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Ning Xie, Gwenaël Ruprich-Robert, Florence Chapeland-Leclerc, Evelyne Coppin, Hervé Lalucque, Sylvain Brun, Robert Debuchy, Philippe Silar
The molecular pathways involved in the development of multicellular fruiting bodies in fungi are still not well known. Especially, the interplay between the mycelium, the female tissues and the zygotic tissues of the fruiting bodies is poorly documented. Here, we describe PM154, a new strain of the model ascomycetes Podospora anserina able to mate with itself and that enabled the easy recovery of new mutants affected in fruiting body development. By complete genome sequencing of spod1, one of the new mutants, we identified an inositol phosphate polykinase gene as essential, especially for fruiting body development...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
Anaïs Depaix, Suzanne Peyrottes, Béatrice Roy
This unit describes a one-pot, two step synthesis of ribonucleoside 5'-di- and 5'-triphosphates, as well as their purification. The first step of the synthesis involves the activation of an unprotected ribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate with 2-chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium hexafluorophosphate and imidazole, in a mixture of water/acetonitrile. The resulting phosphorimidazolate intermediate is then treated with inorganic phosphate or pyrophosphate to afford the corresponding nucleoside 5'-di- or 5'-triphosphates...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Peng Wang, Qiaofeng Yang, Sihong Sang, Yao Chen, Yujiao Zhong, Zhaoyun Wei
Arabidopsis inositol polyphosphate kinase 2β (AtIpk2β) has multiple functions in plant development and in responding to abiotic stress. Although some related clues suggested a potential role of AtIpk2β in ABA signaling, the defined evidence was still lack. Here we discovered that a key ABA signaling component calcium-dependent protein kinase 4 (CPK4) can interact with AtIpk2β under ABA treated conditions through affinity purification and mass spectrometry detection. The interaction between CPK4 and AtIpk2β were further confirmed by yeast two hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Su-Jeong Kim, Min-Jae Jeong, Hee-Jung Jo, Jung Hoon Jung, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Yun-Beom Choi, Joung-Hun Kim
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), one of the key phospholipids, directly interacts with several membrane and cytosolic proteins at neuronal plasma membranes, leading to changes in neuronal properties including the feature and surface expression of ionotropic receptors. Although PIP2 is also concentrated at the dendritic spines, little is known about the direct physiological functions of PIP2 at postsynaptic as opposed to presynaptic sites. Most previous studies used genetic and pharmacological methods to modulate enzymes that alter PIP2 levels, making it difficult to delineate time- or region-specific roles of PIP2...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rogério Mendes, Ove Schimmer, Helena Vieira, João Pereira, Bárbara Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Abusive water adition to octopus has evidenced the need for quick non-destructive methods for product qualification in the industry and control of fresh commercial products in markets. Electric conductivity (EC)/pH and dielectric property measurements were selected to detect water uptake in octopus. RESULTS: A significant EC decrease was determined after soaking octopus in freshwater for 4 h. EC reflected the water uptake of octopus and the correspondent concentration decrease of available ions in the interstitial fluid...
June 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Werner E G Müller, Heinz C Schröder, Xiaohong Wang
Initiated by studies on the mechanism of formation of the skeletons of the evolutionary oldest still extant multicellular animals, the sponges (phylum Porifera) have provided new insights into the mechanism of formation of the Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite skeleton of vertebrate bone. Studies on the formation of the biomineral skeleton of sponges revealed that both the formation of the inorganic siliceous skeletons (sponges of the class of Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) and of the calcareous skeletons (class of Calcarea) is mediated by enzymes (silicatein: polymerization of biosilica; and carbonic anhydrase: deposition of Ca-carbonate)...
June 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
Ivan Ivanov, Anton Matafonov, David Gailani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exposure of blood to foreign surfaces induces reciprocal conversion of the plasma proteins factor XII (fXII) and plasma prekallikrein (PPK) to the proteases α-fXIIa and α-kallikrein. This process, called contact activation, has a range of effects on host defence mechanisms, including promoting coagulation. The nature of the triggering mechanism for contact activation is debated. One hypothesis predicts that fXII has protease activity, either intrinsically or upon surface-binding, that initiates contact activation...
