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Kaja Zuwala, Camilla F Riber, Kaja Borup Løvschall, Anna H F Andersen, Lise Sørensen, Paulina Gajda, Martin Tolstrup, Alexander N Zelikin
Macromolecular (pro)drugs hold much promise as broad-spectrum antiviral agents as either microbicides or carriers for intracellular delivery of antiviral drugs. Intriguing opportunity exists in combining the two modes of antiviral activity in the same polymer structure such that the same polymer acts as a microbicide and also serves to deliver the conjugated drug (ribavirin) into the cells. We explore this opportunity in detail and focus on the polymer backbone as a decisive constituent of such formulations...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Xinyuan Xu, Dongyue Zhang, Shangwei Gao, Toshikazu Shiba, Quan Yuan, Kai Cheng, Hong Tan, Jianshu Li
Current implant materials have widespread clinical applications together with some disadvantages, the majority of which are easily to induce infection and hardly to exhibit biocompatibility. To efficiently improve their properties, the development of interface multifunctional modification in a simple, universal and environment benign approach becomes a critical challenge and appeals numerous attention of scientists. In this study, a lysozyme-polyphosphate composite coating was fabricated for titanium(Ti)-based biomaterial in order to obtain multifunctional surface...
February 12, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Pierluigi Marzuillo, Vincenzo Piccolo, Massimo Mascolo, Andrea Apicella, Giuseppe Argenziano, Nicoletta Della Vecchia, Stefano Guarino, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Angela La Manna
Dent disease 2 (DD2) is a rare X-Linked disorder characterized by proximal tubule dysfunction. It is considered as mild variant of Lowe Syndrome (LS) and both conditions are secondary to OCRL1 gene mutations.1 Mutations in this gene drastically reduce (<10%) inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (OCRL1) activity.1 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 11, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Jonathan E Creeth, Charles R Parkinson, Gary R Burnett, Susmita Sanyal, Frank Lippert, Domenick T Zero, Anderson T Hara
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of a dentifrice containing sodium fluoride (1150 ppm F) and the organic polyphosphate phytate (0.85% w/w of the hexa-sodium salt) on in situ remineralisation of early enamel erosive lesions and resistance to subsequent demineralisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects (n = 62) wore palatal appliances holding eight bovine enamel specimens with pre-formed erosive lesions. They brushed their natural teeth with the phytate test dentifrice (TD); a positive control dentifrice (PC, 1150 ppm fluoride as NaF); a reference dentifrice (RD, disodium pyrophosphate + 1100 ppm fluoride as NaF) or a negative control dentifrice (NC, fluoride-free) in a randomised, double-blind, crossover design...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Kimberly R Milleman, Jonathan E Creeth, Gary R Burnett, Jeffery L Milleman
OBJECTIVES: Phytate is an organic, cyclic polyphosphate analogous to linear condensed polyphosphates used as stain removal agents. This study investigated stain removal efficacy of an experimental sodium phytate-containing dentifrice compared to a reference dentifrice. METHODS: An experimental, moderate abrasivity (relative dentine abrasivity [RDA] ∼130) antisensitivity fluoride dentifrice containing sodium phytate (0.85% w/w as the hexasodium salt) (n = 111) was compared to a reference, marketed, low-abrasivity (RDA ∼ 43), anti-sensitivity fluoride dentifrice (n = 113), both containing 1150 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
Shufeng Liu, Qian Chen, Tao Ma, Ming Wang, Jinren Ni
Bacteria capable of simultaneous aerobic denitrification and phosphorus removal (SADPR) are promising to establish novel one-stage wastewater treatment systems. Nevertheless, insights into metabolic potentials of SADPR related bacteria are limited. Here, comprehensive metabolic models of two efficient SADPR bacteria Achromobacter sp. GAD3 and Agrobacterium sp. LAD9 were yielded for the first time by high-throughput genome sequencing. With succinate as the preferred carbon source, both strains employed a complete TCA cycle as the major carbon metabolism for various organic acids and complex carbon oxidation potentials...
February 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Wei Fu, Yurika Watanabe, Hayaka Satoh, Keita Inoue, Natsumi Moriguchi, Kazunao Fusa, Yuya Yanagisawa, Takaaki Mutoh, Takashi Nakamura
The creaming effects, mechanical properties and microstructures of processed cheeses were investigated under different emulsifying conditions using a rapid visco-analyzer, and the changes in protein network related to the creaming effect and the occurrence of yielding points were discussed. The higher stirring speed affected the fat globules to be smaller, and gave the processed cheese more firmness at fixed stirring time. The longer stirring time caused the protein network to become fine-stranded. A fine-stranded structure promoted the creaming effect, and hence the formation of yielding point in the mechanical properties...
