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Risk aversion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444393/response-to-the-comment-on-the-editorial-by-turner-et-al-on-assessment-of-cardiovascular-risk-of-new-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-risk-assessment-vs-risk-aversion-by-zannad-et-al
#1
J Turner Rick, Erica Caveney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444250/comment-on-the-editorial-by-turner-et-al-on-assessment-of-cardiovascular-risk-of-new-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-risk-assessment-vs-risk-aversion-by-zannad-et-al
#2
Kristina Dunder, Pieter A de Graeff, Eberhard Blind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434586/the-periaqueductal-gray-and-primal-emotional-processing-critical-to-influence-complex-defensive-responses-fear-learning-and-reward-seeking
#3
REVIEW
Simone C Motta, Antônio P Carobrez, Newton S Canteras
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been commonly recognized as a downstream site in neural networks for the expression of a variety of behaviors and is thought to provide stereotyped responses. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that the PAG may exert more complex modulation of a number of behavioral responses and work as a unique hub supplying primal emotional tone to influence prosencephalic sites mediating complex aversive and appetitive responses. Of particular relevance, we review how the PAG is involved in influencing complex forms of defensive responses, such as circa-strike and risk assessment responses in animals...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431168/identifying-new-susceptibility-genes-on-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-pathways-for-the-framing-effect-in-decision-making
#4
Xiaoxue Gao, Jinting Liu, Pingyuan Gong, Junhui Wang, Wan Fang, Hongming Yan, Lusha Zhu, Xiaolin Zhou
The framing effect refers the tendency to be risk-averse when options are presented positively but be risk-seeking when the same options are presented negatively during decision-making. This effect has been found to be modulated by the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene (COMT) polymorphisms, which are on the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways and which are associated with affective processing. The current study aimed to identify new genetic variations of genes on dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways that may contribute to individual differences in the susceptibility to framing...
April 19, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416629/individual-differences-in-fear-extinction-and-anxiety-like-behavior
#5
Gabrielle King, Elliot Scott, Bronwyn M Graham, Rick Richardson
There is growing appreciation for the substantial individual differences in the acquisition and inhibition of aversive associations, and the insights this might give into identifying individuals particularly vulnerable to stress and psychopathology. We examined whether animals that differed in rate of extinction (i.e., Fast versus Slow) were different in their response to an acute stress in adulthood or following a chronic stress that occurred either early or later in life. We found that Slow Extinguishers had significantly poorer extinction retention than Fast Extinguishers, but an acute stressor did not differentially affect anxiety-like behavior in the two groups...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412226/expression-profiling-based-clustering-of-healthy-subjects-recapitulates-classifications-defined-by-clinical-observation-in-chinese-medicine
#6
Ruoxi Yu, Dan Liu, Yin Yang, Yuanyuan Han, Lingru Li, Luyu Zheng, Ji Wang, Yan Zhang, Yingshuai Li, Qian-Fei Wang, Qi Wang
Differences between healthy subjects and associated disease risks are of substantial interest in clinical medicine. Based on clinical presentations, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) classifies healthy people into nine constitutions: Balanced, Qi, Yang or Yin deficiency, Phlegm-dampness, Damp-heat, Blood stasis, Qi stagnation, and Inherited special constitutions. In particular, Yang and Yin deficiency constitutions exhibit cold and heat aversion, respectively. However, the intrinsic molecular characteristics of unbalanced phenotypes remain unclear...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411577/perceived-parental-child-rearing-and-attachment-as-predictors-of-anxiety-and-depressive-disorder-symptoms-in-children-the-mediational-role-of-attachment
#7
Paloma Chorot, Rosa M Valiente, Ana M Magaz, Miguel A Santed, Bonifacio Sandin
The present study aimed to examine (a) the relative contribution of perceived parental child-rearing behaviors and attachment on anxiety and depressive symptoms, and (b) the role of attachment as a possible mediator of the association between parental rearing and anxiety and depression. A sample of 1002 children (aged 9-12 years) completed a booklet of self-report questionnaires measuring parental rearing behaviors, attachment towards peers, and DSM anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. We found that parental aversiveness, parental neglect, and fearful/preoccupied attachment, each accounted for a significant amount of the variance in both anxiety and depressive symptoms...
