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Lihan Xie, Ursula Jakob
Polyphosphate (polyP) consists of a linear arrangement of inorganic phosphates and defies its structural simplicity with an astounding number of different activities in the cell. Already well known for its ability to partake in phosphate, calcium, and energy metabolism, polyP recently gained a new functional dimension with the discovery that it serves as a stabilizing scaffold for protein-folding intermediates. In this review, we summarize and discuss the recent studies that have identified polyP not only as a potent protein-like chaperone that protects cells against stress-induced protein aggregation, but also as a robust modifier of amyloidogenic processes that shields neuronal cells from amyloid toxicity...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Karama Asleh, Stina Lyck Carstensen, Charlotte L Tykjaer Jørgensen, Samantha Burugu, Dongxia Gao, Jennifer R Won, Maj-Britt Jensen, Eva Balslev, Anne-Vibeke Laenkholm, Dorte L Nielsen, Bent Ejlertsen, Torsten O Nielsen
In a formal prospective-retrospective analysis of the phase III SBG0102 clinical trial randomizing metastatic breast cancer patients to gemcitabine-docetaxel or to single agent docetaxel, patients with basal-like tumors by PAM50 gene expression had significantly better overall survival in the gemcitabine arm. By immunohistochemistry (IHC), triple negative status was not predictive, but more specific biomarkers have since become available defining basal-like by nestin positivity or loss of inositol-polyphosphate-4-phosphate (INPP4B)...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Xue Wei Wang, Chong Wang, Gui Xin Chu
Understanding the transformation of P in polyphosphate form in the soil and its effect on P availability is the prerequisite for reasonable polyphosphate fertilizer application. A pot experiment was conducted to explore the effects of polyphosphate fertilizers and MAP on soil available-P, inorganic P transformation in soils, soil micro-nutrient availabilities of Fe, Mn and Zn. Meanwhile, the effects of different P fertilizer on rape P nutrition and PUE in both calcareous and acid soils were investigated. Compared with the MAP treatment, polyphosphate fertilizers significantly increased plant available P concentrations in calcareous soil...
September 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Gabriella M Fernandes-Cunha, Colin J McKinlay, Jessica R Vargas, Henning J Jessen, Robert M Waymouth, Paul A Wender
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is an often-overlooked biopolymer of phosphate residues present in living cells. PolyP is associated with many essential biological roles. Despite interest in polyP's function, most studies have been limited to extracellular or isolated protein experiments, as polyanionic polyP does not traverse the nonpolar membrane of cells. To address this problem, we developed a robust, readily employed method for polyP delivery using guanidinium-rich oligocarbonate transporters that electrostatically complex polyPs of multiple lengths, forming discrete nanoparticles that are resistant to phosphatase degradation and that readily enter multiple cell types...
October 24, 2018: ACS Central Science
Song Huang, Floriane Gaucher, Chantal Cauty, Julien Jardin, Yves Le Loir, Romain Jeantet, Xiao Dong Chen, Gwénaël Jan
Lactobacillus casei BL23 has a recognized probiotic potential, which includes immune modulation, protection toward induced colitis, toward induced colon cancer and toward dissemination of pathogens. In L. casei , as well as in other probiotics, both probiotic and technological abilities are highly dependent (1) on the substrate used to grow bacteria and (2) on the process used to dry and store this biomass. Production and storage of probiotics, at a reasonable financial and environmental cost, becomes a crucial challenge...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mariana Grillo-Puertas, Paola Delaporte-Quintana, Raúl Osvaldo Pedraza, Viviana Andrea Rapisarda
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a plant growth-promoting bacterium that is used as a bioinoculant. Phosphate (Pi) modulates intracellular polyphosphate (polyP) levels in Escherichia coli, affecting cellular fitness and biofilm formation capacity. It currently remains unclear whether environmental Pi modulates polyP levels in G. diazotrophicus to enhance fitness in view of its technological applications. In high Pi media, cells accumulated polyP and degraded it, thereby improving survival, tolerance to environmental stressors, biofilm formation capacity on abiotic and biotic surfaces, and competence as a growth promoter of strawberry plants...
November 7, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Inam Ullah Khan, Neeli Habib, Mipeshwaree Devi Asem, Nimaichand Salam, Min Xiao, En-Min Zhou, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Wen-Jun Li
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium, designated YIM 730274T , was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a hot spring located in Tibet, PR China, and was characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells were motile by means of a polar flagellum. The strain was oxidase- and catalase-positive, and contained polyalkanoates and polyphosphate as storage polymers. Growth occurred at 25-50 °C, at pH 6.0-8.5 and with 0.5-1.0 % NaCl. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0...
