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Bárbara Teixeira, Helena Vieira, Rogério Mendes
Changes in added polyphosphates throughout the processing of dried salted cod in industrial environment were evaluated. As consumers purchase both dried salted cod and desalted cod, domestic and industrial desalting processes were performed. After brining, total phosphates increased to 11.6 and 16.6 g P2 O5 /kg in cod processed with 3 and 6% of polyphosphates, respectively. During dry-salting, total phosphates decreased in both cases to ca. 5 g P2 O5 /kg, suggesting that most polyphosphates were drained with the water released...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Huixuan Yue, Xiting Zhu, Shen Li, Fang Wang, Xiuwei Wang, Zhen Guan, Zhiqiang Zhu, Bo Niu, Ting Zhang, Jin Guo, Jianhua Wang
BACKGROUND The INPP5E gene encodes for the inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (INPP5E) 72 kDa protein that regulates the phosphoinositide signaling pathway and other cellular activities, but the functional role of this gene in embryonic neurodevelopment and neural tube defect (NTD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to use a mouse model of NTD to investigate the expression levels of the INPP5E gene during neural development and the occurrence of NTD. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an established NTD mouse model, stereoscopy was used to look for morphological defects...
April 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Shawn E McGlynn, Grayson L Chadwick, Ariel O'Neill, Mason Mackey, Andrea Thor, Thomas J Deerinck, Mark H Ellisman, Victoria J Orphan
Phylogenetically diverse environmental ANME archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria cooperatively catalyze the anaerobic oxidation of methane oxidation (AOM) in multi-celled consortia within methane seep environments. To better understand these cells and their symbiotic associations, we applied a suite of electron microscopy approaches including correlative<u>f</u>luorescence <u>i</u> n<u>s</u>itu <u>h</u>ybridization -<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy (FISH-EM),<u>t</u>ransmission<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy (TEM), and<u>s</u>erial<u>b</u>lock face scanning<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy 3D reconstructions (SBEM)...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Cheng Cheng, Zhen Zhou, Hongjian Pang, Yue Zheng, Liuyu Chen, Lu-Man Jiang, Xiaodan Zhao
A micro-aerobic side-stream reactor (MSSR) was inserted in returned sludge line of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for sludge reduction. Three MSSR coupled MBRs (M-MBRs) and an anoxic/oxic MBR (AO-MBR) were operated in parallel to investigate effects of micro-aerobic condition and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of MSSR (HRTM ) on process performance. M-MBRs and AO-MBR were equally effective in COD and NH4 -N removal. Rising HRTM from 3.3 to 6.7 h increased sludge reduction from 10.8% to 47.5%, and promoted dissolved organic matters release and utilization by enriching hydrolytic, fermentative and predatory bacteria...
March 28, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Philipp D Braun, Heide N Schulz-Vogt, Angela Vogts, Monika Nausch
The cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena is a species that frequently forms blooms in the Baltic Sea. Accumulation of the vital nutrient phosphorus (P) apparently plays an important role in the ability of this and other cyanobacteria to grow even when dissolved inorganic phosphorus is depleted. However, until now, this has not been studied in N. spumigena at the cellular level. Therefore, in this study, phosphorus incorporation and distribution in cyanobacterial filaments over time was examined by scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS)...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qingming Hou, Fei Liu, Anutosh Chakraborty, Yonghui Jia, Amit Prasad, Hongbo Yu, Li Zhao, Keqiang Ye, Solomon H Snyder, Yuanfu Xu, Hongbo R Luo
The significance of developing host-modulating personalized therapies to counteract the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance is well-recognized because such resistance cannot be overcome using microbe-centered strategies alone. Immune host defenses must be finely controlled during infection to balance pathogen clearance with unwanted inflammation-induced tissue damage. Thus, an ideal antimicrobial treatment would enhance bactericidal activity while preventing neutrophilic inflammation, which can induce tissue damage...
April 4, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Byungil Choi, Hyun Woo Lee, Seojung Mo, Jin Yong Kim, Hyun Wook Kim, Im Joo Rhyu, Eunhwa Hong, Yeon Kyung Lee, June-Seek Choi, Chong-Hyun Kim, Hyun Kim
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A (IP3K-A) regulates the level of the inositol polyphosphates, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and inositol tetrakisphosphate to modulate cellular signaling and intracellular calcium homeostasis in the central nervous system. IP3K-A binds to F-actin in an activity-dependent manner and accumulates in dendritic spines, where it is involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. IP3K-A knockout mice exhibit deficits in some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus synapses of the hippocampus...
