammation with loss of neural cells, NDG can be said to affect all ages...
January 10, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318592/falls-in-cognitively-impaired-older-adults-implications-for-risk-assessment-and-prevention
#4
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Mark Speechley
OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the role of cognition in falls, with potential implications for managing and preventing falls in older adults. DESIGN: Review. SETTING: Observational and interventional studies addressing the role of cognition on falls. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older adults (65 years and older). MEASUREMENTS: The relationship between gait and cognition in aging and neurodegeneration was reviewed in the medical literature to highlight the role of brain motor control deficits in fall risk...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304183/white-matter-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-normal-cognition-precede-grey-matter-atrophy
#5
Ivan Rektor, Alena Svátková, Lubomir Vojtíšek, Iva Zikmundová, Jirí Vaníček, András Király, Nikoletta Szabó
INTRODUCTION: While progressive MRI brain changes characterize advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), little has been discovered about structural alterations in the earliest phase of the disease, i.e. in patients with motor symptoms and with normal cognition. Our study aimed to detect grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in PD patients without cognitive impairment. METHODS: Twenty PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls (HC) were tested for attention, executive function, working memory, and visuospatial and language domains...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304050/severe-hyposmia-and-aberrant-functional-connectivity-in-cognitively-normal-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Noritaka Yoneyama, Hirohisa Watanabe, Kazuya Kawabata, Epifanio Bagarinao, Kazuhiro Hara, Takashi Tsuboi, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Reiko Ohdake, Kazunori Imai, Michihito Masuda, Tatsuya Hattori, Mizuki Ito, Naoki Atsuta, Tomohiko Nakamura, Masaaki Hirayama, Satoshi Maesawa, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
OBJECTIVE: Severe hyposmia is a risk factor of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD), while the underlying functional connectivity (FC) and brain volume alterations in PD patients with severe hyposmia (PD-SH) are unclear. METHODS: We examined voxel-based morphometric and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging findings in 15 cognitively normal PD-SH, 15 cognitively normal patients with PD with no/mild hyposmia (PD-N/MH), and 15 healthy controls (HCs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277400/the-cortical-cholinergic-system-contributes-to-the-top-down-control-of-distraction-evidence-from-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Kamin Kim, Martijn L T M Müller, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Martin Sarter, Cindy Lustig
Past animal and human studies robustly report that the cholinergic system plays an essential role in both top-down and bottom-up attentional control, as well as other aspects of cognition (see Ballinger et al., 2016 for a recent review). However, current understanding of how two major cholinergic pathways in the human brain (the basal forebrain-cortical pathway, and the brainstem pedunculopontine-thalamic pathway) contribute to specific cognitive functions remains somewhat limited. To address this issue, we examine how individual variation in the integrity of striatal-dopaminergic, thalamic-cholinergic, and cortical-cholinergic pathways (measured using Positron Emission Tomography in patients with Parkinson's disease) was associated with individual variation in the initial goal-directed focus of attention, the ability to sustain attentional performance over time, and the ability to avoid distraction from a highly-salient, but irrelevant, environmental stimulus...
December 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275903/baseline-mobility-is-not-associated-with-decline-in-cognitive-function-in-healthy-community-dwelling-older-adults-findings-from-the-irish-longitudinal-study-on-ageing-tilda
#8
Orna Donoghue, Joanne Feeney, Neil O'Leary, Rose Anne Kenny
OBJECTIVES: Few studies examine the relationship between Timed Up-and-Go (TUG), a commonly used clinical test, and cognitive decline. This study examines whether TUG, usual gait speed (UGS), and dual-task gait speed (DTGS) predict decline in global cognition, executive function, processing speed, memory, and attention with follow-up of up to 5.9 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a nationally representative cohort study...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228203/in-vivo-cholinergic-basal-forebrain-atrophy-predicts-cognitive-decline-in-de-novo-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Nicola J Ray, Steven Bradburn, Christopher Murgatroyd, Umar Toseeb, Pablo Mir, George K Kountouriotis, Stefan J Teipel, Michel J Grothe
Cognitive impairments are a prevalent and disabling non-motor complication of Parkinson's disease, but with variable expression and progression. The onset of serious cognitive decline occurs alongside substantial cholinergic denervation, but imprecision of previously available techniques for in vivo measurement of cholinergic degeneration limit their use as predictive cognitive biomarkers. However, recent developments in stereotactic mapping of the cholinergic basal forebrain have been found useful for predicting cognitive decline in prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223069/neuropsychological-and-clinical-heterogeneity-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy
#10
Lorena Broseghini Barcelos, Flávia Saad, Carla Giacominelli, Roberta Arb Saba, Patrícia Maria de Carvalho Aguiar, Sonia Maria Azevedo Silva, Vanderci Borges, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci, Henrique Ballalai Ferraz
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated neuropsychological tests to compare cognitive impairment between two types of multiple system atrophy: predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) and predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 14 patients diagnosed with MSA: four with MSA-C and ten with MSA-P. Presence of motor symptoms was determined by using the Unified Rating MSA Scale (URMSAS). Non-motor symptoms were evaluated by the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215769/can-a-cognitive-rehabilitation-program-in-early-stages-of-parkinson-s-disease-improve-cognition-apathy-and-brain-functional-connectivity-for-up-to-18-months
#11
EDITORIAL
A Daniele, F Panza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204015/clinical-profile-of-cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#12
Sulena, Dipti Gupta, Anjani Kumar Sharma, Naveen Kumar
Background: There are very less data on the comparison between the cognitive profile in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinson's-plus groups, especially in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the cognitive profile across PD, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) groups and compare them using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), frontal assessment battery (FAB), and verbal fluency tests. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197200/conscious-attention-defect-and-inhibitory-control-deficit-in-parkinson-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-comparison-study-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-multiple-domain
#13
Davide Maria Cammisuli, Marco Timpano Sportiello
BACKGROUND: Frontal/executive dysfunction commonly occurs in Parkinso's disease - Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI patients). However, to date, the number of studies comparing PD-MCI and MCI patients of other etiologies are too small. The present study aims at clarifying the attention/working memory and executive dysfunction of PD-MCI patients in comparison to amnestic MCI multiple domain patients with first extended then abbreviated structural brain changes suggesting preclinical Alzheimer's Disease...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187334/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-disease-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#14
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Anne Botzung, Frédéric Blanc
This paper reviews findings on cognition in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The issue of differential diagnosis between DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD) on the one hand, and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the other hand, at prodromal stages of the diseases is discussed. The cognitive profile of prodromal DLB is also evaluated in terms of cognitive deficits and « cognitive weaknesses » (low performances although in normal range). Findings suggest that visuo-constructive tests and verbal fluency are particularly relevant to dfferentiate DLB from AD...
