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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053791/pharmacological-targeting-of-apelin-impairs-glioblastoma-growth
#1
Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Gwennan Andre-Gregoire, Kathryn A Jacobs, Lucas Treps, Sophie Le Gonidec, Heloise M Leclair, Sara Gonzalez-Diest, Quentin Roux, François Guillonneau, Delphine Loussouarn, Lisa Oliver, François M Vallette, Fabienne Foufelle, Philippe Valet, Anthony P Davenport, Robert C Glen, Nicolas Bidere, Julie Gavard
Glioblastoma are highly aggressive brain tumours that are associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Within these tumours exists a subpopulation of highly plastic self-renewing cancer cells that retain the ability to expand ex vivo as tumourspheres, induce tumour growth in mice, and have been implicated in radio- and chemo-resistance. Although their identity and fate are regulated by external cues emanating from endothelial cells, the nature of such signals remains unknown. Here, we used a mass spectrometry proteomic approach to characterize the factors released by brain endothelial cells...
October 3, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030124/targeting-nitric-oxide-and-nmda-receptor-associated-pathways-in-treatment-of-high-grade-glial-tumors-hypotheses-for-nitro-memantine-and-nitrones
#2
REVIEW
Meric A Altinoz, İlhan Elmaci
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer with no curative treatment. Targeting Nitric Oxide (NO) and glutamatergic pathways may help as adjunctive treatments in GBM. NO at low doses promotes tumorigenesis, while at higher levels (above 300 nM) triggers apoptosis. Gliomas actively secrete high amounts of glutamate which activates EGR signaling and mediates degradation of peritumoral tissues via excitotoxic injury. Memantine inhibits NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and induces autophagic death of glioma cells in vitro and blocks glioma growth in vivo...
October 10, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022380/curcumin-or-bisdemethoxycurcumin-for-nose-to-brain-treatment-of-alzheimer-disease-a-bio-chemo-informatics-case-study
#3
Rania M Hathout, Sherweit H El-Ahmady, AbdelKader A Metwally
The current study introduces a new idea of utilising several bio/chemoinformatics tools in comparing two bio-similar natural molecules viz. curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) in order to select a potential nose-to-brain remedy for Alzheimer disease. The comparison comprised several bio/chemo informatics tools. It encompassed all levels starting from loading the drug in a certain carrier; PLGA nanoparticles, to the biopharmaceutical level investigating the interaction with mucin and inhibition of P-gp blood-brain barrier efflux pumps...
October 12, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956223/estimating-progression-free-survival-in-patients-with-glioblastoma-using-routinely-collected-data
#4
Charlotte Kelly, Paulina Majewska, Stefanos Ioannidis, Muhammad Hasan Raza, Matt Williams
Glioblastoma (GBM) represents 80% of all primary malignant brain tumours in adults. Prognosis is poor, and there is a clear correlation between disease progression and deterioration in functional status. In this pilot study we assess whether we can estimate disease progression and progression free survival (PFS) from routinely collected electronic healthcare data. We identified fifty patients with glioblastoma who had chemo-radiotherapy. For each patient we manually collected a reference data set recording demographics, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, follow-up and death...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947963/flexible-ligated-ruthenium-ii-self-assemblies-sensitizes-glioma-tumor-initiating-cells-in-vitro
#5
Palani Elumalai, Neha Kaushik, Dong Hwan Kim, Hyunuk Kim, Su Jae Lee, Eun Ha Choi, Ki-Whan Chi, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik
The tumorigenic potentials of residual cancer stem-like cells within tumors represent limitations of current cancer therapies. Here, the authors describe the effects of synthesized flexible, ligated, supramolecular self-assembled chair type tetranuclear ruthenium (II) metallacycles (2-5) on glioblastoma and glioma stem like cells. These self-assemblies were observed to be selectively toxic to glioma cells and CD133-positive glioma stem like cells population. Of the self-assembled compounds tested, metallacycle 4 more efficiently induced glioma stem like cells death within a brain cancer cell population and simultaneously inhibited the formation of free-floating gliospheres by reducing the sphere size...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943249/effects-of-crenolanib-a-nonselective-inhibitor-of-pdgfr-in-a-mouse-model-of-transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion
#6
Jianping Wang, Xiaojie Fu, Di Zhang, Lie Yu, Zhengfang Lu, Yufeng Gao, Xianliang Liu, Jiang Man, Sijia Li, Nan Li, Menghan Wang, Xi Liu, Xuemei Chen, Weidong Zang, Qingwu Yang, Jian Wang
Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) plays a vital role in neurologic recovery after stroke. However, only a small fraction of newly generated neuroblasts from the SVZ will survive long-term. Successful migration and survival of neuroblasts requires angiogenesis, lesion-derived chemo-attractants, and appropriate local microenvironments, which are partly regulated by the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of PDGFR inhibition in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
November 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928160/quantitative-and-mechanistic-understanding-of-azd1775-penetration-across-human-blood-brain-barrier-in-glioblastoma-patients-using-an-ivive-pbpk-modeling-approach
#7
Jing Li, Jianmei Wu, Xun Bao, Norissa Honea, Youming Xie, Seongho Kim, Alex Sparreboom, Nader Sanai
PURPOSE: AZD1775, a first-in-class, small molecule inhibitor of the Wee1 tyrosine kinase, is under evaluation as a potential chemo- and radio-sensitizer for treating glioblastoma. This study was to prospectively, quantitatively, and mechanistically investigate the penetration of AZD1775 across human blood-brain barrier (BBB). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: AZD1775 plasma and tumor pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 20 glioblastoma patients. The drug metabolism, transcellular passive permeability, and interactions with efflux and uptake transporters were determined using human derived in vitro systems...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867318/case-report-of-regression-of-recurrent-high-grade-glioma-with-temozolomide-dexamethasone-and-levetiracetam-and-review-of-literature
#8
Ajaya Kumar A, Abu Abraham Koshy
Treatment options for recurrent glioma of brain include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery and palliation. Temozolomide appears to be effective in patients with recurrent high grade gliomas. A middle aged lady had high grade glioma of corpus callosum. Tumour was excised and chemo radiation was given. It was grade 3 anaplastic oligodendroglioma. After 5 years she had significant recurrence. They were not willing for repeat surgery or radiation. She was given temozolomide and dexamethasone intermittently and levetiracetam was continued...
