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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821753/dynamic-reconfiguration-of-cortical-functional-connectivity-across-brain-states
#1
Iain Stitt, Karl J Hollensteiner, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Florian Pieper, Eva Fiedler, Thomas Stieglitz, Gerhard Engler, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel
Throughout each day, the brain displays transient changes in state, as evidenced by shifts in behavior and vigilance. While the electrophysiological correlates of brain states have been studied for some time, it remains unclear how large-scale cortico-cortical functional connectivity systematically reconfigures across states. Here, we investigate state-dependent shifts in cortical functional connectivity by recording local field potentials (LFPs) during spontaneous behavioral transitions in the ferret using chronically implanted micro-electrocorticographic (µECoG) arrays positioned over occipital, parietal, and temporal cortical regions...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821656/dissociable-effects-on-birdsong-of-androgen-signaling-in-cortex-like-brain-regions-of-canaries
#2
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820968/reduced-activin-receptor-like-kinase-1-activity-promotes-cardiac-fibrosis-in-heart-failure
#3
Kevin J Morine, Xiaoying Qiao, Vikram Paruchuri, Mark J Aronovitz, Emily E Mackey, Lyanne Buiten, Jonathan Levine, Keshan Ughreja, Prerna Nepali, Robert M Blanton, S Paul Oh, Richard H Karas, Navin K Kapur
INTRODUCTION: Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) mediates signaling via the transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1), a pro-fibrogenic cytokine. No studies have defined a role for ALK1 in heart failure. HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that reduced ALK1 expression promotes maladaptive cardiac remodeling in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: In patients with advanced heart failure referred for left ventricular (LV) assist device implantation, LV Alk1 mRNA and protein levels were lower than control LV obtained from patients without heart failure...
July 18, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820571/comparison-of-spreading-depolarizations-in-the-motor-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-similar-patterns-of-oxygen-responses-and-the-role-of-dopamine
#4
Caddy Noahl Hobbs, Gordon Holzberg, Akira S Min, R Mark Wightman
Spreading depolarizations (SD) are pathophysiological phenomena that spontaneously arise in traumatized neural tissue and can promote cellular death. Most investigations of SD are performed in the cortex, a brain region that is susceptible to these depolarizing waves and accessible via a variety of monitoring techniques. Here, we describe SD responses in the cortex and the deep brain region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the anesthetized rat with a minimally invasive, implantable sensor. With high temporal resolution, we characterize the time course of oxygen responses to SD in relation to the electrophysiological depolarization signal...
August 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818859/renal-denervation-suppresses-coronary-hyperconstricting-responses-after-drug-eluting-stent-implantation-in-pigs-in-vivo-through-the-kidney-brain-heart-axis
#5
Hironori Uzuka, Yasuharu Matsumoto, Kensuke Nishimiya, Kazuma Ohyama, Hideaki Suzuki, Hirokazu Amamizu, Susumu Morosawa, Michinori Hirano, Tomohiko Shindo, Yoku Kikuchi, Kiyotaka Hao, Takashi Shiroto, Kenta Ito, Jun Takahashi, Koji Fukuda, Satoshi Miyata, Yoshihito Funaki, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Satoshi Yasuda, Hiroaki Shimokawa
OBJECTIVE: Drug-eluting stent-induced coronary hyperconstricting responses remain an important issue. The adventitia harbors a variety of components that potently modulate vascular tone, including sympathetic nerve fibers (SNF) and vasa vasorum. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) inhibits sympathetic nerve activity. We, thus, examined whether RDN suppresses drug-eluting stent-induced coronary hyperconstricting responses, and if so, what mechanisms are involved. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Protocol 1: pigs implanted with everolimus-eluting stents into the left coronary arteries underwent coronary angiography at 1 month after implantation for assessment of coronary vasomotion and adventitial SNF formation...
