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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818707/a-biomarker-of-anxiety-in-children-and-adolescents-a-review-focusing-on-the-error-related-negativity-ern-and-anxiety-across-development
#1
REVIEW
Alexandria Meyer
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most common form of psychopathology and often begin early in development. Therefore, there is interest in identifying neural biomarkers that characterize pathways leading to anxiety disorders early in the course of development. A substantial amount of work focuses on the error-related negativity (ERN) as a biomarker of anxiety. While two previous reviews have focused on the relationship of the ERN and anxiety in adults, no previous review has focused on this issue in children and adolescents...
August 8, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815629/impulsive-decision-making-in-young-adult-social-drinkers-and-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study
#2
Nadine Bernhardt, Stephan Nebe, Shakoor Pooseh, Miriam Sebold, Christian Sommer, Julian Birkenstock, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Andreas Heinz, Michael N Smolka
BACKGROUND: Impulsive decision making relates to problematic substance use. Specifically, altered delay discounting has been suggested as a behavioral marker for addiction, while other relevant facets of choice impulsivity such as probability discounting or loss aversion are clearly understudied. METHODS: Two studies were performed collecting behavioral data on choice impulsivity with a value-based decision-making battery providing estimates of delay discounting, probability discounting for gains and losses, and loss aversion...
August 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808551/evolutionary-responses-to-a-changing-climate-implications-for-reindeer-population-viability
#3
Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen
If we want to understand how climate change affects long-lived organisms, we must know how individuals allocate resources between current reproduction and survival. This trade-off is affected by expected environmental conditions, but the extent to which density independent (DI) and density dependent (DD) processes interact in shaping individual life histories is less clear. Female reindeer (or caribou: Rangifer tarandus) are a monotocous large herbivore with a circumpolar distribution. Individuals that experience unpredictable and potentially harsh winters typically adopt risk averse strategies where they allocate more resources to building own body reserves during summer and less to reproduction...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805431/disentangling-the-effects-of-serotonin-on-risk-perception-s-carriers-of-5-httlpr-are-primarily-concerned-with-the-magnitude-of-the-outcomes-not-the-uncertainty
#4
Philip Millroth, Peter Juslin, Elias Eriksson, Thomas Agren
Serotonin signaling is vital for reward processing, and hence, also for decision-making. The serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been connected to decision making, suggesting that short-allele carriers (s) are more risk averse than long-allele homozygotes (ll). However, previous research has not identified if this occurs because s-carriers (i) are more sensitive to the uncertainty of the outcomes or (ii) are more sensitive to the magnitude of the outcomes. This issue was disentangled using a willingness-to-pay task, where the participants evaluated prospects involving certain gains, uncertain gains, and ambiguous gains...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792247/role-of-emotion-and-cognition-on-age-differences-in-the-framing-effect
#5
Bingyan Pu, Huamao Peng, Shiyong Xia
Framing effect studies indicate that individuals are risk averse for decisions framed as gains but risk-seeking for decisions framed as losses. Findings of age-related differences in susceptibility to framing are mixed. In the current study, we examined emotional arousal in two decision tasks (life saving vs. money gambling) to evaluate the effects of emotion on age differences in the framing effect. When cognitive abilities and styles were controlled, there was a framing effect in the younger group in the life-saving task, a high-emotional arousal task, while older adults did not display this classic framing effect pattern...
September 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789788/alexithymia-and-anesthetic-bladder-capacity-in-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome
#6
Chui-De Chiu, Ming-Huei Lee, Wei-Chih Chen, Hoi Lam Ho, Huei-Ching Wu
OBJECTIVE: In contrast to the inconsistent results of organic causes, it has been found that psychological risk factors are reliably related to functional somatic syndromes (FSSs), including interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Compared to patients with acute cystitis, a subgroup of IC/BPS patients with a history of childhood relational trauma reported intensified unregulated affective states (i.e., anxiety and depression) and trauma-related psychopathology (i.e., dissociation)...
