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Brain implants

Hiroshi Tanaka, Hitoshi Sase, Toshiyuki Tsukaguchi, Masami Hasegawa, Hiromi Tanimura, Miyuki Yoshida, Kiyoaki Sakata, Toshihiko Fujii, Yukako Tachibana, Kenji Takanashi, Atsuko Higashida, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Yoshiyuki Ono, Nobuhiro Oikawa, Toshiyuki Mio
Members of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) family are expressed in their constitutively activated forms as a result of a gene fusion that occurs across a wide variety of cancer types. We have identified CH7057288 as a potent and selective TRK inhibitor that belongs to a novel chemical class. CH7057288 showed selective inhibitory activity against TRKA, TRKB, and TRKC in cell-free kinase assays and suppressed proliferation of TRK fusion-positive cell lines, but not that of TRK-negative cell lines. Strong in vivo tumor growth inhibition was observed in subcutaneously implanted xenograft tumor models of TRK fusion-positive cells...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Tamar I Regev, Jonathan Winawer, Edden M Gerber, Robert T Knight, Leon Y Deouell
Much of what is known about the timing of visual processing in the brain is inferred from intracranial studies in monkeys, with human data limited to mainly non-invasive methods with lower spatial resolution. Here, we estimated visual onset latencies from electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in a patient who was implanted with 112 sub-dural electrodes, distributed across the posterior cortex of the right hemisphere, for pre-surgical evaluation of intractable epilepsy. Functional MRI prior to surgery was used to determine boundaries of visual areas...
September 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
E Salari, Z V Freudenburg, M J Vansteensel, N F Ramsey
The sensorimotor cortex is responsible for the generation of movements and interest in the ability to use this area for decoding speech by brain-computer interfaces has increased recently. Speech decoding is challenging however, since the relationship between neural activity and motor actions is not completely understood. Non-linearity between neural activity and movement has been found for instance for simple finger movements. Despite equal motor output, neural activity amplitudes are affected by preceding movements and the time between movements...
September 20, 2018: Brain Topography
Laura Fernández-García, José Pérez-Rigueiro, Ricardo Martinez-Murillo, Fivos Panetsos, Milagros Ramos, Gustavo V Guinea, Daniel González-Nieto
The restitution of damaged circuitry and functional remodeling of peri-injured areas constitute two main mechanisms for sustaining recovery of the brain after stroke. In this study, a silk fibroin-based biomaterial efficiently supports the survival of intracerebrally implanted mesenchymal stem cells (mSCs) and increases functional outcomes over time in a model of cortical stroke that affects the forepaw sensory and motor representations. We show that the functional mechanisms underlying recovery are related to a substantial preservation of cortical tissue in the first days after mSCs-polymer implantation, followed by delayed cortical plasticity that involved a progressive functional disconnection between the forepaw sensory (FLs1 ) and caudal motor (cFLm1 ) representations and an emergent sensory activity in peri-lesional areas belonging to cFLm1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Mohsen Farvardin, Mehrdad Afarid, Adel Attarzadeh, Mohammad K Johari, Morsal Mehryar, M Hossein Nowroozzadeh, Feisal Rahat, Hossein Peyvandi, Reza Farvardin, Mohammad Nami
Over the past few years, visual prostheses (namely, Argus II retinal implant) and gene therapy have obtained FDA approval in treating blindness resulting from retinitis pigmentosa. Compared to gene therapy; Argus II is less costly with a demonstrated favorable outcome, though the vision is yet artificial. To obtain better results, expectation counseling and preoperative retinal assessment are critical. The global experience with Argus II has enrolled no more than 300 cases so far. The first Argus II retinal prosthesis in Iran was successfully implanted in Shiraz (October 2017)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ali Razmkon, Omid Yousefi, Raziyeh Rezaei, Sina Salehi, Peyman Petramfar, Arash Mani, Hashem Rahmati, Janardan Vaidyanathan, Ghazal Ilami, Yalda Amirmoezzi
OBJECTIVE: To report the establishment of a new center for deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a surgical treatment for Parkinson's disease and the surgical outcomes, from 2014 to 2017 in Shiraz, Southern Iran METHODS: A new treatment program was established in Shiraz through a multidisciplinary team in 2014. Thirty-four patients underwent implantation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) electrodes during the last three years. Twenty-five patients fulfilled the minimum six months follow-up criteria...