August 31, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859167/up-to-52-administrations-of-macrocyclic-ionic-mr-contrast-agent-are-not-associated-with-intracranial-gadolinium-deposition-multifactorial-analysis-in-385-patients
#9
Ji Ye Lee, Ji Eun Park, Ho Sung Kim, Seon-Ok Kim, Joo Young Oh, Woo Hyun Shim, Seung Chai Jung, Choong Gon Choi, Sang Joon Kim
PURPOSE: To determine whether multiple repeated administrations of gadolinium-based macrocyclic ionic MR contrast agent (MICA) are associated with intracranial gadolinium deposition and identify the predisposing factors for deposition in various clinical situations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, 385 consecutive patients who underwent MICA-enhanced MR imaging were enrolled. The dentate nucleus-to-pons (DN/P) and globus pallidus-to-thalamus (GP/Th) signal intensity (SI) ratios on unenhanced T1-weighted images were recorded by 2 independent readers and averaged...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830791/injectable-nanomedicine-hydrogel-for-local-chemotherapy-of-glioblastoma-after-surgical-resection
#10
C Bastiancich, J Bianco, K Vanvarenberg, B Ucakar, N Joudiou, B Gallez, G Bastiat, F Lagarce, V Préat, F Danhier
Glioblastoma (GBM) treatment includes, when possible, surgical resection of the tumor followed by radiotherapy and oral chemotherapy with temozolomide, however recurrences quickly develop around the resection cavity borders leading to patient death. We hypothesize that the local delivery of Lauroyl-gemcitabine lipid nanocapsule based hydrogel (GemC12-LNC) in the tumor resection cavity of GBM is a promising strategy as it would allow to bypass the blood brain barrier, thus reaching high local concentrations of the drug...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828501/access-to-the-odor-world-olfactory-receptors-and-their-role-for-signal-transduction-in-insects
#11
REVIEW
Joerg Fleischer, Pablo Pregitzer, Heinz Breer, Jürgen Krieger
The sense of smell enables insects to recognize and discriminate a broad range of volatile chemicals in their environment originating from prey, host plants and conspecifics. These olfactory cues are received by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that relay information about food sources, oviposition sites and mates to the brain and thus elicit distinct odor-evoked behaviors. Research over the last decades has greatly advanced our knowledge concerning the molecular basis underlying the reception of odorous compounds and the mechanisms of signal transduction in OSNs...
August 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759530/sevoflurane-attenuates-systemic-inflammation-compared-with-propofol-but-does-not-modulate-neuro-inflammation-a-laboratory-rat-study
#12
Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, Lukas Baumann, Tanja Restin, Philipp Eugster, Melanie Hasler, Christa Booy, Martin Schläpfer
BACKGROUND: Septic encephalopathy is believed to be a result of neuro-inflammation possibly triggered by endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Modulation of the immune system is a property of volatile anaesthetics. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the systemic and cerebral inflammatory response in a LPS-induced sepsis model in rats. We compared two different sedation strategies, intravenous propofol and the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane, with the hypothesis that the latter may attenuate neuro-inflammatory processes...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758896/chemo-brain-or-tumor-brain-that-is-the-question-the-presence-of-extracranial-tumors-profoundly-affects-molecular-processes-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-tumorgraft-mice
#13
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Svitlana Shpyleva, Stepan Melnyk, Igor Pogribny, Amanda Katz, David Sidransky, Olga Kovalchuk, Bryan Kolb
Cancer chemotherapy causes numerous persistent central nervous system complications. This condition is known as chemo brain. Cognitive impairments occur even before treatment, and hence are referred to as cancer associated cognitive changes, or tumor brain. There is much yet to be learned about the mechanisms of both chemo brain and tumor brain. The frequency and timing of chemo brain and tumor brain occurrence and persistence strongly suggest they may be epigenetic in nature and associated with altered gene expression...
