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Risk aversion

Katherine J Zappia, Yihe Guo, Dawn Retherford, Nancy J Wandersee, Cheryl L Stucky, Cheryl A Hillery
Sickle cell trait (SCT) has classically been categorized as a benign condition except in rare cases or upon exposure to severe physical conditions. However, several lines of evidence indicate that individuals with SCT are not always asymptomatic, and additional physiological changes and risks may remain unexplored. Here, we utilized mice harbouring one copy of normal human β globin and one copy of sickle human β globin as a model of SCT to assess haematological, histopathological and somatosensory outcomes...
October 12, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
Dong-Jie Xie, Simon S Y Lui, Fu-Lei Geng, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Ying-Min Zou, Ying Li, Hera K H Yeung, Eric F C Cheung, Erin A Heerey, Raymond C K Chan
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological origins of negative syndrome of schizophrenia remain elusive. Evidence from behavioural studies, which utilised emotion-inducing pictures to elicit motivated behaviour generally reported that that schizophrenia patients experienced similar affective experience as healthy individuals but failed to translate emotional salience to motivated behaviour, a phenomenon called emotion-behaviour decoupling. However, a few studies have examined emotion-behaviour decoupling in non-psychotic high-risk populations, who are relatively unaffected by medication effects...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Shomesh E Chaudhuri, Martin P Ho, Telba Irony, Murray Sheldon, Andrew W Lo
We apply Bayesian decision analysis to incorporate patient preferences in the regulatory approval process for new therapies. By assigning weights to type I and type II errors based on patient preferences, the significance level (α) and power (1-β) of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) for a new therapy can be optimized to maximize the value to current and future patients and, consequently, to public health. We find that, for weight-loss devices, potentially effective, low-risk treatments have optimal αs larger than the traditional one-sided significance level of 5%, whereas potentially less effective and riskier treatments have optimal αs below 5%...
October 4, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
Jessica Watson, Isabel de Salis, Jonathan Banks, Chris Salisbury
Background: Rates of blood testing are rising with significant geographical variability. Most research into diagnostic testing focuses on the role of tests in diagnostic decision-making. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the non-medical motives for blood testing by considering what tests do for doctors, through qualitative interviews with general practitioners (GPs). Methods: We undertook 23 in-depth semi-structured interviews with UK GPs...
June 13, 2017: Family Practice
Maria Teresa Medeiros Garcia, Pedro Deslandes Correia Vasconcelos Marques
This paper examines the household retirement saving decisions in what concerns to the ownership of Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) in eight European Union (EU) countries. IRAs are more and more seen as an alternative to public pension benefits, which are decreasing. Therefore, understanding the enrolment in IRAs, both the socio-economic factors and over time, is most important. Detailed empirical analysis of the factors that might influence the ownership of IRAs is presented based on Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), using data from Wave 2 (2006-2007) and Wave 4 (2010-2011)...
2017: Int Rev Appl Econ
Mark T Berg, Ronald L Simons, Ashley Barr, Steven R H Beach, Robert A Philibert
RATIONALE: Past research has established an association between childhood and adolescent stressors and elevated inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in adulthood, but questions remain about the theoretical model most suited to explain this association. OBJECTIVE: This study examined alternative hypotheses from four theoretical models regarding the link between exposure to stressful early life circumstances and cumulative biological risk, or allostatic load, in adulthood...
September 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Margaret Thibodeau, Gary J Pickering
1. Abstract: Alcohol consumption is widespread, and high levels of use are associated with increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Thus, understanding the factors that influence alcohol intake is important for disease prevention and management. Additionally, elucidating the factors that associate with alcohol preference and intake in non-clinical populations allows for product development and optimisation opportunities for the alcoholic beverage industry. The literature on how taste (orosensation) influences alcohol behavior is critically appraised in this review...
October 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Qiqi Cheng, Guibing He
In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Stavroula Raptis, Jia Ning Chen, Florencia Saposnik, Roman Pelyavskyy, Andrew Liuni, Gustavo Saposnik
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation is the therapeutic paradigm for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unknown how physicians make treatment decisions in primary stroke prevention for patients with AF. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between family physicians' risk preferences (aversion risk and ambiguity) and therapeutic recommendations (anticoagulation) in the management of AF for primary stroke prevention by applying concepts from behavioral economics...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
N Ismail, N de Viggiani
Background: The Healthy Prisons Agenda seeks to reduce prisoners' health risks, balance prisoners' rights with a security regime, ensure equivalent prison health service provisions to community health services, and facilitate the whole-prison approach. There is an established assumption that legislation will ensure better implementation of health promotion programmes. This study aimed to examine whether a legislative framework, via a direct regulation, could lead to enhanced implementation of the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Public Health
Candace M Raio, Catherine A Hartley, Temidayo A Orederu, Jian Li, Elizabeth A Phelps
In a dynamic environment, sources of threat or safety can unexpectedly change, requiring the flexible updating of stimulus-outcome associations that promote adaptive behavior. However, aversive contexts in which we are required to update predictions of threat are often marked by stress. Acute stress is thought to reduce behavioral flexibility, yet its influence on the modulation of aversive value has not been well characterized. Given that stress exposure is a prominent risk factor for anxiety and trauma-related disorders marked by persistent, inflexible responses to threat, here we examined how acute stress affects the flexible updating of threat responses...
