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Spinal cord implants

Shu-Ping Chen, Ya-Qun Zhou, Jia Sun, Fei Cao, Cody Braun, Fang Luo, Yuke Tian, Da-Wei Ye
which often occurs in patients with advanced prostate, breast, and lung cancer. It is of great significance to improve the therapies of CIBP due to the opioids' side effects including addiction, sedation, pruritus, and vomiting. Sinomenine, a traditional Chinese medicine, showed obvious analgesic effects on a rat model of chronic inflammatory pain, but has never been proven to treat CIBP. In the present study, we investigated the analgesic effect of sinomenine after tumor cell implantation (TCI) and specific cellular mechanisms in CIBP...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
Ankor González-Mayorga, Elisa López-Dolado, María C Gutiérrez, Jorge E Collazos-Castro, M Luisa Ferrer, Francisco Del Monte, María C Serrano
Neural tissue engineering approaches show increasing promise for the treatment of neural diseases including spinal cord injury, for which an efficient therapy is still missing. Encouraged by both positive findings on the interaction of carbon nanomaterials such as graphene with neural components and the necessity of more efficient guidance structures for neural repair, we herein study the potential of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) microfibers as substrates for neural growth in the injured central neural tissue...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Roberta Galli, Kerim H Sitoci-Ficici, Ortrud Uckermann, Robert Later, Magda Marečková, Maria Koch, Elke Leipnitz, Gabriele Schackert, Edmund Koch, Michael Gelinsky, Gerald Steiner, Matthias Kirsch
The development of therapies promoting recovery after spinal cord injury is a challenge. Alginate hydrogels offer the possibility to develop biocompatible implants with mechanical properties tailored to the nervous tissue, which could provide a permissive environment for tissue repair. Here, the effects of non-functionalized soft calcium alginate hydrogel were investigated in a rat model of thoracic spinal cord hemisection and compared to lesioned untreated controls. Open field locomotion tests were employed to evaluate functional recovery...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Devang K Thakor, Lei Wang, Darcy Benedict, Serdar Kabatas, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Human mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hMSCs) hold regenerative medicine potential due to their availability, in vitro expansion readiness, and autologous feasibility. For neural repair, hMSCs show translational value in research on stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), and traumatic brain injury. It is pivotal to establish multimodal in vitro systems to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying neural actions of hMSCs. Here, we describe a platform protocol on how to set up organotypic co-cultures of hMSCs (alone or polymer-scaffolded) with explanted adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) to determine neural injury and recovery events for designing implants to counteract neurotrauma sequelae...
July 18, 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Erez Shor, Uri Merdler, Inbar Brosh, Shy Shoham, Shulamit Levenberg
Engineered neural implants have a myriad of potential basic science and clinical neural repair applications. Although there are implants that are currently undergoing their first clinical investigations, optimizing their long-term viability and efficacy remain an open challenge. Functional implants with pre-vascularization of various engineered tissues have proven to enhance post-implantation host integration, and well-known synergistic neural-vascular interplays suggest that this strategy could also be promising for neural tissue engineering...
July 4, 2018: Biomaterials
Jia Liu, Shengfa Li, Ke Huang, Xianzhe Lu, Yu Shi, Kegong Xie, Yujing Tang
PURPOSE: Disorders of the upper thoracic spine can lead to serious disability and morbidity. However, operating on the upper thoracic vertebrae T2-T5 remains challenging because of the anatomical features of the thoracic spine. We describe a novel anterolateral upper thoracic approach, which is safe and reproducible and allows direct access to the upper thoracic spine from T2 to T6 inclusive, obviating the risk of damaging complex anatomical structures inherent in the anterior trans-sternal approach...
July 13, 2018: European Spine Journal
Sinduja Seshadri, Jonathan Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Linli Li, Yiqun He, Xujun Chen, Youhai Dong
The physiological reconstruction of artificial vertebral laminae without epidural scar tissue formation or spinal cord compression has been challenging. Mechanical stimulations have been reported to play an important role in bone formation and bone remodeling. In this study, we designed a comparison study to investigate the effect of continuous cerebrospinal fluid pulsation (CSFP) stress on the remodeling of artificial vertebral laminae. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from rabbit umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly were induced for osteogenic differentiation for 3 weeks before seeding on the hydroxyapatite-collagen I scaffolds to construct the tissue-engineered laminae (TEL)...
July 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Kevin L Kilgore, Anne Bryden, Michael W Keith, Harry A Hoyen, Ronald L Hart, Gregory A Nemunaitis, P Hunter Peckham
Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurring at the cervical levels can result in significantly impaired arm and hand function. People with cervical-level SCI desire improved use of their arms and hands, anticipating that regained function will result in improved independence and ultimately improved quality of life. Neuroprostheses provide the most promising method for significant gain in hand and arm function for persons with cervical-level SCI. Neuroprostheses utilize small electrical currents to activate peripheral motor nerves, resulting in controlled contraction of paralyzed muscles...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Andrew J Kerwin, Brian K Yorkgitis, David J Ebler, Firas G Madbak, Albert T Hsu, Marie L Crandall
BACKGROUND: Cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) is devastating. Respiratory failure, ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), sepsis, and death frequently occur. Case reports of diaphragm pacing (DPS) have suggested earlier liberation from mechanical ventilation in acute CSCI patients. We hypothesized DPS implantation would decrease VAP and facilitate liberation from ventilation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of acute CSCI patients managed at a single level 1 trauma center between 1/2005-5/2017...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
A Monfared, A Ghaee, S Ebrahimi-Barough
For improving recovery rates and functional outcomes in large nerve defects, a nerve guide conduit, in addition to topographic, physical and chemical cues should provide contact guidance and adequate mechanical support for cell migration and axon outgrowth. Among biomaterials, magnesium (Mg) metal has potential to support nerve regeneration owing to its electrical conductivity, biodegradation and ability to be formed into wires, filaments and ribbons. However, rapid degradation of magnesium can pose a challenge...