2018: PloS One
Zhongwei Wang, Aislinn Dunne, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Pascal E Saikaly
Saline wastewater is known to affect the performance of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process. However, studies comparing the effect of salinity on different PAO clades are lacking. In this study, 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' Clade I and II (hereafter referred to as PAOI and PAOII) were highly enriched (∼90% in relative abundance as determined by quantitative FISH) in the form of granules in two sequencing batch reactors. Anaerobic and aerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of salinity on the kinetics and stoichiometry of PAOI and PAOII...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amanda Bentley-DeSousa, Charlotte Holinier, Houman Moteshareie, Yi-Chieh Tseng, Sam Kajjo, Christine Nwosu, Giuseppe Federico Amodeo, Emma Bondy-Chorney, Yuka Sai, Adam Rudner, Ashkan Golshani, Norman E Davey, Michael Downey
Polyphosphates (polyP) are chains of inorganic phosphates found in all cells. Previous work has implicated these chains in diverse functions, but the mechanism of action is unclear. A recent study reports that polyP can be non-enzymatically and covalently attached to lysine residues on yeast proteins Nsr1 and Top1. One question emerging from this work is whether so-called "polyphosphorylation" is unique to these proteins or instead functions as a global regulator akin to other lysine post-translational modifications...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Sheng Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Xiaodong Jin, Hongfei Li, Jun Sun, Xiaoyu Gu
In this paper, a novel flame retardant (ACS) was prepared by crosslinking chitosan with bis-(4-formylphenyl)-phenyl-phosphonate (ABPO). ACS in association with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and organic modified montmorillonite (OMMT) were used to prepare flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite through melt blending. For the TPU sample containing 10% flame retardants, the limiting oxygen index was increased from 20.8 to 29.0%, the vertical burning (UL-94) rating was upgraded from no rating to V-0, and the peak heat release rate was decreased from 1090 to 284 kW/m2 ...
June 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Zhongwei Wang, Bridgette M Cumming, Chunyou Mao, Yan Zhu, Pei Lu, Adrie J C Steyn, Shiyun Chen, Yangbo Hu
To facilitate survival under drug stresses, a small population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can tolerate bactericidal concentrations of drugs without genetic mutations. These drug-tolerant mycobacteria can be induced by environmental stresses and contribute to recalcitrant infections. However, mechanisms underlying the development of drug-tolerant mycobacteria remain obscure. Herein, we characterized a regulatory pathway which is important for the tolerance to isoniazid (INH) in Mycobacterium smegmatis. We found that the RNA polymerase binding protein RbpA associates with the stress response sigma factor σB , to activate the transcription of ppk1, the gene encoding polyphosphate kinase...
March 25, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
S P Pokhrel, M W Milke, R Bello-Mendoza, G Buitrón, J Thiele
Waste activated sludge (WAS) can become an important source of phosphorus (P). P speciation was examined under anaerobic conditions, with different pH (4, 6 and 8) and temperatures (10, 20 and 35 °C). Aqueous P was measured and an extraction protocol was used to find three solid phosphorus fractions. A pH of 4 and a temperature of 35 °C gave a maximum of 51% of total P solubilized in 22 days with 50% of total P solubilized in 7 days. Batch tests indicate that little pH depression is needed to release non-apatite inorganic P (including microbial polyphosphate), while a pH of 4 rather than 6 will release more apatite inorganic P, and that organic P is relatively more difficult to release from WAS...
