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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533308/silica-particles-contribute-to-the-procoagulant-activity-of-dna-and-polyphosphate-isolated-using-commercial-kits
#1
Stephanie A Smith, Catherine J Baker, Joshua M Gajsiewicz, James H Morrissey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527827/in%C3%A2-vitro-bioconversion-of-chitin-to-pyruvate-with-thermophilic-enzymes
#2
Kohsuke Honda, Keisuke Kimura, Pham Huynh Ninh, Hironori Taniguchi, Kenji Okano, Hisao Ohtake
Chitin is the second most abundant organic compound on the planet and thus has been regarded as an alternative resource to petroleum feedstocks. One of the key challenges in the biological conversion of biomass-derived polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, is to close the gap between optimum temperatures for enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation and to implement them in a single bioreactor. To address this issue, in the present study, we aimed to perform an in vitro, one-pot bioconversion of chitin to pyruvate, which is a precursor of a wide range of useful metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513544/morphogenetically-active-barrier-membrane-for-guided-bone-regeneration-based-on-amorphous-polyphosphate
#3
Xiaohong Wang, Maximilian Ackermann, Meik Neufurth, Shunfeng Wang, Heinz C Schröder, Werner E G Müller
We describe a novel regeneratively-active barrier membrane which consists of a durable electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) net covered with a morphogenetically-active biohybrid material composed of collagen and inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). The patch-like fibrous collagen structures are decorated with small amorphous polyP nanoparticles (50 nm) formed by precipitation of this energy-rich and enzyme-degradable (alkaline phosphatase) polymer in the presence of calcium ions. The fabricated PCL-polyP/collagen hybrid mats are characterized by advantageous biomechanical properties, such as enhanced flexibility and stretchability with almost unaltered tensile strength of the PCL net...
May 17, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501915/role-of-the-inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-ipk2-in-regulation-of-hyphal-development-calcium-signaling-and-secretion-in-candida-albicans
#4
Jianrong Li, Bing Zhang, Tianyu Ma, Honggang Wang, Biao Zhang, Qilin Yu, Mingchun Li
Inositol polyphosphates are a family of inositol derivatives and ubiquitously distributed in various organisms. Their generation is catalyzed by inositol polyphosphate multikinases, which play essential roles in abundant cellular processes. However, little is known about the kinds and functions of inositol polyphosphate multikinases in the important fungal pathogen, C. albicans. In this study, we identified a C. albicans inositol polyphosphate multikinase, Ipk2. This kinase shares the conserved IPK domain and localizes in the nucleus...
May 13, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499493/bifunctional-dentifrice-amorphous-polyphosphate-a-regeneratively-active-sealant-with-potent-anti-streptococcus-mutans-activity
#5
Werner E G Müller, Meik Neufurth, Maximilian Ackermann, Emad Tolba, Michael Korzhev, Shunfeng Wang, Qingling Feng, Heinz C Schröder, Xiaohong Wang
OBJECTIVE: In this study we demonstrate that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) exhibits a dual protective effect on teeth: it elicits a strong antibacterial effect against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans and, in form of amorphous calcium polyP microparticles (size of 100-400nm), it efficiently reseals cracks/fissures in the tooth enamel and dentin. METHODS: Three different formulations of amorphous polyP microparticles (Ca-polyP, Zn-polyP and Sr-polyP) were prepared...
May 9, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496434/a-critical-assessment-of-the-microorganisms-proposed-to-be-important-to-enhanced-biological-phosphorus-removal-in-full-scale-wastewater-treatment-systems
#6
Mikkel Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Simon J McIlroy, Marta Nierychlo, Søren M Karst, Mads Albertsen, Per H Nielsen
Understanding the microbiology of phosphorus (P) removal is considered essential to knowledge-based optimization of enhanced biological P removal (EBPR) systems. Biological P removal is achieved in these systems by promoting the growth of organisms collectively known as the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Also considered important to EBPR are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), which are theorized to compete with the PAOs for resources at the expense of P removal efficiency. Numerous studies have sought to identify the PAOs and their GAOs competitors, with several candidates proposed for each over the last few decades...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494083/phosphate-from-stardust-to-eukaryotic-cell-cycle-control
#7
Javier Jiménez, Samuel Bru, Mariana Pc Ribeiro, Josep Clotet
Phosphorus is a pivotal element in all biochemical systems: it serves to store metabolic energy as ATP, it forms the backbone of genetic material such as RNA and DNA, and it separates cells from the environment as phospholipids. In addition to this "big hits", phosphorus has recently been shown to play an important role in other important processes such as cell cycle regulation. In the present review, we briefly summarize the biological processes in which phosphorus is involved in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae before discussing our latest findings on the role of this element in the regulation of DNA replication in this eukaryotic model organism...
