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Parkinson's executive function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215728/domain-specific-accuracy-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-subsections-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Taylor R Hendershott, Delphine Zhu, Seoni Llanes, Kathleen L Poston
OBJECTIVE: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is among the most widely adopted screening tools for cognitive impairment because it includes tests in multiple domains and is available in 55 languages. The MoCA is often the only formal cognitive assessment available when comprehensive neuropsychological testing is not practical, such as rural clinical settings or large retrospective and multi-lingual research settings. However, the MoCA domain-specific subsections have never been formally assessed for sensitivity or specificity...
February 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212832/motor-dysfunction-and-alterations-in-glutathione-concentration-cholinesterase-activity-and-bdnf-expression-in-substantia-nigra-pars-compacta-in-rats-with-pedunculopontine-lesion
#2
Lisette Blanco-Lezcano, Javier Jimenez-Martin, Mei-Li Díaz-Hung, Esteban Alberti-Amador, Maylin Wong-Guerra, Ma Elena González-Fraguela, Bárbara Estupiñán-Díaz, Teresa Serrano-Sánchez, Liliana Francis-Turner, Susana Delgado-Ocaña, Yanier Núñez-Figueredo, Yamilé Vega-Hurtado, Isabel Fernández-Jiménez
Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been considered a critically important region in the regulation of some of the physiological functions that fail during the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, the effects of unilateral neurotoxic lesion of the PPN [through the injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) solution (concentration: 0.1 M; volume: 0.5 µL)] in motor execution and gait disorders and the changes in cellular and molecular indicators in rat nigral tissue were evaluated. The motor execution was assessed using the beam test (BT) and the gait disorders by footprint test...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205494/language-deficits-as-a-preclinical-window-into-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-asymptomatic-parkin-and-dardarin-mutation-carriers
#3
Adolfo M García, Lucas Sedeño, Natalia Trujillo, Yamile Bocanegra, Diana Gomez, David Pineda, Andrés Villegas, Edinson Muñoz, William Arias, Agustín Ibáñez
OBJECTIVES: The worldwide spread of Parkinson's disease (PD) calls for sensitive and specific measures enabling its early (or, ideally, preclinical) detection. Here, we use language measures revealing deficits in PD to explore whether similar disturbances are present in asymptomatic individuals at risk for the disease. METHODS: We administered executive, semantic, verb-production, and syntactic tasks to sporadic PD patients, genetic PD patients with PARK2 (parkin) or LRRK2 (dardarin) mutation, asymptomatic first-degree relatives of the latter with similar mutations, and socio-demographically matched controls...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202373/is-fatigue-associated-with-cognitive-dysfunction-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Benzi M Kluger, Kenn Freddy Pedersen, Ole-Bjorn Tysnes, Solgunn O Ongre, Bjørg Øygarden, Karen Herlofson
INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom which may be seen in early Parkinson's disease (PD). Our understanding of the phenomenology and etiology of fatigue in PD is limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether fatigue was related to cognition in early PD patients. METHODS: The study is part of the Norwegian ParkWest project, a population-based cohort study, comprising 184 de novo, drug-naïve patients with PD. PD was diagnosed according to the Gelb criteria...
February 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193533/effect-of-dual-mode-and-dual-site-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-on-freezing-of-gait-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Won Hyuk Chang, Min Soo Kim, Eunhee Park, Jin Whan Cho, Jinyoung Youn, Yun Kwan Kim, Yun-Hee Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of dual-mode non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex of the lower leg and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared with rTMS alone in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with freezing of gait (FOG). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, controlled study. SETTING: Outpatient rehabilitation clinics...
February 10, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176003/assessment-of-individual-cognitive-changes-after-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-the-neuropsychological-test-battery-vienna-short-version
#6
Thomas Foki, Daniela Hitzl, Walter Pirker, Klaus Novak, Gisela Pusswald, Eduard Auff, Johann Lehrner
Long-term therapy of Parkinson's disease with L‑DOPA is associated with a high risk of developing motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can improve these motor complications. Although the positive effect on motor symptoms has been proven, postoperative cognitive decline has been documented. To tackle the impact of DBS on cognition, 18 DBS patients were compared to 25 best medically treated Parkinson's patients, 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 12 healthy controls using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna short version (NTBV-short) for cognitive outcome 12 months after the first examination...
