keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Risk aversion

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681793/autonomic-and-brain-morphological-predictors-of-stress-resilience
#1
REVIEW
Luca Carnevali, Julian Koenig, Andrea Sgoifo, Cristina Ottaviani
Stressful life events are an important cause of psychopathology. Humans exposed to aversive or stressful experiences show considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in their responses. However, the majority does not develop stress-related psychiatric disorders. The dynamic processes encompassing positive and functional adaptation in the face of significant adversity have been broadly defined as resilience . Traditionally, the assessment of resilience has been confined to self-report measures, both within the general community and putative high-risk populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679820/joy-guilt-and-disappointment-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-of-the-experiences-of-women-transferred-from-midwifery-led-to-consultant-led-care
#2
Patricia Larkin
BACKGROUND: Irish maternity services are predominantly medicalised and consultant led, therefore women who choose midwifery led care (MLC) do so in the context of limited birth choices. Transfers to consultant led unit (CLU) for consultant led care (CLC) can be unpredictable and can affect women's birth experiences. This study provides an in-depth exploration of women's experiences of transfer fromMLC to CLC during late pregnancy or labour. METHODS: Transfer experiences are explored through qualitative explorative in-depth interviews using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)...
April 11, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678188/doing-battle-with-the-monster-how-high-risk-heterosexuals-experience-and-successfully-manage-hiv-stigma-as-a-barrier-to-hiv-testing
#3
Marya Gwadz, Noelle R Leonard, Sylvie Honig, Robert Freeman, Alexandra Kutnick, Amanda S Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Annual HIV testing is recommended for populations at-risk for HIV in the United States, including heterosexuals geographically connected to urban high-risk areas (HRA) with elevated rates of HIV prevalence and poverty, who are primarily African American/Black or Hispanic. Yet this subpopulation of "individuals residing in HRA" (IR-HRA) evidence low rates of regular HIV testing. HIV stigma is a recognized primary barrier to testing, in part due to its interaction with other stigmatized social identities...
April 20, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675888/electronic-health-record-reviews-to-measure-diagnostic-uncertainty-in-primary-care
#4
Viraj Bhise, Suja S Rajan, Dean F Sittig, Viralkumar Vaghani, Robert O Morgan, Arushi Khanna, Hardeep Singh
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic uncertainty is common in primary care. Because it is challenging to measure, there is inadequate scientific understanding of diagnostic decision-making during uncertainty. Our objective was to understand how diagnostic uncertainty was documented in the electronic health record (EHR) and explore a strategy to retrospectively identify it using clinician documentation. METHODS: We reviewed the literature to identify documentation language that could identify both direct expression and indirect inference of diagnostic uncertainty and designed an instrument to facilitate record review...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673391/parenting-resilient-kids-park-an-online-parenting-program-to-prevent-anxiety-and-depression-problems-in-primary-school-aged-children-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Luwishennadige Madhawee N Fernando, Wan Hua Sim, Anthony F Jorm, Ron Rapee, Katherine A Lawrence, Marie B H Yap
BACKGROUND: Preventive efforts targeting childhood anxiety and depression symptoms have the potential to alter the developmental trajectory of depression and anxiety disorders across the lifespan. Substantial previous research suggests that modifiable parenting factors such as parental aversiveness and over-involvement are associated with childhood anxiety, depressive and internalising symptoms, indicating that parents can play a critical role in prevention. The Parenting Resilient Kids study is a new evidence-based online parenting program designed to prevent anxiety and depression problems in primary school-aged children by reducing family-based risk factors and enhancing protective factors through increased positive interactions between parent and child...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668878/population-structure-movement-patterns-and-frequency-of-multiple-matings-in-tenodera-sinensis-mantodea-mantidae
#6
Tyler Christensen, William D Brown
Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism show that the frequency of male mating opportunities has significant impact on male choice and male risk aversion. In this study, we examined ecological components that should affect opportunities for multiple mating in wild populations of the Chinese mantid (Tenodera sinensis Saussure). While conducting mark-recapture studies of two field populations over the course of two seasons, along with Global Positioning System data on locations of individuals, we collected data on population densities, movement patterns, and individual ranges to estimate the overlap of adult males and female mantids...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662460/sensation-seeking-and-adaptation-in-parabonauts
#7
Aurélie Collado, Jean-Philippe Hainaut, Vincent Monfort, Benoît Bolmont
Evidence from extreme environments suggests that there are relationships between difficulties of adaptation and psychological factors such as personality. In the framework of microgravity research on humans, the aim of this exploratory study was to investigate inter-individual differences of parabonauts on the basis of quality of adaptation to the physical demands of parabolic flights. The personality characteristics of two groups of parabonauts with a different quality of adaptation (an Adaptive group, N = 7, and a Maladaptive group, N = 15) were assessed using the Sensation Seeking Scale, Brief COPE, and MSSQ-Short...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652182/risk-assessment-practice-within-primary-mental-health-care-a-logics-perspective
#8
Adam Flintoff, Ewen Speed, Susan McPherson
From the 1980s onwards, discourses of risk have continued to grow, almost in ubiquity. Ideas and practices of risk and risk aversion have extended to UK mental health care where services are expected to assess and manage risks, and high-quality clinical assessment has been revised to incorporate risk assessment. This article problematises practices of risk assessment in mental health provision, focussing on the base-rate problem. It presents an analysis of audio recordings of risk assessments completed within a primary care mental health service...
