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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811705/colorectal-cancer-screening-an-updated-review-of-the-available-options
#1
REVIEW
Iyad A Issa, Malak Noureddine
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, colon cancer incidence and mortality is declining over the past decade owing to adoption of effective screening programs. Nevertheless, in some parts of the world, CRC incidence and mortality remain on the rise, likely due to factors including "westernized" diet, lifestyle, and lack of health-care infrastructure and resources. Participation and adherence to different national screening programs remain obstacles limiting the achievement of screening goals...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810972/when-military-fitness-standards-no-longer-apply-the-high-prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-recent-air-force-retirees
#2
Marcus M Cranston, Mark W True, Jana L Wardian, Rishawn M Carriere, Tom J Sauerwein
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. With MetS prevalence rates increasing in the U.S. population, prevention efforts have largely focused on diet and exercise interventions. Before retirement, military service members have met fitness requirements for at least 20 years, and have lower MetS rates compared to age-matched U.S. population controls (23.4% vs. 39.0%), which suggests a protective effect of the lifestyle associated with military service...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810029/celiac-disease-and-nonceliac-gluten-sensitivity-a-review
#3
Maureen M Leonard, Anna Sapone, Carlo Catassi, Alessio Fasano
Importance: The prevalence of gluten-related disorders is rising, and increasing numbers of individuals are empirically trying a gluten-free diet for a variety of signs and symptoms. This review aims to present current evidence regarding screening, diagnosis, and treatment for celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity. Observations: Celiac disease is a gluten-induced immune-mediated enteropathy characterized by a specific genetic genotype (HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 genes) and autoantibodies (antitissue transglutaminase and antiendomysial)...
August 15, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809927/in-middle-aged-and-old-obese-patients-training-intervention-reduces-leptin-level-a-meta-analysis
#4
Ildikó Rostás, László Pótó, Péter Mátrai, Péter Hegyi, Judit Tenk, András Garami, Anita Illés, Margit Solymár, Erika Pétervári, Ákos Szűcs, Andrea Párniczky, Dániel Pécsi, Zoltán Rumbus, Csaba Zsiborás, Nóra Füredi, Márta Balaskó
BACKGROUND: Leptin is one of the major adipokines in obesity that indicates the severity of fat accumulation. It is also an important etiological factor of consequent cardiometabolic and autoimmune disorders. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce leptin resistance and hyperleptinemia. Hyperleptinemia, on the other hand, may promote the development of age-related abnormalities. While major weight loss has been demonstrated to ameliorate hyperleptinemia, obese people show a poor tendency to achieve lasting success in this field...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809783/role-of-omentin-vaspin-cardiotrophin-1-tweak-and-nov-ccn3-in-obesity-and-diabetes-development
#5
REVIEW
Xavier Escoté, Saioa Gómez-Zorita, Miguel López-Yoldi, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Alfredo Fernández-Quintela, J Alfredo Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga, María P Portillo
Adipose tissue releases bioactive mediators called adipokines. This review focuses on the effects of omentin, vaspin, cardiotrophin-1, Tumor necrosis factor-like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis (TWEAK) and nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV/CCN3) on obesity and diabetes. Omentin is produced by the stromal-vascular fraction of visceral adipose tissue. Obesity reduces omentin serum concentrations and adipose tissue secretion in adults and adolescents. This adipokine regulates insulin sensitivity, but its clinical relevance has to be confirmed...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807503/morphological-physiological-and-dietary-covariation-in-migratory-and-resident-adult-brown-trout-salmo-trutta
#6
Kathryn S Peiman, Kim Birnie-Gauvin, Martin H Larsen, Scott F Colborne, Kathleen M Gilmour, Kim Aarestrup, William G Willmore, Steven J Cooke
The causes and consequences of trait relationships within and among the categories of physiology, morphology, and life-history remain poorly studied. Few studies cross the boundaries of these categories, and recent reviews have pointed out not only the dearth of evidence for among-category correlations but that trait relationships may change depending on the ecological conditions a population faces. We examined changes in mean values and correlations between traits in a partially migrant population of brown trout when migrant sea-run and resident stream forms were breeding sympatrically...