February 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Younseon Wang, Keumyeon Kim, Moon Sue Lee, Haeshin Lee
Hemostatic materials have been studied to minimize bleeding time. Recently, polyphosphate (polyP) have received attention as potential hemostatic compounds, which are released from activated platelets. Long polyP chains are essential to form thick fibrin clots. Herein, chitosan is functionalized by covalently tethering phosphate groups to mimic polyP. It is hypothesized that utilizing a known hemostatic polysaccharide, chitosan, and tethering phosphate groups to mimic polyP's functionality show synergistic effect in hemostasis...
February 2, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Werner E G Müller, Meik Neufurth, Shunfeng Wang, Maximilian Ackermann, Rafael Muñoz-Espí, Qingling Feng, Qiang Lu, Heinz C Schröder, Xiaohong Wang
Using femur explants from mice as an in vitro model, we investigated the effect of the physiological polymer, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), on differentiation of the cells of the bone marrow in their natural microenvironment into the osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. In the form of amorphous Ca-polyP nano/microparticles, polyP retains its function to act as both an intra- and extracellular metabolic fuel and a stimulus eliciting morphogenetic signals. The method for synthesis of the nano/microparticles with the polyanionic polyP also allowed the fabrication of hybrid particles with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid, a drug used in therapy of bone metastases in cancer patients...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Reed Brendon Wickner, Evgeny E Bezsonov, Moonil Son, Mathieu Ducatez, Morgan Dewilde, Herman K Edskes
The amyloid-based yeast prions are folded in-register parallel beta sheet polymers. Each prion can exist in a wide array of variants, with different biological properties resulting from different self-propagating amyloid conformations. Yeast has several anti-prion systems, acting in normal cells (without protein overexpression or deficiency). Some anti-prion proteins partially block prion formation (Ssb1,2p - ribosome-associated Hsp70s), others cure a large portion of prion variants that arise (Btn2p, Cur1p, Hsp104 - a disaggregase, Siw14p, Upf1,2,3p - nonsense-mediated decay proteins) and others prevent prion-induced pathology (Sis1p - essential cytoplasmic Hsp40)...
January 29, 2018: Biochemistry
Michał Halagarda, Władysław Kędzior, Ewa Pyrzyńska
Traditional food products have been regaining consumer interest worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in nutritional value of traditional and conventional Polish sausages and to determine potential chemical hazards connected with these products. The research material consisted of 5 varieties of registered traditional sausages and 4 varieties of conventional sausages. The nutritional value was identified based on selected indicators: protein, fat, NaCl, total ash, water, Feder's number, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Zn, Cr, Cu; whereas the chemical food safety - based on: nitrates and nitrites, total and added phosphorus, Cd, Pb...
January 11, 2018: Meat Science
Shin Suzuki, Ryotaro Hara, Kuniki Kino
An ATP regeneration system is advantageous for industrial processes that are coupled with ATP-dependent enzymes. For ATP regeneration from AMP, a few methods have been reported; however, these methods employ multiple enzymes. To establish an ATP regeneration system using a single enzyme, we focused on class III polyphosphate kinase 2 (class III PPK2) that can synthesize ATP from AMP and polyphosphate. We constructed an ATP regeneration system from AMP using Deipr_1912, a class III PPK2 from Deinococcus proteolyticus NBRC 101906T, coupled with aminoacyl proline (Xaa-Pro) synthesis catalyzed by the adenylation domain of tyrocidine synthetase A (TycA-A)...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Rixiang Huang, Biao Wan, Margot Hultz, Julia M Diaz, Yuanzhi Tang
Polyphosphates are a group of phosphorus (P) containing molecules that are produced by a wide range of microorganisms and human activities. Although polyphosphates are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and are of environmental significance, little is known about their transformation and cycling. This study characterized the polyphopshate-hydrolysis mechanisms of several representative phosphatase enzymes and evaluated the effects of polyphosphate chain length, light condition, and calcium (Ca2+). 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the dynamic changes of P molecular configuration during polyphosphate hydrolysis and suggested a terminal-only degradation pathway by the enzymes...