April 1, 2018: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650382/therapeutic-decisions-in-atrial-fibrillation-for-stroke-prevention-the-role-of-aversion-to-ambiguity-and-physicians-risk-preferences
#9
Luciano A Sposato, Devin Stirling, Gustavo Saposnik
BACKGROUND: Knowledge-to-action gaps influence therapeutic decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF). Physician-related factors are common, but the least studied. We evaluated the prevalence and determinants of physician-related factors and knowledge-to-action gaps among physicians involved in the management of AF patients. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, participants from 6 South American countries recruited during an educational program answered questions regarding 16 case scenarios of patients with AF and completed experiments assessing 3 outcome measures: therapeutic inertia, herding, and errors in risk stratification knowledge translated into action (ERSKTA) based on commonly used stratification tools (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years (double), Diabetes mellitus, previous Stroke/transient ischemic attack/thromboembolism (double), Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, and female gender (score of 0 for males and 1 for female) (CHA2 DS2 -VASc) and Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, and previous Stroke/transient ischemic attack (double) (CHADS2 ))...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650004/comparing-gps-risk-attitudes-for-their-own-health-and-for-their-patients-a-troubling-discrepancy
#10
Antoine Nebout, Marie Cavillon, Bruno Ventelou
BACKGROUND: In this paper, we report the results of risk attitudes elicitation of a French general practitioners national representative sample (N=1568). METHODS: Willingness to take risks in four different domains (daily life, financial matters, own health and patient health) was collected through a large-scale telephone interview of GPs using self-reported 11-point Likert scale questions. RESULTS: We uncover some specificities of the GPs population regarding their attitudes towards risk...
April 12, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648962/communication-of-scientific-uncertainty-about-a-novel-pandemic-health-threat-ambiguity-aversion-and-its-mechanisms
#11
Paul K J Han, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Christine W Duarte, Megan Knaus, Adam Black, Aaron M Scherer, Angela Fagerlin
Communicating scientific uncertainty about public health threats is ethically desirable but challenging due to its tendency to promote avoidance of choice options with unknown probabilities-a phenomenon known as "ambiguity aversion." This study examined this phenomenon's potential magnitude, its responses to different communication strategies, and its mechanisms. In a factorial experiment, 2701 adult laypersons in Spain read one of three versions of a hypothetical newspaper article describing a pandemic vaccine-preventable disease (VPD), but varying in scientific uncertainty about VPD risk and vaccine effectiveness: No-Uncertainty, Uncertainty, and Normalized-Uncertainty (emphasizing its expected nature)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629816/factor-analysis-and-validation-of-a-self-report-measure-of-impaired-fear-inhibition
#12
Tom J Barry, Helen M Baker, Christine H M Chiu, Barbara C Y Lo, Jennifer Y F Lau
Difficulties with inhibiting fear have been associated with the emergence of anxiety problems and poor response to cognitive-behavioural treatment. Fear inhibition problems measured using experimental paradigms involving aversive stimuli may be inappropriate for vulnerable samples and may not capture fear inhibition problems evident in everyday life. We present the Fear Inhibition Questionnaire (FIQ), a self-report measure of fear inhibition abilities. We assess the FIQ's factor structure across two cultures and how well it correlates with fear inhibition indices derived experimentally...
