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Spinal cord implants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674624/brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-repair-by-implantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-seeded-onto-polymer-scaffolds
#1
Jeong Eun Shin, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Haejin Lee, Il-Sun Kim, Bae Hwan Lee, Il-Shin Lee, Kook In Park
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) lead to extensive tissue loss and axonal degeneration. The combined application of the polymer scaffold and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has been reported to enhance neural repair, protection and regeneration through multiple modes of action following neural injury. This study investigated the reparative ability and therapeutic potentials of biological bridges composed of human fetal brain-derived NPCs seeded upon poly(glycolic acid)-based scaffold implanted into the infarction cavity of a neonatal HI brain injury or the hemisection cavity in an adult SCI...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667869/evaluation-of-an-innovative-spinal-cord-stimulator-platform-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain
#2
Christopher Davies, Carlee Komoroski, Lance Roy
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an ever-evolving therapy for the treatment of chronic pain. Currently, there are four main companies offering a variety of options for SCS. The Intellis™ system is the latest offering from Medtronic (MN, USA). Intellis offers the smallest implantable SCS pulse generator available and is capable of multiple different modes of stimulation, some of which can be run simultaneously. With an intrinsic accelerometer, the device is capable of sensing various patient positions and can automatically adjust stimulation intensity...
April 18, 2018: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651947/transplantation-of-bdnf-gene-recombinant-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-adhesive-peptide-modified-hydrogel-scaffold-for-spinal-cord-repair
#3
Li-Ming Li, Ling-Ling Huang, Xin-Chi Jiang, Jia-Chen Chen, Hong-Wei OuYang, Jian-Qing Gao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for nerve tissue engineering. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) secreted by MSCs can function to increase neural differentiation and relieve inflammation response. Gene transfection technology is an efficient strategy to increase the secretion levels of cytokines and enhance cellular functions. However, transfection and in vivo gene expression of environmentally sensitive stem cells have been one of the most challenging subjects due to the requirement in both safety and transfection efficiency...
April 13, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651329/ischaemia-of-the-medullary-cone-after-stent-graft-implantation-in-a-patient-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-case-study
#4
Mariusz Wachowski, Michał Polguj, Janusz Ścibór, Agata Majos
Preoperative visualization of the Adamkiewicz artery - the vessel which is to a great extent responsible for supplying blood to the medullary cone - is an important step which must be taken before initiating restorative procedures in the aorta. We present a case of a 67-year-old patient who underwent an intravascular stent-graft implantation procedure, due to clinical signs of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Routine pre-operative computed tomography examination failed to demonstrate the Adamkiewicz artery. On the second day after the surgery, as a result of unexpected clinical deterioration, an magnetic resonance imaging examination of the lumbar spine was carried out...
March 2018: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629880/influence-of-nerve-cuff-channel-count-and-implantation-site-on-the-separability-of-afferent-eng
#5
Ana Carolina Pinto da Silveira, Emma Brunton, Sally Spendiff, Kianoush Nazarpour
Recording of neural signals from intact peripheral nerves in patients with spinal cord injury or stroke survivors offers the possibility for the development of closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses. Nerve cuffs have been found to provide stable recordings from peripheral nerves for prolonged periods of time. However, questions remain over the design and positioning of nerve cuffs such that the separability of neural data recorded from the peripheral nerves is improved.
 
 Approach. Afferent electroneurographic (ENG) signals were recorded with nerve cuffs placed on the sciatic nerve of rats in response to various mechanical stimuli to the hindpaw...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623940/dti-and-pathological-changes-in-a-rabbit-model-of-radiation-injury-to-the-spinal-cord-after-125-i-radioactive-seed-implantation
#6
Xia Cao, Le Fang, Chuan-Yu Cui, Shi Gao, Tian-Wei Wang
Excessive radiation exposure may lead to edema of the spinal cord and deterioration of the nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to judge and assess the extent of edema and to evaluate pathological changes and thus may be used for the evaluation of spinal cord injuries caused by radiation therapy. Radioactive125 I seeds to irradiate 90% of the spinal cord tissue at doses of 40-100 Gy (D90) were implanted in rabbits at T10 to induce radiation injury, and we evaluated their safety for use in the spinal cord...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619317/influence-of-inter-stimulus-interval-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness-a-preliminary-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#7
Yujin Zhang, Yi Yang, Juanning Si, Xiaoyu Xia, Jianghong He, Tianzi Jiang
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a promising treatment for disorders of consciousness (DOC), but the underlying mechanism and most effective procedures remain uncertain. To optimize the protocol, previous studies evaluated the frequency-specific effects of SCS on neurophysiological activities. However, whether and how the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) parameter affects the SCS neuromodulation in DOC remains unknown. We enrolled nine DOC patients who had implanted SCS devices and conducted three different durations of ISIs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607715/hedgehog-signaling-contributes-to-bone-cancer-pain-by-regulating-sensory-neuron-excitability-in-rats
#8
Su Liu, You Lv, Xin-Xin Wan, Zhi-Jing Song, Yue-Peng Liu, Shuai Miao, Guang-Lei Wang, Gong-Jian Liu
