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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222948/force-coordination-strategies-in-on-water-single-sculling-are-asymmetries-related-to-better-rowing-performance
#1
John Warmenhoven, Richard Smith, Conny Draper, Andrew Harrison, Norma Bargary, Stephen Cobley
Asymmetries of the rowing stroke cycle have been assessed with reference to kinematics and foot-force measures in laboratory testing environments. It remains unclear how asymmetries in propulsive kinetic measures are related to on-water rowing performance. A new approach for the evaluation of both global and local asymmetries across the entire movement was used to assess the continuous role of asymmetries and whether these change according to level of competitive representation. Twenty seven highly skilled female rowers (national and international competition level), rowing at 32 strokes per minute in a single scull boat were evaluated...
December 9, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209662/prehistoric-women-s-manual-labor-exceeded-that-of-athletes-through-the-first-5500-years-of-farming-in-central-europe
#2
Alison A Macintosh, Ron Pinhasi, Jay T Stock
The intensification of agriculture is often associated with declining mobility and bone strength through time, although women often exhibit less pronounced trends than men. For example, previous studies of prehistoric Central European agriculturalists (~5300 calibrated years BC to 850 AD) demonstrated a significant reduction in tibial rigidity among men, whereas women were characterized by low tibial rigidity, little temporal change, and high variability. Because of the potential for sex-specific skeletal responses to mechanical loading and a lack of modern comparative data, women's activity in prehistory remains difficult to interpret...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191982/case-studies-in-physiology-exercise-induced-diaphragm-fatigue-in-a-paralympic-champion-rower-with-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Nicholas B Tiller, Thomas R Aggar, Christopher R West, Lee M Romer
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this case report was to determine whether maximal upper-body exercise was sufficient to induce diaphragm fatigue in a Paralympic champion adaptive rower with low-lesion spinal cord injury (SCI). CASE PRESENTATION: An elite arms-only oarsman (age 28 y, stature 1.89 m, mass 90.4 kg) with motor-complete SCI (T12) performed a 1000 m time-trial on an adapted rowing ergometer. Exercise measurements comprised pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, diaphragm EMG-derived indices of neural respiratory drive and intrathoracic pressure-derived indices of respiratory mechanics...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177199/predicting-tacrolimus-concentrations-in-children-receiving-a-heart-transplant-using-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model
#4
Joseph E Rower, Chris Stockmann, Matthew W Linakis, Shaun S Kumar, Xiaoxi Liu, E Kent Korgenski, Catherine M T Sherwin, Kimberly M Molina
Objective: Immunosuppressant therapy plays a pivotal role in transplant success and longevity. Tacrolimus, a primary immunosuppressive agent, is well known to exhibit significant pharmacological interpatient and intrapatient variability. This variability necessitates the collection of serial trough concentrations to ensure that the drug remains within therapeutic range. The objective of this study was to build a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model and use it to determine the minimum number of trough samples needed to guide the prediction of an individual's future concentrations...
2017: BMJ Paediatrics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162638/the-relationship-between-pectoral-fin-ray-stiffness-and-swimming-behavior-in-labridae-insights-into-design-performance-and-ecology
#5
Brett R Aiello, Adam R Hardy, Chery Cherian, Aaron M Olsen, Sihyun E Ahn, Melina E Hale, Mark W Westneat
The functional capabilities of flexible, propulsive, appendages are directly influenced by their mechanical properties. The fins of fishes have undergone extraordinary evolutionary diversification in structure and function, which raises questions of how fin mechanics relate to swimming behavior. In the fish family Labridae, pectoral fin swimming behavior ranges from rowing to flapping. Rowers are more maneuverable than flappers, but flappers generate greater thrust at high speeds and achieve greater mechanical efficiency at all speeds...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156368/self-and-team-prioritisation-effects-in-perceptual-matching-evidence-for-a-shared-representation
#6
Florence Enock, Jie Sui, Miles Hewstone, Glyn W Humphreys
Previous research has demonstrated that in-group favouritism occurs not only in higher-level judgments such as reward allocation, but also in low-level perceptual and attentional tasks. Recently, Moradi, Sui, Hewstone, and Humphreys (2015) found a novel effect of in-group bias on a simple perceptual matching task in which football fans responded more efficiently to stimuli newly associated with their own football team than stimuli associated with rival or neutral teams. This result is consistent with a robust self-bias effect in which individuals show a large performance advantage in responding to stimuli associated with the self over stimuli associated with a close friend or a stranger (Sui, He, & Humphreys, 2012)...