April 9, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626169/on-the-flexibility-of-basic-risk-attitudes-in-monkeys
#13
Shiva Farashahi, Habiba Azab, Benjamin Hayden, Alireza Soltani
Monkeys and other animals appear to share with humans two risk attitudes predicted by prospect theory: an inverse-S-shaped probability weighting function and a steeper utility curve for losses than for gains. These findings suggest that such preferences are stable traits with common neural substrates. We hypothesized instead that animals tailor their preferences to subtle changes in task contexts, making risk attitudes flexible. Previous studies used a limited number of outcomes, trial types, and contexts. To gain a broader perspective, we examined two large datasets of male macaques' risky choices: one from a task with real (juice) gains and another from a token task with gains and losses...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621760/age-loss-minimization-and-the-role-of-probability-for-decision-making
#14
Ryan Best, Alexandra M Freund
BACKGROUND: Older adults are stereotypically considered to be risk averse compared to younger age groups, although meta-analyses on age and the influence of gain/loss framing on risky choices have not found empirical evidence for age differences in risk-taking. OBJECTIVE: The current study extends the investigation of age differences in risk preference by including analyses on the effect of the probability of a risky option on choices in gain versus loss situations...
April 5, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617924/commentary-gaze-aversion-and-unnoticed-phenomena
#15
Desmond K Runyan
Child abuse is a social phenomenon that has been under-researched and under-supported. The scale of the problem is large with over 3 million US children reported for abuse or neglect each year. An estimated 15% of confirmed victims may be placed in out-of-home care to ensure their safety. Studies have not previously examined the impact of losing a child into foster care on maternal health and mortality. Family and maternal risk factors, such as teen pregnancy, intimate partner violence or drug and alcohol abuse, have been well documented as risk factors for maltreatment...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616472/risk-seeking-for-losses-modulates-the-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-and-left-frontoparietal-networks-in-young-males
#16
Yacila I Deza Araujo, Stephan Nebe, Philipp T Neukam, Shakoor Pooseh, Miriam Sebold, Maria Garbusow, Andreas Heinz, Michael N Smolka
Value-based decision making (VBDM) is a principle that states that humans and other species adapt their behavior according to the dynamic subjective values of the chosen or unchosen options. The neural bases of this process have been extensively investigated using task-based fMRI and lesion studies. However, the growing field of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) may shed light on the organization and function of brain connections across different decision-making domains. With this aim, we used independent component analysis to study the brain network dynamics in a large cohort of young males (N = 145) and the relationship of these dynamics with VBDM...
April 3, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608991/how-orchids-concentrate-the-relationship-between-physiological-stress-reactivity-and-cognitive-performance-during-infancy-and-early-childhood
#17
REVIEW
Sam V Wass
The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is involved both in higher-order cognition such as attention and learning, and in responding to unexpected, threatening events. Increased ANS reactivity may confer both superior short-term cognitive performance, and heightened long-term susceptibility to adverse events. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis within the Differential Susceptibility Theory (DST) framework. We hypothesise that individuals with increased reactivity may show heightened biological sensitivity to context, conferring both positive (development-enhancing) effects (superior attention and learning) and negative (risk-promoting) effects (increased sensitivity to unsupportive environments)...
March 30, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604383/inactivation-of-the-ventrolateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-impairs-flexible-use-of-safety-signals
#18
Mary C Sarlitto, Allison R Foilb, John P Christianson
Survival depends on adaptation to shiftingenvironmentalrisks and opportunities.Regarding risks, the mechanisms which permit acquisition, recall, and flexible use of aversive associations is poorly understood. Drawing on the evidence that the orbital frontal cortex is critical to integrating outcome expectancies with flexible appetitive behavioral responses, we hypothesized that OFC would contribute to behavioral flexibility within an aversive learning domain. We introduce a fear conditioning procedure in which adult male rats were presented with shock-paired conditioned stimulus (CS+) or a safety cue (CS-)...
March 28, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581313/grassland-biodiversity-can-pay
#19
Seth Binder, Forest Isbell, Stephen Polasky, Jane A Catford, David Tilman
The biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) literature provides strong evidence of the biophysical basis for the potential profitability of greater diversity but does not address questions of optimal management. BEF studies typically focus on the ecosystem outputs produced by randomly assembled communities that only differ in their biodiversity levels, measured by indices such as species richness. Landholders, however, do not randomly select species to plant; they choose particular species that collectively maximize profits...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576609/initiating-research-in-a-private-dental-practice
#20
K Hare, N Yadev, C Campbell
Research is an intrinsic part of both academia and clinical best practice. Within an academic environment, this can include access to advice and guidance from trained professionals. Similarly, while sometimes overly risk-averse, within the NHS there is a structured and systematic approach to healthcare research. However, in the UK, a large number of specialist dental procedures take place within the private healthcare system, which does not have access to such support and guidance. How, then, can we generate our own dental research from private dental primary care settings? With a number of phrases becoming part of everyday vocabulary in dental primary care, such as practice-based research, patient-centred outcomes, evidence-based dentistry, it is time to consider this...
March 23, 2018: British Dental Journal
keyword
keyword
108406
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"