August 17, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816146/quality-assessment-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-of-a-melanoma-brain-metastases-model-using-a-mouselike-phantom-and-the-small-animal-radiation-research-platform
#6
Cheng-Chia Wu, Kunal R Chaudhary, Yong Hum Na, David Welch, Paul J Black, Adam M Sonabend, Peter Canoll, Yvonne M Saenger, Tony J C Wang, Cheng-Shie Wuu, Tom K Hei, Simon K Cheng
PURPOSE: To establish a novel preclinical model for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with combined mouselike phantom quality assurance in the setting of brain metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: C57B6 mice underwent intracranial injection of B16-F10 melanoma cells. T1-weighted postcontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on day 11 after injection. The MRI images were fused with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814631/face-percept-formation-in-human-ventral-temporal-cortex
#7
Kai J Miller, Dora Hermes, Franco Pestilli, Gagan S Wig, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Loci in ventral temporal cortex are selectively active while viewing faces and other objects, but it remains unclear whether these areas represent accumulation of simple visual information, or processing of intact percept. We measured broadband electrocorticographic changes from implanted electrodes on the ventral temporal brain surface while showing patients noise-degraded images of faces and houses. In a subset of posterior fusiform gyrus face-selective regions, cortical activity decreased parametrically with noise increase, until the perceptual threshold...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814092/flow-cytometric-examination-of-apoptotic-effect-on-brain-tissue-in-postnatal-period-created-by-intrauterine-oxcarbazepine-and-gabapentin-exposure
#8
Z Erisgin, Y Tekelioglu
OBJECTIVE: For epileptics, pregnancy contains the balance between no seizure period and antiepileptic use having the least teratogenicity risk. The purpose is to analyse with flow cytometry the apoptotic effects on postnatal brain tissue caused by prenatal use of second generation antiepileptics oxcarbazepine (OXC) and gabapentin (GBP) having different effect mechanisms. METHOD: 30 (n = 5 each group) Wistar albino male rats (45-days-old) are used. First 3 groups are exposed to OXC (100 mg/kg/day), GBP (50 mg/kg/day), and saline, respectively on the 1st-5th prenatal days (preimplantation-implantation period) while the second 3 groups are exposed to the same substances on the 6th-15th prenatal days (organogenesis), respectively...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810961/resuscitation-of-hypotensive-traumatic-brain-injured-animals-with-spray-dried-plasma-does-not-adversely-alter-physiology-and-improves-blood-brain-barrier-function
#9
Steven McDaniel, Stephanie Golla, Anthony N Moore, Joe DaCorta, Arthur Bode, Shibani Pati, Pramod K Dash, Jing Zhao
INTRODUCTION: According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center and the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, the number of soldiers who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has risen dramatically over the past decade. Studies have shown that brain damage can be exacerbated if blood loss occurs (often occurring in polytrauma). As blood supply is critical for brain function and survival, TBI patients must be properly resuscitated to maintain blood volume, blood pressure, and cerebral perfusion...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808014/adaptive-benefit-of-cross-modal-plasticity-following-cochlear-implantation-in-deaf-adults
#10
Carly A Anderson, Ian M Wiggins, Pádraig T Kitterick, Douglas E H Hartley
It has been suggested that visual language is maladaptive for hearing restoration with a cochlear implant (CI) due to cross-modal recruitment of auditory brain regions. Rehabilitative guidelines therefore discourage the use of visual language. However, neuroscientific understanding of cross-modal plasticity following cochlear implantation has been restricted due to incompatibility between established neuroimaging techniques and the surgically implanted electronic and magnetic components of the CI. As a solution to this problem, here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a noninvasive optical neuroimaging method that is fully compatible with a CI and safe for repeated testing...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807787/trigeminal-nerve-stimulation-induces-fos-immunoreactivity-in-selected-brain-regions-increases-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-and-reduces-seizure-severity-in-rats
#11
Beniamina Mercante, Paolo Enrico, Gabriele Floris, Marina Quartu, Marianna Boi, Maria Pina Serra, Paolo Follesa, Franca Deriu
Sites and mechanisms by which trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) exerts beneficial effects on symptoms of drug-resistant epilepsy and depression are still unknown. Effects of short-term TNS on brain regions involved in the physiopathology of these disorders were investigated in this study. Forty male rats were assigned to 3 groups: TNS (undergoing electrical stimulation of the left infraorbitary nerve via surgically implanted cuff electrodes); Sham (undergoing surgical procedure but without a stimulation); Naïve rats...
August 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800085/recent-progress-of-development-of-optogenetic-implantable-neural-probes
#12
REVIEW
Hubin Zhao
As a cell type-specific neuromodulation method, optogenetic technique holds remarkable potential for the realisation of advanced neuroprostheses. By genetically expressing light-sensitive proteins such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in cell membranes, targeted neurons could be controlled by light. This new neuromodulation technique could then be applied into extensive brain networks and be utilised to provide effective therapies for neurological disorders. However, the development of novel optogenetic implants is still a key challenge in the field...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797739/mb-swift-functional-mri-during-deep-brain-stimulation-in-rats
#13
Lauri J Lehto, Djaudat Idiyatullin, Jinjin Zhang, Lynn Utecht, Gregor Adriany, Michael Garwood, Olli Gröhn, Shalom Michaeli, Silvia Mangia
Recently introduced 3D radial MRI pulse sequence entitled Multi-Band SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation (MB-SWIFT) having virtually zero acquisition delay was used to obtain functional MRI (fMRI) contrast in rat's brain at 9.4 T during deep brain stimulation (DBS). The results demonstrate that MB-SWIFT allows functional images free of susceptibility artifacts, and provides an excellent fMRI activation contrast in the brain. Flip angle dependence of the MB-SWIFT fMRI signal and elimination of the fMRI contrast while using saturation bands, indicate a blood flow origin of the observed fMRI contrast...
