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Risk aversion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456782/other-people-s-money-the-role-of-reciprocity-and-social-uncertainty-in-decisions-for-others
#1
Ivo Vlaev, Brian Wallace, Nicholas Wright, Antoinette Nicolle, Paul Dolan, Raymond Dolan
Many important decisions are taken not by the person who will ultimately gain or lose from the outcome, but on their behalf, by somebody else. We examined economic decision-making about risk and time in situations in which deciders chose for others who also chose for them. We propose that this unique setting, which has not been studied before, elicits perception of reciprocity that prompts a unique bias in preferences. We found that decision-makers are less patient (more discounting), and more risk averse for losses than gains, with other peoples' money, especially when their choices for others are more uncertain...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453965/effects-of-beauveria-bassiana-on-predation-and-behavior-of-the-predatory-mite-phytoseiulus-persimilis
#2
Shengyong Wu, Zhenlong Xing, Weinan Sun, Xuenong Xu, Ruixia Meng, Zhongren Lei
Determination of intraguild interactions between entomopathogens and predators is important when attempting to use a combination of these two natural enemy groups for biological control of their shared arthropod pest species. This study assessed the effects of Beauveria bassiana on the predation and associated behavior of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, against Tetranychus urticae. The functional response tests showed that P. persimilis exhibited a Holling type II response on the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, when treated with either a B...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453294/public-preferences-for-interventions-to-prevent-emerging-infectious-disease-threats-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#3
Alex R Cook, Xiahong Zhao, Mark I C Chen, Eric A Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: When faced with an emergent epidemic with high mortality and morbidity potential, policy makers must decide what public health interventions to deploy at different stages of the outbreak. However, almost nothing is known about how the public view these interventions or how they trade off risks (of disease) with inconvenience (of interventions). In this paper, we aim to understand public perceptions on pandemic interventions, as well as to identify if there are any distinct respondent preference classes...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453217/time-spent-in-inactive-disease-before-mtx-withdrawal-is-relevant-with-regard-to-the-flare-risk-in-patients-with-jia
#4
Jens Klotsche, Kirsten Minden, Martina Niewerth, Gerd Horneff
OBJECTIVES: To determine the reasons of methotrexate (MTX) discontinuation, frequency of adverse events (AE) and whether the time in inactive disease before MTX withdrawal disease is associated with the risk of disease flare. METHODS: Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) beginning treatment with MTX were prospectively observed in the national JIA biologic register Biologika in der Kinderrheumatologie/Biologics in Paediatric Rheumatology and its follow-up register Juvenile arthritis Methotrexate/Biologics long-term Observation...
February 16, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451886/which-preferences-associate-with-school-performance-lessons-from-an-exploratory-study-with-university-students
#5
Daniel Horn, Hubert Janos Kiss
Success in life is determined to a large extent by school performance so it is important to understand the effect of the factors that influence it. In this exploratory study, in addition to cognitive abilities, we attempt to link measures of preferences with outcomes of school performance. We measured in an incentivized way risk, time, social and competitive preferences and cognitive abilities of university students to look for associations between these measures and two important academic outcome measures: exam results and GPA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447153/a-model-of-risk-and-mental-state-shifts-during-social-interaction
#6
Andreas Hula, Iris Vilares, Terry Lohrenz, Peter Dayan, P Read Montague
Cooperation and competition between human players in repeated microeconomic games offer a window onto social phenomena such as the establishment, breakdown and repair of trust. However, although a suitable starting point for the quantitative analysis of such games exists, namely the Interactive Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (I-POMDP), computational considerations and structural limitations have limited its application, and left unmodelled critical features of behavior in a canonical trust task...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438605/understanding-the-factors-that-influence-risk-tolerance-among-minority-women-a-qualitative-study
#7
Betty Hsiao, Sonal Balla, Kristin Mattocks, Liana Fraenkel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to explore the factors that influence risk tolerance among women from different racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: In-depth individual interviews of Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic women aged 20-45 were conducted by a trained interviewer (S.B.) using a semi-structured interview guide to elicit the factors that influence risk tolerance among minority women. The interviews were audiotaped and professionally transcribed with a final sample size of 36 determined by thematic saturation...
