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Risk aversion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629489/eating-down-or-simply-eating-less-the-diet-and-health-implications-of-these-practices-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum-in-rural-bangladesh
#1
Kassandra L Harding, Susana L Matias, Malay K Mridha, Stephen A Vosti, Sohrab Hussain, Kathryn G Dewey, Christine P Stewart
OBJECTIVE: To: (i) determine the prevalence of self-reported eating less and eating down during early and late pregnancy and postpartum, and explore risk factors associated with eating less; (ii) examine the association between eating less and diet quality; and (iii) determine the association between eating less and weight gain during pregnancy. DESIGN: Data were collected longitudinally from a cohort of women participating in a community health programme. Diet was assessed at three time points (≤20 weeks' gestation, 36 weeks' gestation, 6 months' postpartum), body weight was measured during study enrolment (≤20 weeks' gestation) and at 36 weeks' gestation, and information about the woman and her household was collected at enrolment...
June 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627907/the-role-of-empathy-in-experiencing-vicarious-anxiety
#2
Jocelyn Shu, Samuel Hassell, Jochen Weber, Kevin N Ochsner, Dean Mobbs
With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623169/mutation-of-the-inhibitory-ethanol-site-in-gabaa-%C3%AF-1-receptors-promotes-tolerance-to-ethanol-induced-motor-incoordination
#3
Yuri A Blednov, Cecilia M Borghese, Carlos I Ruiz, Madeline A Cullins, Adriana Da Costa, Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek, Gregg E Homanics, R Adron Harris
Genes encoding the ρ1/2 subunits of GABAA receptors have been associated with alcohol (ethanol) dependence in humans, and ρ1 was also shown to regulate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol in animal models. Ethanol inhibits GABA-mediated responses in wild-type (WT) ρ1, but not ρ1(T6'Y) mutant receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, indicating the presence of an inhibitory site for ethanol in the second transmembrane helix. In this study, we found that ρ1(T6'Y) receptors expressed in oocytes display overall normal responses to GABA, the endogenous GABA modulator (zinc), and partial agonists (β-alanine and taurine)...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606245/prefrontal-brain-responsiveness-to-negative-stimuli-distinguishes-familial-risk-for-major-depression-from-acute-disorder
#4
Nils Opel, Ronny Redlich, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Dohm, Dario Zaremba, Susanne Meinert, Christian Bürger, Leonie Plümpe, Judith Alferink, Walter Heindel, Harald Kugel, Peter Zwanzger, Volker Arolt, Udo Dannlowski
BACKGROUND: Identifying reliable trait markers of familial risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a challenge in translational psychiatric research. In individuals with acute MDD, dysfunctional connectivity patterns of prefrontal areas have been shown repeatedly. However, it has been unclear in which neuronal networks functional alterations in individuals at familial risk for MDD might be present and to what extent they resemble findings previously reported in those with acute MDD...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588508/individual-differences-in-subjective-utility-and-risk-preferences-the-influence-of-hedonic-capacity-and-trait-anxiety
#5
Jonathon R Howlett, Martin P Paulus
Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586099/benchmarking-discount-rate-in-natural-resource-damage-assessment-with-risk-aversion
#6
Desheng Wu, Shuzhen Chen
Benchmarking a credible discount rate is of crucial importance in natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) and restoration evaluation. This article integrates a holistic framework of NRDA with prevailing low discount rate theory, and proposes a discount rate benchmarking decision support system based on service-specific risk aversion. The proposed approach has the flexibility of choosing appropriate discount rates for gauging long-term services, as opposed to decisions based simply on duration. It improves injury identification in NRDA since potential damages and side-effects to ecosystem services are revealed within the service-specific framework...
June 6, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582004/public-reporting-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#7
REVIEW
Michael C McDaniel, S Tanveer Rab
Public reporting provides transparency and improved quality of care. However, methods in estimating risk adjusted mortality in ST-segment myocardial infarction, particularly in cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest are contentious. There are concerns that this has resulted in risk-averse behavior in publicly reporting states, resulting in suboptimal care in these patients.