Treating bone cancer pain continues to be a clinical challenge and underlying mechanisms of bone cancer pain remain elusive. Here, we reported that sonic hedgehog signaling plays a critical role in the development of bone cancer pain. Tibia bone cavity tumor cell implantation produces bone cancer-related mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and spontaneous and movement-evoked pain behaviors. Production and persistence of these pain behaviors are well correlated with tumor cell implantation-induced up-regulation and activation of sonic hedgehog signaling in primary sensory neurons and spinal cord...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603444/femoral-vascular-conductance-and-peroneal-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-responses-to-acute-epidural-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-humans
#9
Seth W Holwerda, Marshall T Holland, Chandan G Reddy, Gary L Pierce
Clinical cases have reported increased peripheral blood flow following continuous epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS), and that reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may be a potential mechanism. However, no studies in humans have directly examined the effects of acute SCS (< 60 min) on vascular conductance and MSNA. In study 1, we tested the hypothesis that acute SCS (< 60 min) of the thoracic spine would lead to increased common femoral vascular conductance, but not brachial vascular conductance, in 11 patients that previously underwent surgical SCS implantation for management of neuropathic pain...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596845/spontaneous-respiratory-plasticity-following-unilateral-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-behaving-rats
#10
Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Kristiina M Hormigo, Vitaliy Marchenko, Michael A Lane
Unilateral cervical C2 hemisection (C2Hx) is a classic model of spinal cord injury (SCI) for studying respiratory dysfunction and plasticity. However, most previous studies were performed under anesthesia, which significantly alters respiratory network. Therefore, the goal of this work was to assess spontaneous diaphragm recovery post-C2Hx in awake, freely behaving animals. Adult rats were chronically implanted with diaphragm EMG electrodes and recorded during 8 weeks post-C2Hx. Our results reveal that ipsilateral diaphragm activity partially recovers within days post-injury and reaches pre-injury amplitude in a few weeks...
March 26, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577604/neurotrophin-3-released-from-implant-of-tissue-engineered-fibroin-scaffolds-inhibits-inflammation-enhances-nerve-fiber-regeneration-and-improves-motor-function-in-canine-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Ge Li, Ming-Tian Che, Xiang Zeng, Xue-Cheng Qiu, Bo Feng, Bi-Qin Lai, Hui-Yong Shen, Eng-Ang Ling, Yuan-Shan Zeng
Spinal cord injury (SCI) normally results in cell death, scarring, cavitation, inhibitory molecules release, etc., which are regarded as a huge obstacle to reconnect the injured neuronal circuits due to the lack of effective stimulus. In this study, a functional gelatin sponge scaffold was used to inhibit local inflammation, enhance nerve fiber regeneration and improve neural conduction in the canine. This scaffold had good porosity and modified with neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)/fibroin complex, which showed sustained release in vitro...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569970/spinal-dura-mater-biophysical-characteristics-relevant-to-medical-device-development
#12
Sean J Nagel, Chandan G Reddy, Leonardo A Frizon, Matthieu K Chardon, Marshall Holland, Andre G Machado, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard, Saul Wilson
Understanding the relevant biophysical properties of the spinal dura mater is essential to the design of medical devices that will directly interact with this membrane or influence the contents of the intradural space. We searched the literature and reviewed the pertinent characteristics for the design, construction, testing, and imaging of novel devices intended to perforate, integrate, adhere or reside within or outside of the spinal dura mater. The spinal dura mater is a thin tubular membrane composed of collagen and elastin fibres that varies in circumference along its length...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569573/chronic-softening-spinal-cord-stimulation-arrays
#13
Aldo Garcia Sandoval, Ajay Pal, Asht Mishra, Sydney Sherman, Ankit Rajen Parikh, Alexandra Joshi-Imre, Gerardo Gutierrez, Adriana Carolina Duran Martinez, Jordan Adam Nathan, David Arreaga-Salas, Seyed Mahmoud Hosseini, Jason Carmel, Walter Voit
OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a cervical spinal cord stimulator for the rat that is durable, stable, and does not perturb the underlying spinal cord. APPROACH: We created a softening spinal cord stimulation (SCS) array made from shape memory polymer (SMP)-based flexible electronics. We developed a new photolithographic process to pattern high surface area titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes onto gold (Au) interconnects. The thiol-ene acrylate polymers are stiff at room temperature and soften following implantation into the body...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568266/normalization-of-blood-pressure-with-spinal-cord-epidural-stimulation-after-severe-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Susan J Harkema, Siqi Wang, Claudia A Angeli, Yangsheng Chen, Maxwell Boakye, Beatrice Ugiliweneza, Glenn A Hirsch
Chronic low blood pressure and orthostatic hypotension remain challenging clinical issues after severe spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting health, rehabilitation, and quality of life. We previously reported that targeted lumbosacral spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES) could promote stand and step functions and restore voluntary movement in patients with chronic motor complete SCI. This study addresses the effects of targeted scES for cardiovascular function (CV-scES) in individuals with severe SCI who suffer from chronic hypotension...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566313/spinal-cord-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-failed-neck-surgery-syndrome-outcome-of-a-prospective-case-series
#15
Corey W Hunter, Jonathan Carlson, Ajax Yang, Timothy Deer
OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an accepted, cost-effective treatment option for a variety of chronic pain syndromes, including failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). The application of SCS in the cervical spine, particularly for pain after cervical spine surgery, has been drawn into question in recent years by payers due to a purported lack of clinical evidence. To challenge this claim, we analyzed data from a prospective registry to support the use of SCS in the cervical spine for pain after spine surgery...
