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Brain implants

Boqing Xu, Takayuki Kawata, Masao Daimon, Koichi Kimura, Tomoko Nakao, Seitetz C Lee, Megumi Hirokawa, Aya Yoshinaga, Masafumi Watanabe, Yutaka Yatomi, Issei Komuro
The prognostic value of the right ventricular (RV) systolic to diastolic duration ratio (S/D ratio) in patients with advanced heart failure is not clear.We enrolled 45 patients with DCM (40 ± 13 years, 33 male) who were admitted to our hospital for evaluation or treatment of heart failure. The RV systolic and diastolic durations were measured using continuous Doppler imaging of tricuspid regurgitation, and the RV S/D ratio was calculated. Cardiac events were defined as cardiac death or left ventricular assist device implantation within the first year...
July 18, 2018: International Heart Journal
Xin Zhou, Abd-Krim Seghouane, Adnan Shah, Hamish Innes-Brown, Will Cross, Ruth Litovsky, Colette M McKay
An experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to image cortical activity in the language areas of cochlear implant (CI) users and to explore the association between the activity and their speech understanding ability. Using fNIRS, 15 experienced CI users and 14 normal-hearing participants were imaged while presented with either visual speech or auditory speech. Brain activation was measured from the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal lobe in both hemispheres, including the language-associated regions...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Devang K Thakor, Lei Wang, Darcy Benedict, Serdar Kabatas, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Human mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hMSCs) hold regenerative medicine potential due to their availability, in vitro expansion readiness, and autologous feasibility. For neural repair, hMSCs show translational value in research on stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), and traumatic brain injury. It is pivotal to establish multimodal in vitro systems to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying neural actions of hMSCs. Here, we describe a platform protocol on how to set up organotypic co-cultures of hMSCs (alone or polymer-scaffolded) with explanted adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) to determine neural injury and recovery events for designing implants to counteract neurotrauma sequelae...
July 18, 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Bryan James Black, Aswini Kanneganti, Alexandra Joshi-Imre, Rashed Rihani, Bitan Chakraborty, Justin Abbott, Joseph J Pancrazio, Stuart F Cogan
Multisite implantable electrode arrays serve as a tool to understand cortical network connectivity and plasticity. Furthermore, they enable electrical stimulation to drive plasticity, study motor/sensory mapping, or provide network input for controlling brain-computer interfaces. Neurobehavioral rodent models are prevalent in studies of motor cortex injury and recovery as well as restoration of auditory/visual cues due to their relatively low cost and ease of training. Therefore, it is important to understand the chronic performance of relevant electrode arrays in rodent models...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Nicholas Maling, Scott F Lempka, Zack Blumenfeld, H M Bronte-Stewart, Cameron C McIntyre
Clinical deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is evolving to enable chronic recording of local field potentials (LFPs) that represent electrophysiological biomarkers of the underlying disease state. However, little is known about the biophysical basis of LFPs, or how the patient's unique brain anatomy and electrode placement impact the recordings. Therefore, we developed a patient-specific computational framework to analyze LFP recordings within a clinical DBS context. We selected a subject with Parkinson's disease implanted with a Medtronic Activa PC+S DBS system and reconstructed their subthalamic nucleus (STN) and DBS electrode location using medical imaging data...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
H Kanona, K Stephenson, F D'Arco, K Rajput, L Cochrane, C Jephson
BACKGROUND: To date, there is a lack of consensus regarding the use of both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative assessment of cochlear implant candidates. METHODS: Twenty-five patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. 'Control scores' describing the expected visualisation of specific features by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were established. An independent radiological review of all computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan features was then compared to the control scores and the findings recorded...
