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Chemo fog

Anna Kovalchuk, Bryan Kolb
Mounting evidence indicates that cancer treatments cause numerous deleterious effects, including central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. Chemotherapy-caused CNS side effects encompass changes in cognitive function, memory, and attention, to name a few. Although chemotherapy treatment-induced side effects occur in 16-75% of all patients, the mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. We have recently proposed a new epigenetic theory of chemo brain and, in a pioneer study, determined that cytotoxic chemotherapy agents induce oxidative DNA damage and affect molecular and epigenetic processes in the brain, and may be associated with brain aging processes...
July 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
L Vasiľková
BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer is one of the most common and most treatable cancers in men aged 15-49 years. The high survival rates mean that it is essential to maintain quality of life and minimize adverse effects associated with treatment. Both malignant tumors and the modalities used to treatment them can have adverse effects from both a psychosocial and a neurocognitive function perspective. Recently, attention has focused on the negative impact of the disease and its treatment on the brain and on cognitive function, which can result in a form of neurocognitive dysfunction known as "chemo brain" or "chemo fog"...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Charlotte K Callaghan, Shane M O'Mara
Clinical studies report evidence of long-term cognitive and other deficits following adjunctive chemotherapy treatment, which is often termed "chemobrain" or "chemo-fog". The neurological bases of these impairments are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that systemic chemotherapy treatment causes long-term neurobehavioral deficits, and that these deficits are reversed by manipulation of cAMP by the PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram. Male han Wistar rats were treated with docetaxel (an adjunctive chemotherapeutic agent (1mg/kg i...
September 1, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Adeline Rollin-Sillaire, Xavier Delbeuck, Marianne Pollet, Marie-Anne Mackowiak, Pierre Lenfant, Marie-Pierre Noel, Thierry Facon, Xavier Leleu, Florence Pasquier, Emilie Le Rhun
BACKGROUND: There are many reports of cognitive dysfunction in patients receiving chemotherapy or targeted therapies. Many antineoplastic agents may be involved in the condition also known as "chemo brain" or "chemo fog". CASE PRESENTATION: Two male patients (aged 41 and 70) with multiple myeloma developed severe, rapidly progressing cognitive impairment (mostly involving episodic memory) and loss of independence in activities of daily living during lenalidomide-based treatment...
August 12, 2013: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Pascal Jean-Pierre
Cancer and cancer treatment-related neurocognitive dysfunction (CRND) (e.g., impairments in key cognitive domains of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive function), commonly referred to as "chemobrain" or "chemo-fog", can negatively impact patients' psychosocial functioning and quality of life. CRND is a debilitating and enduring adverse effect experienced by 17% to 75% of patients during and after completion of treatment. However, few studies have systematically characterized and tested interventions to treat CRND...
January 15, 2014: NeuroImage
R B Raffa
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Cancer chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairments (termed 'chemo-fog' or 'chemo-brain'), particularly in memory, have been self-reported or identified in cancer survivors previously treated with chemotherapy. Although a variety of deficits have been detected, a consistent theme is a detriment in visuospatial working memory. The parietal cortex, a major site of storage of such memory, is implicated in chemotherapy-induced damage. However, if the findings of two recent publications are combined, the (pre)frontal cortex might be an equally viable target...
August 2013: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Victoria Mandilaras, Doreen Wan-Chow-Wah, Johanne Monette, Francine Gaba, Michèle Monette, Linda Alfonso
Cancer and cancer therapy-related cognitive impairment (formerly known as chemobrain or chemo-fog) are often described in the literature. In the past, studies have failed to prove the existence of cancer therapy-related cognitive dysfunction. However, more recently, prospective trials have shown that patients undergoing chemotherapy do display impairment in specific cognitive domains. Aging confers an increased risk of developing cancer, as well as cognitive impairment. The Geriatric Oncology clinic of the Segal Cancer Centre, Jewish General Hospital in Montreal was founded in 2006 to address the unique needs of older cancer patients...
2013: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Erin O'Farrell, Joyce MacKenzie, Barbara Collins
An increasing number of cancer survivors has led to a greater interest in the long-term side effects of cancer treatments and their impact on quality of life. In particular, cognitive impairments have been frequently reported by cancer survivors as an adverse effect which they attribute to the neurotoxicity of chemotherapy and have dubbed "chemobrain" or "chemo fog." Research within the past 15-20 years has explored the many factors thought to contribute to cancer-related cognitive decline in an attempt to determine a potential cause...
June 2013: Current Oncology Reports
M Teresa Villanueva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2012: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
R B Raffa
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are, of necessity, cytotoxic. Unintended damage to normal central nervous system neuronal structure or function might lead to deleterious adverse effects on cognitive function, a mild form of which is reported by some cancer survivors. Understanding the physiologic connection between cancer chemotherapy and the reported cognitive dysfunction, could help inform choice of drugs, treatment regimens and new drug development...
