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Risk aversion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720904/interaction-between-trait-and-housing-condition-produces-differential-decision-making-toward-risk-choice-in-a-rat-gambling-task
#1
Wha Young Kim, Bo Ram Cho, Myung Ji Kwak, Jeong-Hoon Kim
Poor decision-making is a core problem in psychiatric disorders such as pathological gambling and substance abuse. Both trait and environmental factors are considerably important to affect decision-making. However, it has not yet been systematically shown how they interact to affect risk preference in animal models evaluating decision-making. Here, we trained rats, housed in pairs or in isolation, in a touch screen chamber to detect the association between four different light signals on the screen and accompanied reward and punishment outcomes arranged with different schedules...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716327/surgical-management-of-neurogenic-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction
#2
REVIEW
Ronak A Gor, Sean P Elliott
Surgery for patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction (nLUTD) is indicated when medical therapy fails, to correct conditions affecting patient safety, or when surgery can enhance the quality of life better than nonoperative management. Examples include failure of maximal medical therapy, inability to perform or aversion to clean intermittent catheterization, refractory incontinence, and complications from chronic, indwelling catheters. Adults with nLUTD have competing risk factors, including previous operations, obesity, poor nutritional status, complex living arrangements, impaired dexterity/paralysis, and impaired executive and cognitive function...
August 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714048/avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-a-three-dimensional-model-of-neurobiology-with-implications-for-etiology-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer J Thomas, Elizabeth A Lawson, Nadia Micali, Madhusmita Misra, Thilo Deckersbach, Kamryn T Eddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: DSM-5 defined avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) as a failure to meet nutritional needs leading to low weight, nutritional deficiency, dependence on supplemental feedings, and/or psychosocial impairment. We summarize what is known about ARFID and introduce a three-dimensional model to inform research. RECENT FINDINGS: Because ARFID prevalence, risk factors, and maintaining mechanisms are not known, prevailing treatment approaches are based on clinical experience rather than data...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708061/locus-coeruleus-to-basolateral-amygdala-noradrenergic-projections-promote-anxiety-like-behavior
#4
Jordan G McCall, Edward R Siuda, Dionnet L Bhatti, Lamley A Lawson, Zoe A McElligott, Garret D Stuber, Michael R Bruchas
Increased tonic activity of locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) neurons induces anxiety-like and aversive behavior. While some information is known about the afferent circuitry that endogenously drives this neural activity and behavior, the downstream receptors and anatomical projections that mediate these acute risk aversive behavioral states via the LC-NE system remain unresolved. Here we use a combination of retrograde tracing, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, electrophysiology, and in vivo optogenetics with localized pharmacology to identify neural substrates downstream of increased tonic LC-NE activity in mice...
July 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688012/sex-differences-in-risk-based-decision-making-in-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder
#5
Justina Sidlauskaite, Karen González-Madruga, Areti Smaragdi, Roberta Riccelli, Ignazio Puzzo, Molly Batchelor, Harriet Cornwell, Luke Clark, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Graeme Fairchild
Altered decision making processes and excessive risk-seeking behaviours are key features of conduct disorder (CD). Previous studies have provided compelling evidence of abnormally increased preference for risky options, higher sensitivity to rewards, as well as blunted responsiveness to aversive outcomes in adolescents with CD. However, most studies published to date have focused on males only; thus, it is not known whether females with CD show similar alterations in decision making. The current study investigated potential sex differences in decision making and risk-seeking behaviours in adolescents with CD...
July 7, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677848/the-impact-of-regulatory-perspectives-and-practices-on-professional-innovation-in-nursing
#6
Sarah Stahlke Wall
Since at least the 1970s in Canada, there have been calls for health system reforms based on innovative roles and expanded scopes of practice for nurses. Professional regulatory organizations, through legislation, define the standards and parameters of professional nursing practice. Nursing regulators emphasize public protection over the advancement of nursing; regulatory processes and decisions tend to be conservative and risk-averse. This study explored the impact that regulatory processes have on innovation in nursing roles...
