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Brain implants

Devon DiPalma, Amir H Rezvani, Blair Willette, Corinne Wells, Susan Slade, Brandon J Hall, Edward D Levin
Tobacco addiction each year causes millions of deaths worldwide. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been shown to be central to tobacco addiction. Nicotine replacement therapy aids tobacco cessation, but the success rate is still far too low. This may in part be due to the fact that neurons with nicotinic receptors are not the only neural systems involved in tobacco addiction. Interacting neural systems also play important roles in tobacco addiction. Nicotine increases the release of a variety of neurotransmitters, including dopamine and serotonin...
November 9, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Matthew A Albrecht, Chloe N Vaughn, Molly A Erickson, Sarah M Clark, Leonardo H Tonelli
Research has shown that inflammatory processes affect brain function and behavior through several neuroimmune pathways. However, high order brain functions affected by inflammation largely remain to be defined. Resting state functional connectivity of synchronized oscillatory activity is a valid approach to understand network processing and high order brain function under different experimental conditions. In the present study multi-electrode EEG recording in awake, freely moving rats was used to study resting state connectivity after administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)...
2018: PloS One
Seong-Jin Kim, Su-Hyun Han, Ji-Hyoung Cha, Lei Liu, Lei Yao, Yuan Gao, Minkyu Je
We present a fully implantable neural recording IC with a spike-driven data compression scheme to improve the power efficiency and preserve crucial data for monitoring brain activities. A difference between two consecutive neural signals, -neural signal, is sampled in each channel to reduce the full dynamic range and the required resolution of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), enabling the whole analog chain to be operated at a 0.5-V supply. A set of multiple -signals are stored in analog memory to extract the magnitude and frequency features of the incoming neural signals, which are utilized to discriminate spikes in these signals instantaneously after the acquisition in the analog domain...
November 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Marta Casquero-Veiga, David García-García, Manuel Desco, María Luisa Soto-Montenegro
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgery technique widely used in movement disorders, although its mechanism of action remains unclear. In fact, apart from the stimulation itself, the mechanical insertion of the electrode may play a crucial role. Here we aimed to distinguish between the insertional and the DBS effects on brain glucose metabolism. To this end, electrodes were implanted targeting the medial prefrontal cortex in five adult male Wistar rats. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies were performed before surgery (D0) and seven (D7) and nine days (D9) after that...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jonathan Pugh, Jacinta Tan, Tipu Aziz, Rebecca J Park
Deep Brain Stimulation is currently being investigated as an experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory AN, with an increasing number of case reports and small-scale trials published. Although still at an exploratory and experimental stage, initial results have been promising. Despite the risks associated with an invasive neurosurgical procedure and the long-term implantation of a foreign body, DBS has a number of advantageous features for patients with SE-AN. Stimulation can be fine-tuned to the specific needs of the particular patient, is relatively reversible, and the technique also allows for the crucial issue of investigating and comparing the effects of different neural targets...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Christopher Kurz, Philipp Süss, Carolin Arnsmeyer, Jonas Haehnle, Katrin Teichert, Guillaume Landry, Jan Hofmaier, Florian Exner, Lucas Hille, Florian Kamp, Christian Thieke, Ute Ganswindt, Chiara Valentini, Tobias Hölscher, Esther Troost, Mechthild Krause, Claus Belka, Karl-Heinz Küfer, Katia Parodi, Christian Richter
Proton radiotherapy (PT) requires accurate target alignment before each treatment fraction, ideally utilizing 3D in-room X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Typically, the optimal patient position is determined based on anatomical landmarks or implanted markers. In the presence of non-rigid anatomical changes, however, the planning scenario cannot be exactly reproduced and positioning should rather aim at finding the optimal position in terms of the actually applied dose. In this work, dose-guided patient alignment, implemented as multicriterial optimization (MCO) problem, was investigated in the scope of intensity-modulated and double-scattered PT (IMPT and DSPT) for the first time...
November 5, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
Michael S Peroski, Michael M Chu, Seshagiri Rao Doddi, William T Regenold
Currently there is no consensus statement about the safety of electroconvulsive therapy in patients who have implanted electrodes for deep brain stimulation. We present a summary of the existing literature on this topic, consisting of 21 cases, and then report a case performed at the University of Maryland Medical Center. Notably, with appropriate safety precautions and careful patient selection, there were no adverse events reported in the literature that were related to the presence of the deep brain stimulation device in any of the cases...
