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X Wang, M Ackermann, E Tolba, M Neufurth, F Wurm, Q Feng, S Wang, H C Schröder, W E Müller
Here we show that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polyanionic metabolic regulator consisting of multiple phosphate residues linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds, is present in the synovial fluid. In a biomimetic approach, to enhance cartilage synthesis and regeneration, we prepared amorphous polyP microparticles with Mg2+ as counterions. The particles were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analyses. Similar particles were obtained after addition of Mg2+ ions to a solution containing hyaluronic acid, as a major component of the synovial fluid, and soluble Na-polyP...
November 29, 2016: European Cells & Materials
Yoshio Kimura, Chihiro Tanaka, Katsuho Sasaki, Masashi Sasaki
Diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA) are thought to act as signaling molecules regulating stress responses and biofilm formation in prokaryotes. However, ApnA function in Myxococcus xanthus remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of ApnA in M. xanthus, using the wild-type and ApnA hydrolase (apaH) mutant strains exposed to various stress conditions. In both wild-type and apaH mutant cells cultured on starvation medium (CF agar), the levels of intracellular diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and pentaphosphate (Ap5A) increased several fold during the first 16 h of development, and decreased gradually thereafter...
November 28, 2016: Microbiology
Kazunori Inoue, Daniel M Balkin, Lijuan Liu, Ramiro Nandez, Yumei Wu, Xuefei Tian, Tong Wang, Robert Nussbaum, Pietro De Camilli, Shuta Ishibe
Lowe syndrome and Dent disease are two conditions that result from mutations of the inositol 5-phosphatase oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) and share the feature of impaired kidney proximal tubule function. Genetic ablation of Ocrl in mice failed to recapitulate the human phenotypes, possibly because of the redundant functions of OCRL and its paralog type 2 inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (INPP5B). Germline knockout of both paralogs in mice results in early embryonic lethality. We report that kidney tubule-specific inactivation of Inpp5b on a global Ocrl-knockout mouse background resulted in low molecular weight proteinuria, phosphaturia, and acidemia...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Zhiguang Zhu, Y-H Percival Zhang
The direct generation of electricity from the most abundant renewable sugar, glucose, is an appealing alternative to the production of liquid biofuels and biohydrogen. However, enzyme-catalyzed bioelectricity generation from glucose suffers from low yields due to the incomplete oxidation of the six-carbon compound glucose via one or few enzymes. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic ATP- and CoA-free 12-enzyme pathway to implement the complete oxidation of glucose in vitro. This pathway is comprised of glucose phosphorylation via polyphosphate glucokinase, NADH generation catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), electron transfer from NADH to the anode, and glucose 6-phosphate regeneration via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis...
November 23, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Cristina Azevedo, Adolfo Saiardi
Phosphate, as a cellular energy currency, essentially drives most biochemical reactions defining living organisms, and thus its homeostasis must be tightly regulated. Investigation into the role of inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) has provided a novel perspective on the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. Recent data suggest that metabolic and signaling interplay between PP-IPs, ATP, and inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) influences and is influenced by cellular phosphate homeostasis. Different studies have demonstrated that the SPX protein domain is a key component of proteins involved in phosphate metabolism...
November 19, 2016: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Mia Terashima, Ayano Yama, Megumi Sato, Isao Yumoto, Yoichi Kamagata, Souichiro Kato
The oxidation ditch process is one of the most economical approaches currently used to simultaneously remove organic carbon, nitrogen, and also phosphorus (P) from wastewater. However, limited information is available on biological P removal in this process. In the present study, microorganisms contributing to P removal in a full-scale oxidation ditch reactor were investigated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. A microbial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that a phylotype closely related to Dechloromonas spp...
