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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429319/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-heavy-metal-resistance-and-accumulation-in-euglena
#1
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Ricardo Jasso-Chávez, Emma Saavedra, Jorge D García-García
Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for removal of heavy metals from polluted water bodies, sediments, and soils by using and enhancing their metal accumulating abilities. The available research data indicate that protists of the genus Euglena are a highly promising group of microorganisms to be used in bio-remediation of heavy metal-polluted aerobic and anaerobic acidic aquatic environments. This chapter analyzes the variety of biochemical mechanisms evolved in E. gracilis to resist, accumulate and remove heavy metals from the environment, being the most relevant those involving (1) adsorption to the external cell pellicle; (2) intracellular binding by glutathione and glutathione polymers, and their further compartmentalization as heavy metal-complexes into chloroplasts and mitochondria; (3) polyphosphate biosynthesis; and (4) secretion of organic acids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420075/application-of-hydrogen-peroxide-as-an-innovative-method-of-treatment-for-legionella-control-in-a-hospital-water-network
#2
Beatrice Casini, Francesco Aquino, Michele Totaro, Mario Miccoli, Irio Galli, Laura Manfredini, Carlo Giustarini, Anna Laura Costa, Benedetta Tuvo, Paola Valentini, Gaetano Privitera, Angelo Baggiani
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (HP) use as a disinfectant in the hospital water network for the control of Legionella spp. colonization. METHODS: Following the detection of high levels of Legionella contamination in a 136-bed general hospital water network, an HP treatment of the hot water supply (25 mg/L) was adopted. During a period of 34 months, the effectiveness of HP on Legionella colonization was assessed. Legionella was isolated in accordance with ISO-11731 and identification was carried out by sequencing of the mip gene...
April 17, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419456/time-lapse-lab-based-x-ray-nano-ct-study-of-corrosion-damage
#3
R S Bradley, Y Liu, T L Burnett, X Zhou, S B Lyon, P J Withers, A Gholinia, T Hashimoto, D Graham, S R Gibbon, B Hornberger
An experimental protocol (workflow) has been developed for time-lapse x-ray nanotomography (nano-CT) imaging of environmentally driven morphological changes to materials. Two case studies are presented. First, the leaching of nanoparticle corrosion inhibitor pigment from a polymer coating was followed over 14 days, while in the second case the corrosion damage to an AA2099 aluminium alloy was imaged over 12 hours. The protocol includes several novel aspects relevant to nano-CT with the use of a combination of x-ray absorption and phase contrast data to provide enhanced morphological and composition information, and hence reveal the best information to provide new insights into the changes of different phases over time...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417169/rational-design-of-substrate-binding-pockets-in-polyphosphate-kinase-for-use-in-cost-effective-atp-dependent-cascade-reactions
#4
Hao Cao, Kaili Nie, Chengcheng Li, Haijun Xu, Fang Wang, Tianwei Tan, Luo Liu
Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the energy equivalent of the living system. Polyphosphate (polyP) is the ancient energy storage equivalent of organisms. Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) catalyze the polyP formation or ATP formation, to store energy or to regenerate ATP, respectively. However, most PPKs are active only in the presence of long polyPs, which are more difficult and more expensive to generate than the short polyPs. We investigated the PPK preference towards polyPs by site-directed mutagenesis and computational simulation, to understand the mechanism and further design enzymes for effective ATP regeneration using short polyPs for in vitro cascade reactions, which are highly desired for research and applications...