December 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186725/-screening-of-executive-functions-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-using-the-new-rapid-test-pal-5
#15
Jannik Florian Scheffels, Jasmin Elaine Engels, Elke Kalbe, Josef Kessler
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent chronic neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, following Alzheimer's disease. Along with the characteristic motor symptoms of the disorder, especially bradykinesia, cognitive deficits can often be found prior to the onset of the disorder. These mainly concern executive functioning. To detect cognitive deficits at an early stage, initial screening procedures are recommended. The new cognitive rapid test Paarassoziationslernen-5 ("PAL-5") has been developed to detect the most prevalent cognitive symptoms - namely executive impairments - of PD patients...
November 29, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183225/prospective-memory-functioning-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#16
Alberto Costa, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
Objective There is growing interest in investigating prospective memory (PM) functioning in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia because evidence suggests that PM may be impaired in this clinical population. This paper reviews current literature on PM functioning in PD patients with the aim of discussing (i) the potential contribution of executive and episodic memory disorders to PM impairments, (ii) whether PM impairment is an independent disorder in PD or whether it is a sign of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (iii) the efficacy of cognitive interventions in treating PM disorders in these patients...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175000/cyclic-nucleotide-signaling-changes-associated-with-normal-aging-and-age-related-diseases-of-the-brain
#17
REVIEW
Michy P Kelly
Deficits in brain function that are associated with aging and age-related diseases benefit very little from currently available therapies, suggesting a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is needed to develop improved drugs. Here, we review the literature to test the hypothesis that a break down in cyclic nucleotide signaling at the level of synthesis, execution, and/or degradation may contribute to these deficits. A number of findings have been reported in both the human and animal model literature that point to brain region-specific changes in Galphas (a...
January 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167494/picture-interpretation-test-pit-360%C3%A2-an-innovative-measure-of-executive-functions
#18
Silvia Serino, Francesca Baglio, Federica Rossetto, Olivia Realdon, Pietro Cipresso, Thomas D Parsons, Giacomo Cappellini, Fabrizia Mantovani, Gianluca De Leo, Raffaello Nemni, Giuseppe Riva
The assessment of executive functions poses researchers with several challenges related to both the complexity of the construct of executive functions itself and/or the methodological difficulties related to its evaluation. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate a 360° version of an ecologically valid assessment called the Picture Interpretation Test (PIT). Participants included 19 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 19 healthy controls. All participants endorsed globally positive experiences of the PIT 360°...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165011/motor-imagery-of-walking-and-walking-while-talking-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol-for-older-adults
#19
Helena M Blumen, Joe Verghese
Over a third of community-residing elderly have clinical gait abnormalities, and gait impairment is associated with morbidity, mortality and dementia. Motor imagery - envisioning motor actions without actual execution - has been used to improve gait in Parkinson's disease and poststroke, but the efficacy of motor imagery in healthy elderly is unknown. This single-blind pilot randomized-controlled trial aims to establish feasibility and explore the efficacy of a 3-month, telephone-based motor imagery intervention - that involves imagined walking, imagined talking and imagined walking while talking for improving gait in 48 healthy elderly...
November 22, 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124784/dysfunction-in-emotion-processing-underlies-functional-psychogenic-dystonia
#20
Alberto J Espay, Thomas Maloney, Jennifer Vannest, Matthew M Norris, James C Eliassen, Erin Neefus, Jane B Allendorfer, Robert Chen, Jerzy P Szaflarski
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether abnormalities in emotion processing underlie functional (psychogenic) dystonia, one of the most common functional movement disorders. METHODS: Motor and emotion circuits were examined in 12 participants with functional dystonia, 12 with primary organic dystonia, and 25 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 4T and a finger-tapping task (motor task), a basic emotion-recognition task (emotional faces task), and an intense-emotion stimuli task...
November 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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