September 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486045/in-vitro-generated-intervertebral-discs-towards-engineering-tissue-integration
#8
Jonathan Iu, Eric Massicotte, Shu-Qiu Li, Mark B Hurtig, Ehsan Toyserkani, J Paul Santerre, Rita Kandel
The intervertebral disc (IVD) is composed of nucleus pulposus (NP) surrounded by multilamellated annulus fibrosus (AF), and is located between the vertebral bodies. Current treatments for chronic neck or low back pain do not completely restore the functionality of degenerated IVDs. Thus developing biological disc replacements is an approach of great interest. Given the complex structure of the IVD, tissue engineering of the individual IVD components and then combining them together may be the only way to achieve this...
May 9, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482637/inpp5d-mrna-expression-and-cognitive-decline-in-japanese-alzheimer-s-disease-subjects
#9
Yuta Yoshino, Kiyohiro Yamazaki, Yuki Ozaki, Tomoko Sao, Taku Yoshida, Takaaki Mori, Yoko Mori, Shinichiro Ochi, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shu-Ichi Ueno
Microglial dysfunction and inflammation have recently been shown to be related to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (INPP5D) functions broadly as a negative regulator of immune signaling, and its locus was associated with development of AD in a large-scale genome-wide association study. Thus, we examined INPP5D mRNA expression and methylation rates of the CpG sites in the upstream region of INPP5D exon 1 in peripheral leukocytes in 50 AD and age- and sex-matched control subjects...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478737/removal-of-phosphate-by-staphylococcus-aureus-under-aerobic-and-alternating-anaerobic-aerobic-conditions
#10
Malairajan Sumathi, Namasivayam Vasudevan
Eutrophication of water bodies due to phosphate enrichment is an ecological problem. Phosphate is removed from wastewaters by enhanced biological phosphate removal worldwide by phosphate accumulating organism. In order to understand the process of treatment, the existing microbial community and its metabolism of phosphate removal are studied widely. This study focuses on the isolation of polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria from different environments and studying their phosphate removal capacity with different carbon supplements under varying culture conditions...
May 7, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475763/cell-wall-canals-formed-upon-growth-of-%C3%B0-andida-maltosa-in-the-presence-of-hexadecane-are-associated-with-polyphosphates
#11
Anton N Zvonarev, David E Crowley, Lubov P Ryazanova, Lydia P Lichko, Tatiana G Rusakova, Tatiana V Kulakovskaya, Vladimir V Dmitriev
Canals are supramolecular complexes observed in the cell wall of Candida maltosa grown in the presence of hexadecane as a sole carbon source. Such structures were not observed in glucose grown cells. Microscopic observations of cells stained with diaminobenzidine revealed the presence of oxidative enzymes in the canals. DAPI staining revealed that a substantial part of cellular polyphosphate was present in the cell wall of cells grown on hexadecane in condition of phosphate limitation. The content and chain length of polyphosphates were higher in hexadecane-grown cells than in glucose grown ones...
May 4, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473699/ocular-pathology-of-oculocerebrorenal-syndrome-of-lowe-novel-mutations-and-genotype-phenotype-analysis
#12
Emilie Song, Na Luo, Jorge A Alvarado, Maria Lim, Cathleen Walnuss, Daniel Neely, Dan Spandau, Alireza Ghaffarieh, Yang Sun
Mutations in the OCRL1 gene result in the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, with symptoms including congenital bilateral cataracts, glaucoma, renal failure, and neurological impairments. OCRL1 encodes an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase which preferentially dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositide 4,5 bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). We have identified two novel mutations in two unrelated Lowe syndrome patients with congenital glaucoma. Novel deletion mutations are detected at c.739-742delAAAG in Lowe patient 1 and c...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465056/unraveling-microbial-structure-and-diversity-of-activated-sludge-in-a-full-scale-simultaneous-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-removal-plant-using-metagenomic-sequencing
#13
Jianhua Guo, Bing-Jie Ni, Xiaoyu Han, Xueming Chen, Philip Bond, Yongzhen Peng, Zhiguo Yuan
Activated sludge contains highly complex microbial communities, which play crucial roles in pollutant removal performance in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Metagenomic sequencing was applied to characterize microbial community and functional profiles within activated sludge from a full-scale municipal WWTP carrying out simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorous removal (SNPR). We applied the assembled contigs (N90 of 591bp) and predicted genes to conduct taxonomic and function annotations, respectively. Results revealed the extraordinary microbial diversity of activated sludge, which included detection of minority populations that are difficult to be explored by traditional molecular methods...
July 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457441/improved-flame-retardant-and-tensile-properties-of-thermoplastic-starch-flax-fabric-green-composites
#14
M N Prabhakar, Atta Ur Rehman Shah, Jung-Il Song
This article highlights the development of biodegradable flame-retardant composites using a compression technique on low-cost starch, flax fabric (FF) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) raw materials. The starch was plasticized into thermoplastic starch through a mechano-ball milling process and composites were developed by reinforcing the FF and incorporating varying amounts of APP. The effects of APP on the flammability and thermal properties of the composites were studied. Limited oxygen index and horizontal-burning tests exhibited significant sustainability of the composites toward flame and direct flame self-extinguishment...
