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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594656/glioblastoma-gbm-effects-on-quantitative-mri-of-contralateral-normal-appearing-white-matter
#1
Hatef Mehrabian, Wilfred W Lam, Sten Myrehaug, Arjun Sahgal, Greg J Stanisz
PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate (with quantitative MRI) whether the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of glioblastoma (GBM) patients on the contralateral side (cNAWM) was different from NAWM of healthy controls. METHODS: Thirteen patients with newly diagnosed GBM and nine healthy age-matched controls were MRI-scanned with quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST), and transverse relaxation time (T2 )-mapping...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594238/retrospective-assessment-of-mri-based-volumetric-changes-of-normal-tissues-in-glioma-patients-following-radio-chemo-therapy
#2
Andreas Gommlich, Felix Raschke, Hannes Wahl, Esther G C Troost
In glioma patients, linac-based photon beam irradiation is a widely applied therapy, which achieves highly conformal target volume coverage, but is also known to cause side-effects to adjacent areas of healthy tissue. Apart from subjective measures, such as quality of life assessment and neurocognitive function tests, objective methods to quantify tissue damage are needed to assess this impact. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established method for brain tumor diagnoses as well as assessing treatment response...
January 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559295/oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-and-macrophages-microglia-produce-glioma-stem-cell-niches-at-the-tumor-border
#3
Takuichiro Hide, Yoshihiro Komohara, Yuko Miyasato, Hideo Nakamura, Keishi Makino, Motohiro Takeya, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Akitake Mukasa, Shigetoshi Yano
Glioblastoma (GBM) usually develops in adult brain white matter. Even after complete resection, GBM recurs around the tumor removal cavity, where GBM cells acquire chemo-radioresistance. Characterization of the tumor border microenvironment is critical for improving prognosis in patients with GBM. Here, we compared microRNA (miRNA) expression in samples from the tumor, tumor border, and periphery by miRNA microarray. The top three of miRNAs showing higher expression in the tumor border were related to oligodendrocyte differentiation, and pathologically oligodendrocyte lineage cells were increased in the border, where macrophages and microglia also colocalized...
March 1, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558958/a-highlight-on-sonic-hedgehog-pathway
#4
REVIEW
Gabriela Basile Carballo, Jéssica Ribeiro Honorato, Giselle Pinto Farias de Lopes, Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio E Spohr
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an essential role during vertebrate embryonic development and tumorigenesis. It is already known that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is important for the evolution of radio and chemo-resistance of several types of tumors. Most of the brain tumors are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, consequently, they have a poor prognosis. So, a better knowledge of the Shh pathway opens an opportunity for targeted therapies against brain tumors considering a multi-factorial molecular overview...
March 20, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556248/growth-of-triple-negative-and-progesterone-positive-breast-cancer-causes-oxidative-stress-and-down-regulates-neuroprotective-transcription-factor-npas4-and-npas4-regulated-genes-in-hippocampal-tissues-of-tumorgraft-mice-an-aging-connection
#5
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Amanda Katz, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
While the refinement of existing and the development of new chemotherapeutic regimens has significantly improved cancer treatment outcomes and patient survival, chemotherapy still causes many persistent side effects. Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity is of particular concern, as cancer patients experience significant deficits in memory, learning, cognition, and decision-making. These chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes are termed chemo brain, and manifest in more than half of cancer survivors. Moreover, recent studies have emerged suggesting that neurocognitive deficits manifest prior to cancer diagnosis and treatment, and thus may be associated with tumor presence, a phenomenon recently termed "tumor brain...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525720/targeting-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-the-treatment-of-primary-brain-tumors
#6
REVIEW
Luisa Iacovelli, Rosamaria Orlando, Alessandro Rossi, Paola Spinsanti, Daniela Melchiorri, Ferdinando Nicoletti
In spite of the recent advancement in the molecular characterization of malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas, the treatment of primary brain tumors remains suboptimal. The use of small molecule inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways, inhibitors of angiogenesis, and immunotherapic agents is limited by systemic adverse effects, limited brain penetration, and, in some cases, lack of efficacy. Thus, adjuvant chemo-therapy and radiotherapy still remain the gold standard in the treatment of grade-IV astrocytoma (glioblastoma multiforme) and medulloblastoma...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508242/dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-dsc-perfusion-mri-in-differential-diagnosis-between-radionecrosis-and-neoangiogenesis-in-cerebral-metastases-using-rcbv-rcbf-and-k2
#7
Mario Muto, Giulia Frauenfelder, Rossana Senese, Fabio Zeccolini, Emiliano Schena, Francesco Giurazza, Rolf Jager
INTRODUCTION: Distinction between treatment-related changes and tumour recurrence in patients who have received radiation treatment for brain metastases can be difficult on conventional MRI. In this study, we investigated the ability of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion in differentiating necrotic changes from pathological angiogenesis and compared measurements of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and K2, using a dedicated software...