October 2016: Interventional cardiology clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578212/contributions-of-risk-preference-time-orientation-and-perceptions-to-breast-cancer-screening-regularity
#8
Léontine Goldzahl
Disparities in breast cancer screening are often explained by socioeconomic factors, although a growing body of papers show that risk preference, time orientation and perceptions may explain mammography use. The aim of this paper is to estimate the relative contribution of socioeconomic factors, risk preference, time orientation and perceptions to disparities in breast cancer screening regularity. These determinants are elicited in an experimental laboratory from 178 women aged between 50 and 75 years in France in 2013...
May 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575301/reducing-antipsychotic-medication-use-in-nursing-homes-a-qualitative-study-of-nursing-staff-perceptions
#9
Sandra F Simmons, Kemberlee R Bonnett, Emily Hollingsworth, Jennifer Kim, James Powers, Ralf Habermann, Paul Newhouse, David G Schlundt
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to explore nursing home staff perceptions of antipsychotic medication use and identify both benefits and barriers to reducing inappropriate use from their perspective. Research Design and Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a total of 29 staff in three community nursing homes that served both short and long-stay resident populations. Results: The majority (69%) of the staff participants were licensed nurses...
May 30, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569527/pseudocontingencies-and-choice-behavior-in-probabilistic-environments-with-context-dependent-outcomes
#10
Thorsten Meiser, Jan Rummel, Hanna Fleig
Pseudocontingencies are inferences about correlations in the environment that are formed on the basis of statistical regularities like skewed base rates or varying base rates across environmental contexts. Previous research has demonstrated that pseudocontingencies provide a pervasive mechanism of inductive inference in numerous social judgment tasks (Fiedler, Freytag, & Meiser, 2009). The present research extended the analysis of pseudocontingencies from social judgment to actual choice behavior in a decision scenario of personal relevance...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569526/noisy-preferences-in-risky-choice-a-cautionary-note
#11
Sudeep Bhatia, Graham Loomes
We examine the effects of multiple sources of noise in risky decision making. Noise in the parameters that characterize an individual's preferences can combine with noise in the response process to distort observed choice proportions. Thus, underlying preferences that conform to expected value maximization can appear to show systematic risk aversion or risk seeking. Similarly, core preferences that are consistent with expected utility theory, when perturbed by such noise, can appear to display nonlinear probability weighting...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559334/response-time-in-economic-games-reflects-different-types-of-decision-conflict-for-prosocial-and-proself-individuals
#12
Toshio Yamagishi, Yoshie Matsumoto, Toko Kiyonari, Haruto Takagishi, Yang Li, Ryota Kanai, Masamichi Sakagami
Behavioral and neuroscientific studies explore two pathways through which internalized social norms promote prosocial behavior. One pathway involves internal control of impulsive selfishness, and the other involves emotion-based prosocial preferences that are translated into behavior when they evade cognitive control for pursuing self-interest. We measured 443 participants' overall prosocial behavior in four economic games. Participants' predispositions [social value orientation (SVO)] were more strongly reflected in their overall game behavior when they made decisions quickly than when they spent a longer time...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559207/corticosterone-regulation-in-house-sparrows-invading-senegal
#13
Lynn B Martin, Holly J Kilvitis, Massamba Thiam, Daniel R Ardia
What traits help organisms expand their ranges? Several behavioral and life history traits have been identified, but physiological and especially endocrinological factors have been minimally considered. Here, we asked whether steroid hormonal responses to stressors might be important. Previously, we found that corticosterone (CORT) responses to a standard restraint stressor were stronger at a range edge than at the core of the recent house sparrow (Passer domesticus) invasion of Kenya. In related work in the same system, we found that various behaviors (exploratory activity, responses to novelty, etc...
