keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Risk aversion

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095013/the-tipping-point-of-perceived-change-asymmetric-thresholds-in-diagnosing-improvement-versus-decline
#1
Ed O'Brien, Nadav Klein
Change often emerges from a series of small doses. For example, a person may conclude that a happy relationship has eroded not from 1 obvious fight but from smaller unhappy signs that at some point "add up." Everyday fluctuations therefore create ambiguity about when they reflect substantive shifts versus mere noise. Ten studies reveal an asymmetry in this first point when people conclude "official" change: people demand less evidence to diagnose lasting decline than lasting improvement, despite similar evidential quality...
February 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093022/blunted-neural-response-to-anticipation-effort-and-consummation-of-reward-and-aversion-in-adolescents-with-depression-symptomatology
#2
Ewelina Rzepa, Jennifer Fisk, Ciara McCabe
Neural reward function has been proposed as a possible biomarker for depression. However, how the neural response to reward and aversion might differ in young adolescents with current symptoms of depression is as yet unclear. Thirty-three adolescents were recruited, 17 scoring low on the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (low risk group) and 16 scoring high (high risk group). Our functional magnetic resonance imaging task measured; anticipation (pleasant/unpleasant cue), effort (achieve a pleasant taste or avoid an unpleasant taste) and consummation (pleasant/unpleasant tastes) in regions of interest; ventral medial prefrontal cortex, pregenual cingulate cortex, the insula and ventral striatum...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089282/the-likely-effects-of-employer-mandated-complementary-health-insurance-on-health-coverage-in-france
#3
Aurélie Pierre, Florence Jusot
In France, access to health care greatly depends on having a complementary health insurance coverage (CHI). Thus, the generalisation of CHI became a core factor in the national health strategy created by the government in 2013. The first measure has been to compulsorily extend employer-sponsored CHI to all private sector employees on January 1st, 2016 and improve its portability coverage for unemployed former employees for up to 12 months. Based on data from the 2012 Health, Health Care and Insurance survey, this article provides a simulation of the likely effects of this mandate on CHI coverage and related inequalities in the general population by age, health status, socio-economic characteristics and time and risk preferences...
January 5, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088047/sliding-doors-did-drama-based-inter-professional-education-improve-the-tensions-round-person-centred-nursing-and-social-care-delivery-for-people-with-dementia-a-mixed-method-exploratory-study
#4
Lindsay Dingwall, Jane Fenton, Timothy B Kelly, John Lee
This educational intervention takes place when the population of older people with dementia is increasing. Health and Social care professionals must work jointly in increasingly complex contexts. Negative attitudes towards older people are cited as a contributor to poor care delivery, including the use of dismissive and/or patronising language, failing to meet fundamental needs and afford choice. 'Sliding Doors to Personal Futures' is a joint, drama-based, educational initiative between NHS Education Scotland and the Scottish Social Services Council, delivered using interprofessional education (IPE) towards encouraging person-centred health and social care...
December 21, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080084/negative-affect-mediates-the-relation-between-trait-urgency-and-behavioral-distress-tolerance
#5
Allison M Borges, Jennifer Dahne, Aaron C Lim, Laura MacPherson
Distress tolerance is associated with a range of psychopathology and risk-taking behavior. Current research suggests that the behavioral ability to persist at goal-directed behavior when distressed may be malleable. However, little is known about the contributing factors that underlie individual differences in distress tolerance. Trait urgency, or the tendency to act impulsively in the context of acute changes in affect, may predict distress tolerance because the prepotent response to avoid or remove an aversive state may undermine persistence...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072410/pre-trauma-methylphenidate-in-rats-reduces-ptsd-like-reactions-one-month-later
#6
G Ritov, G Richter-Levin
In basic research, the etiology of fear-related pathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is conceptualized using fear-conditioning protocols that pair environmental stimuli (that is, a conditioned stimulus-CS) with an aversive, unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit an assessable conditioned fear response. Although pathophysiological models agree that regulatory dysfunctions in this associative process may instigate fear-related pathology, current opinions differ in regard to the nature of these dysfunctions...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071950/reporting-individual-surgeon-outcomes-does-not-lead-to-risk-aversion-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-surgery
#7
A Saratzis, A Thatcher, M F Bath, D A Sidloff, M J Bown, J Shakespeare, R D Sayers, C Imray
INTRODUCTION Reporting surgeons' outcomes has recently been introduced in the UK. This has the potential to result in surgeons becoming risk averse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reporting outcomes for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery impacts on the number and risk profile (level of fitness) of patients offered elective treatment. METHODS Publically available National Vascular Registry data were used to compare the number of AAAs treated in those centres across the UK that reported outcomes for the periods 2008-2012, 2009-2013 and 2010-2014...