March 5, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492900/a-hif-independent-cd133-mediated-mechanism-of-cisplatin-resistance-in-glioblastoma-cells
#8
Eroje M Ahmed, Gagori Bandopadhyay, Beth Coyle, Anna Grabowska
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the commonest brain tumour in adults. A sub-population of cells within these tumours, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), is thought to mediate their chemo-/radiotherapy resistance. CD133 is a cell surface marker that is used to identify and isolate GBM CSCs. However, its functional significance, as well as the relevant microenvironment in which to study CD133, have so far remained unknown. Here, we examined the effect of hypoxia on the expression of CD133 and on that of the hypoxia-related factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and the potential functional significance of CD133 expression on the acquisition of chemo-resistance by GBM cells...
February 28, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492128/a-rare-case-of-concurrent-herpes-simplex-encephalitis-and-glioblastoma-multiforme
#9
Parag Sayal, Arif Zafar, Robin Highley
Herpes encephalitis superimposed on an intracranial malignancy has previously been described mainly in the context of malignancy imitating infection or in the postoperative setting after neurosurgical intervention. We report a rare case of de novo presentation of concurrent herpes encephalitis and glioblastoma. A 63-year-old man presented with status epilepticus and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain showed a right temporal enhancing lesion with mass effect. He underwent a craniotomy and debulking of this lesion, which on subsequent histology was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigens and HSV DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486569/-cor-occidere-a-novel-strategy-of-targeting-the-tumor-core-by-radiosurgery-in-a-radio-and-chemo-resistant-intracranial-hemangiopericytoma
#10
You Quan Li, Eu Tiong Chua, Kevin L M Chua, Melvin L K Chua
Intracranial hemangiopericytomas (HPC) are chemotherapy- and radiotherapy (RT)-resistant. Here, we report on a novel stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) technique-"Cor Occidere" (Latin), as a potential strategy of overcoming radioresistance of HPC. A 36-year old female presented to our clinic for consideration of a 3rd-course of RT for her recurrent cavernous sinus HPC, following previous cranial RT at 13 and 5 years prior, and a failed 9 months trial of bevacizumab/temozolomide. The tumor-adjacent brain stem and carotid artery risked substantial damage given the cumulative RT doses to these organs...
February 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454155/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-approaches-on-special-subgroups-and-unresolved-burning-questions
#11
REVIEW
J Remon, N Vilariño, N Reguart
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been incorporated in the treatment strategy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Beyond the already approved indications in first- and second-line setting of advanced NSCLC, new data has recently emerged demonstrating its efficacy in locally advanced disease as maintenance after chemo-radiotherapy and currently several trials are also exploring its efficacy in earlier stages of the disease to evaluate whether these results could be extrapolated to the adjuvant setting...
March 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399357/anticancer-effects-of-bilberry-anthocyanins-compared-with-nutrananosphere-encapsulated-bilberry-anthocyanins
#12
Seth P Thibado, Jerry T Thornthwaite, Thomas K Ballard, Brandon T Goodman
Rapidly accumulating laboratory and clinical research evidence indicates that anthocyanins exhibit anticancer activity and the evaluation of bilberry anthocyanins as chemo-preventive agents is progressing. It has previously been demonstrated that anthocyanins upregulate tumor suppressor genes, induce apoptosis in cancer cells, repair and protect genomic DNA integrity, which is important in reducing age-associated oxidative stress, and improve neuronal and cognitive brain function. Bilberry anthocyanins have pronounced health effects, even though they have a low bioavailability...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385852/clinical-trial-of-mgmt-p140k-gene-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-paediatric-patients-with-brain-tumours
#13
Belinda Kramer, Radhika Singh, Jessica Wischusen, Rebecca Velickovic, Amanda Rush, Shiloh Middlemiss, Yu-Wooi Ching, Ian Edward Alexander, Geoffrey B McCowage
Gene transfer targeting haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in children has shown sustained therapeutic benefit in the treatment of genetic diseases affecting the immune system, most notably in the severe combined immuno-deficiencies affecting T cell function. The HSC compartment has also been successfully targeted using gene transfer in children with genetic diseases affecting the central nervous system, such as metachromatic leukodystrophy and adrenoleukodystrophy. The HSC is also a target for genetic modification in strategies aiming to confer drug resistance to chemotherapy agents so as to reduce off-target toxicity, and to allow for chemotherapy dose escalation with the possibility of enhanced therapeutic benefit...