July 29, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748803/serial-mri-scan-of-posterior-fossa-tumours-predict-patients-at-risk-of-developing-neurocognitive-impairment
#14
Ramadhan Othman, Kurdistan Gh Abdullah
Background: Brain tumours are the most common solid tumours in children. More than 50% of these tumours develop in the posterior cranial fossa. Long term survivors of posterior fossa tumours (PFT) suffer from neurocognitive and memory issues. We hypothesized that serial MRI scanning of brain would show differences in hippocampal and ACC volume change in PFT patients treated with and without chemo-radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Twelve patients (8 females and 4 males) underwent 76 serial MR imaging examinations before and during treatment for posterior fossa tumours...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746860/integrating-rna-sequencing-into-neuro-oncology-practice
#15
REVIEW
David S Rogawski, Nicholas A Vitanza, Angela C Gauthier, Vijay Ramaswamy, Carl Koschmann
Malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) cause substantial morbidity and mortality, yet efforts to optimize chemo- and radiotherapy have largely failed to improve dismal prognoses. Over the past decade, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged as a powerful tool to comprehensively characterize the transcriptome of CNS tumor cells in one high-throughput step, leading to improved understanding of CNS tumor biology and suggesting new routes for targeted therapies. RNA-seq has been instrumental in improving the diagnostic classification of brain tumors, characterizing oncogenic fusion genes, and shedding light on intratumor heterogeneity...
July 8, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740831/the-impact-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-on-the-properties-of-glioma-stem-like-cells
#16
REVIEW
Alessandra Audia, Siobhan Conroy, Rainer Glass, Krishna P L Bhat
Glioblastoma is the most common and highly malignant primary brain tumor, and patients affected with this disease exhibit a uniformly dismal prognosis. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are a subset of cells within the bulk tumor that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties similar to somatic stem cells. These cells also are at the apex of the cellular hierarchy and cause tumor initiation and expansion after chemo-radiation. These traits make them an attractive target for therapeutic development...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729027/micrornas-as-multifaceted-players-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#17
Neri Mercatelli, Silvia Galardi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and inevitably lethal primary brain tumor, with a median survival rate of only 15 months from diagnosis. The current standard treatment involves maximal surgical resection flanked by radiotherapy and chemotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide. However, even such aggressive treatment is never curative, and recurrent tumors always arise, commonly in more aggressive, chemo- and radio-resistant forms, leading to untreatable and deadly tumors. MicroRNAs, recognized major players in cancer, are deeply involved in GBM, as shown by more than a decade of studies...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727574/flexible-ligated-ruthenium-ii-self-assemblies-sensitizes-glioma-tumor-initiating-cells-in-vitro
#18
Palani Elumalai, Neha Kaushik, Dong Hwan Kim, Hyunuk Kim, Su Jae Lee, Eun Ha Choi, Ki-Whan Chi, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik
The tumorigenic potentials of residual cancer stem-like cells within tumors represent limitations of current cancer therapies. Here, the authors describe the effects of synthesized flexible, ligated, supramolecular self-assembled chair type tetranuclear ruthenium (II) metallacycles (2-5) on glioblastoma and glioma stem like cells. These self-assemblies were observed to be selectively toxic to glioma cells and CD133-positive glioma stem like cells population. Of the self-assembled compounds tested, metallacycle 4 more efficiently induced glioma stem like cells death within a brain cancer cell population and simultaneously inhibited the formation of free-floating gliospheres by reducing the sphere size...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693276/examination-of-the-predictive-factors-of-the-response-to-whole-brain-radiotherapy-for-brain-metastases-from-lung-cancer-using-mri
#19
Shuri Aoki, Tomonori Kanda, Noriyuki Matsutani, Nobuhiko Seki, Masafumi Kawamura, Shigeru Furui, Hideomi Yamashita
Previous studies have been conducted on the prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with brain metastases (BMs) following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). However, there have been a small number of studies regarding the prognostic factors for the response of tumor to WBRT. The aim of the present study was to identify the predictive factors for the response to WBRT from the point of view of reduction of tumor using magnetic resonance imaging. A retrospective analysis of 62 patients with BMs from primary lung cancer treated with WBRT was undertaken...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677106/expression-and-prognostic-value-of-jam-a-in-gliomas
#20
Ann Mari Rosager, Mia D Sørensen, Rikke H Dahlrot, Henning B Boldt, Steinbjørn Hansen, Justin D Lathia, Bjarne W Kristensen
Gliomas are among the most lethal cancers, being highly resistant to both chemo- and radiotherapy. The expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) was recently identified on the surface of stem cell-like brain tumor-initiating cells and suggested to function as a unique glioblastoma niche adhesion factor influencing the tumorigenic potential of brain tumor-initiating cells. We have recently identified high JAM-A expression to be associated with poor outcome in glioblastomas, and our aim was to further investigate the expression of JAM-A in gliomas focusing especially on the prognostic value in WHO grade II and III gliomas...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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