March 21, 2018: Waste Management
Nassima Chouaki-Benmansour, Kilian Ruminski, Anne-Marie Sartre, Marie-Claire Phelipot, Audrey Salles, Elise Bergot, Ambroise Wu, Gaëtan Chicanne, Mathieu Fallet, Sophie Brustlein, Cyrille Billaudeau, Anthony Formisano, Sébastien Mailfert, Bernard Payrastre, Didier Marguet, Sophie Brasselet, Yannick Hamon, Hai-Tao He
Phosphoinositides (PIs) play important roles in numerous membrane-based cellular activities. However, their involvement in the mechanism of T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction across the plasma membrane (PM) is poorly defined. Here, we investigate their role, and in particular that of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in TCR PM dynamics and activity in a mouse T-cell hybridoma upon ectopic expression of a PM-localized inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (Inp54p). We observed that dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 by the phosphatase increased the TCR/CD3 complex PM lateral mobility prior stimulation...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ricardo Marques, Anna Ribera-Guardia, Jorge Santos, Gilda Carvalho, Maria A M Reis, Maite Pijuan, Adrian Oehmen
Denitrifying enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems can be an efficient means of removing phosphate (P) and nitrate (NO3 - ) with low carbon source and oxygen requirements. Tetrasphaera is one of the most abundant polyphosphate accumulating organisms present in EBPR systems, but their capacity to achieve denitrifying EBPR has not previously been determined. An enriched Tetrasphaera culture, comprising over 80% of the bacterial biovolume was obtained in this work. Despite the denitrification capacity of Tetrasphaera, this culture achieved only low levels of anoxic P-uptake...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
Xuan Shi, Huu Hao Ngo, Langtao Sang, Pengkang Jin, Xiaochang C Wang, Guanghua Wang
In this study, a pilot combined sewer system was constructed to characterize the pollutant transformation in sewer sediment. The results showed that particulate contaminants deposited from sewage could be transformed into dissolved matter by distinct pollutant transformation pathways. Although the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was varied from -80 mV to -340 mV in different region of the sediment, the fermentation was the dominant process in all regions of the sediment, which induced hydrolysis and decomposition of particulate contaminants...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
Helen V Wilmot, Jason Hockley, Peter Rigsby, Elaine Gray
Until recently, the role of factor XII (FXII) in hemostasis was not considered to be important since patients with FXII deficiency do not present with bleeding. The activation of FXII by agents including mast cells and platelet polyphosphates suggests that it may have a role in thrombogenesis. The inhibition of FXII therefore presents an option for antithrombotic therapy, and antibodies and inhibitors are already in development. Assays for FXII will be required to support these technologies, and an international standard (IS) for FXII would be useful for the development of these methods and for the clinical monitoring of patients...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Amirhossein Mafi, Srinivas Abbina, Manu Thomas Kalathottukaren, James H Morrissey, Charles Haynes, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Jim Pfaendtner, Keng C Chou
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) released by human platelets has recently been shown to activate blood clotting and identified as a potential target for the development of novel antithrombotics. Recent studies have shown that polymers with cationic binding groups (CBGs) inhibit polyP and attenuate thrombosis. However, a good molecular-level understanding of the binding mechanism is lacking for further drug development. While molecular dynamics (MD) simulation can provide molecule-level information, the time scale required to simulate these large biomacromolecules makes classical MD simulation impractical...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Guangmin Zhou, Kai Liu, Yanchen Fan, Mengqi Yuan, Bofei Liu, Wei Liu, Feifei Shi, Yayuan Liu, Wei Chen, Jeffrey Lopez, Denys Zhuo, Jie Zhao, Yuchi Tsao, Xuanyi Huang, Qianfan Zhang, Yi Cui
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as promising next-generation high energy density storage devices for both portable electronics and electric vehicles due to their high energy density, low cost, and environmental friendliness. However, there remain some issues yet to be fully addressed with the main challenges stemming from the ionically insulating nature of sulfur and the dissolution of polysulfides in electrolyte with subsequent parasitic reactions leading to low sulfur utilization and poor cycle life...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Alice E Parnell, Silja Mordhorst, Florian Kemper, Mariacarmela Giurrandino, Josh P Prince, Nikola J Schwarzer, Alexandre Hofer, Daniel Wohlwend, Henning J Jessen, Stefan Gerhardt, Oliver Einsle, Petra C F Oyston, Jennifer N Andexer, Peter L Roach
Inorganic polyphosphate is a ubiquitous, linear biopolymer built of up to thousands of phosphate residues that are linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. Polyphosphate kinases of the family 2 (PPK2) use polyphosphate to catalyze the reversible phosphorylation of nucleotide phosphates and are highly relevant as targets for new pharmaceutical compounds and as biocatalysts for cofactor regeneration. PPK2s can be classified based on their preference for nucleoside mono- or diphosphates or both. The detailed mechanism of PPK2s and the molecular basis for their substrate preference is unclear, which is mainly due to the lack of high-resolution structures with substrates or substrate analogs...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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