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
Ricardo Marques, Jorge Santos, Hien Nguyen, Gilda Carvalho, J P Noronha, Per Halkjær Nielsen, Maria A M Reis, Adrian Oehmen
Tetrasphaera and Candidatus Accumulibacter are two abundant polyphosphate accumulating organisms in full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems. However, little is known about the metabolic behaviour and ecological niche that each organism exhibits in mixed communities. In this study, an enriched culture of Tetrasphaera and Ca. Accumulibacter was obtained using casein hydrolysate as sole carbon source. This culture was able to achieve a high phosphorus removal efficiency (>99%), storing polyphosphate while consuming amino acids anaerobically...
April 29, 2017: Water Research
F Penen, M P Isaure, D Dobritzsch, I Bertalan, H Castillo-Michel, O Proux, E Gontier, P Le Coustumer, D Schaumlöffel
The green micro-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is commonly used as a model to investigate metallic stress in photosynthetic organisms. The aim of this study was to explore processes implemented by three C. reinhardtii strains to cope with cadmium (Cd), and particularly to evidence Cd sequestration in the cell. For that, we used a combination of subcellular fractionation and chemical imaging (micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM/X-EDS)) to identify subcellular compartments of Cd accumulation, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine chemical Cd speciation...
June 9, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Yi Ma, Yichen Zhao, Gerald A Berkowitz
Cytosolic Ca2+ increase is a crucial and early step of plant immunity evoked by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as flagellin (flg). Components responsible for this increase are still not uncovered, although current models of plant immune signaling portray extracellular Ca2+ influx as paramount to flg activation of defense pathways. Work presented here provides new insights into cytosolic Ca2+ increase associated with flg-induced defense responses. We show that extracellular Ca2+ contributes more to immune responses evoked by plant elicitor peptide (Pep3) than that evoked by flg, indicating an intracellular Ca2+ source responsible for immune responses evoked by flg...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
María A Correa Deza, Mariana Grillo-Puertas, Susana Salva, Viviana A Rapisarda, Carla L Gerez, Graciela Font de Valdez
In this work, the thermotolerance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, an immunobiotic strain, was studied as a way to improve the tolerance of the strain to industrial processes involving heat stress. The strain displayed a high intrinsic thermotolerance (55°C, 20 min); however, after 5 min at 60°C in phosphate buffer a two log units decrease in cell viability was observed. Different heat shock media were tested to improve the cell survival. Best results were obtained in the mediumcontaining inorganic salts (KH2PO4, Na2HPO4, MnSO4, and MgSO4) likely as using 10% skim milk...
2017: PloS One
María Isabel Puga, Mónica Rojas-Triana, Laura de Lorenzo, Antonio Leyva, Vicente Rubio, Javier Paz-Ares
Plants have evolved numerous adaptive developmental and metabolic responses to cope with growth in conditions of limited phosphate (Pi). Regulation of these Pi starvation responses (PSR) at the organism level involves not only cellular Pi perception in different organs, but also inter-organ communication of Pi levels via systemic signaling. Here we summarize recent discoveries on Pi starvation sensing and signaling, with special emphasis on structure-function studies that showed a role for inositol polyphosphates (InsP) as intracellular Pi signals, and on genomic studies that identified a large number of mRNAs with inter-organ mobility, which provide an immense source of potential systemic signals in the control of PSR and other responses...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Patrick M Suess, Jacob Watson, Wensheng Chen, Richard H Gomer
Linear chains of five to hundreds of phosphates called polyphosphate are found in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans, but their function is poorly understood. In Dictyostelium, polyphosphate is used as a secreted signal that inhibits cytokinesis in an autocrine negative feedback loop. To elucidate how cells respond to this unusual signal, we did proteomic analysis of cells treated with physiological levels of polyphosphate and observed that polyphosphate causes cells to decrease levels of actin cytoskeleton proteins, possibly explaining how polyphosphate inhibits cytokinesis...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
L Rugnini, G Costa, R Congestri, L Bruno
The concentration of metal ions in aqueous media is a major environmental problem due to their persistence and non-biodegradability that poses hazards to the ecosystem and human health. In this study, the effect of Cu and Ni on the growth of two green microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus sp., was evaluated along with the removal capacity from single metal solutions (12days exposure; metal concentration range: 1.9-11.9mgL(-1)). Microalgal growth showed to decrease at increasing metal concentrations, but promising metal removal efficiencies were recorded: up to 43% and 39% for Cu by Desmodesmus sp...
