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Ebru Fındıklı, Mustafa Gökçe, Vedat Nacitarhan, Mehmet Akif Camkurt, Hüseyin Avni Fındıklı, Selçuk Kardaş, Merve Coşgun Şahin, Mehmet Fatih Karaaslan
Objective: That treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) causes metabolic side effects and atherosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) is well-known. Increased arterial stiffness is an important marker of arteriosclerosis and has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arteriosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and BD who use SGAs. Methods: Patients and controls were collected from our psychiatry outpatient clinics or family medicine...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jorge R Reyes, Timothy R Vollmer, Astrid Hall
We compared outcomes of arousal and preference assessments for five adult male alleged sexual offenders with intellectual disabilities. Arousal assessments involved the use of the penile plethysmograph to measure changes in penile circumference to both deviant (males and females under the age of 18) and nondeviant (males and females over the age of 18) video clips. Paired-stimulus preference assessments were arranged to present still images from the video clips used in the arousal assessments. Results showed correspondence between the assessments for four out of the five participants...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joshua A Beckman, Allison B Goldfine, Jane A Leopold, Mark A Creager
Oxidative stress is a key driver of vascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Ebselen is a glutathione-peroxidase mimetic. A single-site, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 26 subjects with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes to evaluate effects of high-dose ebselen (150 mg orally twice daily) administration on oxidative stress and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Treatment periods were in random order of 4 weeks duration, with a 4 week washout between. Measures of oxidative stress included nitrotyrosine, plasma 8-isoprostanes, and the ratio of reduced-to-oxidized glutathione...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Carl B Gillombardo, Rebecca Darrah, Thomas E Dick, Michael Moore, Nathan Kong, Michael J Decker, Fang Han, Motoo Yamauchi, Mathias Dutschmann, Sausan Azzam, Kingman P Strohl
RATIONALE: Brainstem apolipoprotein AII (apoa2) mRNA expression correlates with apnea in breathing present in the adult C57Bl/6J (B6) sleep apnea model. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that the B6 apoa2 gene contributes to the trait, we performed plethysmographic testing in apoa2 knock out (KO: -/-) mice, an in situ brainstem-spinal cord preparation comparing KO to WT (+/+) mice, and B6xDBA recombinant inbred strains (RISs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Apoa2 WT do, but KO and heterozygote (+/-) mice do not exhibit apnea during post-hypoxic breathing, measured in vivo...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ariel Brandwein, Kavita Patel, Myriam Kline, Peter Silver, Sandeep Gangadharan
OBJECTIVES: Patients with obstructive airway disease have varying degrees of pulsus paradoxus that correlate with illness severity. Pulsus paradoxus can be measured using plethysmography. We investigated whether plethysmograph (pleth) variability on admission to the pediatric emergency department (ED) could predict patient disposition. We hypothesized that patients with a larger pleth variability would have a higher likelihood of being admitted to a general pediatrics unit or the intensive care unit (ICU)...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Maria Skytioti, Signe Søvik, Maja Elstad
Intact cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for cerebral metabolism and function, whereas hypoperfusion in relation to hypovolemia and hypocapnia can lead to severe cerebral damage. This study was designed to assess internal carotid artery blood flow (ICA-BF) during simulated hypovolemia and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in young healthy humans. Beat-by-beat blood velocity (ICA and aorta) were measured by Doppler ultrasound during normovolemia and simulated hypovolemia (lower body negative pressure), with or without PPV in 15 awake subjects...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Samantha R Warnakulasuriya, Simon J Davies, R Jonathan T Wilson, David R A Yates
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate if there is equivalence in volumes of fluid administered when intravenous fluid therapy is guided by Pleth Variability Index (PVI) compared to the established technology of esophageal Doppler in low-risk patients undergoing major colorectal surgery. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Operating room. PATIENTS: Forty low-risk patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Giovanna Castoldi, Cira R T di Gioia, Raffaella Carletti, Francesca Roma, Gianpaolo Zerbini, Andrea Stella
Compound 21 (C21), selective agonist of AT2 receptors, shows antinflammatory effects in hypertension and nephroprotection in diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of C21 in cyclosporine nephropathy, which is characterized mainly by tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Ten days before and during the experimental periods, low-salt diet was administered to Sprague Dawley rats. Cyclosporine-A (15mg/kg/day, i.p.) and cyclosporine-A plus C21 (0.3 mg/kg /day, i.p) were administered for 1 and 4 weeks...
September 27, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Dale R Bergren, Jimmie L Valentine
Therapeutic natural products and medicinal herbs has gained popularity. The anti-antigenic action of the plant alkaloid nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) was studied in ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs. In one series of experiments conscious, non-sedated guinea pigs were challenged with OA aerosol. Specific airway resistance (SRAW) was monitored using a two-chambered whole-body plethysmograph. OA aerosol increased SRAW above that produced by vehicle administration. Prior NDGA administration by a 1min 0...
September 2, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
David Van Laere, John M O'Toole, Michiel Voeten, Joanne McKiernan, Geraldine B Boylan, Eugene Dempsey
OBJECTIVE: To develop new quantitative features for the Perfusion Index signal recorded continuously over the first 24 hours of life in a cohort of extremely low gestational age newborns and to assess the association of these features with normal and adverse short-term outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study of extremely low gestational age newborns. Adverse outcome was defined as early mortality before 72 hours of life, acquired severe periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage, or severe cystic leukomalacia...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Anirudh Krishnamohan, Viraj Siriwardana, Justin J Skowno
BACKGROUND: Peripheral vasodilation is a well-recognized side effect of general anesthesia, and induces changes in the amplitude of the pulse plethysmograph (PPG) waveform. This can be continuously quantitaed using the Perfusion Index (PI), a ratio of the pulsatile to nonpulsatile signal amplitude in the PPG waveform. We hypothesized that the perfusion index would rise with the induction of anesthesia in children, and fall with emergence, and performed a prospective, observational study to test this...