November 7, 2018: Journal of ECT
Francesco Prada, M Yashar S Kalani, Kaan Yagmurlu, Pedro Norat, Massimiliano Del Bene, Francesco DiMeco, Neal F Kassell
Oncology and cerebrovascular disease constitute two of the most common diseases afflicting the central nervous system. Standard of treatment of these pathologies is based on multidisciplinary approaches encompassing combination of interventional procedures such as open and endovascular surgeries, drugs (chemotherapies, anti-coagulants, anti-platelet therapies, thrombolytics), and radiation therapies. In this context, therapeutic ultrasound could represent a novel diagnostic/therapeutic in the armamentarium of the surgeon to treat these diseases...
November 7, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Lorenzo Magrassi, Antonio G Zippo, Alberto Azzalin, Stefano Bastianello, Roberto Imberti, Gabriele E M Biella
The lack of direct neurophysiological recordings from the thalamus and the cortex hampers our understanding of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state in humans. We obtained microelectrode recordings from the thalami and the homolateral parietal cortex of two vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and one minimally conscious state patients during surgery for implantation of electrodes in both thalami for chronic deep brain stimulation. We found that activity of the thalamo-cortical networks differed among the two conditions...
2018: PloS One
Hugo Dinis, Ivo Colmiais, Paulo Mateus Mendes
Implantable electronic devices have been evolving at an astonishing pace, due to the development of fabrication techniques and consequent miniaturization, and a higher efficiency of sensors, actuators, processors and packaging. Implantable devices, with sensing, communication, actuation, and wireless power are of high demand, as they pave the way for new applications and therapies. Long-term and reliable powering of such devices has been a challenge since they were first introduced. This paper presents a review of representative state of the art implantable electronic devices, with wireless power capabilities, ranging from inductive coupling to ultrasounds...
December 12, 2017: Micromachines
David R Friedmann, Leena Asfour, William H Shapiro, J Thomas Roland, Susan B Waltzman
OBJECTIVE: To assess bimodal auditory performance in children with a cochlear implant (CI) and contralateral auditory brainstem implant (ABI). METHODS: This is a retrospective case review performed at a tertiary referral center. Four patients with cochlear nerve deficiency initially underwent cochlear implantation but were not benefiting from their devices and underwent ABI in the contralateral ear. The main outcome measures included age-appropriate speech perception and production assessments...
November 2, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Eric R Miller, Elena A Kharlamov, Zeyu Hu, Edwin C Klein, Deng-Shan Shiau, Kevin M Kelly
The pathophysiological mechanisms of epileptogenesis following ischemic stroke in the aged brain are not well understood, largely due to limited developments in animal modeling of poststroke epilepsy (PSE). A recent study in our laboratory (Kelly et al., 2018) using transient (3 h) unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion (MCA/CCAo) in 4- and 20-month-old Fischer (F344) rats resulted in epileptic seizures in both age groups; age and infarction factors independently had effects on seizure frequency...
October 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Kai-Ting Chang, Yu-Yi Lin, Ya-Yu Lin, Yi-Lo Lin, Henrich Cheng, Yin Chang, Ming-Chao Huang
BACKGROUND: Surgery is the first-line therapy for glioblastoma. There is evidence that extent of resection is significantly associated with patient survival. Unfortunately, optimal surgical resection is usually limited owing to difficulty in discriminating tumor infiltrated region and normal brain tissue. This study aimed to develop a tool to distinguish between infiltration zone and normal tissue in real time during glioma surgery. METHODS: In an in vivo study, C6 glioma cells were implanted into the left cerebral hemispheres of 6 rats to mimic tumorigenesis...
October 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
S Stevens Negus, Megan J Moerke
Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is one procedure that can be used for preclinical abuse potential assessment. In ICSS procedures, subjects with microelectrodes implanted into a brain-reward region are trained to press an operant response lever for pulses of electrical brain stimulation, and drugs are evaluated for their effectiveness to increase or "facilitate" ICSS responding (an abuse-related effect) or to depress ICSS responding (an abuse-limiting effect). ICSS has been used for decades to evaluate determinants of opioid abuse potential, and this article reviews pharmacological and biological determinants of opioid abuse potential as revealed by ICSS studies in rodents...