April 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409566/combined-effects-of-glucocorticoid-and-noradrenergic-activity-on-loss-aversion
#8
Zsofia Margittai, Gideon Nave, Marijn Van Wingerden, Alfons Schnitzler, Lars Schwabe, Tobias Kalenscher
Loss aversion is a well-known behavioral regularity in financial decision-making, describing humans' tendency to overweigh losses compared to gains of the same amount. Recent research indicates that stress and associated hormonal changes affect loss aversion, yet the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the causal influence of two major stress neuromodulators, cortisol and noradrenaline, on loss aversion during financial decision-making. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled between subject design, we orally administered either the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (increasing noradrenergic stimulation), hydrocortisone, both substances, or a placebo to healthy young men...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406375/who-dares-who-errs-disentangling-cognitive-and-motivational-roots-of-age-differences-in-decisions-under-risk
#9
Thorsten Pachur, Rui Mata, Ralph Hertwig
We separate for the first time the roles of cognitive and motivational factors in shaping age differences in decision making under risk. Younger and older adults completed gain, loss, and mixed-domain choice problems as well as measures of cognitive functioning and affect. The older adults' decision quality was lower than the younger adults' in the loss domain, and this age difference was attributable to the older adults' lower cognitive abilities. In addition, the older adults chose the more risky option more often than the younger adults in the gain and mixed domains; this difference in risk aversion was attributable to less pronounced negative affect among the older adults...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401660/depression-anxiety-and-compulsive-sexual-behaviour-among-men-in-residential-treatment-for-substance-use-disorders-the-role-of-experiential-avoidance
#10
Meagan J Brem, Ryan C Shorey, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
Nearly one-third of individuals in treatment for substance use disorders endorse at-risk levels of compulsive sexual behaviours (CSBs). Untreated sexual compulsivity may facilitate relapse for treatment-seeking men. Previous research and theory suggest that CSBs are maintained by efforts to escape or alter negative affect (e.g., depression and anxiety). However, this hypothesis has not been examined within a sample of men in treatment for substance use disorders. In an effort to better understand CSBs within a population of men with substance use disorders, the present study is the first to examine experiential avoidance as one potential mechanism underlying the relation between men's symptoms of depression and anxiety and their use of CSBs...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395907/emotion-based-learning-systems-and-the-development-of-morality
#11
R J R Blair
In this paper it is proposed that important components of moral development and moral judgment rely on two forms of emotional learning: stimulus-reinforcement and response-outcome learning. Data in support of this position will be primarily drawn from work with individuals with the developmental condition of psychopathy as well as fMRI studies with healthy individuals. Individuals with psychopathy show impairment on moral judgment tasks and a pronounced increased risk for instrumental antisocial behavior. It will be argued that these impairments are developmental consequences of impaired stimulus-aversive conditioning on the basis of distress cue reinforcers and response-outcome learning in individuals with this disorder...
April 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395236/risk-aversion-and-willingness-to-pay-for-water-quality-the-case-of-non-farm-rural-residents
#12
Bruno Larue, Gale E West, Alphonse Singbo, Lota Dabio Tamini
Stated choice experiments are used to investigate the economic valuation of rural residents living in the province of Quebec for water quality improvements. In Quebec, rural residents played an important role in the setting of stricter environmental regulations. Unlike most stated choice experiments about the valuation of improvements in water quality, this study explicitly accounts for risk in the design and analysis of choice experiments. Risk in phosphorus and coliform reductions is introduced through a three-point uniform distribution in the choice sets...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394169/the-effect-of-depression-on-the-decision-to-join-a-clinical-trial
#13
Yan Leykin, Laura B Dunn, Ricardo F Muñoz
OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials are necessary for evaluation of novel treatments. However, concerns have been raised about the vulnerability of depressed individuals when joining clinical trials, that is, about their abilities to make good decisions about clinical trial participation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether depression compromises decisions to join clinical trials, by comparing the decisions of 3 groups: depressed individuals, individuals suffering from chronic pain, and individuals with comorbid depression and chronic pain...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393011/motivated-attention-and-family-risk-for-depression-neuronal-generator-patterns-at-scalp-elicited-by-lateralized-aversive-pictures-reveal-blunted-emotional-responsivity
#14