January 10, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063131/individual-classification-of-strong-risk-attitudes-an-application-across-lottery-types-and-age-groups
#8
David Kellen, Rui Mata, Clintin P Davis-Stober
Empirical evaluations of risk attitudes often rely on a weak definition of risk that concerns preferences towards risky and riskless options (e.g., a lottery vs. a sure outcome). A large body of work has shown that individuals tend to be weak risk averse in choice contexts involving risky and riskless gains but weak risk seeking in contexts involving losses, a phenomenon known as the reflection effect. Recent attempts to evaluate age differences in risk attitudes have relied on this weak definition, testing whether the reflection effect increases or diminishes as we grow older...
January 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051839/social-context-and-perspectives-of-non-medical-prescription-opioid-use-among-young-adults-in-rhode-island-a-qualitative-study
#9
Jesse L Yedinak, Elizabeth N Kinnard, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Melissa A Clark, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This pilot study examined the context of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use and related risk behaviors among young adults in Rhode Island, a New England region with markedly high prevalence of NMPO use and overdose mortality. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 13) with young adults (18-29 year-olds) who reported current or recent NMPO use. We also conducted focus groups (two groups, n = 14 total) with professional service providers recruited from service organizations...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042929/impact-of-childhood-trauma-and-cognitive-emotion-regulation-strategies-on-risk-aversive-and-loss-aversive-patterns-of-decision-making-in-patients-with-depression
#10
Hyu Jung Huh, Kwangyeol Baek, Jae-Hyung Kwon, Jaeseung Jeong, Jeong-Ho Chae
INTRODUCTION: Although poor decision-making ultimately impairs quality of life in depression, few studies describe the clinical characteristics of patients suffering from dysfunctional decision-making. This study aims to delineate the effect of childhood trauma and other personality factors on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression. METHODS: A total of 50 depressive patients completed surveys for the measurement of sociodemographic factors, trauma loads and other clinical characteristics, including depression, anxiety, and strategies for emotion regulation...
November 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039090/effects-of-previous-physical-exercise-to-chronic-stress-on-long-term-aversive-memory-and-oxidative-stress-in-amygdala-and-hippocampus-of-rats
#11
Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Janaína Kolling, Cassiana Siebert, Helena Biasibetti, Carolina Gessinger Bertó, Lucas Kich Grun, Carla Dalmaz, Florencia María Barbé-Tuana, Angela T S Wyse
Since stressful situations are considered risk factors for the development of depression and there are few studies evaluating prevention therapies for this disease, in the present study we evaluated the effect of previous physical exercise in animals subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS), an animal model of depression, on behavior tasks. We also investigated some parameters of oxidative stress and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, immunocontent and gene expression of alpha subunits in amygdala and hippocampus of rats...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025229/malpractice-criminality-and-medical-regulation-reforming-the-role-of-the-gmc-in-fitness-to-practise-panels
#12
John Martyn Chamberlain
A recent Law Commission Review emphasised that medical fitness to practise panels (also called medical practitioners tribunals) are an important legal mechanism for ensuring that public trust in medical regulation is maintained when a complaint is made against a doctor. This article examines trends over time in panel outcomes to identify their effectiveness in ensuring public protection. Although a rise in complaints, and a change from the criminal to civil standard of proof, has not led to more doctors being struck off the medical register, increasingly action is being taken to provide advice, issue warnings, and agree rehabilitative forms of action with doctors...
December 26, 2016: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018757/trends-in-usage-and-outcomes-for-expanded-criteria-donor-kidney-transplantation-in-the-united-states-characterized-by-kidney-donor-profile-index
#13
Aparna Rege, Bill Irish, Anthony Castleberry, Deepak Vikraman, Scott Sanoff, Kadiyala Ravindra, Bradley Collins, Debra Sudan
There has been increasing concern in the kidney transplant community about the declining use of expanded criteria donors (ECD) despite improvement in survival and quality of life. The recent introduction of the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI), which provides a more granular characterization of donor quality, was expected to increase utilization of marginal kidneys and decrease the discard rates. However, trends and practice patterns of ECD kidney utilization on a national level based on donor organ quality as per KDPI are not well known...