June 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Kojiro Ogawa, Kentaro Yoshida, Yoshiko Uehara, Mari Ebine, Akira Kimata, Hidetaka Nishina, Noriyuki Takeyasu, Yuichi Noguchi, Masaki Ieda, Kazutaka Aonuma, Akihiko Nogami
PURPOSE: Despite the use of steroid-eluting leads, a transient but not persistent rise in the atrial/ventricular capture threshold (TRACT/TRVCT) can occur early after pacemaker implantation in patients with sick sinus syndrome. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, predictors, and mechanisms of TRACT/TRVCT in patients with heart failure undergoing implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantation. METHOD: One hundred twenty consecutive patients underwent ICD (N = 70) or CRT (N = 50) implantation...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Terence D Sanger, Mark Liker, Enrique Arguelles, Ruta Deshpande, Arash Maskooki, Diana Ferman, Aprille Tongol, Aaron Robison
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for secondary (acquired, combined) dystonia does not reach the high degree of efficacy achieved in primary (genetic, isolated) dystonia. We hypothesize that this may be due to variability in the underlying injury, so that different children may require placement of electrodes in different regions of basal ganglia and thalamus. We describe a new targeting procedure in which temporary depth electrodes are placed at multiple possible targets in basal ganglia and thalamus, and probing for efficacy is performed using test stimulation and recording while children remain for one week in an inpatient Neuromodulation Monitoring Unit (NMU)...
July 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
Mengnan Zhao, Fabienne Danhier, Chiara Bastiancich, Nicolas Joudiou, Lakshmi Pallavi Ganipineni, Nikolaos Tsakiris, Bernard Gallez, Anne des Rieux, Aleksandar Jankovski, John Bianco, Véronique Préat
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Despite available therapeutic options, the prognosis for patients with GBM remains very poor. We hypothesized that the intra-operative injection of a photopolymerizable hydrogel into the tumor resection cavity could sustain the release of the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and prevent GBM recurrence. The tumor was resected 13 days after implantation and a pre-gel solution composed of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) polymer, a photoinitiator and PTX-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PTX PLGA-NPs) was injected into the tumor resection cavity...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Tahseen J Karim, Ceren Aksel, Natasha Kharas, Nachum Dafny
Methylphenidate (MPD) is the most commonly prescribed psychostimulant for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPD acts on brain structures of the reward/motivation system, including the caudate nucleus (CN). The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic dose response effects of MPD on CN neurons in freely behaving adolescent rats. Semi-microelectrodes were implanted into the CN of one hundred and sixty-three adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats. On experimental day one (ED1), each rat was injected with 0...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Colin T Kyle, Michele R Permenter, Julie A Vogt, Peter R Rapp, Carol A Barnes
BACKGROUND: Ensemble recording methods are pervasive in basic and clinical neuroscience research. Invasive neural implants are used in patients with drug resistant epilepsy to localize seizure origin, in neuropsychiatric or Parkinson's patients to alleviate symptoms via deep brain stimulation, and with animal models to conduct basic research. Studies addressing the brain's physiological response to chronic electrode implants demonstrate that the mechanical trauma of insertion is followed by an acute inflammatory response as well as a chronic foreign body response...
July 17, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Nilika S Singhal, Adam L Numis, Morgan B Lee, Edward F Chang, Joseph E Sullivan, Kurtis I Auguste, Vikram R Rao
Responsive neurostimulation for epilepsy involves an implanted device that delivers direct electrical brain stimulation in response to detection of incipient seizures. Responsive neurostimulation is a safe and effective treatment for adults with drug-resistant epilepsy, but although novel treatments are critically needed for younger patients, responsive neurostimulation is currently not approved for children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Here, we report a 16-year-old patient with seizures arising from eloquent cortex, who was successfully treated with responsive neurostimulation...
2018: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Leonardo A Frizon, Olivia Hogue, Rebecca Achey, Darlene P Floden, Sean Nagel, Andre G Machado, Darlene A Lobel
BACKGROUND: There is a growing attention to determine the factors that predict quality of life (QoL) improvement after deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease. Prior literature has largely focused on examining predictors one at a time, sometimes controlling for covariates. OBJECTIVE: To develop a model that could be used as a nomogram to predict improvement in QoL following DBS surgery in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: All patients with complete pre- and postoperative movement disorder and neuropsychological testing who underwent DBS at a single institution between 2007-2012 were analyzed...
