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Risk avoidance

Hannah K Frank, Scott D Boyd, Elizabeth A Hadly
As humans move and alter habitats, they change the disease risk for themselves, their commensal animals and wildlife. Bartonella bacteria are prevalent in mammals and cause numerous human infections. Understanding how this genus has evolved and switched hosts in the past can reveal how current patterns were established and identify potential mechanisms for future cross-species transmission. We analyzed patterns of Bartonella transmission and likely sources of spillover using the largest collection of Bartonella gltA genotypes assembled, including 67 new genotypes...
November 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michael B Gatch, Michael J Forster
A new generation of novel cannabinoid compounds have been developed as marijuana substitutes to avoid drug control laws and cannabinoid blood tests. 5F-MDMB-PINACA (also known as 5F-ADB, 5F-ADB-PINACA), MDMB-CHIMICA, MDMB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, and AMB-FUBINACA (also known as FUB-AMB, MMB-FUBINACA) were tested for in vivo cannabinoid-like effects to assess their abuse liability. Locomotor activity in mice was tested to screen for locomotor depressant effects and to identify behaviorally-active dose ranges and times of peak effect...
November 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Sharon Karr
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update the physician community on current evidence regarding ways individuals can combat the rise in physician burnout. More than half of US physicians are experiencing at least some degree of burnout and the incidence has increased significantly over the past decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings suggest practicing physical, mental, and emotional self-care are important factors in avoiding physician burnout...
November 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Eleftheria Ntaouti, Fragiskos Gonidakis, Eirini Nikaina, Dionysios Varelas, George Creatsas, George Chrousos, Tania Siahanidou
AIMS: To validate the Greek version of Kennerley and Gath's Blues Questionnaire (BQ) and gather further knowledge on maternity blues (MB) associations with certain clinical and sociodemographic factors in Greek population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 116 postpartum women, who met the inclusion criteria, completed the Blues Questionnaire and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale on the third day after delivery. Sociodemographic and clinical data were also collected...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Lanrong Luo, Xiangyan Ruan, Changdong Li, Suwen Chen, Qiaofei Hu, Alfred O Mueck
The aim of this study was to investigate early clinical features and risk factors for cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Study group of 206 CSP patients out of 6853 women with early pregnancies, diagnosed from 2014 to 2016 was compared with a randomly selected control group of 412 patients. Early clinical features for CSP were vaginal bleeding (OR: 9.65; 95% CI: 5.67-16.41), lower abdominal pain (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.52-9.54) and increased white blood cells (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). Important risk factors for CSP were artificial abortion within the last pregnancy (OR: 4...
November 15, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Lianne Scarlett, Elizabeth Baikie, Stella W Y Chan
OBJECTIVES: Fear of falling is common amongst older adults with and without a prior experience of falling. It is related to decreased quality of life, isolation, and institutionalisation. It also poses a risk for future falls when activity is avoided because of fear of falling and muscle deconditioning occurs. Relatively little is known about the psychological factors underpinning fear of falling. This study explored the relationship between emotion regulation and fear of falling in community dwelling older adults...
November 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Eliyahu Zaig, Odile Cohen-Ouaknine, Anat Tsur, Sheila Nagar, Gherta Bril, Lior Tolkin, Avivit Cahn, Mozhgan Heyman, Benjamin Glaser
BACKGROUND: Reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone (RSTH) syndrome describes a group of rare heterogeneous genetic disorders. Precise diagnosis is essential to avoid unnecessary treatment. OBJECTIVES: To identify and characterize previously undiagnosed patients with RSTH in Israel. METHODS: Patients with suspected RSTH throughout Israel were referred for study. After clinical evaluation, genomic DNA was obtained and all coding exons of the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene were sequenced...
November 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Elaine T Lawson, Jesse S Ayivor, Fidelia Ohemeng, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu
Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans, affecting various aspects of human development on a global scale. The significance of bats as a source of emerging infectious diseases is being progressively appreciated. This study was undertaken post-Ebola virus disease in West Africa and assessed the public health implications of human-bat interactions by exploring the reasons for contact between humans and bats, as well as reported actions taken upon experiencing bat bites or scratches...
November 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Abdulaleem Alatassi, Silvia Fernández Mulero, Nancy Massoud, Zainab Alzayer, Ahmed Haroun Mahmoud
Patients with single ventricle physiology (SVP) are a particularly challenging population with congenital heart disease (CHD); they will go for staged, palliation ending in the Fontan circulation. Nowadays, with improvement in surgical procedures for CHD, these patients become growing population, and noncardiac surgeries become not uncommon. The authors report different anesthesia approaches for four pediatric patients with SVP underwent ten noncardiac procedures done under general anesthesia following the different stages of palliation at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between 2009 and 2015 and do a brief review of the literature on this topic...
October 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Jose R Navas-Blanco, Junior Uduman, Javier Diaz-Mendoza
The prevalence of in situ tracheal stents has increased in the past two decades for the management of malignant and benign central airway diseases for either palliation or definitive therapy. Recent placement of a tracheal stent has been associated with edema of the upper airway; therefore, these patients are at a great risk for airway collapse, especially within the days most recent to the procedure. The authors present the case of a morbidly obese patient with a tracheal stent admitted to the Intensive Care Unit who developed acute respiratory failure and was found to be "unable to ventilate, unable to intubate...
