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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759530/sevoflurane-attenuates-systemic-inflammation-compared-with-propofol-but-does-not-modulate-neuro-inflammation-a-laboratory-rat-study
#1
Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, Lukas Baumann, Tanja Restin, Philipp Eugster, Melanie Hasler, Christa Booy, Martin Schläpfer
BACKGROUND: Septic encephalopathy is believed to be a result of neuro-inflammation possibly triggered by endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Modulation of the immune system is a property of volatile anaesthetics. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the systemic and cerebral inflammatory response in a LPS-induced sepsis model in rats. We compared two different sedation strategies, intravenous propofol and the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane, with the hypothesis that the latter may attenuate neuro-inflammatory processes...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758896/chemo-brain-or-tumor-brain-that-is-the-question-the-presence-of-extracranial-tumors-profoundly-affects-molecular-processes-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-tumorgraft-mice
#2
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Svitlana Shpyleva, Stepan Melnyk, Igor Pogribny, Amanda Katz, David Sidransky, Olga Kovalchuk, Bryan Kolb
Cancer chemotherapy causes numerous persistent central nervous system complications. This condition is known as chemo brain. Cognitive impairments occur even before treatment, and hence are referred to as cancer associated cognitive changes, or tumor brain. There is much yet to be learned about the mechanisms of both chemo brain and tumor brain. The frequency and timing of chemo brain and tumor brain occurrence and persistence strongly suggest they may be epigenetic in nature and associated with altered gene expression...
July 29, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748803/serial-mri-scan-of-posterior-fossa-tumours-predict-patients-at-risk-of-developing-neurocognitive-impairment
#3
Ramadhan Othman, Kurdistan Gh Abdullah
Background: Brain tumours are the most common solid tumours in children. More than 50% of these tumours develop in the posterior cranial fossa. Long term survivors of posterior fossa tumours (PFT) suffer from neurocognitive and memory issues. We hypothesized that serial MRI scanning of brain would show differences in hippocampal and ACC volume change in PFT patients treated with and without chemo-radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Twelve patients (8 females and 4 males) underwent 76 serial MR imaging examinations before and during treatment for posterior fossa tumours...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746860/integrating-rna-sequencing-into-neuro-oncology-practice
#4
REVIEW
David S Rogawski, Nicholas A Vitanza, Angela C Gauthier, Vijay Ramaswamy, Carl Koschmann
Malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) cause substantial morbidity and mortality, yet efforts to optimize chemo- and radiotherapy have largely failed to improve dismal prognoses. Over the past decade, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged as a powerful tool to comprehensively characterize the transcriptome of CNS tumor cells in one high-throughput step, leading to improved understanding of CNS tumor biology and suggesting new routes for targeted therapies. RNA-seq has been instrumental in improving the diagnostic classification of brain tumors, characterizing oncogenic fusion genes, and shedding light on intratumor heterogeneity...
July 8, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740831/the-impact-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-on-the-properties-of-glioma-stem-like-cells
#5
REVIEW
Alessandra Audia, Siobhan Conroy, Rainer Glass, Krishna P L Bhat
Glioblastoma is the most common and highly malignant primary brain tumor, and patients affected with this disease exhibit a uniformly dismal prognosis. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are a subset of cells within the bulk tumor that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties similar to somatic stem cells. These cells also are at the apex of the cellular hierarchy and cause tumor initiation and expansion after chemo-radiation. These traits make them an attractive target for therapeutic development...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729027/micrornas-as-multifaceted-players-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#6
Neri Mercatelli, Silvia Galardi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and inevitably lethal primary brain tumor, with a median survival rate of only 15 months from diagnosis. The current standard treatment involves maximal surgical resection flanked by radiotherapy and chemotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide. However, even such aggressive treatment is never curative, and recurrent tumors always arise, commonly in more aggressive, chemo- and radio-resistant forms, leading to untreatable and deadly tumors. MicroRNAs, recognized major players in cancer, are deeply involved in GBM, as shown by more than a decade of studies...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727574/flexible-ligated-ruthenium-ii-self-assemblies-sensitizes-glioma-tumor-initiating-cells-in-vitro
#7
Palani Elumalai, Neha Kaushik, Dong Hwan Kim, Hyunuk Kim, Su Jae Lee, Eun Ha Choi, Ki-Whan Chi, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik
The tumorigenic potentials of residual cancer stem-like cells within tumors represent limitations of current cancer therapies. Here, the authors describe the effects of synthesized flexible, ligated, supramolecular self-assembled chair type tetranuclear ruthenium (II) metallacycles (2-5) on glioblastoma and glioma stem like cells. These self-assemblies were observed to be selectively toxic to glioma cells and CD133-positive glioma stem like cells population. Of the self-assembled compounds tested, metallacycle 4 more efficiently induced glioma stem like cells death within a brain cancer cell population and simultaneously inhibited the formation of free-floating gliospheres by reducing the sphere size...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693276/examination-of-the-predictive-factors-of-the-response-to-whole-brain-radiotherapy-for-brain-metastases-from-lung-cancer-using-mri
#8
Shuri Aoki, Tomonori Kanda, Noriyuki Matsutani, Nobuhiko Seki, Masafumi Kawamura, Shigeru Furui, Hideomi Yamashita
Previous studies have been conducted on the prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with brain metastases (BMs) following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). However, there have been a small number of studies regarding the prognostic factors for the response of tumor to WBRT. The aim of the present study was to identify the predictive factors for the response to WBRT from the point of view of reduction of tumor using magnetic resonance imaging. A retrospective analysis of 62 patients with BMs from primary lung cancer treated with WBRT was undertaken...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677106/expression-and-prognostic-value-of-jam-a-in-gliomas
#9
Ann Mari Rosager, Mia D Sørensen, Rikke H Dahlrot, Henning B Boldt, Steinbjørn Hansen, Justin D Lathia, Bjarne W Kristensen
Gliomas are among the most lethal cancers, being highly resistant to both chemo- and radiotherapy. The expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) was recently identified on the surface of stem cell-like brain tumor-initiating cells and suggested to function as a unique glioblastoma niche adhesion factor influencing the tumorigenic potential of brain tumor-initiating cells. We have recently identified high JAM-A expression to be associated with poor outcome in glioblastomas, and our aim was to further investigate the expression of JAM-A in gliomas focusing especially on the prognostic value in WHO grade II and III gliomas...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657421/chemo-brain-from-discerning-mechanisms-to-lifting-the-brain-fog-an-aging-connection
#10
Anna Kovalchuk, Bryan Kolb
Mounting evidence indicates that cancer treatments cause numerous deleterious effects, including central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. Chemotherapy-caused CNS side effects encompass changes in cognitive function, memory, and attention, to name a few. Although chemotherapy treatment-induced side effects occur in 16-75% of all patients, the mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. We have recently proposed a new epigenetic theory of chemo brain and, in a pioneer study, determined that cytotoxic chemotherapy agents induce oxidative DNA damage and affect molecular and epigenetic processes in the brain, and may be associated with brain aging processes...
July 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648712/emerging-strategies-for-delivering-antiangiogenic-therapies-to-primary-and-metastatic-brain-tumors
#11
Vasileios Askoxylakis, Costas D Arvanitis, Christina S F Wong, Gino B Ferraro, Rakesh K Jain
Five-year survival rates have not increased appreciably for patients with primary and metastatic brain tumors. Nearly 17,000 patients die from primary brain tumors, whereas approximately 200,000 cases are diagnosed with brain metastasis every year in the US alone. At the same time, with improved control of systemic disease, the incidence of brain metastasis is increasing. Thus, novel approaches for improving the treatment outcome for these uniformly fatal diseases are needed urgently. In the review, we summarize the challenges in the treatment of these diseases using antiangiogenic therapies alone or in combination with radio-, chemo- and immuno-therapies...
June 22, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623325/fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-microscopy-a-novel-diagnostic-tool-for-metastatic-cell-detection-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-children-with-medulloblastoma
#12
Sivan Gershanov, Shalom Michowiz, Helen Toledano, Gilad Yahav, Orit Barinfeld, Avraham Hirshberg, Haim Ben-Zvi, Gabriel Mircus, Mali Salmon-Divon, Dror Fixler, Nitza Goldenberg-Cohen
In pediatric brain tumours, dissemination of malignant cells within the central nervous system confers poor prognosis and determines treatment intensity, but is often undetectable by imaging or cytology. This study describes the use of fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging microscopy (FLIM), a novel diagnostic tool, for detection of metastatic spread. The study group included 15 children with medulloblastoma and 2 with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour. Cells extracted from the tumour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 2 weeks postoperatively and repeatedly during chemo/radiotherapy were subjected to nuclear staining followed by FLT measurement and cytological study...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614736/nanoparticle-mediated-knockdown-of-dna-repair-sensitizes-cells-to-radiotherapy-and-extends-survival-in-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-glioblastoma
#13
Forrest M Kievit, Kui Wang, Tatsuya Ozawa, Aria W Tarudji, John R Silber, Eric C Holland, Richard G Ellenbogen, Miqin Zhang
Glioblastoma (GBM) remains incurable, and recurrent tumors rarely respond to standard-of-care radiation and chemo-therapies. Therefore, strategies that enhance the effects of these therapies should provide significant benefits to GBM patients. We have developed a nanoparticle delivery vehicle that can stably bind and protect nucleic acids for specific delivery into brain tumor cells. These nanoparticles can deliver therapeutic siRNAs to sensitize GBM cells to radiotherapy and improve GBM treatment via systemic administration...