February 13, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429075/dietary-supplementation-of-almond-prevents-oxidative-stress-by-advocating-antioxidants-and-attenuates-impaired-aversive-memory-in-male-rats
#8
Zehra Batool, Saiqa Tabassum, Rafat Ali Siddiqui, Saida Haider
Scopolamine, an anti-muscarinic agent, has been shown to induce amnesia and oxidative stress similar to that observed in the older age. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between the oxidative status and memory improvement in scopolamine injected rats pre-administered with almonds. Rats (n = 8) in the almond group were administered orally with 400 mg/kg almond suspension for 28 days daily before the intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg). Passive avoidance task (PAT) was used to assess memory function at the end of treatment...
February 10, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415872/perceived-threat-and-internet-use-predict-intentions-to-get-bowel-cancer-screening-colonoscopy-longitudinal-questionnaire-study
#9
Daniela Becker, Johannes Grapendorf, Hannah Greving, Kai Sassenberg
BACKGROUND: Many people use the Internet for health-related information search, which is known to help regulate their emotional state. However, not much is known yet about how Web-based information search together with negative emotional states (ie, threat of cancer diagnosis) relate to preventive medical treatment decisions (ie, colonoscopy intentions). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how frequency of health-related Internet use together with perceived threat of a possible (bowel) cancer diagnosis influences intentions to get a colonoscopy...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413584/decision-making-financial-risk-aversion-and-behavioral-biases-the-role-of-testosterone-and-stress
#10
John R Nofsinger, Fernando M Patterson, Corey A Shank
We examine the relation between testosterone, cortisol, and financial decisions in a sample of naïve investors. We find that testosterone level is positively related to excess risk-taking, whereas cortisol level is negatively related to excess risk-taking (correlation coefficient [r]: 0.75 and -0.21, respectively). Additionally, we find support for the dual-hormone hypothesis in a financial context. Specifically, the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio is significantly related to loss aversion. Individuals with a higher ratio are 3...
January 27, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409977/extending-the-analysis-of-zebrafish-behavioral-endophenotypes-for-modeling-psychiatric-disorders-fear-conditioning-to-conspecific-alarm-response
#11
Caio Maximino, Daniele L Meinerz, Barbara D Fontana, Nathana J Mezzomo, Flavia V Stefanello, Alessandro de S Prestes, Cibele B Batista, Maribel A Rubin, Nilda V Barbosa, João Batista T Rocha, Monica G Lima, Denis B Rosemberg
Anxiety, trauma- and stressor-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect human population worldwide. Given their genetic tractability, evolutionarily conserved neurotransmitter systems, and extensive behavioral repertoire, zebrafish have become an emergent model organism in translational neuroscience. Here, we investigate whether a single exposure to conspecific alarm substance (CAS) produces fear conditioning in zebrafish using a conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm, as well as the persistence of aversive responses at different time intervals...
February 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408887/improving-working-equine-welfare-in-hard-win-situations-where-gains-are-difficult-expensive-or-marginal
#12
Joy Pritchard, Melissa Upjohn, Tamsin Hirson
PURPOSE: Brooke is a non-government organisation with working equine welfare programmes across Africa, Asia and Latin America. In 2014, staff from ten country programmes were asked to identify 'no-win' situations (subsequently reframed as 'hard-wins')-where improving equine welfare is proving difficult, expensive and/or marginal-in order to inform strategic decisions on how to approach, manage and mitigate for such situations. METHODS: The Delphi-type consultation process had three phases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408151/female-babies-and-risk-aversion-causal-evidence-from-hospital-wards
#13
Ganna Pogrebna, Andrew J Oswald, David Haig
Using ultrasound scan data from paediatric hospitals, and the exogenous 'shock' of learning the gender of an unborn baby, the paper documents the first causal evidence that offspring gender affects adult risk-aversion. On a standard Holt-Laury criterion, parents of daughters, whether unborn or recently born, become almost twice as risk-averse as parents of sons. The study demonstrates this in longitudinal and cross-sectional data, for fathers and mothers, for babies in the womb and new-born children, and in a West European nation and East European nation...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407466/age-differences-in-neural-correlates-of-feedback-processing-after-economic-decisions-under-risk
#14
Carina Fernandes, Rita Pasion, Ana R Gonçalves, Fernando Ferreira-Santos, Fernando Barbosa, Isabel P Martins, João Marques-Teixeira
This study examines age-related differences in behavioral responses to risk and in the neurophysiological correlates of feedback processing. Our sample was composed of younger, middle-aged, and older adults, who were asked to decide between 2 risky options, in the gain and loss domains, during an EEG recording. Results evidenced group-related differences in early and later stages of feedback processing, indexed by differences in the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3 amplitudes. Specifically, in the loss domain, younger adults showed higher FRN amplitudes after non-losses than after losses, whereas middle-aged and older adults had similar FRN amplitudes after both...