July 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456651/development-and-evaluation-of-injectable-nanosized-drug-delivery-systems-for-apigenin
#15
Reatul Karim, Claudio Palazzo, Julie Laloy, Anne-Sophie Delvigne, Stéphanie Vanslambrouck, Christine Jerome, Elise Lepeltier, Francois Orange, Jean-Michel Dogne, Brigitte Evrard, Catherine Passirani, Géraldine Piel
The purpose of this study was to develop different injectable nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDSs) i.e. liposome, lipid nanocapsule (LNC) and polymeric nanocapsule (PNC) encapsulating apigenin (AG) and compare their characteristics to identify the nanovector(s) that can deliver the largest quantity of AG while being biocompatible. Two liposomes with different surface characteristics (cationic and anionic), a LNC and a PNC were prepared. A novel tocopherol modified poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyphosphate block-copolymer was used for the first time for the PNC preparation...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451173/a-novel-route-for-preparing-5-cap-mimics-and-capped-rnas-phosphate-modified-cap-analogues-obtained-via-click-chemistry
#16
Sylwia Walczak, Anna Nowicka, Dorota Kubacka, Kaja Fac, Przemyslaw Wanat, Seweryn Mroczek, Joanna Kowalska, Jacek Jemielity
The significant biological role of the mRNA 5' cap in translation initiation makes it an interesting subject for chemical modifications aimed at producing useful tools for the selective modulation of intercellular processes and development of novel therapeutic interventions. However, traditional approaches to the chemical synthesis of cap analogues are time-consuming and labour-intensive, which impedes the development of novel compounds and their applications. Here, we explore a different approach for synthesizing 5' cap mimics, making use of click chemistry (CuAAC) to combine two mononucleotide units and yield a novel class of dinucleotide cap analogues containing a triazole ring within the oligophosphate chain...
January 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449118/polyphosphate-accumulating-bacterial-community-colonizing-the-calcium-bodies-of-terrestrial-isopod-crustaceans-titanethes-albus-and-hyloniscus-riparius
#17
Rok Kostanjšek, Vittori Miloš, Vesna Srot, Peter A van Aken, Štrus Jasna
Terrestrial isopods from the group Trichoniscidae accumulate calcium in specialized organs, known as the calcium bodies. These consist of two pairs of epithelial sacs located alongside the digestive system. These organs contain various forms of calcium and constantly present bacteria. To elucidate their origin and role, we analyzed the bacteria of the calcium bodies in the cave-dwelling isopod Titanethes albus and the epigean species Hyloniscus riparius, by microscopy, histochemistry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, 16S rRNA analysis and in situ hybridization...
April 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443365/enhanced-phosphorus-reduction-in-simulated-eutrophic-water-a-comparative-study-of-submerged-macrophytes-sediment-microbial-fuel-cells-and-their-combination
#18
Peng Xu, Enrong Xiao, Dan Xu, Juan Li, Yi Zhang, Zhigang Dai, Qiaohong Zhou, Zhenbin Wu
The phosphorus content reduction in overlying and sediment pore water was attempted by integrating sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis. A comparative study was conducted to treat simulated water rich in phosphate with a control and three treatments: SMFC alone (SMFC), submerged macrophytes alone (macophyte), and combined macrophytes and fuel cells (M-SMFC). All treatments increased sediment Eh and pH of the overlying water, thus promoting phosphorus flux from water column to sediments...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439546/inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-promotes-toll-like-receptor-induced-inflammation-by-stabilizing-traf6
#19
Eunha Kim, Jiyoon Beon, Seulgi Lee, Seung Ju Park, Hyoungjoon Ahn, Min Gyu Kim, Jeong Eun Park, Wooseob Kim, Jae-Min Yuk, Suk-Jo Kang, Seung-Hyo Lee, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Rho Hyun Seong, Seyun Kim
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is tightly controlled to protect hosts from microorganisms while simultaneously preventing uncontrolled immune responses. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a critical mediator of TLR signaling, but the precise mechanism of how TRAF6 protein stability is strictly controlled still remains obscure. We show that myeloid-specific deletion of inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which has both inositol polyphosphate kinase activities and noncatalytic signaling functions, protects mice against polymicrobial sepsis and lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433172/preparation-and-characterization-of-chitosan-derivatives-and-their-application-as-flame-retardants-in-thermoplastic-polyurethane
#20
Xiaodong Liu, Xiaoyu Gu, Jun Sun, Sheng Zhang
Our previous work has demonstrated that chitosan (CS) can be directly used as charring agents. In this paper, efforts were made to further improve the thermal stability and charring ability of CS by reacting with benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde and hydroxybenzaldehyde respectively to obtain different CS derivatives. CS derivatives in association with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) was then introduced into thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) to prepare flame retardant TPU composites. The sample containing 18.75% APP and 6...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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