June 2011: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
R B Raffa, R J Tallarida
The diminution in certain aspects of cognitive function that is reported to occur in some patients during or after adjuvant cancer chemotherapy is variously known as 'chemo-fog', 'chemo-brain' or other such term. In addition to reported deficits in attention, concentration and other functions, most, if not all, of the studies report deficits involving visual-spatial function or visual memory. Since the visual system is part of the nervous system, it seems reasonable to ask if it is susceptible to some of the deleterious effects produced by adjuvant chemotherapeutic drugs...
June 2010: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Peter M Wigmore, Sarah Mustafa, Maha El-Beltagy, Laura Lyons, Jariya Umka, Geoff Bennett
5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a chemotherapeutical agent used to treat cancers including breast and colorectal. Working as an antimetabolite to prevent cell proliferation, it primarily inhibits the enzyme thymidylate synthase blocking the thymidine formation required for DNA synthesis. Although having a relatively short half-life (< 30 mins) it readily enters the brain by passive diffusion. Clinically, it is used both as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapies and has been associated with the long-term side effects of cognitive impairment, known as "chemo brain" or "chemo fog" These accounts have come primarily from patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer who report symptoms including confusion and memory impairment, which can last for months to years...
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Christopher D Aluise, Rukhsana Sultana, Jitbangjong Tangpong, Mary Vore, Daret St Clair, Jeffrey A Moscow, D Allan Butterfield
Doxorubicin (ADRIAMYCIN, RUBEX) is a chemotherapeutic agent that is commonly administered to breast cancer patients in standard chemotherapy regimens. As true of all such therapeutic cytotoxic agents, it can damage normal, noncancerous cells and might affect biochemical processes in a manner that might lead to, or contribute to, chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits when administered either alone or in combination with other agents.
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Swati Nagar
Pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs used in breast cancer therapy are well established. This chapter reviews preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics of the following drugs: cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and tamoxifen. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs are discussed in the context of breast cancer. The effect of age and menopause status on drug pharmacokinetics is evaluated. The important role of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling in understanding the phenomenon of chemo fog, memory deficit in breast cancer chemotherapy, is explored...
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Robert B Raffa
Most, if not all, of the studies that report cognitive impairments in patients who have been treated with cancer chemotherapy also report deficits involving the visual system (e.g., visual-spatial function or visual memory). The visual system seems like a likely susceptible target of cytotoxic drugs. Therefore, some portion of the vision-related cognitive deficits ofchemo fog/chemo brain might result from a direct action of the drugs or from site/site interaction between effects on the visual system and other critical brain regions...
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Robert B Raffa
The chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (chemo fog/chemo brain) that is reported by many cancer patients is supported to varying degrees primarily by evidence from prospective and retrospective clinical studies. However, the inherent difficulty in conducting such trials (including ethical issues of placebo-controlled designs), the fact that the cognitive impairment is characteristically subtle and that the patients might be able to compensate for their deficits during testing, gives rise to questions about the degree and the extent of the problem-and indeed even if there is a problem...
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Albert I Wertheimer
Not only is chemo fog a troublesome medical problem for the sufferers, but in addition it is the source of nearly $300 million in direct and indirect expense in the United States alone each year. And since it often persists for extended periods of time, the indirect costs, which stem mainly from lost productivity, continue to accumulate with another nearly $250 million added to the overall cost each year. This is not the highest economic burden for common diseases, but it is a significant amount that could be mostly avoided if biomedical scientists were to find a means to employ safer chemotherapeutic agents...
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Robert B Raffa, Kathleen J Martin
An unknown, but significant subgroup (perhaps the majority), of patients who have undergone chemotherapy treatment for their cancer report a subsequent decline in cognitive performance (e.g., difficulty in balancing a checkbook; forgetting or mixing up names of friends or relatives, etc.). The condition has been termed chemo fog, chemo brain, or some similar term to reflect the fact that the symptoms are usually difficult to describe and involve domains of cognition such as attention, concentration, memory, speed of information processing, multitasking, or ability to organize information...
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Robert B Raffa
If one does a MEDLINE search using as keywords chemo fog or chemo brain or their hyphenated equivalents, fewer than 30 'hits' appear. The oldest dates back to 2003. This small number of hits in some way captures one aspect of the current state of the phenomenon (or phenomena). In contrast, if one does the search using 'cognitive x cancer x chemotherapy', hundreds more hits appear. This in some way captures another aspect of the phenomenon.It is both little-known and well-known. To go a step further, some data suggest that it is one of the most common adverse effects of chemotherapy, other data suggest that it does not exist...
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Robert B Raffa, Ronald J Tallarida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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