November 7, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Kun Cheng, Wenming Zheng, Hongge Chen, Yi-Heng P Job Zhang
The upgrade of D-xylose, the most abundant pentose, to value-added biochemicals is economically important to next-generation biorefineries. myo-Inositol, as vitamin B8, has a six-carbon carbon-carbon ring. Here we designed an in vitro artificial NAD(P)-free 12-enzyme pathway that can effectively convert the five-carbon xylose to inositol involving xylose phosphorylation, carbon-carbon (C-C) rearrangement, C-C bond circulation, and dephosphorylation. The reaction conditions catalyzed by all thermostable enzymes from hyperthermophilic microorganisms Thermus thermophiles, Thermotoga maritima, and Archaeoglobus fulgidus were optimized in reaction temperature, buffer type and concentration, enzyme composition, Mg2+ concentration, and fed-batch addition of ATP...
October 31, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Yoshikazu Mikami, Daisuke Omagari, Yusuke Mizutani, Manabu Hayatsu, Tatsuo Ushiki, Hiromasa Tsuda
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a linear polymer of orthophosphate, is found at high concentrations in osteoblasts. We demonstrated the effects of various polyP concentrations on the mineralization of rat osteoblast ROS17/2.8 cells. Mineralization of ROS17/2.8 was induced by a high polyP concentration (1 mg/mL), which was accompanied by an upregulation of the bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. In contrast, a low polyP concentration (1 × 10-2  mg/mL) reduced mineralization without affecting the osteogenic gene expression...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Yan Zhang, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Hui Lu, Adrian Oehmen, Jianhua Guo
Denitrifying sulfur conversion-associated enhanced biological phosphorous removal (DS-EBPR) system is not only a novel wastewater treatment process, but also an ideal model for microbial ecology in a community context. However, it exists the knowledge gap on the roles and interactions of functional microorganisms in the DS-EBPR system for carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) bioconversions. We use genome-resolved metagenomics to build up an ecological model of microbial communities in a lab-scale DS-EBPR system with stable operation for more than 400 days...
October 24, 2018: Water Research
Jiangang Yang, Yueming Zhu, Ge Qu, Yan Zeng, Chaoyu Tian, Caixia Dong, Yan Men, Longhai Dai, Zhoutong Sun, Yuanxia Sun, Yanhe Ma
Background: Asymmetric aldol-type C-C bond formation with ketones used as electrophilic receptor remains a challenging reaction for aldolases as biocatalysts. To date, only one kind of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)-dependent aldolases has been discovered and applied to synthesize branched-chain sugars directly using DHAP and dihydroxyacetone (DHA) as substrate. However, the unstable and high-cost properties of DHAP limit large-scale application. Therefore, biosynthesis of branched-chain sugar from low-cost and abundant carbon sources is essential...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Roman Zoss, Fernando Medina Ferrer, Beverly E Flood, Daniel S Jones, Deon C Louw, Jake Bailey
The processes that lead to the precipitation of authigenic calcium phosphate minerals in certain marine pore waters remain poorly understood. Phosphogenesis occurs in sediments beneath some oceanic upwelling zones that harbor polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria. These bacteria are believed to concentrate phosphate in sediment pore waters, creating supersaturated conditions with respect to apatite precursors. However, the relationship between microbes and phosphorite formation is not fully resolved. To further study this association, we examined microbial community data generated from two sources: sediment cores recovered from the shelf of the Benguela upwelling region where phosphorites are currently forming, and DNA preserved within phosphoclasts recovered from a phosphorite deposit along the Benguela shelf...
October 3, 2018: Geobiology
V C F Carvalho, E B Freitas, J C Fradinho, M A M Reis, A Oehmen
The phototrophic-enhanced biological phosphorus removal system (photo-EBPR) was recently proposed as an alternative photosynthetic process to conventional phosphorus removal. Previous work showed the possibility of obtaining a photo-EBPR system starting from a culture already enriched in polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). The present work evaluated whether the same could be achieved starting from conventional activated sludge. A sequencing batch reactor inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was fed with a mixture of acetate and propionate (75%:25%) and subjected to dark/light cycles to select a photo-EBPR system containing PAOs and photosynthetic organisms, the oxygen providers for the system...