November 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Tim J T Sutherland, Christene R McLachlan, Malcolm R Sears, Richie Poulton, Robert J Hancox
The relationship between adiposity and respiratory function is poorly understood. Most studies investigating this have used indirect measures of body fat and few have assessed how changes in adiposity influence lung function.Body fat measured by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index, waist circumference, spirometry, body plethysmography and transfer factor were measured at ages 32 and 38 years in 361 non-smoking, non-asthmatic participants from a population-based birth cohort.Higher percentage body fat was associated with lower spirometric and plethysmographic lung volumes, but not with airflow obstruction, or transfer factor at 32 years...
September 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Thomas Peponis, Elie Ramly, Kym A Roth, David R King
BACKGROUND: Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats (CBRNs) are uncommon; however, Special Operations Forces (SOF) are likely at the highest risk for tactical exposure. In the event of exposure, SOF will rely on the Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JSLIST) for survival. Doctrine dictates that a tourniquet should be applied over the JSLIST after a severe limb injury with hemorrhage. There is no evidence in the literature that the Combat Application Tourniquet (C-A-T), which is currently the most widely available tourniquet on the battlefield, can effectively occlude arterial blood flow when applied over the JSLIST...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Ian M Balfour-Lynn
During airflight, cabins are pressurised to 8000ft (2438m) leading to an effective FiO2 of 0.15. This leads to a fall in oxygen saturation in all passengers, and especially those with underlying lung disease. The hypoxic challenge test using a body plethysmograph can predict a need for supplemental oxygen during airflight, and the process is described.
May 11, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
William H Morgan, Martin L Hazelton, Dao-Yi Yu
Retinal vein pulsation was first noted soon after the invention of the ophthalmoscope 170 years ago and was seen to change with cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) variation in the 1920s. The classical explanation for vein pulsation was that the cardiac cycle induced systolic peak in intraocular pressure (IOP) tended to intermittently collapse the retinal vein close to its exit in the central optic disk, causing pulsation to be counter-phase to IOP. Recently, improved ophthalmodynamometry and video recording techniques have allowed us to explore the fundamentals of retinal vein pulsation...
July 11, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Lian Krivoshei, Stefan Weber, Thilo Burkard, Anna Maseli, Noe Brasier, Michael Kühne, David Conen, Thomas Huebner, Andrea Seeck, Jens Eckstein
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice, and its paroxysmal nature makes its detection challenging. In this trial, we evaluated a novel App for its accuracy to differentiate between patients in AF and patients in sinus rhythm (SR) using the plethysmographic sensor of an iPhone 4S and the integrated LED only. METHODS AND RESULTS: For signal acquisition, we used an iPhone 4S, positioned with the camera lens and LED light on the index fingertip...
July 1, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Laura Lefèvre, Emmanuelle Courtiol, Samuel Garcia, Marc Thévenet, Belkacem Messaoudi, Nathalie Buonviso
Active sampling of olfactory environment consists of sniffing in rodents. The importance of sniffing dynamics is well established at the neuronal and behavioral levels. Patterns of sniffing have been shown to be modulated by the physicochemical properties of odorants, particularly concentration and sorption. Sniffing is also heavily impacted by higher processing related to the behavioral context, emotion and attentional demand. However, how the pattern of sniffing evolves over the course of learning of an experimental olfactory conditioning is still poorly understood...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
A Urbanova, M Kertys, M Simekova, P Mikolka, P Kosutova, D Mokra, J Mokry
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) represent a super-family of 11 enzymes hydrolyzing cyclic nucleotides into inactive 5' monophosphates. Inhibition of PDEs leads to a variety of cellular effects, including airway smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of cellular inflammation, and immune responses. In this study we focused on theophylline, a known non-selective inhibitor of PDEs. Theophylline has been used for decades in the treatment of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. It has a narrow therapeutic window and belongs to the drugs whose plasma concentration should be monitored...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
V Sivová, K Bera, B Ray, S Nosáľ, G Nosáľová
In this work we investigated the antitussive activity of the medicinal tree Terminalia arjuna. We used the stem bark for extraction and preparation of water extracted isolate and its two fractions: acetone-soluble (TA-S) and acetone precipitated (TA-P) fraction. The presence of a pectic arabinogalactan was confirmed in TA-P fraction by chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. The antitussive activity of samples was assessed after oral administration in a dose of 50 in healthy guinea pigs, in which cough was elicited by inhalation of citric acid (0...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yang Wu, Weiwei Zhong, Ningren Cui, Christopher M Johnson, Hao Xing, Shuang Zhang, Chun Jiang
BACKGROUND: Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disease caused by the disruption of the MECP2 gene. Several mouse models of RTT have been developed with Mecp2 disruptions. Although the mouse models are widely used in RTT research, results obtained need to be validated in other species. Therefore, we performed these studies to characterize phenotypes of a novel Mecp2 (-/Y) rat model and compared them with the Mecp2 (tm1.1Bird) mouse model of RTT. METHODS: RTT-like phenotypes were systematically studied and compared between Mecp2 (-/Y) rats and Mecp2 (-/Y) mice...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
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