January 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Bassem M Mohammed, Ivan Ivanov, Anton Matafonov, Jonas Emsley, David Gailani
Background: Factor XII (FXII) Locarno is a natural variant with proline replacing Arg353 at the activation cleavage site, preventing conversion to the fully active protease factor XIIa (FXIIa). Recently, we showed that FXII restricted to a single chain form (sc-FXII) by replacing Arg353 with alanine expresses proteolytic activity that is enhanced by cofactors such as polyphosphate. Aim: To determine if the Pro353 substitution affects the activity of sc-FXII. Methods: Wild type FXII (FXII-WT), FXII-R353A, and FXII Locarno (FXII-R353P) were tested for their abilities to activate prekallikrein, and to induce thrombin generation and coagulation in plasma in a factor XI-dependent manner...
January 2018: Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Ashley A Breiland, Beverly E Flood, Julia Nikrad, John Bakarich, Matthew Husman, TaekHyun Rhee, Robert S Jones, Jake V Bailey
Bacteria that accumulate polyphosphate have previously been shown to dynamically influence the solubility of phosphatic minerals in marine settings and wastewater. Here we show that dental plaque, saliva, and carious lesions, all contain abundant polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria. Saturation state modeling results, informed by phosphate uptake experiments using the model organism Lactobacillus rhamnosus, which is known to inhabit advanced carious-lesions, suggest that polyphosphate accumulation can lead to undersaturated conditions with respect to hydroxyapatite under some oral cavity conditions...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Tatiana Kulakovskaya, Lyubov Ryazanova, Anton Zvonarev, Galina Khokhlova, Vladimir Ostroumov, Mikhail Vainshtein
Yeasts Cryptococcus humicola accumulated cadmium, cobalt, and iron (~ 50, 17, and 4% of the content in the medium, respectively) from the medium containing glucose, phosphate, and 2 mmol/L of metal salts. The effects of metal absorption on the levels of orthophosphate (Pi) and inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) varied for the metals under study. The levels of Pi and polyP increased in the case of cadmium and cobalt, respectively. In the case of iron, no changes in the levels of Pi and polyP were observed. Multiple DAPI-stained polyP inclusions were observed in the cytoplasm of cadmium-containing cells...
January 19, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Nibras Belgaroui, Benoit Lacombe, Hatem Rouached, Moez Hanin
Engineering osmotolerant plants is a challenge for modern agriculture. An interaction between osmotic stress response and phosphate homeostasis has been reported in plants, but the identity of molecules involved in this interaction remains unknown. In this study we assessed the role of phytic acid (PA) in response to osmotic stress and/or phosphate deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. For this purpose, we used Arabidopsis lines (L7 and L9) expressing a bacterial beta-propeller phytase PHY-US417, and a mutant in inositol polyphosphate kinase 1 gene (ipk1-1), which were characterized by low PA content, 40% (L7 and L9) and 83% (ipk1-1) of the wild-type (WT) plants level...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hongjun Jin, Liyuan Yang, Lu Wang, Zailin Yang, Qian Zhan, Yao Tao, Qin Zou, Yuting Tang, Jingrong Xian, Shuaishuai Zhang, Yipei Jing, Ling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with mutated nucleophosmin (NPM1) has been recognized as a distinct leukemia entity in the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The genetic events underlying oncogenesis in NPM1-mutated AML that is characterized by a normal karyotype remain unclear. Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B), a new factor in the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway-associated cancers, has been recently found a clinically relevant role in AML...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Hyun Ah Kang
Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) are energy-rich small molecules that are omnipresent in eukaryotic cells, from yeast to mammals, playing central roles in overall cellular homeostasis as a diverse and multifaceted class of intracellular messengers. Recent studies of the metabolic pathways and physiological roles of PP-IPs in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans have revealed that the PP-IP5 (IP7) is a key metabolite essential for fungal metabolic adaptation to the host environment, immune recognition, and pathogenicity...
January 17, 2018: Virulence
Matthew D Sells, Nicola Brown, Andrew N Shilton
Waste stabilization ponds (WSP) are one of the most common forms of wastewater treatment for smaller communities globally, but have poor phosphorus removal. It is known that WSP algae can accumulate polyphosphate within their cells in excess of that needed for cell function. If polyphosphate accumulation could be triggered at the higher range of WSP cell concentrations, phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater could be significantly improved. However, this phenomenon is sporadic and still not fully understood...
January 8, 2018: Water Research
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