July 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Jonas-Frederic Sauer, Michael Strüber, Marlene Bartos
The local field potential (LFP) emerges from ion movements across neural membranes. Since the voltage recorded by LFP electrodes reflects the summed electrical field of a large volume of brain tissue, extracting information about local activity is challenging. Studying neuronal microcircuits, however, requires a reliable distinction between truly local events and volume-conducted signals originating in distant brain areas. Current source density (CSD) analysis offers a solution for this problem by providing information about current sinks and sources in the vicinity of the electrodes...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Erika L Juárez-Martinez, Ida A Nissen, Sander Idema, Demetrios N Velis, Arjan Hillebrand, Cornelis J Stam, Elisabeth C W van Straaten
In some patients with medically refractory epilepsy, EEG with intracerebrally placed electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography, SEEG) is needed to locate the seizure onset zone (SOZ) for successful epilepsy surgery. SEEG has limitations and entails risk of complications because of its invasive character. Non-invasive magnetoencephalography virtual electrodes (MEG-VEs) may overcome SEEG limitations and optimize electrode placement making SOZ localization safer. Our purpose was to assess whether interictal activity measured by MEG-VEs and SEEG at identical anatomical locations were comparable, and whether MEG-VEs activity properties could determine the location of a later resected brain area (RA) as an approximation of the SOZ...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Claire Haegelen, Clément Baumgarten, Jean-François Houvenaghel, Yulong Zhao, Julie Péron, Sophie Drapier, Pierre Jannin, Xavier Morandi
Anatomical atlases have been developed to improve the targeting of basal ganglia in deep brain stimulation. However, the sole anatomy cannot predict the functional outcome of this surgery. Deep brain stimulation is often a compromise between several functional outcomes: motor, fluency and neuropsychological outcomes in particular. In this study, we have developed anatomo-clinical atlases for the targeting of subthalamic and medial globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. The activated electrode coordinates of 42 patients implanted in the subthalamic nucleus and 29 patients in the medial globus pallidus were studied...
2018: PloS One
Abbas Babajani-Feremi, Negar Noorizadeh, Basanagoud Mudigoudar, James W Wheless
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a low-risk surgical option for patients with drug resistant epilepsy, although it is impossible to predict which patients may respond to VNS treatment. Resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG) connectivity analysis has been increasingly utilized to investigate the impact of epilepsy on brain networks and identify alteration of these networks after different treatments; however, there is no study to date utilizing this modality to predict the efficacy of VNS treatment. We investigated whether the rs-MEG network topology before VNS implantation can be used to predict efficacy of VNS treatment...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
L Perez-Caballero, M L Soto-Montenegro, M Hidalgo-Figueroa, J A Mico, M Desco, E Berrocoso
BACKGROUND: An initial antidepressant effect when using deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal area of the cingulate cortex (Cg25) to treat resistant depression that could be the result of electrode insertion has been described. We previously showed that electrode insertion into the infralimbic cortex (ILC; the Cg25 rodent correlate) provokes a temporally limited antidepressant-like effect that is counteracted by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as those routinely used for pain relief...
July 9, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Hyeon Su Kim, Na Young Kim, Yong Wook Kim
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is characterized by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Although several treatments have been proposed for PSH, their efficacies are uncertain. We report a case of a patient with intractable PSH after pontine hemorrhage who was treated with intrathecal baclofen (ITB). A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with pontine hemorrhage expanding to the bilateral midbrain. Beginning 2 weeks after onset, he developed paroxysmal hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, and generalized dystonic movements...
July 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Alexander D Blandford, Newton B Wiggins, Waseem Ansari, Catherine J Hwang, Bruce L Wilkoff, Julian D Perry
PURPOSE: To discover oculofacial plastic surgeon practice patterns for cautery selection in the setting of implantable electronic devices and present guidelines based on a review of current literature. METHODS: A 10-Question web-based survey was sent to the email list serve of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery to determine surgeon cautery preference in the setting of various implantable electronic devices and comfort level with the guidelines for cautery selection in their practice or institution...
July 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
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