September 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777995/beyond-stereotypes-of-adolescent-risk-taking-placing-the-adolescent-brain-in-developmental-context
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk)...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759624/fear-opposition-ambivalence-and-omission-results-from-a-follow-up-study-on-unmet-need-for-family-planning-in-ghana
#8
Sarah Staveteig
INTRODUCTION: Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women's reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747679/gambling-like-behavior-in-pigeons-jackpot-signals-promote-maladaptive-risky-choice
#9
Aaron P Smith, Joshua S Beckmann, Thomas R Zentall
Individuals often face choices that have uncertain outcomes and have important consequences. As a model of this environment, laboratory experiments often offer a choice between an uncertain, large reward that varies in its probability of delivery against a certain but smaller reward as a measure of an individual's risk aversion. An important factor generally lacking from these procedures are gambling related cues that may moderate risk preferences. The present experiment offered pigeons choices between unreliable and certain rewards but, for the Signaled group on winning choices, presented a 'jackpot' signal prior to reward delivery...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747532/negative-phenotypic-and-genetic-correlation-between-natal-dispersal-propensity-and-nest-defence-behaviour-in-a-wild-bird
#10
Pierre Bize, Grégory Daniel, Vincent A Viblanc, Julien G A Martin, Blandine Doligez
Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift (Apus melba), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739638/undue-inducement-or-unfair-exclusion-considering-a-case-study-of-pregnancy-in-an-hiv-prevention-trial
#11
Bridget G Haire, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
In their recent paper' Undue inducement: a case study in CAPRISA 008', Mngadi et al conclude that a participant in an HIV prevention study who deliberately concealed her pregnancy was not'unduly induced' to participate by the offer of an experimental product. This paper argues that while the authors' conclusion is sound, the framing of this case study is consistent with the preoccupation in research ethics with the concept of undue inducement, coupled with a highly risk-averse attitude to pregnancy (regardless of whether those risks may be willingly assumed by pregnant women themselves)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729221/sensitivity-to-cocaine-in-adult-mice-is-due-to-interplay-between-genetic-makeup-early-environment-and-later-experience
#12
Matteo Di Segni, Diego Andolina, Alessandra Coassin, Alessandra Accoto, Alessandra Luchetti, Tiziana Pascucci, Carla Luzi, Anna Rita Lizzi, Francesca R D'Amato, Rossella Ventura
Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience...
July 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725117/the-effect-of-fast-and-slow-decisions-on-risk-taking
#13
Michael Kirchler, David Andersson, Caroline Bonn, Magnus Johannesson, Erik Ø Sørensen, Matthias Stefan, Gustav Tinghög, Daniel Västfjäll
We experimentally compare fast and slow decisions in a series of experiments on financial risk taking in three countries involving over 1700 subjects. To manipulate fast and slow decisions, subjects were randomly allocated to responding within 7 seconds (time pressure) or waiting for at least 7 or 20 seconds (time delay) before responding. To control for different effects of time pressure and time delay on measurement noise, we estimate separate parameters for noise and risk preferences within a random utility framework...
2017: Journal of Risk and Uncertainty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720904/interaction-between-trait-and-housing-condition-produces-differential-decision-making-toward-risk-choice-in-a-rat-gambling-task
#14
Wha Young Kim, Bo Ram Cho, Myung Ji Kwak, Jeong-Hoon Kim
Poor decision-making is a core problem in psychiatric disorders such as pathological gambling and substance abuse. Both trait and environmental factors are considerably important to affect decision-making. However, it has not yet been systematically shown how they interact to affect risk preference in animal models evaluating decision-making. Here, we trained rats, housed in pairs or in isolation, in a touch screen chamber to detect the association between four different light signals on the screen and accompanied reward and punishment outcomes arranged with different schedules...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716327/surgical-management-of-neurogenic-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction
#15
REVIEW
Ronak A Gor, Sean P Elliott
Surgery for patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction (nLUTD) is indicated when medical therapy fails, to correct conditions affecting patient safety, or when surgery can enhance the quality of life better than nonoperative management. Examples include failure of maximal medical therapy, inability to perform or aversion to clean intermittent catheterization, refractory incontinence, and complications from chronic, indwelling catheters. Adults with nLUTD have competing risk factors, including previous operations, obesity, poor nutritional status, complex living arrangements, impaired dexterity/paralysis, and impaired executive and cognitive function...