November 17, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148129/development-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing-the-rowstim-series
#7
Brian Andrews, Robin Gibbons, Garry Wheeler
Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143667/validation-of-whole-blood-transcriptome-signature-during-microdose-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-rhuepo-administration
#8
Guan Wang, Jérôme Durussel, Jonathan Shurlock, Martin Mooses, Noriyuki Fuku, Georgie Bruinvels, Charles Pedlar, Richard Burden, Andrew Murray, Brendan Yee, Anne Keenan, John D McClure, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yannis P Pitsiladis
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. METHODS: Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively)...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132012/distinct-ezrin-truncations-differentiate-metastases-in-sentinel-lymph-nodes-from-unaffected-lymph-node-tissues-from-primary-breast-tumors-and-from-healthy-glandular-breast-tissues
#9
Claudia Röwer, Christian George, Toralf Reimer, Bernd Stengel, Anngret Radtke, Bernd Gerber, Michael O Glocker
BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis status is a prognostic factor for further lymph node involvement and for patient survival in breast cancer patients. Frozen section analysis of lymph nodes is a reliable method for detection of macro-metastases. However, this method is far less effective in detecting micro-metastases, requesting improved diagnostic procedures. METHODS: We investigated expression and truncation of ezrin in (i) sentinel lymph node metastases, (ii) unaffected axillary lymph nodes, (iii) primary breast tumors, and (iv) healthy glandular breast tissues using 2D gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry in addition to Western blotting...
November 10, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107321/multiscale-coordination-between-athletes-complexity-matching-in-ergometer-rowing
#10
Ruud J R Den Hartigh, Vivien Marmelat, Ralf F A Cox
Complex systems applications in human movement sciences have increased our understanding of emergent coordination patterns between athletes. In the current study, we take a novel step and propose that movement coordination between athletes is a multiscale phenomenon. Specifically, we investigated so-called "complexity matching" of performance measured in the context of rowing. Sixteen rowers participated in two sessions on rowing ergometers: One individual session of 550 strokes and one dyadic session of 550 strokes side-by-side with a team member...
October 26, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101975/chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-in-athletes
#11
REVIEW
Betty Liu, Gustavo Barrazueta, David E Ruchelsman
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) refers to exercise-induced, reversible increases in pressure within well-defined inelastic fascial compartments leading to compromised tissue perfusion followed by functional loss, ischemic pain, and neurologic symptoms. Symptoms typically resolve when the activity ceases and there are usually no permanent sequelae. In the upper extremity, this condition most commonly affects athletes during sports requiring repetitive and vigorous gripping, such as rowers. In addition to clinical history and examination, a number of methods aid diagnosis, including compartment pressure measurements, magnetic resonance imaging, and near infrared spectroscopy...
November 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095908/textured-insoles-affect-the-plantar-pressure-distribution-while-elite-rowers-perform-on-an-indoor-rowing-machine
#12
Taian Vieira, Alberto Botter, Laura Gastaldi, Isabel C N Sacco, Francesco Martelli, Claudia Giacomozzi
INTRODUCTION: During rowing, foot positioning on the foot stretcher is critical to optimise muscle force transmission and boat propulsion. Following the beneficial effects of textured insoles on gait and balance, this study aims at investigating whether passive stimulation of foot mechanoreceptors induced by these insoles may contribute to improving foot loading pattern and symmetry during indoor rowing. METHODS: Eleven elite rowers were assessed during controlled training on a standard rowing machine while wearing control, low-density or high-density textured insoles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057922/a-trade-off-between-cognitive-and-physical-performance-with-relative-preservation-of-brain-function
#13
Daniel Longman, Jay T Stock, Jonathan C K Wells
Debate surrounds the issue of how the large, metabolically expensive brains of Homo sapiens can be energetically afforded. At the evolutionary level, decreased investment in muscularity, adiposity and the digestive tract allow for a larger brain. Developmentally, high neo-natal adiposity and preferential distribution of resources to the brain provide an energetic buffer during times of environmental stress. Through an experimental design, we investigated the hypothesis of a trade-off involving brain and muscle at the acute level in humans...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035635/effects-of-varying-the-step-duration-on-the-determination-of-lactate-thresholds-in-elite-rowers
#14
