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Risk aversion

Amanda C Kentner, Urma Khan, M MacRae, Scot E Dowd, Siyang Yan
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to infection during early development increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders associated with symptoms such as a decreased desire to engage in social interactions. This disruption in social behavior can be modelled in animals by administering bacterial mimetics such as liposaccharide (LPS). However, when evaluating social interactions in the laboratory, attention is rarely directed on the reciprocal relationship as a whole, which is important as peers may drive social withdrawal...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
H D Schulte, O Musshoff, M P M Meuwissen
After the abolition of the milk quota in the European Union, milk price volatility is expected to increase because of the liberalized market conditions. At the same time, investment appraisal methods have not been updated to capture the increased uncertainty. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to assess the effect of changing price volatility due to quota abolition on investment decisions at the dairy farm level. To contribute to the objective and to approximate milk price volatility after the European milk quota abolition, the risk-adjusted discount rate for risk-averse dairy farmers is derived based on the milk price volatility of a milk price series from New Zealand...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Brad Wright, Graham P Martin, Azeemuddin Ahmed, Jay Banerjee, Suzanne Mason, Damian Roland
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand how emergency physicians decide to use observation services, and how placing a patient under observation influences physicians' subsequent decisionmaking. METHODS: We conducted detailed semistructured interviews with 24 emergency physicians, including 10 from a hospital in the US Midwest, and 14 from 2 hospitals in central and northern England. Data were extracted from the interview transcripts with open coding and analyzed with axial coding...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Patrick Ring, Catharina C Probst, Levent Neyse, Stephan Wolff, Christian Kaernbach, Thilo van Eimeren, Colin F Camerer, Ulrich Schmidt
Problem gambling is a serious socioeconomic problem involving high individual and social costs. In this article, we study risk preferences of problem gamblers including their risk attitudes in the gain and loss domains, their weighting of probabilities, and their degree of loss aversion. Our findings indicate that problem gamblers are systematically more risk taking and less sensitive toward changes in probabilities in the gain domain only. Neither their risk attitudes in the loss domain nor their degree of loss aversion are significantly different from the controls...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
B M Ali, Y de Mey, J W M Bastiaansen, A G J M Oude Lansink
Economic values (EVs) of traits, accounting for environmental impacts and risk preferences of farmers, are required to design breeding goals that contribute to both economic and environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of incorporating environmental costs and the risk preferences of farmers on the EVs of pig breeding goal traits. A breeding goal consisting of both sow efficiency and production traits was defined for a typical Brazilian farrow-to-finish pig farm with 1,500 productive sows...
June 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
Tatsuya Katahira, Naoko Miyazaki, Jun Motoyama
Aversive experiences, including maternal separation (MS), have been known as a risk for abnormal hippocampus development. Given that impairment of GABA inhibitory system is known as one of the common features of the abnormal hippocampal development induced by MS, we examined whether the MS on 4-day-old (P4) mice for 24 hr abolishes the interneuron development. We observed that the MS reduced the volume of dorsal hippocampus on P14 as long-term effects. In addition, the MS decreased the number of parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneuron on P14 and P28 in the dorsal hippocampus...
June 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Jun Yang, Pei-An Betty Shih
Food aversion and food avoidance are significant challenges to overcome for patients with eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa. The epoxide hydrolase 2 gene ( EPXH2 ) has been uncovered as a novel anorexia nervosa risk gene. We have also discovered EPHX2 -associated eicosanoids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids to be aberrant in patients with anorexia nervosa, suggesting that genetically moderated lipid metabolism may be an underlying factor in AN pathogenesis. The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Personalized polyunsaturated fatty acids as a potential adjunctive treatment for anorexia nervosa" [1]...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Meagan J Brem, Ryan C Shorey, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
OBJECTIVE: Untreated compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) poses a risk to efficacious substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Yet the ways in which CSB manifests in women with SUDs remains poorly understood. Shame and trauma exposure are well-documented correlates for women's CSB. Prior theory suggested women with shame and trauma-related symptoms may engage in CSB in an effort to escape aversive internal experiences. Thus, the present study examined experiential avoidance as a mediator of the relationship between defectiveness/shame beliefs, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and CSB in a sample of women with SUDs...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Brian T Wymbs
OBJECTIVE: Adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have more conflictual relations with their romantic partners than adults without ADHD. This study investigated whether adults with ADHD are differentially susceptible to conflict when self-control resources are depleted. METHOD: Heterosexual adult couples (20 including at least one adult with ADHD; 12 including no adults with ADHD) were randomly assigned to have resources temporarily depleted or not...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Alberto Llorente-Ovejero, Iván Manuel, Laura Lombardero, Maria Teresa Giralt, Catherine Ledent, Lydia Giménez-Llort, Rafael Rodríguez-Puertas
The endocannabinoid system, which modulates emotional learning and memory through CB1 receptors, has been found to be deregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized by a progressive decline in memory associated with selective impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission. The functional interplay of endocannabinoid and muscarinic signaling was analyzed in seven-month-old 3xTg-AD mice following the evaluation of learning and memory of an aversive stimulus. Neurochemical correlates were simultaneously studied with both receptor and functional autoradiography for CB1 and muscarinic receptors, and regulations at the cellular level were depicted by immunofluorescence...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Maya Yaari, Natalie Lisette Rotzak, David Mankuta, Ayelet Harel-Gadassi, Edwa Friedlander, Smadar Eventov-Friedman, Benjamin Bar-Oz, David Zucker, Oren Shinar, Nurit Yirmiya
Very-preterm (VPT), moderately-preterm (MPT), and full-term (FT) infants' emotion-regulation behaviors were assessed via the Still-Face procedure at a corrected age of four months. As a developmental task during the first year of life, emotion regulation is important for social and cognitive development. Although substantial evidence indicates that VPT infants exhibit emotion-regulation difficulties, little is known about MPT infants' emotion regulation capabilities, this group also possibly being at risk. The participants included 135 parent-infant dyads: 46 VPT (gestational age 24-32 weeks), 51 MPT (gestational age 32-34 weeks), and 38 FT (gestational age 37-41 weeks)...