October 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Arumugam Vasudevan, Suganya Srinivasan, Stalin Vinayagam, Govindarajalou Ramkumar, Muthapillai Senthilnathan
Background: Rapid sequence induction and intubation (RSII) with application of "Cricoid pressure" and avoidance of "facemask ventilation" (FMV) is believed to minimize the risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during general anesthesia. However, some patients may be at risk of developing hypoxemia and may benefit from FMV during RSII. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of "cricoid pressure" in preventing gastric insufflation during FMV using gastric ultrasonography...
October 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Raymond L Merritt, Michael E Hachadorian, Kristof Michaels, Eric Zevallos, Kubwimana M Mhayamaguru, Zuheily Closser, Charlotte Derr
Context: Previous studies have shown that safe venous cannulation is difficult when the internal jugular vein (IJV) overlies the carotid artery (CA) as the probability of inadvertent arterial penetration is greatly increased. Aims: The goal of this study was to examine the anatomical relationships of the IJV and CA as a function of the degree of head rotation in order to minimize the risk for CA puncture. Settings and Design: Our study was a prospective study using a sample of 496 Emergency Department patients...
July 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
E MacDonald, R White, R Mexia, T Bruun, G Kapperud, L T Brandal, H Lange, K Nygård, L Vold
In Norway, incidence of sporadic domestically acquired salmonellosis is low, and most frequently due to Salmonalla Typhimurium. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Salmonella infections in Norway to improve control and prevention measures. Surveillance data for all Salmonella infections from 2000 to 2015 were analysed for seasonality and proportion associated with domestic reservoirs, hedgehogs and wild birds. A prospective case-control study was conducted from 2010 to 2012 by recruiting cases from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and controls from the Norwegian Population Registry (389 cases and 1500 controls)...
November 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Chibuokem G Amuneke-Nze, Benita A Bamgbade, Jamie C Barner
Little is known regarding interventions that incorporate health management perceptions among African American (AA) men, to reduce the risk for developing various medical conditions. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the study objective was to better understand health-care perceptions of AA men by assessing participants' attitudes, subjective norms (SNs), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) regarding health management. AA adult males in Texas were recruited to participate in one of four qualitative focus groups...
November 15, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Peter F Horstmann, Werner H Hettwer, Michael M Petersen
PURPOSE: The management of bone defects following simple curettage of bone tumors is controversial and in light of the numerous emerging substitutes for bone grafts, we wished to review and report our experience with the use of cancellous allograft bone in the treatment of benign and borderline bone tumors. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 164 consecutive patients with benign or borderline bone tumors treated with simple curettage at our orthopedic oncology center between 2009 and 2013...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
H M Bové, M Lisby, A Norlyk
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate the lived experience of how patients with alcohol use disorders experience being cared for when admitted to acute medical units. BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is health damaging and is identified as one of the major avoidable risk factors and alcohol use disorder is classified among the most harmful, debilitating disease categories. Patients suffering from alcohol use disorders are characterized by complex problems and health pictures spawned by chaotic lifestyles...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Sheldon H Preskorn
This column is the second in a series exploring drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with a special emphasis on psychiatric medications. The first column in this series discussed why patients being treated with psychiatric medications are at increased risk for taking multiple medications and thus experiencing DDIs and how to recognize such DDIs, and strategies for avoiding them. This second column in the series discusses strategies for minimizing adverse outcomes from such unintended DDIs. Given the huge and rapidly increasing number of available prescription and over-the-counter medications as well as nutritional supplements, the author recommends that all prescribers develop a personal formulary of ∼30 drugs that they use in everyday practice and with which they are intimately familiar...
September 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Sheldon H Preskorn
This column begins a series exploring drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with a special emphasis on psychiatric medications. As explained in this column, this topic is important for multiple reasons. First, a large percentage of the population is receiving psychiatric medications. Second, these patients are likely to be on multiple medications which means that they are at risk for an adverse DDI. Third, DDIs may occur but not be recognized even though they have significant health care consequences for the patient...
July 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Sarah Bradford, Anita Ramsetty, Scott Bragg, Jennifer Bain
Interest in slowing or reversing the process of aging continues to grow and has encouraged the growth of an entire anti-aging industry. However, there is a dearth of data based on randomized trials in humans to support proposed therapies to address the various complex processes involved in aging. Hormonal therapies, in particular, have little data to support safe use and are associated with some degree of risk. Experimental data in animal models suggest possible molecular targets but their use in clinical medicine is far in the future...
November 2018: FP Essentials
Jay A Lieberman
Peanut allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children, with a prevalence that has been increasing over the past several decades. The allergy is a type I, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reaction that commonly presents in childhood and can be associated with an anaphylactic response. There are many theories that attempt to explain the increasing prevalence, including dietary changes, improvements in hygiene, and intentional allergen avoidance. Diagnosis is made through a combination of a thorough patient history, peanut-specific serum-specific IgE levels, peanut skin-prick test, and, if necessary, an oral food challenge...
October 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
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