April 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410439/responses-of-bacterial-communities-to-cuo-nanoparticles-in-activated-sludge-system
#5
Xiaohui Wang, Jing Li, Rui Liu, Reti Hai, Dexun Zou, Xiaobiao Zhu, Nan Luo
The main objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on wastewater nutrient removal, bacterial community and molecular ecological network in activated sludge. The results showed that long-term exposure to 1 mg/L CuO NPs induced an increase of effluent concentrations of ammonia and total phosphorus, which was consistent with the inhibition of enzyme activities of ammonia monooxygenase, nitrite oxidoreductase, exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate in the presence of CuO NPs...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391663/a-comparative-study-of-laboratory-dentifrice-abrasion-measuring-methods
#6
Michael Prencipe, Mark Vandeven, Brian N Feldman, Bruce R Schemehorn
OBJECTIVES: Recently, a profilometry-based method for measuring toothpaste dentin abrasivity has been proposed to be equivalent to the traditional radiotracer RDA (relative dentin abrasion) procedure. This review outlines the findings and comparative assessment of laboratory studies used to measure the abrasivity of commercially available whitening dentifrices on human dentin. Traditional radiotracer and profilometry RDA-PE (Profilometry Equivalent) methods were assessed, with the objective of determining how they compare, and also to learn if the two techniques yield RDA values that are consistent with each other, specifically in ranking and potential for discrimination of three commercially available silica-based products...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384255/trehalose-dimycolate-interferes-with-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-phagosome-maturation-through-mincle-shp-1-and-fc%C3%AE-riib-signalling
#7
Emmanuel C Patin, Anna C Geffken, Sam Willcocks, Christoph Leschczyk, Albert Haas, Falk Nimmerjahn, Roland Lang, Theresa H Ward, Ulrich E Schaible
The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), contains an abundant cell wall glycolipid and a crucial virulence factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM). TDM causes delay of phagosome maturation and thus promotes survival of mycobacteria inside host macrophages by a not fully understood mechanism. TDM signals through the Monocyte-INducible C-type LEctin (Mincle), a recently identified pattern recognition receptor. Here we show that recruitment of Mincle by TDM coupled to immunoglobulin (Ig)G-opsonised beads during Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis interferes with phagosome maturation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377345/-expression-of-proteus-mirabilis-polyphosphate-kinase-and-preparation-of-its-polyclonal-antibodies
#8
Liang Peng, Jing-Yi Ou, Jia-Yun Pan, Cong Deng, Jing-Hong Chen, Hong Cao
OBJECTIVE: To express and purify polyphosphate kinase (PPK) from Proteus mirabilis and prepare the polyclonal antibody against PPK. METHODS: The antigenicity and hydrophobicity of PPK were analyzed using software. The N-terminal conservative sequence containing 309 amino acids was selected as the target peptide, and its corresponding gene sequence with modification based on prokaryotic cells-preferred codon was synthesized and inserted into plasmid pET28b(+). The constructed recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and induced with IPTG...
March 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373998/datasets-for-transcriptomics-q-proteomics-and-phenotype-microarrays-of-polyphosphate-metabolism-mutants-from-escherichia-coli
#9
Macarena Varas, Camilo Valdivieso, Cecilia Mauriaca, Javiera Ortíz-Severín, Alberto Paradela, Ignacio Poblete-Castro, Ricardo Cabrera, Francisco P Chávez
Here, we provide the dataset associated with our research article on the polyphosphate metabolism entitled, "Multi-level evaluation of Escherichia coli polyphosphate related mutants using global transcriptomic, proteomic and phenomic analyses". By integrating different omics levels (transcriptome, proteome and phenome), we were able to study Escherichia coli polyphosphate mutant strains (Δppk1, Δppx, and Δppk1-ppx). We have compiled here all datasets from DNA microarrys, q-proteomic (Isotope-Coded Protein Labeling, ICPL) and phenomic (Phenotype microarray) raw data we have obtained in all polyP metabolism mutants...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370665/induction-of-the-pho-regulon-and-polyphosphate-synthesis-against-spermine-stress-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Yu-Chih Peng, ChienYi Lu, Guoqing Li, Zehava Eichenbaum, Chung-Dar Lu
Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on spermine requires a functional γ-glutamylpolyamine synthetase PauA2. Not only subjected to growth inhibition by spermine, the pauA2 mutant became more sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics in human serum. To explore PauA2 as a potential target of drug development, suppressors of the pauA2 mutant, which alleviated toxicity, were isolated from selection plates containing spermine. These suppressors share common phenotypic changes including delayed growth rate, retarded swarming motility, and pyocyanin overproduction...
March 29, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367715/two-armed-activation-of-bone-mineral-deposition-by-the-flavones-baicalin-and-baicalein-encapsulated-in-polyphosphate-microparticles
#11
Xiao-Hong Wang, Yue-Wei Guo, Emad Tolba, Maria Kokkinopoulou, Matthias Wiens, Heinz C Schröder, Werner E G Müller
In this study, we investigated the effect of the two flavonoids, baicalin (baicalein 7-O-β-d-glucuronic acid) and its aglycone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), after encapsulation into amorphous calcium polyphosphate (Ca-polyP) microparticles on mineralization of primary human osteoblasts (phOSB). Both flavonoids, which come from root extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and are nontoxic in cells up to a concentration of 3[Formula: see text]μg/ml. The morphogenetically active, energy-rich Ca-polyP particles with a stoichiometric P:Ca ratio of 1:2 are degraded by cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to ortho-phosphate used for bone hydroxyapatite formation...
April 2, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363565/zinc-complexed-chitosan-tpp-nanoparticles-a-promising-micronutrient-nanocarrier-suited-for-foliar-application
#12
Paresh Deshpande, Ashwin Dapkekar, Manoj D Oak, Kishore M Paknikar, Jyutika M Rajwade
Cultivation of cereals in zinc deficient soils leads to declined nutritional quality of grain. Zinc deficiency in humans is a consequence of consumption of micronutrient deficient cereals as staple food. To achieve an increase in zinc density in grain, we evaluated zinc complexed chitosan nanoparticles (Zn-CNP) as a potential 'nanocarrier' suited for foliar fertilization. Zn-CNP were synthesized using tri-polyphosphate as a cross-linker. Spherical Zn-CNP (diameter 250-300nm) were positively charged (zeta potential, +42...
