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Parkinson's executive function

Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
A Ridder, M L T M Müller, V Kotagal, K A Frey, R L Albin, N I Bohnen
OBJECTIVES: Dopaminergic degeneration affects both nigrostriatal projection neurons and retinal amacrine cells in Parkinson disease (PD). Parkinsonian retinopathy is associated with impaired color discrimination and contrast sensitivity. Some prior studies described associations between color discrimination deficits and cognitive deficits in PD, suggesting that contrast discrimination deficits are due, at least in part, to cognitive deficits in PD. We investigated the relationship between cognitive deficits and impaired contrast sensitivity in PD...
October 7, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Kelly A Mills, Zoltan Mari, Gregory M Pontone, Alexander Pantelyat, Angela Zhang, Nadine Yoritomo, Emma Powers, Jason Brandt, Ted M Dawson, Liana S Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease, the association between objective and patient-reported measures of cognitive dysfunction is unknown and highly relevant to research and clinical care. OBJECTIVE: To determine which cognitive domain-specific Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) subscores are most strongly associated with patient-reported cognitive impairment on question 1 (Q1) of the Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS)...
September 27, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Saul Martinez-Horta, Frederic Sampedro, Javier Pagonabarraga, Ramón Fernandez-Bobadilla, Juan Marin-Lahoz, Jordi Riba, Jaime Kulisevsky
Apathy is a common but poorly understood neuropsychiatric disturbance in Parkinson's disease (PD). In a recent study using event-related brain potentials we demonstrated impaired reward processing and compromised mesocortico-limbic pathways in PD patients with clinical symptoms of apathy. Here we aimed to further investigate the involvement of reward circuits in apathetic PD patients by assessing potential differences in brain structure. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we quantified grey matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 18 non-demented and non-depressed PD patients with apathy, and 18 matched non-apathetic patients...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Clement Hamani, Tipu Aziz, Bastiaan R Bloem, Peter Brown, Stephan Chabardes, Terry Coyne, Kelly Foote, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Etienne C Hirsch, Andres M Lozano, Paolo A M Mazzone, Michael S Okun, William Hutchison, Peter Silburn, Ludvic Zrinzo, Mesbah Alam, Laurent Goetz, Erlick Pereira, Anand Rughani, Wesley Thevathasan, Elena Moro, Joachim K Krauss
Several lines of evidence over the last few years have been important in ascertaining that the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) region could be considered as a potential target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat freezing and other problems as part of a spectrum of gait disorders in Parkinson disease and other akinetic movement disorders. Since the introduction of PPN DBS, a variety of clinical studies have been published. Most indicate improvements in freezing and falls in patients who are severely affected by these problems...
October 11, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Sandra-Fausia Soukup, Sabine Kuenen, Roeland Vanhauwaert, Julia Manetsberger, Sergio Hernández-Díaz, Jef Swerts, Nils Schoovaerts, Sven Vilain, Natalia V Gounko, Katlijn Vints, Ann Geens, Bart De Strooper, Patrik Verstreken
Synapses are often far from the soma and independently cope with proteopathic stress induced by intense neuronal activity. However, how presynaptic compartments turn over proteins is poorly understood. We show that the synapse-enriched protein EndophilinA, thus far studied for its role in endocytosis, induces macroautophagy at presynaptic terminals. We find that EndophilinA executes this unexpected function at least partly independent of its role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. EndophilinA-induced macroautophagy is activated when the kinase LRRK2 phosphorylates the EndophilinA-BAR domain and is blocked in animals where EndophilinA cannot be phosphorylated...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Paul J Mattis, Martin Niethammer, Wataru Sako, Chris C Tang, Amir Nazem, Marc L Gordon, Vicky Brandt, Vijay Dhawan, David Eidelberg
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) derives from the same network pathology. METHODS: We analyzed (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET scans from 40 patients with AD and 40 age-matched healthy controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and scanned an additional 10 patients with AD and 10 healthy controls at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research to derive an AD-related metabolic pattern (ADRP) analogous to our previously established PD cognition-related pattern (PDCP) and PD motor-related pattern (PDRP)...
October 5, 2016: Neurology
Timothy Rittman, Mikail Rubinov, Petra E Vértes, Ameera X Patel, Cedric E Ginestet, Boyd C P Ghosh, Roger A Barker, Maria Grazia Spillantini, Edward T Bullmore, James B Rowe
Abnormalities of tau protein are central to the pathogenesis of progressive supranuclear palsy, whereas haplotype variation of the tau gene MAPT influences the risk of Parkinson disease and Parkinson's disease dementia. We assessed whether regional MAPT expression might be associated with selective vulnerability of global brain networks to neurodegenerative pathology. Using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson disease, and healthy subjects (n = 128), we examined functional brain networks and measured the connection strength between 471 gray matter regions...
September 9, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Daphné Génier Marchand, Jacques Montplaisir, Ronald B Postuma, Shady Rahayel, Jean-François Gagnon
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Long-term studies in REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have shown a high rate of conversion into synucleinopathies. We aimed to prospectively follow up a large cohort of RBD patients to identify cognitive markers for early detection of prodromal dementia. METHODS: Seventy-six idiopathic RBD patients underwent polysomnography and a complete neuropsychological and neurological assessment and were then followed for a mean of 3.6 years. Cognitive characteristics at baseline were compared between patients who remained disease-free and those who developed a synucleinopathy, and between those who developed dementia first and those who developed parkinsonism first...
