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Chemo brain

Mikkel Staberg, Signe Regner Michaelsen, Rikke Darling Rasmussen, Mette Villingshøj, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen, Petra Hamerlik
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) ranks among the deadliest solid cancers worldwide and its prognosis has remained dismal, despite the use of aggressive chemo-irradiation treatment regimens. Limited drug delivery into the brain parenchyma and frequent resistance to currently available therapies are problems that call for a prompt development of novel therapeutic strategies. While only displaying modest efficacies as mono-therapy in pre-clinical settings, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown promising sensitizing effects to a number of cytotoxic agents...
October 20, 2016: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Jing Chen, Sudhirkumar Shinde, Prabal Subedi, Celina Wierzbicka, Börje Sellergren, Stefan Helling, Katrin Marcus
Selective enrichment techniques are essential for mapping of protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Phosphorylation is one of the PTMs which continues to be associated with significant analytical challenges. Particularly problematic are tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides (pY-peptides) resulting from tryptic digestion which commonly escape current chemo- or immuno- affinity enrichments and hence remain undetected. We here report on significant improvements in this regard using pY selective molecularly imprinted polymers (pY-MIPs)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Uday B Maachani, Uma Shankavaram, Tamalee Kramp, Philip J Tofilon, Kevin Camphausen, Anita T Tandle
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to be the most frequently diagnosed and lethal primary brain tumor. Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy remains the standard of care following surgical resection. In this study, using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs), we assessed the biological effects of radiation on signaling pathways to identify potential radiosensitizing molecular targets. We identified subsets of proteins with clearly concordant/discordant behavior between irradiated and non-irradiated GBM cells in vitro and in vivo...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Zhongyan Hua, Xiao Gu, Yudi Dong, Fei Tan, Zhihui Liu, Carol J Thiele, Zhijie Li
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor TrkB have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in neuroblastoma (NB) patients. Our previous studies indicated that BDNF activation of TrkB induces chemo-resistance through activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of BDNF/TrkB on metastasis in NB. A tetracycline-regulated TrkB-expressing NB cell line (TB3) was used. Scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber migration, and invasion assays were performed to study the migration and invasion of TB3 cells...
October 17, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Sheldon Greer, Tieran Han, Cristina Dieguez, Nicola McLean, Rafael Saer, Isildinha Reis, Joe Levi, Victor E Marquez
Enzymatic activity from tumor and adjacent normal tissue of 200 patients involving deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), uridine/cytidine kinase (U/CK), cytidine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCMPD) was quantified. . Patients with brain (17), colon (24), and breast (30) tumors, 53, 67, and 73%, respectively, had an elevated T/N value (Specific Activity of tumor/ Specific Activity of normal tissue) involving dCK and dCMPD suggesting chemo therapy with 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (5-FdC) alone or in combination with thymidine plus deoxytetrahydrouridine, or with the radiosensitizer, 5-chlorodeoxycytidine (5-CldC) plus tetrahydrouridine (H4U)...
October 13, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Harrison Liu, Steven Chen, Kevin Huang, Jeffrey Kim, Han Mo, Raffael Iovine, Julie Gendre, Pauline Pascal, Qiang Li, Yaping Sun, Zhiqiang Dong, Michelle Arkin, Su Guo, Bo Huang
Drug discovery in whole-organisms such as zebrafish is a promising approach for identifying biologically-relevant lead compounds. However, high content imaging of zebrafish at cellular resolution is challenging due to the difficulty in orienting larvae en masse such that the cell type of interest is in clear view. We report the development of the multi-pose imaging method, which uses 96-well round bottom plates combined with a standard liquid handler to repose the larvae within each well multiple times, such that an image in a specific orientation can be acquired...
2016: PloS One
Semjon Seemann, Amelie Lupp
BACKGROUND: Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a multifunctional G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by its natural ligand, C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12). As a likely member of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensing complex, CXCR4 is involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine production and exhibits substantial chemo-attractive activity for various inflammatory cells. Here, we aimed to characterize the effects of CXCR4 blockade in systemic inflammation and to evaluate its impact on organ function...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Katharina Koch, Rudolf Hartmann, Friederike Schröter, Abigail Kora Suwala, Donata Maciaczyk, Andrea Caroline Krüger, Dieter Willbold, Ulf Dietrich Kahlert, Jaroslaw Maciaczyk
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor with very limited therapeutic options. Standard multimodal treatments, including surgical resection and combined radio-chemotherapy do not target the most aggressive subtype of glioma cells, brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). BTSCs are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and relapse. Furthermore, they have been associated with the expression of mesenchymal features as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) thereby inducing tumor dissemination and chemo resistance...
September 29, 2016: Oncotarget
Koji Yoshimoto, Akiko Kada, Daisuke Kuga, Ryusuke Hatae, Hideki Murata, Yojiro Akagi, Kunihiro Nishimura, Ryota Kurogi, Ataru Nishimura, Nobuhiro Hata, Masahiro Mizoguchi, Tetsuro Sayama, Koji Iihara
We conducted this study to clarify the current trends and healthcare resource usage in the treatment of inpatients with primary malignant brain tumors. The Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) data of all inpatients treated between 2013 and 2014 in the 370 core and branch hospitals enrolled in the Japanese Neurosurgical Society training program were collected. DPC is a discharge abstract and administrative claims database of inpatients. We assessed 6,142 primary, malignant brain tumor patients. Patient information, diagnostic information, treatment procedure, and healthcare resource usage were analyzed...