November 19, 2016: Microbes and Environments
Andrea L Ambrosio, Santiago M Di Pietro
Platelet dense granules (DGs) are membrane bound compartments that store polyphosphate and small molecules such as ADP, ATP, Ca(2+), and serotonin. The release of DG contents plays a central role in platelet aggregation to form a hemostatic plug. Accordingly, congenital deficiencies in the biogenesis of platelet DGs underlie human genetic disorders that cause storage pool disease and manifest with prolonged bleeding. DGs belong to a family of lysosome-related organelles, which also includes melanosomes, the compartments where the melanin pigments are synthesized...
November 16, 2016: Platelets
Katrin F Nickel, Andy T Long, Tobias A Fuchs, Lynn M Butler, Thomas Renné
Coagulation factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) is a plasma protease that in its active form (FXIIa) initiates the procoagulant and proinflammatory contact system. This name arises from FXII's unique mechanism of activation that is induced by binding (contact) to negatively charged surfaces. Various substances have the capacity to trigger FXII contact-activation in vivo including mast cell-derived heparin, misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and polyphosphate. FXII deficiency is not associated with bleeding, and for decades, the factor was considered to be dispensable for coagulation in vivo...
November 10, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Jean-Paul Lallès
Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
F J Rubio-Rincón, C M Lopez-Vazquez, L Welles, M C M van Loosdrecht, D Brdjanovic
Sulphate-rich wastewaters can be generated due to (i) use of saline water as secondary-quality water for sanitation in urban environments (e.g. toilet flushing), (ii) discharge of industrial effluents, (iii) sea and brackish water infiltration into the sewage and (iv) use of chemicals, which contain sulphate, in drinking water production. In the presence of an electron donor and absence of oxygen or nitrate, sulphate can be reduced to sulphide. Sulphide can inhibit microbial processes in biological wastewater treatment systems...
November 9, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jimena E Díaz, María C Mollo, Liliana R Orelli
The first general procedure for the synthesis of 5 to 7-membered 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes is presented, by microwave-assisted ring closure of ω-arylaminonitriles promoted by polyphosphoric acid (PPA) esters. 1-Aryl-2-iminopyrrolidines were easily prepared from the acyclic precursors employing a chloroformic solution of ethyl polyphosphate (PPE). The use of trimethylsilyl polyphosphate (PPSE) in solvent-free conditions allowed for the synthesis of 1-aryl-2-iminopiperidines and hitherto unreported 1-aryl-2-iminoazepanes...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Keiko Kizawa, Toshihiro Aono, Ryo Ohtomo
It has been argued for a long time whether alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is involved in polyphosphate (polyP) metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of disrupting the PHO8 gene, which encodes phosphate (Pi)-deficiency-inducible ALP, on the polyP contents of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The polyP content of the Δpho8 mutant was higher than the wild type strain in the logarithmic phase under Pi-sufficient conditions. On the contrary, the chain length of polyP extracted from the Δpho8 mutant did not differ from the wild type strain...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
In-Chul Lee, Jong-Sup Bae
Previous reports suggest that human endothelial cells-derived PolyPhosphate (PolyP) is one of the pro-inflammatory mediators. As a well-known red pigment and found in plants, Pelargonidin (PEL) has been known to have several biological activates which are beneficial for human health. This study was undertaken to investigate whether PEL can modulate PolyP-mediated inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in mice. The anti-inflammatory activities of PEL were determined by measuring permeability, leukocytes adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in PolyP-activated HUVECs and mice...
November 8, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Louis de Mestier, Eric Pasmant, Clémence Fleury, Hedia Brixi, Pierre Sohier, Thomas Féron, Marie-Danièle Diebold, Eric Clauser, Guillaume Cadiot
BACKGROUND: Familial small-intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are an exceptional inherited entity. Underlying predisposing mechanisms are unelucidated, but inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) gene alterations might promote their tumorigenesis. METHODS: A retrospective-prospective nationwide cohort was constituted, by including patients with proven SI-NETs and at least one relative with the same disease. We performed constitutional and somatic IPMK sequencing, and somatic DNA comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)...