January 31, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384905/central-nervous-system-leukemia-in-a-patient-with-concurrent-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-and-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-a-case-report
#14
Jun-Qing Liu, Wen-Yuan Mai, Si-Ben Wang, Yin-Jun Lou, Sen-Xiang Yan, Jie Jin, Wei-Lai Xu
RATIONALE: Concurrent case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been reported. Here, we report a case of NPC, who was concurrently suffered from AML one mother after the NPC diagnosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 45-year-old male who presented with a mass on his right side neck. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus negative type-2 non-keratinizing carcinoma with clivus involvement and unilateral metastasis to the cervical lymph node...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369420/atm-and-p53-combined-analysis-predicts-survival-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-patients-a-clinicopathologic-study
#15
Francesco Jacopo Romano, Elia Guadagno, Domenico Solari, Giorgio Borrelli, Sara Pignatiello, Paolo Cappabianca, Marialaura Del Basso De Caro
Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant cancers, with a distinguishing dismal prognosis: surgery followed by chemo- and radiotherapy represents the current standard of care, and chemo- and radioresistance underlie disease recurrence and short overall survival of patients suffering from this malignancy. ATM is a kinase activated by autophosphorylation upon DNA doublestrand breaks arising from errors during replication, byproducts of metabolism, chemotherapy or ionizing radiations; TP53 is one of the most popular tumor suppressor, with a preeminent role in DNA damage response and repair...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360266/targeting-glioma-stem-like-cell-survival-and-chemoresistance-through-inhibition-of-lysine-specific-histone-demethylase-kdm2b
#16
Mikkel Staberg, Rikke Darling Rasmussen, Signe Regner Michaelsen, Henriette Pedersen, Kamilla Ellermann Jensen, Mette Villingshøj, Jane Skjoth-Rasmussen, Jannick Brennum, Kristoffer Vitting-Seerup, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen, Petra Hamerlik
Glioblastoma (GBM) ranks among the most lethal cancers, with current therapies offering only palliation. Inter- and intrapatient heterogeneity is a hallmark of GBM, with epigenetically distinct cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) at the apex. Targeting GSCs remains a challenging task because of their unique biology, resemblance to normal neural stem/progenitor cells, and resistance to standard cytotoxic therapy. Here, we find that the chromatin regulator, JmjC domain histone H3K36me2/me1 demethylase KDM2B, is highly expressed in glioblastoma surgical specimens compared to normal brain...
March 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356734/differentiation-of-recurrent-residual-glioma-from-radiation-necrosis-using-semi-quantitative-99mtc-mdm-bis-methionine-dtpa-brain-spect-ct-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-enhanced-mr-perfusion-a-comparative-study
#17
Nisha Rani, Baljinder Singh, Narendra Kumar, Paramjit Singh, Puja Panwar Hazari, Harpreet Singh, Ganesh Kumar, Bishan Radotra, Mukesh Kumar, Anish Bhattacharya, Rajnish Sharma, Adarsh Kohli, Rajesh Chhabra, Sunil Kumar Gupta, Anil Kumar Mishra
PURPOSE: In this study, Tc MDM (bis-methionine-DTPA) SPECT was used for the detection and differentiation of recurrent/residual glioma from radiation necrosis and the results were compared with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSCE)-MRI and clinical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (18 men and 10 women; mean ± SD age, 41.4 ± 15.03 years) with histologically proven glioma (grade IV, 14; grade III, 7; grade II, 7) who were planned for postsurgical standard radio/chemo therapy were recruited prospectively...
March 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229861/appetite-suppressive-role-of-medial-septal-glutamatergic-neurons
#18
Patrick Sweeney, Changhong Li, Yunlei Yang
Feeding behavior is controlled by diverse neurons and neural circuits primarily concentrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain in mammals. In this study, by using chemo/optogenetic techniques along with feeding assays, we investigate how neurons within the medial septal complex (MSc), a brain area implicated in emotion and cognition, contribute to food intake. We find that chemo/optogenetic activation of MSc glutamatergic neurons profoundly reduces food intake during both light and dark periods of the rodent light cycle...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212735/decision-making-capacity-for-chemotherapy-and-associated-factors-in-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-lung-cancer
#19
Asao Ogawa, Kyoko Kondo, Hiroyuki Takei, Daisuke Fujisawa, Yuichiro Ohe, Tatsuo Akechi
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess decision-making capacity in patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer, clinical factors associated with impaired capacity, and physicians' perceptions of patients' decision-making capacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 122 patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer. One hundred fourteen completed the assessment. All patients were receiving a combination of treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or targeted therapy)...
December 6, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197652/crustacean-olfactory-systems-a-comparative-review-and-a-crustacean-perspective-on-olfaction-in-insects
#20
REVIEW
S Harzsch, J Krieger
Malacostracan crustaceans display a large diversity of sizes, morphs and life styles. However, only a few representatives of decapod taxa have served as models for analyzing crustacean olfaction, such as crayfish and spiny lobsters. Crustaceans bear multiple parallel chemosensory pathways represented by different populations of unimodal chemosensory and bimodal chemo- and mechanosensory sensilla on the mouthparts, the walking limbs and primarily on their two pairs of antennae. Here, we focus on the olfactory pathway associated with the unimodal chemosensory sensilla on the first antennal pair, the aesthetascs...
February 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
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