August 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714048/avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-a-three-dimensional-model-of-neurobiology-with-implications-for-etiology-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer J Thomas, Elizabeth A Lawson, Nadia Micali, Madhusmita Misra, Thilo Deckersbach, Kamryn T Eddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: DSM-5 defined avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) as a failure to meet nutritional needs leading to low weight, nutritional deficiency, dependence on supplemental feedings, and/or psychosocial impairment. We summarize what is known about ARFID and introduce a three-dimensional model to inform research. RECENT FINDINGS: Because ARFID prevalence, risk factors, and maintaining mechanisms are not known, prevailing treatment approaches are based on clinical experience rather than data...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708061/locus-coeruleus-to-basolateral-amygdala-noradrenergic-projections-promote-anxiety-like-behavior
#17
Jordan G McCall, Edward R Siuda, Dionnet L Bhatti, Lamley A Lawson, Zoe A McElligott, Garret D Stuber, Michael R Bruchas
Increased tonic activity of locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) neurons induces anxiety-like and aversive behavior. While some information is known about the afferent circuitry that endogenously drives this neural activity and behavior, the downstream receptors and anatomical projections that mediate these acute risk aversive behavioral states via the LC-NE system remain unresolved. Here we use a combination of retrograde tracing, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, electrophysiology, and in vivo optogenetics with localized pharmacology to identify neural substrates downstream of increased tonic LC-NE activity in mice...
July 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688012/sex-differences-in-risk-based-decision-making-in-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder
#18
Justina Sidlauskaite, Karen González-Madruga, Areti Smaragdi, Roberta Riccelli, Ignazio Puzzo, Molly Batchelor, Harriet Cornwell, Luke Clark, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Graeme Fairchild
Altered decision making processes and excessive risk-seeking behaviours are key features of conduct disorder (CD). Previous studies have provided compelling evidence of abnormally increased preference for risky options, higher sensitivity to rewards, as well as blunted responsiveness to aversive outcomes in adolescents with CD. However, most studies published to date have focused on males only; thus, it is not known whether females with CD show similar alterations in decision making. The current study investigated potential sex differences in decision making and risk-seeking behaviours in adolescents with CD...
July 7, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677848/the-impact-of-regulatory-perspectives-and-practices-on-professional-innovation-in-nursing
#19
Sarah Stahlke Wall
Since at least the 1970s in Canada, there have been calls for health system reforms based on innovative roles and expanded scopes of practice for nurses. Professional regulatory organizations, through legislation, define the standards and parameters of professional nursing practice. Nursing regulators emphasize public protection over the advancement of nursing; regulatory processes and decisions tend to be conservative and risk-averse. This study explored the impact that regulatory processes have on innovation in nursing roles...
July 5, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676252/a-functional-mri-study-on-how-oxytocin-affects-decision-making-in-social-dilemmas-cooperate-as-long-as-it-pays-off-aggress-only-when-you-think-you-can-win
#20
Bruno Lambert, Carolyn H Declerck, Christophe Boone, Paul M Parizel
We investigate if the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), known to moderate social behaviour, influences strategic decision making in social dilemmas by facilitating the integration of incentives and social cues. Participants (N=29) played two economic games with different incentive structures in the fMRI scanner after receiving OT or placebo (following a double blind, within-subject design). Pictures of angry or neutral faces (the social cues) were displayed alongside the game matrices. Consistent with a priori hypotheses based on the modulatory role of OT in mesolimbic dopaminergic brain regions, the results indicate that, compared to placebo, OT significantly increases the activation of the nucleus accumbens during an assurance (coordination) game that rewards mutual cooperation...
July 28, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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