November 22, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007065/a-word-of-caution-in-public-reporting
#14
REVIEW
Thomas L Spray, J William Gaynor
Public reporting in its current form will lead to confusion amongst physicians, administrators, families, and the media. It is unclear that we are giving the families information they really need. At the current time there is no evidence that public reporting really leads to improved outcomes. Rather, it may lead to risk aversion and limit access to care. This is a problem not just for congenital heart surgery but for the entire field of medicine and the care that we provide to our patients. We must be very careful that we don't create a system where we are afraid to take on a patient with increased risk of mortality because it may affect our overall ranking...
January 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007064/the-society-of-thoracic-surgeons-congenital-heart-surgery-database-public-reporting-initiative
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Jacobs
Three basic principles provide the rationale for the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Congenital Heart Surgery Database (CHSD) public reporting initiative: (1) Variation in congenital and pediatric cardiac surgical outcomes exist. (2) Patients and their families have the right to know the outcomes of the treatments that they will receive. (3). It is our professional responsibility to share this information with them in a format they can understand. The STS CHSD public reporting initiative facilitates the voluntary transparent public reporting of congenital and pediatric cardiac surgical outcomes using the STS CHSD Mortality Risk Model...
January 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006690/cause-or-consequence-investigating-attention-bias-and-self-regulation-skills-in-children-at-risk-for-obesity
#16
Nora Mehl, Sarah Bergmann, Annette M Klein, Moritz Daum, Kai von Klitzing, Annette Horstmann
Impaired self-regulation, especially in food-specific situations, has been linked to childhood obesity. These deficits may be acquired during the development of obesity rather than being a prerequisite thereof. The current study, hence, focused on an at-risk population versus controls. Normal-weight children of obese and normal-weight parents were tested regarding attentional flexibility, emotion regulation, and inhibitory control. A sample of 50 preschoolers of obese parents (n=25) or normal-weight parents (n=25) participated in this study...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003509/the-importance-of-relevant-emotional-arousal-in-the-efficacy-of-pictorial-health-warnings-for-cigarettes
#17
Zhenhao Shi, An-Li Wang, Lydia F Emery, Kaitlin M Sheerin, Daniel Romer
INTRODUCTION: Warning labels for cigarettes proposed by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were rejected by the courts partly because they were thought to be emotionally evocative but have no educational value. To address this issue, we compared three types of smoking warnings: (1) FDA-proposed warnings with pictures illustrating the smoking hazards; (2) warnings with the same text information paired with equally aversive but smoking-irrelevant images; and (3) text-only warnings. METHODS: Smokers recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions...
December 21, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000930/adolescent-communal-narcissism-and-peer-perceptions
#18
Christopher T Barry, Joyce H L Lui, Lauren M Lee-Rowland, Erin V Moran
OBJECTIVE: The present study extended recent work on communal narcissism to a sample of at-risk adolescents. Although narcissism is widely considered an agentic personality construct, Gebauer and colleagues (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken, & Maio, 2012) demonstrated the existence and utility of a communal narcissism construct in adults. The extent to which this variant of narcissism applies to adolescents is not yet known. Because communal narcissism (e.g., feeling that one is the most helpful, is a great influence on others, will bring about world peace) may actually be aversive to others, we investigated the associated self- and peer perceptions of adolescent communal narcissism...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991822/quick-delay-questionnaire-reliability-validity-and-relations-to-functional-impairments-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#19
Lisa B Thorell, Douglas Sjöwall, Gabry W Mies, Anouk Scheres
The Quick Delay Questionnaire (QDQ) is a self-report measure of delay-related behaviors in adults, and the present study aimed at investigating the psychometric properties of QDQ scores, how well they can discriminate between ADHD adults and both clinical and nonclinical controls, as well as their relations to measures of functional impairments. In the present study, QDQ ratings, a laboratory measure of delay discounting, and ratings of functional impairments were collected from adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 51), a clinical control group with other psychiatric disorders (n = 46), and a nonclinical control group (n = 105)...
December 19, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983912/dexamethasone-attenuates-the-enhanced-rewarding-effects-of-cocaine-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Steven Merkel, Allison Andrews, Evan Lutton, Roshanak Razmpour, Lee Cannella, Servio Ramirez
Clinical studies have identified traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a risk factor for the development of cocaine dependence. This claim is supported by our recent pre-clinical studies showing enhancement of the rewarding effects of cocaine in mice sustaining moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury during adolescence. Here, we test the efficacy of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, to attenuate augmentation of the behavioral response to cocaine observed in CCI-TBI animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) assay...
29, 2016: Cell Transplantation
keyword
keyword
108406
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"