June 1, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Noel T Brewer, Humberto Parada, Marissa G Hall, Marcella H Boynton, Seth M Noar, Kurt M Ribisl
Background: Our randomized trial found that pictorial cigarette pack warnings elicited more quit attempts than text-only warnings. Purpose: In the current study, we sought to identify psychological mechanisms that explain why pictorial cigarette pack warnings change behavior. Methods: In 2014 and 2015, we recruited 2,149 adult smokers in NC and CA, USA. We randomly assigned smokers to receive on their cigarette packs for 4 weeks either a text-only warning (one of the USA's current warnings on the side of cigarette packs) or a pictorial warning (one of the USA's proposed text warnings with pictures on the top half of the front and back of cigarette packs)...
May 29, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
I Rivierez, G Quatremere, B Spire, J Ghosn, D Rojas Castro
Before January 2016, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical HIV-prevention tool, was only available in France via ANRS-Ipergay clinical study but informal use was reported outside this setting. PrEPage qualitative study reports profiles and experiences of participants who used PrEP outside of a biomedical trial before this prevention method was authorized. Between March 2015 and February 2016, a cross-section of twenty-four informal PrEP users, mostly MSM, was recruited to complete in-depth semi-structured interviews...
May 30, 2018: AIDS Care
Chi-Yung Cheng, Hsiu-Yung Pan, Chao-Jui Li, Yi-Chuan Chen, Chien-Chih Chen, Yi-Syun Huang, Fu-Jen Cheng
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the association between physician risk tolerance and head computed tomography (CT) use in patients with minor head injury (MHI) in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed pediatric patients (<17 years old) with MHI in the ED and then administered 2 questionnaires (a risk-taking subscale [RTS] of the Jackson Personality Inventory and a malpractice fear scale [MFS]) to attending physicians who had evaluated these patients and made decisions regarding head CT use...
May 25, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Corentin J Gosling, Sylvain Moutier
Risk-aversion and rationality have both been highlighted as core features of decision making in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study tested whether risk-aversion is related to rational decision-making in ASD individuals. ASD and matched control adults completed a decision-making task that discriminated between the use of risk-averse and rational strategies. Results showed that overall, ASD participants were more risk-averse than control participants. Specifically, both groups made similar choices when risk-aversion was the less rational strategy but ASD participants chose more rational options than control participants when risk-aversion was the most rational strategy...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Daniel M Blumenthal, Linda R Valsdottir, Yuansong Zhao, Changyu Shen, Ajay J Kirtane, Duane S Pinto, Fred S Resnic, Karen E Joynt Maddox, Jason H Wasfy, Roxana Mehran, Ken Rosenfield, Robert W Yeh
Importance: Public reporting of procedural outcomes has been associated with lower rates of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and worse outcomes after myocardial infarction. Contemporary data are limited on the influence of public reporting on interventional cardiologists' clinical decision making. Objective: To survey a contemporary cohort of interventional cardiologists in Massachusetts and New York about how public reporting of PCI outcomes influences clinical decision making...
May 9, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Jen-Hau Yang, Chung-Ping Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
Decision making related to risks and rewards has been studied in the rodent by using several behavioral tests including the use of probability discounting tasks. However, it still remains unclear how long-term values and the different levels of risk are involved in decisions with reward uncertainty. In this study, we used a T-maze choice task to investigate the role of expected reward values in decision making under risk in the rat. The task was specifically set up to run with the expected value (EV) being equal to 1 between binary choice options (small-and-certain vs...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Gabriela Manzano-Nieves, Mizan Gaillard, Meghan Gallo, Kevin G Bath
Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered processing of threat signals, and increased lifetime risk of anxiety and affective pathology, disorders that disproportionately affect females. We tested the impact of a limited bedding paradigm of ELS (from P4-11) on contextual threat learning, context memory, footshock sensitivity, and anxietylike behavior, in adult male and female mice. To examine contextual threat learning, mice conditioned by context/footshock association were tested 24 hr later for the context memory...
May 21, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Ulrika Håkansson, Reidulf Watten, Kerstin Söderström, Finn Skårderud, Merete Glenne Øie
Mothers with a substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk for maladaptive parenting practices, and have heightened likelihood of having experienced childhood adversity themselves. In addition, parental reflective functioning (PRF), a capacity underlying sensitive caregiving, is often low in mothers with SUD. This study examines the relationship between PRF and aversive (emotional, physical, sexual abuse and neglect) and adaptive (safety and competence) experiences, in different developmental phases (early childhood, latency, and adolescence) in mothers with a SUD...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kendra L Seaman, Mikella A Green, Stephen Shu, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin
In a previous study, we found adult age differences in the tendency to accept more positively skewed gambles (with a small chance of a large win) than other equivalent risks, or an age-related positive-skew bias. In the present study, we examined whether loss aversion explained this bias. A total of 508 healthy participants (ages 21-82) completed measures of loss aversion and skew preference. Age was not related to loss aversion. Although loss aversion was a significant predictor of gamble acceptance, it did not influence the age-related positive-skew bias...
May 17, 2018: Psychology and Aging
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