January 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398267/designing-an-agricultural-vegetative-waste-management-system-under-uncertain-prices-of-treatment-technology-output-products
#15
D Broitman, O Raviv, O Ayalon, I Kan
Setting up a sustainable agricultural vegetative waste-management system is a challenging investment task, particularly when markets for output products of waste-treatment technologies are not well established. We conduct an economic analysis of possible investments in treatment technologies of agricultural vegetative waste, while accounting for fluctuating output prices. Under a risk-neutral approach, we find the range of output-product prices within which each considered technology becomes most profitable, using average final prices as the exclusive factor...
February 1, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394512/the-end-game-mortality-outcomes-in-north-american-professional-athletes
#16
Srdjan Lemez, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker
Comprehensive investigations into the mortality outcomes of elite athletes can assist in decoding risk factors of premature mortality and provide avenues for exploring human health through engagement in sport. As such, the purpose of this study was to comprehensively examine lifespan trends of athletes from the four major sports in North America: Major League Baseball (MLB), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL) and National Hockey League (NHL). We hypothesized that proportional death rates would be similar across the four sports, when standardizing the data by debut years...
February 2, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378295/a-multidimensional-approach-to-understanding-the-potential-risk-factors-and-covariates-of-adult-picky-eating
#17
Jordan M Ellis, Rebecca R Schenk, Amy T Galloway, Hana F Zickgraf, Rose Mary Webb, Denise M Martz
OBJECTIVE: Adult picky eating (PE) has received increased attention in the eating behavior literature due to its important association with adult avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The current study tested a model of potential risk factors of adult PE behavior, including perceived early parental feeding practices. An exploratory model was also utilized to understand associations with different aspects of adult PE behaviors. METHODS: A sample of 1339 US adults recruited through Amazon's MTurk completed an online survey that included the recently developed Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ), retrospective reports of parental feeding practices, and other measures of eating behavior and demographic variables...
January 26, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375805/to-feed-or-not-to-feed-bioenergetic-impacts-of-fear-driven-behaviors-in-lactating-dolphins
#18
Mridula Srinivasan, Todd M Swannack, William E Grant, Jolly Rajan, Bernd Würsig
In mammals, lactation can be the most energetically expensive part of the reproductive cycle. Thus, when energy needs are compromised due to predation risk, environmental disturbance, or resource scarcity, future reproductive success can be impacted. In marine and terrestrial environments, foraging behavior is inextricably linked to predation risk. But quantification of foraging energetics for lactating animals under predation risk is less understood. In this study, we used a spatially explicit individual-based model to study how changes in physiology (lactating or not) and the environment (predation risk) affect optimal behavior in dolphins...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375029/saving-for-a-better-retirement-how-risk-attitudes-affect-choice-of-retirement-scheme
#19
Ricky S Wong, Magda Osman, Wai Hung Wong, Yiling Lin, Kasper Ho
Over 3 million people in Hong Kong and 21 million people in the UK are saving for retirement under the mandatory provident fund and individual savings account schemes, respectively. Yet, we know little about how individual preferences, such as risk attitudes (risk-seeking and risk-averse) that are known to impact highly consequential decisions in a variety of real-world contexts, impact retirement investment choices. In two experimental studies (Study 1-Hong Kong sample and Study 2-United Kingdom sample), we show that personal risk attitudes were a strong predictor of the profile of retirement investment portfolios...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369263/do-you-c-what-i-c-emergency-department-evaluation-and-diagnosis-of-pediatric-scurvy-in-an-autistic-child-with-a-restricted-diet
#20
James Burhop, Jennifer Gibson, Justin de Boer, Cyrus Heydarian
Scurvy in modern times may not be as rare as previously thought. The link between adequate intake of vitamin C and scurvy has been known since ancient times and is recorded in Ebers Papyrus. Recent reports indicate that, with restricted diets, vitamin C deficiency is being seen in infants exclusively fed plant-based formula and children with oral aversion, autism, restricted diets, and cerebral palsy. Additional at-risk groups include the older adults and patients having alcoholism. Often costly, emergency department visits and elaborate diagnostic studies lead to fruitless results when a simple diet history is often overlooked...
January 23, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
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