Jürgen Kayser, Craig E Tenke, Karen S Abraham, Daniel M Alschuler, Jorge E Alvarenga, Jamie Skipper, Virginia Warner, Gerard E Bruder, Myrna M Weissman
Behavioral and electrophysiologic evidence suggests that major depression (MDD) involves right parietotemporal dysfunction, a region activated by arousing affective stimuli. Building on prior event-related potential (ERP) findings (Kayser et al. 2016 NeuroImage 142:337-350), this study examined whether these abnormalities also characterize individuals at clinical high risk for MDD. We systematically explored the impact of family risk status and personal history of depression and anxiety on three distinct stages of emotional processing comprising the late positive potential (LPP)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389339/modulating-the-activity-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-by-tdcs-alters-distributive-decisions-behind-the-veil-of-ignorance-via-risk-preference
#15
Jun Luo, Hang Ye, Haoli Zheng, Shu Chen, Daqiang Huang
Distributive justice concerns how individuals and societies distribute income in a just or equal manner. Previous studies from behavioural experiments have revealed that participants' distributive decisions vary according to the contexts of income distribution. Despite the long history of work on distributive behaviour, however, its psychological and neural underpinnings remain poorly understood. There many debates on whether and how the "weights" that are assigned to the individual payoffs (self-interest or risk aversion) and the payoff distribution of the others (social preference or fairness) in participants' objective functions, especially behind the veil of ignorance...
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383759/pubertal-development-and-anxiety-risk-independently-relate-to-startle-habituation-during-fear-conditioning-in-8-14-year-old-females
#16
Felicia Jackson, Brady D Nelson, Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak
Reduced habituation to aversive stimuli has been observed during adolescence and may reflect an underlying mechanism of vulnerability for anxiety disorders. This study examined the startle reflex during a fear-learning task in 54 8-14-year-old girls. We examined the relationship between mean startle, startle habituation, pubertal development, and two measures linked to risk for anxiety: behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the error-related negativity (ERN). Puberty, BIS, and the ERN were unrelated to mean startle; however, each measure modulated startle habituation...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383033/molecular-basis-of-olfactory-chemoreception-in-the-common-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius
#17
Feng Liu, Zhou Chen, Nannan Liu
As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379903/inhaled-insulin-a-clinical-and-historical-review
#18
Jason Chan, Angela Cheng-Lai
Insulin is the most effective blood glucose lowering agent and remains one of the cornerstones of diabetes management. However, many individuals with diabetes are either reluctant to initiate or are nonadherent to their insulin therapy for various reasons, including fear of frequent injections. Technosphere Insulin (TI) is a novel inhaled insulin powder that is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the management of diabetes. The results from 2 phase III clinical trials have shown that TI was noninferior to subcutaneous insulin aspart and superior to inhaled placebo in lowering HbA1c in patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, respectively...
May 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375718/trait-impulsivity-and-the-externalizing-spectrum
#19
Theodore P Beauchaine, Aimee R Zisner, Colin L Sauder
This article reviews evidence that trait impulsivity-expressed early in life as the hyperactive-impulsive and combined presentations of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-is a bottom-up, subcortically mediated vulnerability to all externalizing disorders. This vulnerability arises from deficient mesolimbic dopamine responding, which imbues psychological states (irritability, discontentment) that motivate excessive approach behavior (hyperactivity, impulsivity). Through complex interactions with (a) aversive motivational states that arise from largely independent subcortical systems, (b) emotion regulatory mechanisms that arise from top-down, cortical modulation of subcortical neural function, and (c) environmental risk factors that shape and maintain emotion dysregulation, trait impulsivity confers vulnerability to increasingly severe externalizing behaviors across development...
March 30, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370119/better-demand-signal-better-decisions-evaluation-of-big-data-in-a-licensed-remanufacturing-supply-chain-with-environmental-risk-considerations
#20
Baozhuang Niu, Zongbao Zou
Big data ability helps obtain more accurate demand signal. However, is better demand signal always beneficial for the supply chain parties? To answer this question, we investigate a remanufacturing supply chain (RSC), where demand uncertainty is significant, and the value to reduce environmental risk is large. Specifically, we focus on a licensed RSC comprising an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and a third-party remanufacturer (3PR). The latter pays a unit license fee to the former, and can be risk averse to the demand of remanufactured products...
March 30, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
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