July 14, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806297/adherence-to-a-gluten-free-diet-assessment-by-dietician-interview-and-serology
#7
Pooja Mehta, Zhaoxing Pan, Marisa Dzarnoski Riley, Edwin Liu
We aimed to 1) determine if tissue transglutaminase autoantibody (tTG) positivity was associated with dietitian-assessed adherence to a gluten-free diet in pediatric patients with celiac disease and 2) identify areas where adherence falters. We reviewed the records of children with celiac disease who had a standardized evaluation of adherence by a registered dietitian. A negative tTG value was not associated with good adherence (p = NS). Adherent and nonadherent children differed with respect to purposeful and accidental gluten exposure (p < 0...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805567/nutrition-and-nonmotor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Laurie K Mischley
To date, no guidelines exist for the screening, evaluation, and management of nutritional status in PD. Dozens of studies demonstrate an association between diet in adulthood with subsequent risk of developing PD. Individuals with PD are at increased risk of malnutrition due to the increased metabolic demands and disease pathophysiology. Risk of malnutrition is further complicated by anosmia, swallowing difficulties, constipation, and drug-nutrient interactions. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the intestinal tract is affected early in the disease, creating therapeutic opportunities for early intervention...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805140/a-rat-model-for-the-in-vivo-assessment-of-biological-and-tissue-engineered-valvular-and-vascular-grafts
#9
Yukiharu Sugimura, Anna Kathrin Schmidt, Artur Lichtenberg, Alexander Assmann, Payam Akhyari
The demand for an improvement of the biocompatibility and durability of vascular and valvular implants requires translational animal models to study the in vivo fate of cardiovascular grafts. In the present article, a review on the development and application of a microsurgical rat model of infrarenal implantation of aortic grafts and aortic valved conduits is provided. By refinement of surgical techniques and inclusion of hemodynamic considerations, a functional model has been created, which provides a modular platform for the in vivo assessment of biological and tissue-engineered grafts...
August 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804797/bioactivities-of-alternative-protein-sources-and-their-potential-health-benefits
#10
REVIEW
A Pihlanto, P Mattila, S Mäkinen, A-M Pajari
Increasing the utilisation of plant proteins is needed to support the production of protein-rich foods that could replace animal proteins in the human diet so as to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. Lupins, quinoa and hempseed are significant sources of energy, high quality proteins, fibre, vitamins and minerals. In addition, they contain compounds such as polyphenols and bioactive peptides that can increase the nutritional value of these plants. From the nutritional standpoint, the right combination of plant proteins can supply sufficient amounts of essential amino acids for human requirements...
August 14, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804483/the-impact-of-western-diet-and-nutrients-on-the-microbiota-and-immune-response-at-mucosal-interfaces
#11
REVIEW
Donjete Statovci, Mònica Aguilera, John MacSharry, Silvia Melgar
Recent findings point toward diet having a major impact on human health. Diets can either affect the gut microbiota resulting in alterations in the host's physiological responses or by directly targeting the host response. The microbial community in the mammalian gut is a complex and dynamic system crucial for the development and maturation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the complex interaction between available nutrients, the microbiota, and the immune system are central regulators in maintaining homeostasis and fighting against invading pathogens at mucosal sites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804001/production-of-trans-and-conjugated-fatty-acids-in-dairy-ruminants-and-their-putative-effects-on-human-health-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Anne Ferlay, Laurence Bernard, Annabelle Meynadier, Corinne Malpuech-Brugère
Consumption of milk and dairy products is important in Western industrialised countries. Fat content is an important constituent contributing to the nutritional quality of milk and dairy products. In order to improve the health of consumers, there is high interest in improving their fatty acid (FA) composition, which depends principally on rumen and mammary metabolism. This paper reviews the lipid metabolism in ruminants, with a particular focus on the production of trans and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) in the rumen...