March 22, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561583/multifunctional-fibers-as-tools-for-neuroscience-and-neuroengineering
#16
Andres Canales, Seongjun Park, Antje Kilias, Polina Anikeeva
Multifunctional devices for modulation and probing of neuronal activity during free behavior facilitate studies of functions and pathologies of the nervous system. Probes composed of stiff materials, such as metals and semiconductors, exhibit elastic and chemical mismatch with the neural tissue, which is hypothesized to contribute to sustained tissue damage and gliosis. Dense glial scars have been found to encapsulate implanted devices, corrode their surfaces, and often yield poor recording quality in long-term experiments...
March 21, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556804/differential-degradation-rate-and-underlying-mechanism-of-a-collagen-chitosan-complex-in-subcutis-spinal-cord-and-brain-tissues-of-rat
#17
Feng Fu, Xiang Zhu, Zhe Qin, Jing-Jing Wang, Chao Xu, Li-Na Wang, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Rui-Xin Li, Xiao-Hong Li, Ming-Liang Zhao
Degradation rate is an important index for evaluating biomaterials. The authors' aim was to determine whether the degradation rate of biomaterials is different in distinct tissues and to clarify the underlying mechanism of degradation. The collagen-chitosan (CG-CS) composite scaffolds were prepared using freeze-drying technology. The porosity, water absorption and swelling ratio of the scaffolds were tested in vitro. The scaffolds were implanted into the subcutis, spinal cord and brain tissues of SD rats, the rate of degradation was assessed by continuous monitoring of weight loss, the pathological changes of target areas were observed by histological staining, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and lysozyme were detected at the rapid stage of degradation of the scaffolds...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548953/upper-cervical-spinal-cord-stimulation-as-an-alternative-treatment-in-trigeminal-neuropathy
#18
Carlos Velásquez, Kantharuby Tambirajoo, Paulo Franceschini, Paul Eldridge, Jibril Osman Farah
OBJECTIVE: To describe the indications and outcomes of upper cervical cord stimulation in Trigeminal Neuropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive single-center series of patients was retrospectively reviewed. It included 12 patients with trigeminal neuropathy treated with upper cervical spinal cord stimulation (ucSCS). Clinical features, complications and outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: All patients had a successful trial before the definitive implantation of a spinal cord stimulator at the level of the craniocervical junction...
March 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547957/nonawake-vs-awake-placement-of-spinal-cord-stimulators-a-prospective-multicenter-study-comparing-safety-and-efficacy
#19
Steven M Falowski, Ashwini Sharan, James McInerney, Darren Jacobs, Lalit Venkatesan, Filippo Agnesi
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a common intervention for managing intractable pain. Generally, leads are implanted in a minimally invasive procedure with verbal feedback regarding the location and nature of generated paresthesias by active stimulation; in this way their optimal location can be confirmed. However, lead placement under general anesthesia can have additional benefits. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of awake vs asleep lead placement procedures...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538696/spinal-cord-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain-reduces-opioid-use-and-results-in-superior-clinical-outcomes-when-used-without-opioids
#20
Lucy Gee, Heather C Smith, Zohal Ghulam-Jelani, Hirah Khan, Julia Prusik, Paul J Feustel, Sarah E McCallum, Julie G Pilitsis
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain causes a significant burden to the US health care system, is difficult to treat, and remains a significant contributor to increased opioid use in the United States. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been FDA approved for the treatment of chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that SCS reduces opioid use, and alone maintains clinical outcome measures of pain and psychosocial determinants of health. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated 86 patients undergoing SCS surgery for the treatment of chronic pain between September 2012 and August 2015...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
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