September 27, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Arlet M Acanda de la Rocha, Hernando López-Bertoni, Elizabeth Guruceaga, Marisol González-Huarriz, Naiara Martínez-Vélez, Enric Xipell, Juan Fueyo, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Marta M Alonso
INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with poor survival despite multimodal treatments. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are cells functionally defined by their self-renewal potential and the ability to reconstitute the original tumor upon orthotopic implantation. They have been postulated to be the culprit of glioma chemo- and radio-resistance ultimately leading to relapse. Understanding the molecular circuits governing the GSC compartment is essential...
2016: PloS One
Carine Jaafar, Saad Omais, Sawsan Al Lafi, Nadim El Jamal, Mohammad Noubani, Larissa Skaf, Noël Ghanem
The Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, was shown to regulate distinct aspects of neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain besides its primary role in cell cycle control. It is still unknown, however, whether Rb is required for tissue morphogenesis and the establishment of synaptic connections between adjacent tissues during development. We have investigated here the role of Rb during development of the olfactory system (OS), which heavily relies on reciprocal interactions between the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Nancy Berte, Stefanie Lokan, Marcus Eich, Ella Kim, Bernd Kaina
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a malignant brain tumor with a dismal prognosis, shows a high level of chemo- and radioresistance and, therefore, attempts to sensitize glioma cells are highly desired. Here, we addressed the question of whether artesunate (ART), a drug currently used in the treatment of malaria, enhances the killing response of glioblastoma cells to temozolomide (TMZ), which is the first-line therapeutic for GBM. We measured apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and senescence, and the extent of DNA damage in glioblastoma cells...
September 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Xianchan Li, Johan Dunevall, Andrew G Ewing
Electrochemical cytometry adds a new dimension to our ability to study the chemistry and chemical storage of transmitter molecules stored in nanometer vesicles. The approach involves the adsorption and subsequent rupture of vesicles on an electrode surface during which the electroactive contents are quantitatively oxidized (or reduced). The measured current allows us to count the number of molecules in the vesicles using Faraday's law and to correlate this to the amount of molecules released when single exocytosis events take place at communicating cells...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
N V Lobanova, L V Shishkina, M V Ryzhova, G L Kobyakov, R V Sycheva, S A Burov, A V Luk'yanov, Zh R Omarova
UNLABELLED: Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant glial tumor of the brain in adult patients. AIM: to define the prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1) mutation and methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status in patients with glioblastoma (GB) and to analyze the impact of clinical data (gender, age, and tumor site), histological variants of the tumor structure, and time to development of recurrences on the course of the disease...
July 2016: Arkhiv Patologii
Tobias Weiss, Michael Weller, Patrick Roth
INTRODUCTION: The mainstays of brain tumor therapy are surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy is explored as an additional treatment modality. However, emerging evidence indicates that also radio- and chemotherapy have immunological effects in addition to their cytotoxic and cytostatic activities. AREA COVERED: We summarize the literature on radio- and chemotherapy-mediated immunological effects in primary and secondary brain tumors and outline open questions within the field...
October 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Yang Yang, Dan-Qian Liu, Wei Huang, Juan Deng, Yangang Sun, Yi Zuo, Mu-Ming Poo
Neural circuits underlying auditory fear conditioning have been extensively studied. Here we identified a previously unexplored pathway from the lateral amygdala (LA) to the auditory cortex (ACx) and found that selective silencing of this pathway using chemo- and optogenetic approaches impaired fear memory retrieval. Dual-color in vivo two-photon imaging of mouse ACx showed pathway-specific increases in the formation of LA axon boutons, dendritic spines of ACx layer 5 pyramidal cells, and putative LA-ACx synaptic pairs after auditory fear conditioning...
October 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Yang Chen, Zhen Gao, Bingcheng Wang, Rong Xu
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumors. It has poor prognosis even with optimal radio- and chemo-therapies. Since GBM is highly heterogeneous, drugs that target on specific molecular profiles of individual tumors may achieve maximized efficacy. Currently, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects have identified hundreds of GBM-associated genes. We develop a drug repositioning approach combining disease genomics and mouse phenotype data towards predicting targeted therapies for GBM...
2016: BMC Genomics
L Vasiľková
BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer is one of the most common and most treatable cancers in men aged 15-49 years. The high survival rates mean that it is essential to maintain quality of life and minimize adverse effects associated with treatment. Both malignant tumors and the modalities used to treatment them can have adverse effects from both a psychosocial and a neurocognitive function perspective. Recently, attention has focused on the negative impact of the disease and its treatment on the brain and on cognitive function, which can result in a form of neurocognitive dysfunction known as "chemo brain" or "chemo fog"...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Germain Sotoing Taiwe, Bernard Dabole, Thierry Bang Tchoya, Joseph Renaud Menanga, Paul Désiré Djomeni Dzeufiet, Michel De Waard
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing number and variety of antiepileptic drugs, nearly 30 % of epileptic patients who receive appropriate medical attention have persisting seizures. Anticonvulsant activity has been demonstrated for different iridoid glycoside-rich plant extracts. This study was designed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of iridoid glycosides purified from Feretia apodanthera and to explore the possible mechanisms involved in antiepileptic activity. METHODS: The anticonvulsant effects of iridoid glycosides extracts were investigated against 2...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Sune Munthe, Mia D Sørensen, Mads Thomassen, Mark Burton, Torben A Kruse, Justin D Lathia, Frantz Rom Poulsen, Bjarne Winther Kristensen
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor with an overall survival of only 14.6 months. Although these tumors are treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, recurrence is inevitable. A critical population of tumor cells in terms of therapy, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), has been identified in gliomas and many other cancers. These tumor cells have a stem cell-like phenotype and are suggested to be responsible for tumor growth, chemo- and radio-resistance as well as recurrence...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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