Pitre C Bourdon, Sarah M Woolford, Jonathan D Buckley
This study aimed to identify the minimum increment duration required to accurately assess two distinct lactate thresholds. Twenty-one elite rowers (12 female, 9 males) each performed 8-9 rowing tests comprising: 1) five progressive incremental tests (3, 4, 5, 7 or 10 min steps); and 2) at least three 30-min constant-intensity maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) assessments. Power output (PO) at lactate threshold 1 (LT1) was higher in the 3- and 4-min incremental tests. No other measures were different for LT1...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035587/computer-aided-stroke-by-stroke-visualization-of-actual-and-target-power-allows-for-continuously-increasing-ramp-tests-on-wind-braked-rowing-ergometers
#15
Gunnar Treff, Kay Winkert, Katja Machus, Jürgen M Steinacker
PURPOSE: Ramp tests are continuously increasing exercise tests used for determination of maximal oxygen uptake (⩒O2max), which is identifiable by a plateau in ⩒O2despite increasing mechanical power output (LOAD). On wind-braked rowing ergometers (RowErg) it is hardly feasible to ensure a continuous increase in LOAD until test termination, because neither resistance nor stroke-frequency are externally adjustable, but depend on the rower. To enable ramp tests on rowing ergometers, we produced visual stroke-by-stroke feedback showing target and actual LOAD to the rower...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991036/no-effect-of-%C3%AE-alanine-on-muscle-function-and-kayak-performance
#16
Signe Refsgaard Bech, Tobias Schmidt Nielsen, Martin Hald, Jarl Pors Jakobsen, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
PURPOSE: It was investigated if β-alanine supplementation counteracts muscular fatigue development or improves athletic performance. METHODS: Elite kayak rowers (10 males and 7 females) were supplemented with either 80 mg/kg body mass/day β-alanine or placebo for 8 weeks. Muscular fatigue development was investigated by applying a 2 min elbow flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Electromyography (EMG) was recorded continuously and voluntary activation (VA) was determined 30, 60, 90 and 115 s into the 2 min MVC...
October 5, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983443/rowers-self-reported-behaviors-attitudes-and-safety-concerns-related-to-exercise-training-and-competition-during-pregnancy
#17
Ashley Franklin, Joanna Mishtal, Teresa Johnson, Judith Simms-Cendan
Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013...
August 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979208/sedentary-behavior-among-national-elite-rowers-during-off-training-a-pilot-study
#18
Billy Sperlich, Martin Becker, Andreas Hotho, Birgit Wallmann-Sperlich, Mahdi Sareban, Kay Winkert, Jürgen M Steinacker, Gunnar Treff
The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the off-training physical activity (PA) profile in national elite German U23 rowers during 31 days of their preparation period. The hours spent in each PA category (i.e., sedentary: <1.5 metabolic equivalents (MET); light physical activity: 1.5-3 MET; moderate physical activity: 3-6 MET and vigorous intense physical activity: >6 MET) were calculated for every valid day (i.e., >480 min of wear time). The off-training PA during 21 weekdays and 10 weekend days of the final 11-week preparation period was assessed by the wrist-worn multisensory device Microsoft Band II (MSBII)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965345/relationship-between-force-velocity-profiles-and-1-500-m-ergometer-performance-in-young-rowers
#19
Caroline Giroux, Hugo Maciejewski, Amal Ben-Abdessamie, Frédéric Chorin, Julien Lardy, Sebastien Ratel, Abderrahmane Rahmani
Rowing races require developing high level of force and power output at high contraction velocity. This study determined the force-velocity and power-velocity (F-P-V) profiles of lower and upper limbs of adolescent rowers and their relationships with a 1,500-m rowing ergometer performance. The power developed during the 1,500-m (P1500) was evaluated in fourteen national-level male rowers (age: 15.3±0.6 yrs). F-P-V profiles were assessed during bench pull (BP) and squat jump (SJ) exercises. The theoretical maximal values of force (F0), velocity (V0), power output (Pmax) and the F-V relationship slope (S FV ) were determined...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965342/factors-of-rowing-ergometer-performance-in-high-level-female-rowers
#20
Muriel Bourdin, Jean-Rene Lacour, Charles Imbert, Laurent André Messonnier
The present study investigated morphological and physiological factors of rowing ergometer performance over 2000 m (P2000, W) in 70 national and international level [27 lightweight (LW) and 43 heavyweight (HW)] female rowers. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max, L.min(-1)), maximal aerobic power (Pamax, W), power output corresponding to 4 mmol.L(-1) blood lactate concentration expressed in absolute (PLa4, W) and relative to Pamax (PLa4%, %) values, peak power output (Ppeak, W), and rowing gross efficiency (RGE, %) were determined during an incremental rowing test...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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