February 7, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174514/associations-among-cognitive-functions-plasma-dna-and-white-matter-integrity-in-patients-with-early-onset-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Yueh-Sheng Chen, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Pei-Chin Chen, Hsiu-Ling Chen, I-Hsiao Yang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Wei-Che Lin
Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) patients are symptomatic at a relatively young age, and the impacts of the disease on both the patients and their caregivers are dramatic. Few studies have reported on the cognitive impairments seen in EOPD, and the results of these studies have been diverse. Furthermore, it is still unclear what microstructural white matter (WM) changes are present in EOPD patients. As such, we conducted this study to investigate the microstructural WM changes experienced by EOPD patients and their association with cognitive function and plasma DNA levels...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170111/the-effects-of-lifelong-cognitive-lifestyle-on-executive-function-in-older-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#8
John V Hindle, Pamela A Martin-Forbes, Anthony Martyr, Alexandra J M Bastable, Kirstie L Pye, Virginia C Mueller Gathercole, Enlli M Thomas, Linda Clare
OBJECTIVE: Active lifelong cognitive lifestyles increase cognitive reserve and have beneficial effects on global cognition, cognitive decline and dementia risk in Parkinson's disease (PD). Executive function is particularly impaired even in early PD, and this impacts on quality of life. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in PD have not been studied previously. This study examined the association between lifelong cognitive lifestyle, as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve, and executive function in people with PD...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162137/are-parkinson-s-patients-more-vulnerable-to-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-risk-a-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-study
#9
Jacob D Jones, Jared J Tanner, Michael Okun, Catherine C Price, Dawn Bowers
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at increased vulnerability for vascular-related cognitive impairment relative to controls. The underlying assumption behind this hypothesis relates to brain reserve and that both PD and vascular risk factors impair similar fronto-executive cognitive systems. METHODS: The sample included 67 PD patients and 61 older controls (total N=128). Participants completed neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, processing speed, verbal delayed recall/memory, language, and auditory attention...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127512/side-of-onset-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-relation-to-neuropsychological-measures
#10
Edward J Modestino, Chioma Amenechi, AnnaMarie Reinhofer, Patrick O'Toole
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) usually emerges with a unilateral side-of-onset (left-onset: LOPD; right-onset: ROPD; Marinus & van Hilten, 2015) due to an asymmetrical degeneration of striatal dopaminergic neurons (Donnemiller et al., Brain, 135, 2012, 3348). This has led to a body of research exploring the cognitive, neuropsychological, and clinical differences between LOPD and ROPD (e.g., Verreyt et al., Neuropsychology Review, 21, 2011, 405). METHODS: Thirty ROPD and 14 LOPD cases were drawn from a Boston clinic specializing in PD...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119070/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-exploiting-crossroads-of-cognition-and-mood
#11
REVIEW
Lars Dinkelbach, Michela Brambilla, Rosa Manenti, Anna-Katharine Brem
Cognitive impairments and depression are common non-motor manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent evidence suggests that both partially arise via the same frontostriatal network, opening the opportunity for concomitant treatment with non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In this systematic review, we evaluate the effects of NIBS on cognition and/or mood in 19 placebo-controlled studies involving 561 PD patients...
January 21, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108638/natural-course-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-disease-a-5-year-population-based-study
#12
Kenn Freddy Pedersen, Jan Petter Larsen, Ole-Bjørn Tysnes, Guido Alves
OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence, progression, and reversion of mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson disease (PD-MCI) over 5 years. METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients with incident PD underwent repeated neuropsychological testing of attention, executive function, memory, and visuospatial abilities at baseline (n = 178), 1 year (n = 175), 3 years (n = 163), and 5 years (n = 150). Patients were classified as PD-MCI and diagnosed with dementia according to published criteria...
January 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106569/cerebellar-volume-and-executive-function-in-parkinson-disease-with-and-without-freezing-of-gait
#13
Peter S Myers, Marie E McNeely, Jonathan M Koller, Gammon M Earhart, Meghan C Campbell
BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) affects approximately 50% of people with Parkinson Disease (PD), impacting quality of life and placing financial and emotional strain on the individual and caregivers. People with PD and FOG have similar deficits in motor adaptation and cognition as individuals with cerebellar lesions, indicating the cerebellum may play a role in FOG. OBJECTIVE: To examine potential differences in cerebellar volumes and their relationships with cognition between PD with (FOG+) and without FOG (FOG-)...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
February 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088312/dementia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Hasmet A Hanagasi, Zeynep Tufekcioglu, Murat Emre
Dementia can occur in a substantial number of patients with Parkinson's disease with a point prevalence close to 30%. The cognitive profile is characterized by predominant deficits in executive, visuospatial functions, attention and memory. Behavioral symptoms are frequent such as apathy, visual hallucinations and delusions. The most prominent associated pathology is Lewy body-type and biochemical deficit is cholinergic. Placebo-controlled randomized trials with cholinesterase inhibitors demonstrated modest but significant benefits in cognition, behavioral symptoms and global functions...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088064/improved-cognition-while-cycling-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-healthy-adults
#16
Audrey A Hazamy, Lori J P Altmann, Elizabeth Stegemöller, Dawn Bowers, Hyo Keun Lee, Jonathan Wilson, Michael S Okun, Chris J Hass
Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073810/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-clinical-review
#17
Ivan Koychev, David Okai
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a disproportionate impact on quality of life and carer burden. Pharmacological treatment is the main approach in dealing with these symptoms, but it is limited by variable efficacy and risk of drug interactions. Non-pharmacological approaches using the cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) model are viable alternatives and in this review paper we summarise the evidence of CBT for three of the most common psychiatric manifestations of PD: depression and anxiety, impulse-control disorders and insomnia...
January 10, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073327/nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-disease
#18
Rosanna Palmeri, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Maria Foti, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067106/retrospective-neuropsychological-profile-of-patients-with-parkinson-disease-prior-to-developing-visual-hallucinations
#19
Alana J Muller, Claire O'Callaghan, Courtney C Walton, James M Shine, Simon J G Lewis
Visual hallucinations (VH) are a common feature of Parkinson disease (PD); however, the cognitive profile preceding the onset of VH has not yet been established. The present study investigated longitudinal neuropsychological performance of patients with PD who developed VH during follow-up compared to a group who did not develop VH. The patient groups were matched for demographic and disease severity variables at their baseline assessments. Patients who developed VH displayed impaired performance at baseline on measures of psychomotor speed, executive functioning, reaction time, and attention compared to patients who did not develop VH...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065268/enzymatic-assays-for-studying-intramembrane-proteolysis
#20
D M Bolduc, D J Selkoe, M S Wolfe
Proteolysis within the membrane is catalyzed by a diverse family of proteases immersed within the hydrophobic environment of cellular membranes. These ubiquitous intramembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs) hydrolyze the transmembrane domains of a large variety of membrane-embedded proteins to facilitate signaling events essential to normal biological functions found in all forms of life. The importance of this unique class of enzyme is highlighted by its central involvement in a variety of human pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, cancer, and the virulence of a number of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
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