July 5, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676252/a-functional-mri-study-on-how-oxytocin-affects-decision-making-in-social-dilemmas-cooperate-as-long-as-it-pays-off-aggress-only-when-you-think-you-can-win
#7
Bruno Lambert, Carolyn H Declerck, Christophe Boone, Paul M Parizel
We investigate if the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), known to moderate social behaviour, influences strategic decision making in social dilemmas by facilitating the integration of incentives and social cues. Participants (N=29) played two economic games with different incentive structures in the fMRI scanner after receiving OT or placebo (following a double blind, within-subject design). Pictures of angry or neutral faces (the social cues) were displayed alongside the game matrices. Consistent with a priori hypotheses based on the modulatory role of OT in mesolimbic dopaminergic brain regions, the results indicate that, compared to placebo, OT significantly increases the activation of the nucleus accumbens during an assurance (coordination) game that rewards mutual cooperation...
July 1, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665332/farmers-risk-preferences-in-rural-china-measurements-and-determinants
#8
Jianjun Jin, Rui He, Haozhou Gong, Xia Xu, Chunyang He
This study measures farmers' risk attitudes in rural China using a survey instrument and a complementary experiment conducted in the field with the same sample of subjects. Using a question asking people about their willingness to take risks "in general", we found that the average response of our sample is slightly risk averse. Farmers' exogenous factors (age, gender, and height) and self-reported happiness have a significant impact on farmers' willingness to take risks. The experiment results show that approximately 44% of farmers in the study area are risk averse...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664498/mice-exposure-to-tannery-effluents-changes-their-olfactory-capacity-and-their-response-to-predators-and-to-the-inhibitory-avoidance-test
#9
Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Letícia Martins Rabelo, Bianca Costa E Silva, Joyce Moreira de Souza, André Luis da Silva Castro, Anderson Rodrigo da Silva, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
The current study has assessed whether the oral and/or dermal exposure of C57Bl/6 J mice to tannery effluent (a complex pollutant consisting of xenobiotic mixtures) could damage their olfactory functions, as well as whether it changes their aversive behavior in the inhibitory avoidance test. Accordingly, the animals were distributed in groups which were exposed or not to this xenobiotic through two different routes (oral and dermal), for 15 days. The effluent group subjected to oral exposure received drinking water containing 5% tannery effluent, whereas the animals in the dermal group were exposed to raw tannery effluent for 1 h/day...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663116/short-term-selection-for-high-and-low-ethanol-intake-yields-differential-sensitivity-to-ethanol-s-motivational-effects-and-anxiety-like-responses-in-adolescent-wistar-rats
#10
Macarena Soledad Fernández, Bárbara Báez, Ana Bordón, Laura Espinosa, Eliana Martínez, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Alcohol use disorders are modulated by genetic factors, but the identification of specific genes and their concomitant biological changes that are associated with a higher risk for these disorders has proven difficult. Alterations in the sensitivity to the motivational effects of ethanol may be one way by which genes modulate the initiation and escalation of ethanol intake. Rats and mice have been selectively bred for high and low ethanol consumption during adulthood. However, selective breeding programs for ethanol intake have not focused on adolescence...
June 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654698/the-future-of-the-london-buy-to-let-property-market-simulation-with-temporal-bayesian-networks
#11
Anthony C Constantinou, Norman Fenton
In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL) investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor's perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640014/potential-impact-of-risk-and-loss-aversion-on-the-process-of-accepting-kidneys-for-transplantation
#12
Raymond L Heilman, Ellen P Green, Kunam S Reddy, Adyr Moss, Bruce Kaplan
Behavioral economic theory suggests that people make decisions based on maximizing perceived value; however, this may be influenced more by the risk of loss rather than of potential gain. Additionally, individuals may seek certainty over uncertainty. These are termed loss aversion and risk aversion, respectively. Loss aversion is particularly sensitive to how the decision is "framed." Thus, labeling a kidney as high Kidney Donor Profile Index results in higher discard rates because this creates a nonlinearity in perceived risk...