August 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803594/does-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-dietary-pattern-reduce-asthma-symptoms-in-children-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#13
Maria M Papamichael, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Nugroho H Susanto, Bircan Erbas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present systematic review was to synthesize evidence from the literature to assess efficacy of the Mediterranean dietary pattern in childhood asthma. Design/Setting A systematic search of six databases, three clinical trial registries and hand-search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to 29 October 2016. Inclusion criteria included exposure to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, measurement of asthma symptoms and study population of children aged <18 years...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803558/global-comparison-of-national-individual-food-consumption-surveys-as-a-basis-for-health-research-and-integration-in-national-health-surveillance-programmes
#14
Inge Huybrechts, Elom K Aglago, Amy Mullee, Willem De Keyzer, Catherine Leclercq, Pauline Allemand, Agnieszka Balcerzak, Francis B Zotor, Marc J Gunter
Individual food consumption surveys (IFCS) are performed to evaluate compliance with food/nutrient intake requirements or exposure to potential harmful dietary contaminants/components. In this review, we inventoried methods and designs used in national IFCS and discussed the methodologies applied across countries. Literature searches were performed using fixed sets of search terms in different online databases. We identified IFCS in thirty-nine countries from six world continents. National IFCS systems are available in most of the high-income countries, while such surveys are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (e...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803528/the-role-of-endoscopy-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis-from-diagnosis-to-therapy
#15
Alfredo J Lucendo, Ángel Arias, Javier Molina-Infante, Laura Arias-González
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has arisen as a common disorder in current clinical and endoscopic gastroenterology practice. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of the literature to summarize and update different aspects related with the use of endoscopy in the diagnostic workout and treatment of pediatric and adult EoE patients is conducted. Expert commentary: Endoscopic features in EoE are frequently subtle, so were inadverted in some initial reports of the disease. Literature has described a wide number of EoE-associated features, systematized in the EREFS classification, which standardized the grade and severity of exudates, rings, edema, furrows, and strictures...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802834/vegetable-derived-bioactive-nitrate-and-cardiovascular-health
#16
REVIEW
Catherine P Bondonno, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Alex H Liu, Nicola P Bondonno, Natalie C Ward, Kevin D Croft, Jonathan M Hodgson
Vegetable derived nitrate is now recognised as an important bioactive phytochemical with cardioprotective properties. Nitrate, through the recently described enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, increases NO, a molecule pivotal for cardiovascular health. Clinical trials have observed that dietary nitrate has similar effects to NO when supplied exogenously. These effects include reduced blood pressure and improvements in other markers of vascular health such as endothelial function, arterial stiffness, ischemia reperfusion injury, blood flow, and platelet aggregation...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802571/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improve-endothelial-function-in-humans-at-risk-for-atherosclerosis-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Kayla R Zehr, Mary K Walker
Epidemiology studies and clinical trials show that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can prevent atherosclerotic morbidity and evidence suggests this may be mediated by improving endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduced vasodilation and a pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic state, and is an early pathological event in the development of atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a gold standard for assessing endothelial dysfunction, is a predictor of future cardiovascular events and coronary heart disease risk...
August 9, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802282/evolution-of-mediterranean-diets-and-cuisine-concepts-and-definitions
#18
Sue Radd-Vagenas, Antigone Kouris-Blazos, Maria Fiatarone Singh, Victoria M Flood
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Mediterranean diet has been demonstrated to provide a range of health benefits in observational and clinical trials and adopted by various dietary guidelines. However, a broad range of definitions exist impeding synthesis across trials. This review aims to provide a historical description of Mediterranean diets, from the ancient to the modern, to inform future educational and diet index tool development representing the 'traditional' Mediterranean diet. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Nine databases were searched from inception to July 2015 to identify papers defining the Mediterranean diet...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801262/the-physiological-and-pathophysiological-roles-of-taurine-in-adipose-tissue-in-relation-to-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Shigeru Murakami
Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. It is established that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. The effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of obesity have been reported in animals and humans. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity action of taurine remain to be defined, taurine seems to ameliorate obesity through stimulation of energy expenditure, modulation of lipid metabolism, anorexic effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects...
August 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800373/dysphagia-and-speech-language-pathology-involvement-following-chemical-ingestion-injury-a-review-of-44-cases-admitted-to-a-quaternary-australian-hospital-2008-2012
#20
Anna F Rumbach, Rebecca Cremer
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of an adult chemical ingestion population and examine the course of return to oral intake post injury and speech-language pathologist (SLP) involvement during the initial acute-care admission. Method: A retrospective chart review of adults admitted to a quaternary hospital for the treatment of an acute chemical ingestion injury between 2008 and 2012 was conducted. Results: Forty-four adults (23 men, 21 women) were identified as receiving treatment for ingestion injury, of whom 18 (40...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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