June 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357919/simple-silica-column-based-method-to-quantify-inorganic-polyphosphates-in-cartilage-and-other-tissues
#13
Whitaik David Lee, Rahul Gawri, Toshikazu Shiba, Ae-Ri Ji, William L Stanford, Rita A Kandel
OBJECTIVE: Inorganic polyphosphates (polyP) play a multitude of roles in mammalian biology. PolyP research is hindered by the lack of a simple and sensitive quantification method. The aim of this study was to develop a robust method for quantifying the low levels of polyP in mammalian tissue such as cartilage, which is rich in macromolecules that interfere with its determination. DESIGN: Native and in vitro formed tissues were digested with proteinase K to release sequestrated polyP...
March 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357384/improvement-of-biochemical-methods-of-polyp-quantification
#14
Samuel Bru, Javier Jiménez, David Canadell, Joaquín Ariño, Josep Clotet
Polyphosphate (polyP) is an abundant and physiologically important biomolecule for virtually any living cell. Therefore, determination of changes in cellular content of polyP is crucial for its functional characterization. Determination of cellular polyP has been performed by many different methods, and the lack of a standardized procedure is possibly responsible for the large dispersion of results found in the relevant literature. For a relatively simple organism, such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this variation can be up to 12-fold...
December 29, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346966/factor-xii-contact-activation
#15
Clément Naudin, Elena Burillo, Stefan Blankenberg, Lynn Butler, Thomas Renné
Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively...
March 27, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345464/microrna-590-3p-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-targeting-inositol-polyphosphate-4-phosphatase-type-ii-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#16
Haiwen Chen, Qidong Luo, Hongliang Li
Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II emerges as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer, and its loss of expression is associated with poor prognosis for prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of downregulation of inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II in prostate cancer development has not yet been fully clarified. In this study, microRNA-590-3p was found to be upregulated in both prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of microRNA-590-3p by microRNA-590-3p mimics promoted prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion and accelerated the growth of xenografted tumors, while microRNA-590-3p inhibitors contributed to inhibition of cellular proliferation and invasion as well as tumor growth...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336732/platelet-polyphosphate-the-long-and-the-short-of-it
#17
Jeffrey I Weitz, James C Fredenburgh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333060/can-dna-sequencing-show-differences-between-microbial-communities-in-polish-and-danish-wastewater-treatment-plants
#18
A Miłobędzka, A Muszyński
The microbial populations in the activated sludge of two Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were identified and quantified using Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons over a 2-year period. Their dynamics over time were compared to Danish WWTPs (data collected in previous studies by Center for Microbial Communities, Aalborg University). The bacterial communities in Polish and Danish WWTPs were similar to each other, but the microbial diversity in Polish WWTPs was lower. The dominant genera in Polish WWTPs were more abundant than in Danish WWTPs; 30 of them constituted more than half the of activated sludge community...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332676/application-of-the-dimensional-reduction-formalism-to-pb9-xbax-li2-p2o7-2-p4o13-2-x-0-2-6-7-a-series-of-phosphates-with-two-types-of-isolated-polyphosphate-groups
#19
Xiangyu Zhang, Hongping Wu, Qiong Liu, Xiaoyu Dong, Yunlei Chen, Zhihua Yang, Xiao-Dong Wen, Shilie Pan
A series of phosphates, Pb9-xBax[Li2(P2O7)2(P4O13)2] (x = 0, 2, 6, 7), have been synthesized by a high temperature solution method and the crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. They are isostructural and crystallize in the triclinic space group P1[combining macron]. It is interesting that there are two kinds of isolated polyphosphate anionic groups coexisting in the crystal structure, which is rare among phosphates. Their structures exhibit zero-dimensional [Li2(P2O7)2(P4O13)2](18-) anionic clusters constructed by the LiO4, P2O7 and P4O13 groups, which are separated by the Pb(2+) or Ba(2+) cations...
March 23, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322436/modelling-hydraulic-transport-and-anaerobic-uptake-by-paos-and-gaos-during-wastewater-feeding-in-ebpr-granular-sludge-reactors
#20
David G Weissbrodt, Christof Holliger, Eberhard Morgenroth
New-generation bioprocesses using granular sludge aim for a high-rate removal of nutrients from wastewater with low footprint. Achieving enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) relies on the design of sludge beds and wastewater feeding conditions to optimally load the biomass and to select for polyphosphate- (PAOs) over glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other heterotrophs. A hydraulic-metabolic mathematical model was developed to elucidate the impact of hydraulic transport patterns and environmental conditions on the PAO/GAO competition during up-flow feeding through an EBPR granular sludge bed...
March 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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