June 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Feng Zhang, Junfeng Zhu, Jiajia Li, Fangbing Zhu, Pingping Zhang
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous disease, which results in the fact that patient management has remained disappointingly uniform. Therefore, the molecular mechanism underlying AML needs to be further investigated. Here in this study, we identify the interferon-regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) as a novel regulator in human AML. We show that IRF2 knockdown inhibits growth, colony formation of OCI/AML-2, OCI/AML-3, and THP-1 cells. In addition, IRF2 knockdown induces apoptosis of AML cells by regulating the apoptotic effectors Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase 3...
June 2, 2017: Gene
Carissa H Li, John M Bland, Peter J Bechtel
In the U.S. market place, there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and, to a lesser extent, fish products such as tilapia. However, few U.S. catfish products are designed to be microwave cooked or reheated. The first objective of this study was to examine the properties of microwave cooked raw frozen catfish fillets and oven precooked (to 62.8°C) frozen fillets and then reheated by microwave cooking. The second objective was to evaluate changes in properties as a consequence of treatment with a commercial polyphosphate blend (Individually Quick Frozen [IQF])...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Patricia Comeau, Mark Filiaggi
Local delivery systems have taken on a greater clinical focus for osteomyelitis therapy owing to their ability to overcome many disadvantages of systemic delivery. This study reports for the first time the capacity to fabricate strontium- and vancomycin-doped calcium polyphosphate beads using a two-stage cold isostatic pressing and gelling approach. The fabricated beads were of uniform shape and diameter, and upon gelling exhibited reduced porosity. Of greatest significance in the subsequent in vitro study was the improvement of bead long-term structural stability upon vancomycin incorporation; a characteristic that further encourages the extended release of therapeutically relevant levels of antibiotic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Xiaodong Jin, Jun Sun, Jessica Shiqing Zhang, Xiaoyu Gu, Serge Bourbigot, Hongfei Li, Wufei Tang, Sheng Zhang
The flammability and melt dripping of the widely used bio-based polyamide 11 (PA 11) have attracted much attention in the last decade, and they are still a big challenge for the fire science society. In this work, a novel single macromolecular intumescent flame retardant (AM-APP) which contains an acid source and a gas source was prepared by supramolecular reactions between melamine and p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid, followed by an ionic exchange with ammonium polyphosphate. The chemical structure of AM-APP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
May 31, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Eunha Kim, Hyoungjoon Ahn, Min Gyu Kim, Haein Lee, Seyun Kim
The inositol polyphosphates are a group of multifunctional signaling metabolites whose synthesis is catalyzed by a family of inositol kinases that are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) was first identified as a subunit of the arginine-responsive transcription complex in budding yeast. In addition to its role in the production of inositol tetrakis- and pentakisphosphates (IP4 and IP5), IPMK also exhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
Samira Helena João-Souza, Sávio José C Bezerra, Patrícia Moreira de Freitas, Nelson B de Lima, Ana Cecília Corrêa Aranha, Anderson T Hara, Taís Scaramucci
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-erosive effect of solutions containing sodium fluoride (F: 225ppm of fluoride), sodium fluoride+stannous chloride (F+Sn: 225ppm of fluoride+800ppm of stannous), sodium fluoride+stannous chloride+sodium linear polyphosphate (F+Sn+LPP: 225ppm of fluoride+800ppm of stannous+2% of sodium linear polyphosphate), and deionized water (C: control), using a four-phase, single-blind, crossover in situ clinical trial. METHODS: In each phase, 12 volunteers wore appliances containing 4 enamel specimens, which were submitted to a 5-day erosion-remineralization phase that consisted of 2h of salivary pellicle formation with the appliance in situ, followed by 2min extra-oral immersion in 1% citric acid (pH 2...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
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