September 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
C Michael Honey, Armaan K Malhotra, Mandeep S Tamber, Michel Prud'homme, Ivar Mendez, Christopher R Honey
BACKGROUND: The Canada Health Act requires reasonable access to all medically necessary therapies. No information is available to assess the current access to neuromodulation across Canada. This study quantifies the current rate of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the entire country of Canada. Analyses were performed to determine whether there were differences in access based on provincial or territorial location, rural or non-rural region, or socioeconomic status. METHODS: All implanted DBS devices in Canada over a 2-year epoch (January 2015 to December 2016) were supplied by either Boston Scientific or Medtronic...
September 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Olivera Rajkovic, Geoffrey Potjewyd, Emmanuel Pinteaux
Inflammation is a major pathological event following ischemic stroke that contributes to secondary brain tissue damage leading to poor functional recovery. Following the initial ischemic insult, post-stroke inflammatory damage is driven by initiation of a central and peripheral innate immune response and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), both of which are triggered by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of circulating immune cells. Stroke therapies are limited to early cerebral blood flow reperfusion, and whilst current strategies aim at targeting neurodegeneration and/or neuroinflammation, innovative research in the field of regenerative medicine aims at developing effective treatments that target both the acute and chronic phase of inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Tanmaya Kataria, Mohnish Grover, Shitanshu Sharma, Sunil Samdani, Man Prakash Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. Iron overload occurs in thalassemia, with blood transfusion therapy being the major cause. Deferoxamine continues to be the mainstay of therapy to remove excess iron in patients requiring long-term transfusions. One of the most important complications of deferoxamine therapy is neurosensory toxicity, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)...
September 20, 2018: Cochlear Implants International
Qiao-Ying He, Zui Shen, Li-Jiao She, Jian-Qiao Fang, Xiao-Mei Shao
Since the invention of optogenetic technology, it has greatly promoted the development of neuroscience. Currently, optogenetic approaches have been mostly used to map neural circuits and new neuropharmacology but are rarely seen in the research field of acupuncture analgesia. The mechanism of neural circuits contributing to acupuncture analgesia, an important research hotspot in recent years, has not been fully determined. The optogenetic techniques can be used to modulate and control specific cells, provides highly precise spatial and temporal resolution, is repeatable, and may functionally dissect neuronal networks in vivo...
August 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Kieran C R Fox, Jennifer Yih, Omri Raccah, Shrita L Pendekanti, Lauren E Limbach, Daniella D Maydan, Josef Parvizi
OBJECTIVE: We applied direct cortical stimulation (DCS) to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in neurosurgical patients implanted with intracranial electrodes to probe, with high anatomic precision, the causal link between the OFC and human subjective experience. METHODS: We administered 272 instances of DCS at 172 OFC sites in 22 patients with intractable focal epilepsy (from 2011 to 2017), none of whom had seizures originating from the OFC. RESULTS: Our observations revealed a rich variety of affective, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory changes in the subjective domain...
September 19, 2018: Neurology
Harmanvir Ghuman, Carrinton Mauney, Julia Donnelly, Andre R Massensini, Stephen F Badylak, Michel Modo
The brain is considered to have a limited capacity to repair damaged tissue and no regenerative capacity following injury. Tissue lost after a stroke is therefore not spontaneously replaced. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-based hydrogels implanted into the stroke cavity can attract endogenous cells. These hydrogels can be formulated at different protein concentrations that govern their rheological and inductive properties. We evaluated histologically 0, 3, 4 and 8 mg/mL of porcine-derived urinary bladder matrix (UBM)-ECM hydrogel concentrations implanted in a 14-day old stroke cavity...
September 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Wonhye Lee, Phillip Croce, Ryan W Margolin, Amanda Cammalleri, Kyungho Yoon, Seung-Schik Yoo
BACKGROUND: Low-intensity transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) has emerged as a new non-invasive modality of brain stimulation with the potential for high spatial selectivity and penetration depth. Anesthesia is typically applied in animal-based tFUS brain stimulation models; however, the type and depth of anesthesia are known to introduce variability in responsiveness to the stimulation. Therefore, the ability to conduct sonication experiments on awake small animals, such as rats, is warranted to avoid confounding effects of anesthesia...