October 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J Waider, S Popp, M D Lange, R Kern, J F Kolter, J Kobler, N C Donner, K R Lowe, J H Malzbender, C J Brazell, M R Arnold, B Aboagye, A Schmitt-Böhrer, C A Lowry, H C Pape, K P Lesch
Multiple lines of evidence implicate brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of stressor-related and anxiety disorders. Here we investigate the influence of constitutively deficient 5-HT synthesis on stressor-related anxiety-like behaviors using Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) mutant mice. Functional assessment of c-Fos after associated foot shock, electrophysiological recordings of GABAergic synaptic transmission, differential expression of the Slc6a4 gene in serotonergic neurons were combined with locomotor and anxiety-like measurements in different contextual settings...
October 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
T Winton-Brown, A Schmidt, J P Roiser, O D Howes, A Egerton, P Fusar-Poli, N Bunzeck, A A Grace, E Duzel, S Kapur, P McGuire
Animal models of psychosis propose that abnormal hippocampal activity drives increased subcortical dopamine function, which is thought to contribute to aberrant salience processing and psychotic symptoms. These effects appear to be mediated through connections between the hippocampus, ventral striatum/pallidum and the midbrain. The aim of the present study was to examine the activity and connectivity in this pathway in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network during reward, novelty and aversion processing between 29 UHR subjects and 32 healthy controls...
October 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
K -Alexander Engelhardt, Rainer K W Schwarting, Markus Wöhr
RATIONALE: Fifty-kilohertz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in rats are believed to express inter-individual differences in trait-like positive affective phenotypes. Emission of 50-kHz USV can be induced by amphetamine (AMPH) to model mania-like positive affect, raising the possibility that predispositions for high 50-kHz USV production confer susceptibility to mania-like states. Such 50-kHz USV presumably express the sender's motivation for social contact and elicit social approach behavior in receivers...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
V Rai
Depression is one of the mental disorders with a state of low mood and aversion to activities that exerts a negative effect on a person's thoughts and behavior. Genetic association studies on MTHFR C677T polymorphism and depression have been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, but results are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and depression by literature review and meta-analysis. Four electronic databases, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science direct and Springer Link were searched for case control articles focusing on MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the risk of depression...
July 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Colleen Jay, Jesse D Schold
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Risks of regulatory scrutiny has generated widespread concern about increasingly risk averse transplant center behaviors regarding both donor and candidate acceptance patterns. To address potential unintended consequences threatening access to care, we discuss recent changes in regulatory metrics and potential improvements in quality oversight of transplant centers. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite many recent changes to one-year patient and graft survival regulatory criteria, the capacity to accurately identify true underperforming centers and avoiding false positive flagging remains an area of great concern...
March 2017: Current Transplantation Reports
Xiangyi Zhang, Yi Liu, Xiyou Chen, Xuesong Shang, Yongfang Liu
Despite the fact that people make decisions for others as often as they make decisions for themselves, little is known about how decisions for others are different from those made for the self. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of social distance (i.e., making decisions for oneself, a friend, or a stranger) on risk preferences in both gain and loss situations. We found that people were more risk averse in gain situations when they made decisions for themselves than for a stranger (Studies 1 and 2), but were equally risk averse for themselves and their friends (Study 2)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Katarzyna Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Alicja Raczak, Jerzy Landowski, Mariusz Stanisław Wiglusz, Maria Gałuszko-Węgielnik, Krzysztof Krysta, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
BACKGROUND: The impaired decision-making with high risk-aversive behavior and elevated impulsivity are reported as a trait feature in anxiety disorders including panic disorder (PD). It is hypothesised that PD patients exhibit difficulties in executive functions which can influence patients behavioural strategies e.g. problem solving, decision making, planning, impulse control. The aim of this study was to asses decision making process, risk-taking and impulsivity in PD patients as compared to healthy controls...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
Aneta Pavlenko
This paper reviews recent developments in the study of multilingualism and affect, with the focus on two active areas: affective processing and decision-making. The converging pattern of findings suggests that foreign (FL) and second language (L2) processing do not engage affect to the same extent as processing in the first language (L1). This decreased reliance on affect has been linked to the systematic finding that speakers dealing with moral dilemmas and financial scenarios in a foreign language are less concerned about negative consequences and less averse to risk...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Paolo Spirito, Jessica Rossi, Barry J Maron
At present, surgical septal myectomy is regarded as the "gold standard" treatment for most patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and drug-refractory symptoms. However, the best results are obtained by those surgeons who have extensive experience with this operation at a small number of referral centers. In the mid-1990s, percutaneous alcohol septal ablation was introduced as an alternative to myectomy to reduce LV outflow gradient and heart failure symptoms in patients with obstructive HCM...
July 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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