September 26, 2016: Sleep
Rodolfo Savica, Alexandra M V Wennberg, Clinton Hagen, Kelly Edwards, Rosebud O Roberts, John H Hollman, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Michelle M Mielke
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that slower gait speed might predict cognitive impairment and dementing illnesses, supporting the role of gait speed as a possible subclinical marker of cognitive impairment. However, the predictive value of other gait parameters for cognitive decline is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the association with, and prediction of, specific gait parameters for cognition in a population-based sample. METHODS: The analysis included 3,426 cognitively normal participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Silvie Kloeters, Christian J Hartmann, Viktoria D Pundmann, Alfons Schnitzler, Martin Südmeyer, Joachim Lange
Interacting with other individuals in a social world requires fast and accurate perception of other individuals' identity, actions, or intentions. Humans are very efficient in these social tasks, as they can extract social information even if the actor is represented only by a handful of point-lights on an otherwise invisible body. Theories have argued that efficient visual perception of actions is based on intact motor system functioning. The motor system provides visuo-motor action representations shaped by the observer's own movements or motor repertoire...
September 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Lena Köstering, Charlotte S M Schmidt, Cornelius Weiller, Christoph P Kaller
OBJECTIVE: Planning as a prototypical executive function is frequently compromised in clinical samples. Analyses of rule breaking during performance on tower tasks are highly informative for clinical inferences on planning deficits, but are as yet only available for manual task versions. Therefore, the present study investigated whether valid rule-break information can also be gained using a computerized Tower of London (TOL) version. METHOD: For patients with stroke (N = 60), Parkinson's disease (PD; N = 51), and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI; N = 29), rule breaks (e...
September 1, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Renata Terra de Oliveira, Lilian Assunção Felippe, Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Gustavo Christofoletti
OBJECTIVE: We have made a 3-arm trial (group vs. individual exercise vs. no treatment) to test the effects of a 6-month exercise program upon the executive functions in participants with Parkinson disease. METHODS: Twenty-four subjects were randomly allocated in 3 groups and undertook individualized exercises (G1, n = 8), group exercises (G2, n = 8), or monitoring (G3, n = 8). Executive functions were evaluated by means of the Wisconsin card sorting test and the Raven colored matrices, both assessed at the beginning of the program and after 6 months...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Maud Ranchet, Emmanuel Broussolle, Laurence Paire-Ficout
BACKGROUND/AIMS: (1) To investigate how specific executive functions change over 2 years in drivers with Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to controls, using both neuropsychological and driving simulator tasks; and (2) to explore the association between the decline of specific executive functions and changes in driving habits in PD. METHODS: Sixteen PD patients and 21 controls underwent neuropsychological testing twice and performed tasks on a driving simulator, with an interval of approximately 2 years...
September 2, 2016: European Neurology
Nadja Bredo Rasmussen, Mikkel Vestergaard Olesen, Tomasz Brudek, Per Plenge, Anders Bue Klein, Jenny E Westin, Karina Fog, Gitta Wörtwein, Susana Aznar
The 5-HT2A receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive function are also steadily being associated with this disease. Not much is known about the pathophysiology behind this. The aim of this study was thereby twofold: (1) to investigate 5-HT2A receptor binding levels in Parkinson's brains and (2) to investigate whether PD associated pathology, alpha-synuclein (AS) overexpression, could be associated with 5-HT2A alterations...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Yue Leng, Terri Blackwell, Katie L Stone, Tina D Hoang, Susan Redline, Kristine Yaffe
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) and change in selected aspects of cognition in community-dwelling older men. METHODS: We studied 2,636 older men without dementia who underwent in-home polysomnography with measurement of the periodic limb movement index (PLMI) and periodic limb movement arousal index (PLMAI) using piezoelectric sensors. Random-effects models and logistic regression were used to examine the association between PLMI, PLMAI, and 3- to 4-y change in cognition...
October 1, 2016: Sleep
Hamad Alzahrani, Angelo Antonini, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Apathy is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have investigated the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in PD, and those which have done so have not controlled for the presence of other neuropsychiatric comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: To explore the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in PD at a mild disease stage. METHODS: Sixty-five PD patients and 24 healthy controls participated in this study...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Douglas W Scharre, Shu-Ing Chang, Haikady N Nagaraja, Ariane Park, Anahita Adeli, Punit Agrawal, Anne Kloos, Deb Kegelmeyer, Shannon Linder, Nora Fritz, Sandra K Kostyk, Maria Kataki
Limited data compares clinical profiles of Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-one mildly demented ambulatory LBD subjects were individually matched by MMSE score with 21 AD subjects and by UPDRS motor score with 21 PD subjects. Matched by age, gender, education, and race, pairs were compared using cognitive, functional, behavioral, and motor measures. LBD group performed worse than PD on axial motor, gait, and balance measures. AD had more amnesia and orientation impairments, but less executive and visuospatial deficits than LBD subjects...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Gaia Bonassi, Elisa Pelosin, Carla Ogliastro, Cecilia Cerulli, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Laura Avanzino
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) therapy has been applied to improve upper limb function in stroke. When combined with motor training, MVF improves the performance of the trained and untrained hand by enhancing the excitability of both primary motor cortices (M1s). Bradykinesia is a typical feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by slowness in the execution of movement. This condition is often asymmetrical and possibly supported by a volitional hypoactivation of M1. MVF therapy could tentatively treat bradykinesia since the untrained hand, which benefits from the exercise, is generally more severely impaired in undertaking sequential movements...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Davide Ferrazzoli, Paola Ortelli, Roberto Maestri, Rossana Bera, Nir Giladi, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Gianni Pezzoli, Giuseppe Frazzitta
BACKGROUND: The cognitive status is generally considered as a major determinant of rehabilitation outcome in Parkinson's disease (PD). No studies about the effect of cognitive impairment on motor rehabilitation outcomes in PD have been performed before. OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive decline on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with PD. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 485 patients with PD hospitalized for a 4-week Multidisciplinary Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment (MIRT) between January 2014 and September 2015...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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