September 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Jinghua Li, Enming Song, Chia-Han Chiang, Ki Jun Yu, Jahyun Koo, Haina Du, Yishan Zhong, Mackenna Hill, Charles Wang, Jize Zhang, Yisong Chen, Limei Tian, Yiding Zhong, Guanhua Fang, Jonathan Viventi, John A Rogers
Materials and structures that enable long-term, intimate coupling of flexible electronic devices to biological systems are critically important to the development of advanced biomedical implants for biological research and for clinical medicine. By comparison with simple interfaces based on arrays of passive electrodes, the active electronics in such systems provide powerful and sometimes essential levels of functionality; they also demand long-lived, perfect biofluid barriers to prevent corrosive degradation of the active materials and electrical damage to the adjacent tissues...
September 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Giuseppe Vergaro, James L Januzzi, Alain Cohen Solal, Alberto Aimo, Chiara Arzilli, Luc Zyw, Alessandro Valleggi, Alberto Giannoni, Concetta Prontera, Andrea Barison, Roberta Poletti, Alessandra Gabutti, Chiara Mammini, Claudio Passino, Michele Emdin
BACKGROUND: Circulating concentrations of N-terminal fragment of the prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are influenced by age and common age-related comorbidities, such as renal dysfunction. Therefore, utility of NT-proBNP for prediction of prognosis in the aged has been questioned. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of NT-proBNP across age classes in a cohort of patients with chronic systolic HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 2364 consecutive outpatients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50%...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
S Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, Mohammad Hossein Mohamadi M A H, Mohammad Reza Raoufy, Hossein Azizi, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast
Increasing number of evidence support the role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mediating the opiate effects as the two critical components of brain reward pathway. It is believed that VTA to NAC dopaminergic projections mediate the reinforcing effects induced by opioid drugs. Although numerous studies have investigated mechanisms of reward processing in these brain regions, alterations of local field potentials (LFPs), as an index of total synaptic currents, has not been previously addressed...
September 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Marta Jole Ildelfonsa Airaghi Leccardi, Paola Vagni, Diego Ghezzi
OBJECTIVE: In many applications, multielectrode arrays employed as neural implants require a high density and a high number of electrodes to precisely record and stimulate the activity of the nervous system while preserving the overall size of the array as little as possible. APPROACH: Here we present a multilayer and three-dimensional (3D) electrode array, together with its manufacturing method, enabling a higher electrode density and a more efficient signal transduction with the biological tissue...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Narinée Hovhannisyan, Fabien Fillesoye, Stéphane Guillouet, Méziane Ibazizene, Jérôme Toutain, Fabienne Gourand, Samuel Valable, Benoit Plancoulaine, Louisa Barré
This paper investigated whether positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [18 F]fludarabine ([18 F]FDB) can help to differentiate central nervous system lymphoma (CNSL) from glioblastoma (GBM), which is a crucial issue in the diagnosis and management of patients with these aggressive brain tumors. Multimodal analyses with [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18 F]FDG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology have also been considered to address the specificity of [18 F]FDB for CNSL. Methods: Nude rats were implanted with human MC116 lymphoma-cells (n = 9) or U87 glioma-cells (n = 4)...
2018: Theranostics
Akshay Arora, Jui-Jui Lin, Alec Gasperian, Joel Stein, Joseph Maldjian, Michael J Kahana, Bradley Lega
We sought to test the performance of three strategies for binary classification (logistic regression, support vector machines, and deep learning) for the problem of predicting successful episodic memory encoding using direct brain recordings obtained from human stereo EEG subjects. We also sought to test the impact of applying t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (tSNE) for unsupervised dimensionality reduction, as well as testing the effect of reducing input features to a core set of memory relevant brain areas...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
R Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas, Nicholas M Barbaro, Kushal J Shah, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
Background: Accessing the hippocampus for amygdalohippocampectomy and minimally invasive procedures, such as depth electrode placement, require an accurate knowledge regarding the location of the hippocampus. Methods: The authors removed 10 human cadaveric brains from the cranium and observed the relationships between the lateral temporal neocortex and the underlying hippocampus. They then measured the distance between the hippocampus and superficial landmarks. The authors also validated their study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 10 patients suffering from medial temporal lobe sclerosis where the distance from the hippocampal head to the anterior temporal tip was measured...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
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