October 31, 2018: Peptides
Richard Mair, Florent Mouliere, Christopher G Smith, Dineika Chandrananda, Davina Gale, Francesco Marass, Dana W Y Tsui, Charles E Massie, Alan J Wright, Colin Watts, Nitzan Rosenfeld, Kevin M Brindle
The factors responsible for the low detection rate of cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the plasma of glioblastoma (GB) patients are currently unknown. In this study, we measured circulating nucleic acids in patient-derived orthotopically implanted xenograft (PDOX) models of GB (n=64) and show that tumor size and cell proliferation, but not the integrity of the blood-brain barrier or cell death, affect the release of ctDNA in treatment naïve GB PDOX. Analysis of fragment length profiles by shallow genome-wide sequencing (<0...
November 2, 2018: Cancer Research
Mohammad Fazel Bakhsheshi, Lynn Keenliside, Ting-Yim Lee
BACKGROUND: Selective brain cooling (SBC) methods could alleviate the complications associated with systemic hypothermia. The authors (MFB, LK, and T-YL) have developed a simple and an effective nasopharyngeal SBC method using a vortex tube. The primary focus of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach on rabbits and compare it with our previous published finding on piglets, which are mammals without and with a carotid rete, respectively. METHODS: Experiments were conducted on six rabbits...
November 1, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Lauren K Truby, A Reshad Garan, Raymond C Givens, Brian Wayda, Koji Takeda, Melana Yuzefpolskaya, Paolo C Colombo, Yoshifumi Naka, Hiroo Takayama, Veli K Topkara
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the impact of moderate to severe aortic insufficiency (AI) on outcomes in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). BACKGROUND: Development of worsening AI is a common complication of prolonged CF-LVAD support and portends poor prognosis in single-center studies. Predictors of worsening AI and its impact on clinical outcomes have not been examined in a large cohort. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with CF-LVAD in the INTERMACS (Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support) study...
November 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
Flavia Vitale, Wendy Shen, Nicolette Driscoll, Justin C Burrell, Andrew G Richardson, Oladayo Adewole, Brendan Murphy, Akshay Ananthakrishnan, Hanju Oh, Theodore Wang, Timothy H Lucas, D Kacy Cullen, Mark G Allen, Brian Litt
Intracranial electrodes are a vital component of implantable neurodevices, both for acute diagnostics and chronic treatment with open and closed-loop neuromodulation. Their performance is hampered by acute implantation trauma and chronic inflammation in response to implanted materials and mechanical mismatch between stiff synthetic electrodes and pulsating, natural soft host neural tissue. Flexible electronics based on thin polymer films patterned with microscale conductive features can help alleviate the mechanically induced trauma; however, this strategy alone does not mitigate inflammation at the device-tissue interface...
2018: PloS One
Min Jee Kim, Motomasa Tanioka, Sun Woo Um, Seong-Karp Hong, Bae Hwan Lee
The insular cortex (IC) is an important brain region involved in the processing of pain and emotion. Recent studies indicate that lesions in the IC induce pain asymbolia and reverse neuropathic pain. Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids, eCBs), which have been shown to attenuate pain, are simultaneously degraded by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) that halts the mechanisms of action. Selective inhibitor URB597 suppresses FAAH activity by conserving eCBs, which reduces pain. The present study examined the analgesic effects of URB597 treatment in the IC of an animal model of neuropathic pain...
October 31, 2018: Molecular Pain
Luca Giancardo, Octavio Arevalo, Andrea Tenreiro, Roy Riascos, Eliana Bonfante
The aim of this study is to evaluate whether we could develop a machine learning method to distinguish models of cerebrospinal fluid shunt valves (CSF-SVs) from their appearance in clinical X-rays. This is an essential component of an automatic MRI safety system based on X-ray imaging. To this end, a retrospective observational study using 416 skull X-rays from unique subjects retrieved from a clinical PACS system was performed. Each image included a CSF-SV representing the most common brands of programmable shunt valves currently used in US which were split into five different classes...
October 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
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