July 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629489/eating-down-or-simply-eating-less-the-diet-and-health-implications-of-these-practices-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum-in-rural-bangladesh
#13
Kassandra L Harding, Susana L Matias, Malay K Mridha, Stephen A Vosti, Sohrab Hussain, Kathryn G Dewey, Christine P Stewart
OBJECTIVE: To: (i) determine the prevalence of self-reported eating less and eating down during early and late pregnancy and postpartum, and explore risk factors associated with eating less; (ii) examine the association between eating less and diet quality; and (iii) determine the association between eating less and weight gain during pregnancy. DESIGN: Data were collected longitudinally from a cohort of women participating in a community health programme. Diet was assessed at three time points (≤20 weeks' gestation, 36 weeks' gestation, 6 months' postpartum), body weight was measured during study enrolment (≤20 weeks' gestation) and at 36 weeks' gestation, and information about the woman and her household was collected at enrolment...
June 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627907/the-role-of-empathy-in-experiencing-vicarious-anxiety
#14
Jocelyn Shu, Samuel Hassell, Jochen Weber, Kevin N Ochsner, Dean Mobbs
With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623169/mutation-of-the-inhibitory-ethanol-site-in-gabaa-%C3%AF-1-receptors-promotes-tolerance-to-ethanol-induced-motor-incoordination
#15
Yuri A Blednov, Cecilia M Borghese, Carlos I Ruiz, Madeline A Cullins, Adriana Da Costa, Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek, Gregg E Homanics, R Adron Harris
Genes encoding the ρ1/2 subunits of GABAA receptors have been associated with alcohol (ethanol) dependence in humans, and ρ1 was also shown to regulate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol in animal models. Ethanol inhibits GABA-mediated responses in wild-type (WT) ρ1, but not ρ1(T6'Y) mutant receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, indicating the presence of an inhibitory site for ethanol in the second transmembrane helix. In this study, we found that ρ1(T6'Y) receptors expressed in oocytes display overall normal responses to GABA, the endogenous GABA modulator (zinc), and partial agonists (β-alanine and taurine)...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606245/prefrontal-brain-responsiveness-to-negative-stimuli-distinguishes-familial-risk-for-major-depression-from-acute-disorder
#16
Nils Opel, Ronny Redlich, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Dohm, Dario Zaremba, Susanne Meinert, Christian Bürger, Leonie Plümpe, Judith Alferink, Walter Heindel, Harald Kugel, Peter Zwanzger, Volker Arolt, Udo Dannlowski
BACKGROUND: Identifying reliable trait markers of familial risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a challenge in translational psychiatric research. In individuals with acute MDD, dysfunctional connectivity patterns of prefrontal areas have been shown repeatedly. However, it has been unclear in which neuronal networks functional alterations in individuals at familial risk for MDD might be present and to what extent they resemble findings previously reported in those with acute MDD...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588508/individual-differences-in-subjective-utility-and-risk-preferences-the-influence-of-hedonic-capacity-and-trait-anxiety
#17
Jonathon R Howlett, Martin P Paulus
Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586099/benchmarking-discount-rate-in-natural-resource-damage-assessment-with-risk-aversion
#18
Desheng Wu, Shuzhen Chen
Benchmarking a credible discount rate is of crucial importance in natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) and restoration evaluation. This article integrates a holistic framework of NRDA with prevailing low discount rate theory, and proposes a discount rate benchmarking decision support system based on service-specific risk aversion. The proposed approach has the flexibility of choosing appropriate discount rates for gauging long-term services, as opposed to decisions based simply on duration. It improves injury identification in NRDA since potential damages and side-effects to ecosystem services are revealed within the service-specific framework...
June 6, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582004/public-reporting-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#19
REVIEW
Michael C McDaniel, S Tanveer Rab
Public reporting provides transparency and improved quality of care. However, methods in estimating risk adjusted mortality in ST-segment myocardial infarction, particularly in cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest are contentious. There are concerns that this has resulted in risk-averse behavior in publicly reporting states, resulting in suboptimal care in these patients.
October 2016: Interventional cardiology clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578212/contributions-of-risk-preference-time-orientation-and-perceptions-to-breast-cancer-screening-regularity
#20
Léontine Goldzahl
Disparities in breast cancer screening are often explained by socioeconomic factors, although a growing body of papers show that risk preference, time orientation and perceptions may explain mammography use. The aim of this paper is to estimate the relative contribution of socioeconomic factors, risk preference, time orientation and perceptions to disparities in breast cancer screening regularity. These determinants are elicited in an experimental laboratory from 178 women aged between 50 and 75 years in France in 2013...
May 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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