June 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602756/antrodia-cinnamomea-sensitizes-radio-chemo-therapy-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-by-modulating-microrna-expression
#14
Yu-Kai Su, Ping-Hsiao Shih, Wei-Hwa Lee, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Alexander T H Wu, Chun-Chih Huang, Yew-Min Tzeng, Michael Hsiao, Chi-Tai Yeh, Chien-Min Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The discovery of many tissue-specific cancer stem cells (CSCs) continues to attract scientific attention. These CSCs are considered to be associated with chemo- and radio-resistance, and consequently, failure of conventional anticancer therapies. The recent demonstration of several microRNAs as enhancers of tumorigenicity via modulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stemness, makes them putative novel therapeutic target in oncology. Antrodia cinnamomea is a Chinese traditional medicine with several biological functions including anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and cancer prevention...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587121/chemotherapeutic-drugs-dna-damage-and-repair-in-glioblastoma
#15
REVIEW
Laura Annovazzi, Marta Mellai, Davide Schiffer
Despite improvements in therapeutic strategies, glioblastoma (GB) remains one of the most lethal cancers. The presence of the blood-brain barrier, the infiltrative nature of the tumor and several resistance mechanisms account for the failure of current treatments. Distinct DNA repair pathways can neutralize the cytotoxicity of chemo- and radio-therapeutic agents, driving resistance and tumor relapse. It seems that a subpopulation of stem-like cells, indicated as glioma stem cells (GSCs), is responsible for tumor initiation, maintenance and recurrence and they appear to be more resistant owing to their enhanced DNA repair capacity...
May 26, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566437/local-dna-repair-inhibition-for-sustained-radiosensitization-of-high-grade-gliomas
#16
Amanda R King, Christopher D Corso, Evan M Chen, Eric Song, Paul Bongiorni, Zhe Chen, Ranjini K Sundaram, Ranjit S Bindra, W Mark Saltzman
High-grade gliomas, such as glioblastoma (GBM) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), are characterized by an aggressive phenotype with nearly universal local disease progression despite multimodal treatment, which typically includes chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and possibly surgery. Radiosensitizers that have improved the effects of radiotherapy for extracranial tumors have been ineffective for the treatment of GBM and DIPG, in part due to poor blood-brain barrier penetration and rapid intracranial clearance of small molecules...
August 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551545/cytotoxicity-of-temozolomide-on-human-glioblastoma-cells-is-enhanced-by-the-concomitant-exposure-to-an-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-100hz-100g
#17
Zeinab Akbarnejad, Hossein Eskandary, Luciana Dini, Cristian Vergallo, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani, Alireza Farsinejad, Maryam Fekri Soofi Abadi, Meysam Ahmadi
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain cancer that causes high mortality in humans. It responds poorly to the most common cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemo- and radiation therapy. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent that has been widely used to treat GBM; resistance to this drug is often found. One unexplored possibility for overcoming this resistance is a treatment based on concomitant exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and TMZ. Indeed, many evidences show that EMF affects cancer cells and drug performance...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536567/the-repurposing-of-anti-psychotic-drugs-quetiapine-and-olanzapine-as-anti-cryptococcus-drugs
#18
Adepemi O Ogundeji, Carolina H Pohl, Olihile M Sebolai
The management of cryptococcal infections is often difficult. This can, in part, be attributed to the fungistatic nature of fluconazole, which may result in cells disseminating to give rise to pathogen-emergent psychosis following brain inflammation. This chance at treatment failure has necessitated the current study wherein the antimicrobial quality of anti-psychotic drugs viz. quetiapine and olanzapine, was assessed. The response of test strains toward quetiapine or olanzapine alone and in combined therapy with fluconazole or amphotericn B was measured...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536277/3d-mathematical-modeling-of-glioblastoma-suggests-that-transdifferentiated-vascular-endothelial-cells-mediate-resistance-to-current-standard-of-care-therapy
#19
Huaming Yan, Mónica Romero-López, Lesly I Benitez, Kaijun Di, Hermann B Frieboes, Christopher C W Hughes, Daniela A Bota, John S Lowengrub
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive brain tumor in human patients, is decidedly heterogeneous and highly vascularized. Glioma stem/initiating cells (GSC) are found to play a crucial role by increasing cancer aggressiveness and promoting resistance to therapy. Recently, cross-talk between GSC and vascular endothelial cells has been shown to significantly promote GSC self-renewal and tumor progression. Furthermore, GSC also transdifferentiate into bona fide vascular endothelial cells (GEC), which inherit mutations present in GSC and are resistant to traditional antiangiogenic therapies...
August 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529554/novel-drugs-in-pediatric-gliomas
#20
Dongli Zhang, Xiaoming Liu, Conghai Fan, Jiao Chen
Astrocytomas (gliomas) are the most common primary brain tumors among adults and second most frequent neoplasm among children. New ideas and novel approaches are being explored world over with aim to devise better management strategeies for this deadly pathological state. We searched the electronic database PubMed for pre-clinical as well as clinical controlled trials reporting importance of various therapeutic drugs against gliomas. It was observed clearly that this approach of using therapeutic drugs is clearly evolving and has been observed to be promising future therapeutic avenue against gliomas...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
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