May 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553210/evidence-for-a-priori-existence-of-attentional-bias-subgroups-in-emotional-processing-of-aversive-stimuli
#14
Casper H van Heck, Joukje M Oosterman, Kim M A de Kleijn, Marijtje L A Jongsma, Clementina M van Rijn
Little is known regarding inter-individual differences in attentional biases for pain-related information; more knowledge is crucial, since these biases have been associated with differences in pain processing as well as in predicting the risk of postoperative pain. The present study investigated EEG correlates of attentional bias patterns for pain-related information, with specific focus on avoidance- and vigilance-like behavior. Forty-one participants performed a dot-probe task, where neutral and pain-related words were used to create neutral, congruent, incongruent, and double (two pain-related words) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545898/risk-averse-personalities-have-a-systemically-potentiated-neuroendocrine-stress-axis-a-multilevel-experiment-in-parus-major
#15
Alexander T Baugh, Rebecca A Senft, Marian Firke, Abigail Lauder, Julia Schroeder, Simone L Meddle, Kees van Oers, Michaela Hau
Hormonal pleiotropy-the simultaneous influence of a single hormone on multiple traits-has been hypothesized as an important mechanism underlying personality, and circulating glucocorticoids are central to this idea. A major gap in our understanding is the neural basis for this link. Here we examine the stability and structure of behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine traits in a population of songbirds (Parus major). Upon identifying stable and covarying behavioral and endocrine traits, we test the hypothesis that risk-averse personalities exhibit a neuroendocrine stress axis that is systemically potentiated-characterized by stronger glucocorticoid reactivity and weaker negative feedback...
May 26, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542198/optimization-of-black-box-models-with-uncertain-climatic-inputs-application-to-sunflower-ideotype-design
#16
Victor Picheny, Ronan Trépos, Pierre Casadebaig
Accounting for the interannual climatic variations is a well-known issue for simulation-based studies of environmental systems. It often requires intensive sampling (e.g., averaging the simulation outputs over many climatic series), which hinders many sequential processes, in particular optimization algorithms. We propose here an approach based on a subset selection in a large basis of climatic series, using an ad-hoc similarity function and clustering. A non-parametric reconstruction technique is introduced to estimate accurately the distribution of the output of interest using only the subset sampling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541522/response-to-comment-on-the-editorial-by-turner-et-al-on-assessment-of-cardiovascular-risk-of-new-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-risk-assessment-versus-risk-aversion-by-zannad-et-al
#17
Faiez Zannad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515474/blunted-ambiguity-aversion-during-cost-benefit-decisions-in-antisocial-individuals
#18
Joshua W Buckholtz, Uma Karmarkar, Shengxuan Ye, Grace M Brennan, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Antisocial behavior is often assumed to reflect aberrant risk processing. However, many of the most significant forms of antisocial behavior, including crime, reflect the outcomes of decisions made under conditions of ambiguity rather than risk. While risk and ambiguity are formally distinct and experimentally dissociable, little is known about ambiguity sensitivity in individuals who engage in chronic antisocial behavior. We used a financial decision-making task in a high-risk community-based sample to test for associations between sensitivity to ambiguity, antisocial behavior, and arrest history...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514638/the-evolution-of-cooperation-interacting-phenotypes-among-social-partners
#19
Mat Edenbrow, Bronwyn H Bleakley, Safi K Darden, Charles R Tyler, Indar W Ramnarine, Darren P Croft
Models of cooperation among nonkin suggest that social assortment is important for the evolution of cooperation. Theory predicts that interacting phenotypes, whereby an individual's behavior depends on the behavior of its social partners, can drive such social assortment. We measured repeated indirect genetic effects (IGEs) during cooperative predator inspection in eight populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that vary in their evolutionary history of predation. Four broad patterns emerged that were dependent on river, predation history, and sex: (i) current partner behavior had the largest effect on focal behavior, with fish from low-predation habitats responding more to their social partners than fish from high-predation habitats; (ii) different focal/partner behavior combinations can generate cooperation; (iii) some high-predation fish exhibited carryover effects across social partners; and (iv) high-predation fish were more risk averse...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510736/go-no-go-decision-in-anaesthesia-wide-variation-in-risk-tolerance-amongst-anaesthetists
#20
P R Greig, H E Higham, J L Darbyshire, C Vincent
Background: The variability in risk tolerance in medicine is not well understood. Parallels are often drawn between aviation and anaesthesia. The aviation industry is perceived as culturally risk averse, and part of preflight checks involves a decision on whether the flight can operate. This is sometimes termed a go/no-go decision. This questionnaire study was undertaken to explore the equivalent go/no-go decision in anaesthesia. We presented anaesthetists with a range of situations in which additional risk might be expected and asked them to decide whether they would proceed with the case...
May 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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