October 24, 2018: New Biotechnology
Helen Jl Cumksy, Collin M Costello, Nan Zhang, Richard Butterfield, Matthew Buras, Jessica Schmidt, Kevin Drenner, Steven A Nelson, Shari A Ochoa, Christian Baum, Mark R Pittelkow, David J DiCaudo, Aleksandar Sekulic, Aaron R Mangold
BACKGROUND: Inositol Phosphate 5-Phosphatase (INPP5A) has been shown to play a role in development and progression of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). The goal of the current study is to explore the prognostic value of INPP5A expression in cSCC. METHODS: A total of 189 cases of actinic keratoses and SCCs from 174 patients were identified, clinical and outcome data abstracted, histopathology re-rereviewed, and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and interpretation was performed for INPP5A...
October 22, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Peter M MacFarlane, Juliann M Di Fiore
Myo-inositol is a highly abundant stereoisomer of the inositol family of sugar alcohols and forms the structural basis for a variety of polyphosphate derivatives including second messengers and membrane phospholipids. These derivatives regulate numerous cell processes including gene transcription, membrane excitability, vesicular trafficking, intracellular calcium signaling, and neuronal growth and development. Myo-inositol can be formed endogenously from the breakdown of glucose, is found in a variety of foods including breastmilk and is commercially available as a nutritional supplement...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jevgenia Zilberman-Rudenko, Stéphanie E Reitsma, Cristina Puy, Rachel A Rigg, Stephanie A Smith, Erik I Tucker, Robert Silasi, Alona Merkulova, Keith R McCrae, Coen Maas, Rolf T Urbanus, David Gailani, James H Morrissey, András Gruber, Florea Lupu, Alvin H Schmaier, Owen J T McCarty
Objective- Terminal complications of bacterial sepsis include development of disseminated intravascular consumptive coagulopathy. Bacterial constituents, including long-chain polyphosphates (polyP), have been shown to activate the contact pathway of coagulation in plasma. Recent work shows that activation of the contact pathway in flowing whole blood promotes thrombin generation and platelet activation and consumption distal to thrombus formation ex vivo and in vivo. Here, we sought to determine whether presence of long-chain polyP or bacteria in the bloodstream promotes platelet activation and consumption in a coagulation factor (F)XII-dependent manner...
August 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Nadia Gruber, Jimena E Díaz, Liliana R Orelli
The sequential N- functionalization of 2-aminobenzylamine (2-ABA) followed by cyclodehydration allowed for a straightforward and efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydroquinazolines with N -aryl substituents bearing electron-withdrawing groups. The sequence involves an initial SN Ar displacement, N- acylation and MW-assisted ring closure. Remarkably, the uncatalyzed N- arylation of 2-ABA led to the monosubstitution product using equimolar amounts of both reagents. The individual steps were optimized achieving good to excellent overall yields of the desired heterocycles, avoiding additional protection and deprotection steps...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Kritika Khanna, Rituparna Chaudhuri, Jyotirmoi Aich, Bijay Pattnaik, Lipsa Panda, Y S Prakash, Ulaganathan Mabalirajan, Balaram Ghosh, Anurag Agrawal
The asthma candidate gene, inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase (INPP4A) is a lipid phosphatase that negatively regulates the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Destabilizing genetic variants of INPP4A increase asthma risk and lung-specific INPP4A knockdown induces asthma-like features. INPP4A is known to localise intracellularly and its extracellular presence has not been reported yet. Here we show for the first time that INPP4A is secreted by airway epithelial cells and that extracellular INPP4A critically inhibits airway inflammation and remodeling...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Fatemeh Soleimanifar, Arash Khojasteh, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Implants that can enhance the stem cells differentiation in the absence of the chemical osteogenic growth factors will attract the great interest of orthopedic scientists. Inorganic polyphosphate (poly-P), as a ubiquitous biological polymer, is one of the factors that can be an alternative for osteogenic growth factors via activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In this study, poly-P was incorporated at the blend of polycaprolactone (PCL)/poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) electrospun nanofibers and then osteogenic differentiation potential of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was investigated by the important bone markers...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Evgeniy Potapenko, Ciro D Cordeiro, Guozhong Huang, Melissa Storey, Christopher Wittwer, Amit K Dutta, Henning J Jessen, Vincent J Starai, Roberto Docampo
Acidocalcisomes of Trypanosoma brucei and the acidocalcisome-like vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are acidic calcium compartments that store polyphosphate (polyP). Both organelles possess a phosphate sodium symporter (TbPho91, and Pho91p, in T. brucei and yeast, respectively), but the roles of these transporters in growth and orthophosphate (Pi) transport are unclear. We found here that Tbpho91-/- trypanosomes have a lower growth rate under phosphate starvation, and contain larger acidocalcisomes that have increased Pi content...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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