August 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795515/multiplexed-optogenetic-stimulation-of-neurons-with-spectrum-selective-upconversion-nanoparticles
#14
Xudong Lin, Ying Wang, Xian Chen, Runhuai Yang, Zixun Wang, Jingyu Feng, Haitao Wang, King W C Lai, Jufang He, Feng Wang, Peng Shi
Optical modulation of nervous system becomes increasingly popular as the wide adoption of optogenetics. For these applications, upconversion materials hold great promise as novel photonic elements. This study describes an upconversion based strategy for combinatorial neural stimulation both in vitro and in vivo by using spectrum-selective upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). NaYF4 based UCNPs are used to absorb near-infrared (NIR) energy and to emit visible light for stimulating neurons expressing different channelrhodopsin (ChR) proteins...
August 10, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793202/differential-inhibition-of-rat-and-mouse-microsome-heme-oxygenase-by-derivatives-of-imidazole-and-benzimidazole
#15
Maaike Hum, Brian E McLaughlin, Xianqi Kong, Jason Z Vlahakis, Dragic Vukomanovic, Walter A Szarek, Kanji Nakatsu
Metalloporphyrin, heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors have made an important contribution to elucidating the role of HO in physiological processes. Nevertheless, their off-target effects have drawn substantial criticism, which prompted us to develop non-porphyrin, azole-based inhibitors of HO. These second-generation HO inhibitors were evaluated using spleen and brain microsomes from rats as native sources of HO-1 and HO-2, respectively. Recently, the use of azole-based inhibitors of HO has been extended to other mammalian species and, as a consequence, it will be important to characterize the inhibitors in these species...
August 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791838/collagenous-scaffolds-supplemented-with-hyaluronic-acid-and-chondroitin-sulfate-used-for-wound-fibroblast-and-embryonic-nerve-cell-culture
#16
Jacek Drobnik, Krystyna Pietrucha, Lucyna Piera, Jacek Szymański, Alicja Szczepanowska
BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering is a strategy aimed at improving the regeneration of injured tissues. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine whether a tri-copolymer composed of crosslinked collagen, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid (Col + CS + HA) provides a better environment for fibroblast and embryonic nerve cell culture than a collagenous scaffold (Col). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The porosity of each of the matrices was characterized with a scanning electron microscope...
March 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791721/cortical-control-of-object-specific-grasp-relies-on-adjustments-of-both-activity-and-effective-connectivity-a-common-marmoset-study
#17
Banty Tia, Mitsuaki Takemi, Akito Kosugi, Elisa Castagnola, Alberto Ansaldo, Takafumi Nakamura, Davide Ricci, Junichi Ushiba, Luciano Fadiga, Atsushi Iriki
The cortical mechanisms of grasping have been extensively studied in macaques and humans. Here, we investigated whether common marmosets could rely on similar mechanisms despite striking differences in manual dexterity. Two common marmosets were trained to grasp-and-pull three objects eliciting different hand configurations: whole-hand, finger and scissor grips. The animals were then chronically implanted with 64-channel electrocorticogram arrays positioned over the left premotor, primary motor and somatosensory cortex...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791332/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-selectively-decreases-risky-choice-in-risk-preferring-rats
#18
Wendy K Adams, Cole Vonder Haar, Melanie Tremblay, Paul J Cocker, Mason M Silveira, Sukhbir Kaur, Christelle Baunez, Catharine A Winstanley
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) can improve the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and negate the problematic side effects of dopamine replacement therapy. Although there is concern that STN-DBS may enhance the development of gambling disorder and other impulse control disorders in this patient group, recent data suggest that STN-DBS may actually reduce iatrogenic impulse control disorders, and alleviate obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we sought to determine whether STN-DBS was beneficial or detrimental to performance of the rat gambling task (rGT), a rodent analogue of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) used to assess risky decision making clinically...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791331/temporal-processing-in-the-visual-cortex-of-the-awake-and-anesthetized-rat
#19
Ida E J Aasebø, Mikkel E Lepperød, Maria Stavrinou, Sandra Nøkkevangen, Gaute Einevoll, Torkel Hafting, Marianne Fyhn
The activity pattern and temporal dynamics within and between neuron ensembles are essential features of information processing and believed to be profoundly affected by anesthesia. Much of our general understanding of sensory information processing, including computational models aimed at mathematically simulating sensory information processing, rely on parameters derived from recordings conducted on animals under anesthesia. Due to the high variety of neuronal subtypes in the brain, population-based estimates of the impact of anesthesia may conceal unit- or ensemble-specific effects of the transition between states...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790535/morphological-changes-in-blood-cells-after-implantation-of-titanium-and-plastic-clips-in-the-neurocranium-experimental-study-on-dogs
#20
Muhamed Katica, Mirza Celebicic, Nedzad Gradascevic, Muamer Obhodzas, Enra Suljić, Muhamed Ocuz, Samir Delibegovic
INTRODUCTION: Various studies confirm the biocompatibility and efficacy of clips for certain target tissues, but without any comparative analysis of hematological parameters. Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the possible association of the implantation of titanium and plastic clips in the neurocranium with possible morphological changes in the blood cells of experimental animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As a control, the peripheral blood smears were taken before surgery from 12 adult dogs that were divided into two experimental groups...
April 2017: Medical Archives
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