June 30, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Byung-Chul Son, Hak-Cheol Ko, Jin-Gyu Choi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the extent of spinal cord compression and CSF space following T9 paddle lead spinal cord stimulation (SCS) using three-dimensional myelographic CT scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative three-dimensional myelographic CT scans were performed in 15 patients with paddle lead SCS at T9 for neuropathic back and leg pain. Four axial levels between each row of the electrodes were selected and the cross-sectional areas of thecal sac and spinal cord, the width of anterior and posterior CSF space, and contact angle of the lead within T9 spinal canal were measured with 12-month pain relief assessment...
June 30, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Andrea Anzalone, Jenu V Chacko, Rebecca A Nishi, Courtney Dumont, Dominique Smith, Lonnie D Shea, Michelle A Digman, Brian J Cummings, Aileen J Anderson
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent paralysis below the damaged area. SCI is linked to neuronal death, demyelination, and limited ability of neuronal fibers to regenerate. Regeneration capacity is limited by the presence of many inhibitory factors in the spinal cord environment. The use of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) bridges has demonstrated the ability to sustain long-term regeneration after SCI in a cervical hemisection mouse model. Critically, imaging of regenerating fibers and the myelination status of these neuronal filaments is a severe limitation to progress in SCI research...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Ajay Pal, Suneel Kumar, Suman Jain, Tapas C Nag, Rashmi Mathur
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) along with electromagnetic fields (MF) exposure on spontaneous and induced axonal sprouting after spinal cord injury (SCI). Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to spinal cord transection at the T13 segment. The IONP (25 μg/mL) embedded in 3% agarose gel was implanted at the injury site and subsequently exposed to MF (50 Hz, 17.96 μT, 2 hours/day for 5 weeks). Histological analysis of spinal cord tissue showed a significant increase in the expression of the growth-associated protein GAP-43 and it was found to be co-localized with neuronal nuclei marker and neurofilaments...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Albrecht Molsberger, Colin D McCaig
There is a high medical need to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of pain and traumatic soft tissue injuries. In this context, electrostimulating devices have been used with only sporadic success. There is also much evidence of endogenous electrical signals that play key roles in regulating the development and regeneration of many tissues. Transepithelial potential gradients are one source of the direct current (DC) electrical signals that stimulate and guide the migration of inflammatory cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells to achieve effective wound healing...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Chandan G Reddy, John W Miller, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, Sina Safayi, Saul Wilson, Brian D Dalm, Douglas C Fredericks, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard, Timothy J Brennan
Background: It is becoming increasingly important to understand the mechanisms of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in alleviating neuropathic pain as novel stimulation paradigms arise. Purpose: Additionally, the small anatomic scale of current SCS animal models is a barrier to more translational research. Methods: Using chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the common peroneal nerve (CPN) in sheep (ovine), we have created a chronic model of neuropathic pain that avoids motor deficits present in prior large animal models...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Aleš Hejčl, Jiří Růžička, Vladimír Proks, Hana Macková, Šárka Kubinová, Dmitry Tukmachev, Jiří Cihlář, Daniel Horák, Pavla Jendelová
While many types of biomaterials have been evaluated in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) research, little is known about the time-related dynamics of the tissue infiltration of these scaffolds. We analyzed the ingrowth of connective tissue, axons and blood vessels inside the superporous poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel with oriented pores. The hydrogels, either plain or seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), were implanted in spinal cord transection at the level of Th8. The animals were sacrificed at days 2, 7, 14, 28, 49 and 6 months after SCI and histologically evaluated...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Susana R Cerqueira, Yee-Shuan Lee, Robert C Cornelison, Michaela W Mertz, Rebecca A Wachs, Christine E Schmidt, Mary Bartlett Bunge
Schwann cell (SC) transplantation has been comprehensively studied as a strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. SCs are neuroprotective and promote axon regeneration and myelination. Nonetheless, substantial SC death occurs post-implantation, which limits therapeutic efficacy. The use of extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived matrices, such as Matrigel, supports transplanted SC survival and axon growth, resulting in improved motor function. Because appropriate matrices are needed for clinical translation, we test here the use of an acellular injectable peripheral nerve (iPN) matrix...
September 2018: Biomaterials
J A Biurrun Manresa, J Sörensen, A-C Sandell, O K Andersen, L Arendt-Nielsen, B Gerdle
Background and aim Previous studies have shown that patients with chronic pain had significantly lower nociceptive withdrawal reflex thresholds (NWR-T) and electrical pain thresholds (EP-T) than healthy controls. Patients with chronic pain and implanted spinal cord stimulator (SCS) system presents an opportunity to study dynamic pain sensitivity changes in a situation where patients just have been stimulated (i.e., pain-free or greatly reduced pain) and compare with the situation where patients are not stimulated (i...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Kaare Meier
Background Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain refractory to conventional treatment. SCS treatment consists of one or more leads implanted in the epidural space of the spinal canal, connected to an implantable pulse generator (IPG). Each lead carries a number of contacts capable of delivering a weak electrical current to the spinal cord, evoking a feeling of peripheral paresthesia. With correct indication and if implanted by an experienced implanter, success rates generally are in the range of about 50-75%...
July 1, 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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