October 20, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Erik R Coats, Cynthia K Brinkman, Stephen Lee
The anthropogenic discharge of phosphorus (P) into surface waters can induce the proliferation of cyanobacteria and algae, which can negatively impact water quality. Enhanced biological P removal (EBPR) is an engineered process that can be employed to efficiently remove significant quantities of P from wastewater. Within this engineered system, the mixed microbial consortium (MMC) becomes enriched with polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). To date much knowledge has been developed on PAOs, and the EBPR process is generally well understood; nonetheless, the engineered process remains underutilized...
October 28, 2016: Water Research
Linda Labberton, Andy T Long, Sandra J Gendler, Christine Snozek, Evi X Stavrou, Katrin F Nickel, Coen Maas, Stefan Blankenberg, James S Hernandez, Thomas Renné
BACKGROUND: Platelet polyphosphate is an inorganic procoagulant polymer of orthophosphate units that is stored in dense granules and is released upon platelet activation. Here we describe an assay to measure polyphosphate on the surface of procoagulant human platelets. METHODS AND RESULTS: Recombinant E. coli expressed exopolyphosphatase deletion mutant PPX_Δ12 labeled with fluorescent Alexa488 dye was used as a polyphosphate probe in flow cytometry. PPX_Δ12-Alexa488-signal dose-dependently increased with long-chain polyphosphate binding to platelets...
November 4, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Paul V Zimba, I-Shuo Huang, Jennifer E Foley, Eric W Linton
Cyanobacteria occupy many niches within terrestrial, planktonic, and benthic habitats. The diversity of habitats colonized, similarity of morphology, and phenotypic plasticity all contribute to the difficulty of cyanobacterial identification. An unknown marine filamentous cyanobacterium was isolated from an aquatic animal rearing facility having mysid mortality events. The cyanobacterium originated from Corpus Christi Bay, TX. Filaments are rarely solitary, benthic mat forming, unbranched, and narrowing at the ends...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Ana Carolina Vieira Araujo, Viviana Morillo, Jefferson Cypriano, Lia Cardoso Rocha Saraiva Teixeira, Pedro Leão, Sidcley Lyra, Luiz Gonzaga de Almeida, Dennis A Bazylinski, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de Vasconcellos, Fernanda Abreu, Ulysses Lins
BACKGROUND: Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a unique group of prokaryotes that have a potentially high impact on global geochemical cycling of significant primary elements because of their metabolic plasticity and the ability to biomineralize iron-rich magnetic particles called magnetosomes. Understanding the genetic composition of the few cultivated MTB along with the unique morphological features of this group of bacteria may provide an important framework for discerning their potential biogeochemical roles in natural environments...
October 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
Mingxuan Wu, Lucy S Chong, David H Perlman, Adam C Resnick, Dorothea Fiedler
Inositol-based signaling molecules are central eukaryotic messengers and include the highly phosphorylated, diffusible inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) and inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs). Despite the essential cellular regulatory functions of InsPs and PP-InsPs (including telomere maintenance, phosphate sensing, cell migration, and insulin secretion), the majority of their protein targets remain unknown. Here, the development of InsP and PP-InsP affinity reagents is described to comprehensively annotate the interactome of these messenger molecules...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
John Rendu, Rodrick Montjean, Charles Coutton, Mohnish Suri, Gaetan Chicanne, Anne Petiot, Julie Brocard, Didier Grunwald, France Pietri Rouxel, Bernard Payrastre, Joel Lunardi, Olivier Dorseuil, Isabelle Marty, Julien Fauré
Dent-2 disease and Lowe syndrome are two pathologies caused by mutations in inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase OCRL gene. Both conditions share proximal tubulopathy evolving to chronic kidney failure. Lowe syndrome is in addition defined by a bilateral congenital cataract, intellectual disability, and hypotonia. The pathology evolves in two decades to a severe condition with renal complications and a fatal issue. We describe here a proof of principle for a targeted gene therapy on a mutation of the OCRL gene that is associated with Lowe syndrome...
October 28, 2016: Human Mutation
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