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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087587/association-between-dietary-intake-and-school-valued-outcomes-a-scoping-review
#1
H S K Chan, C Knight, M Nicholson
Approximately one in four Australian children aged 5-17 years are overweight or obese. Most of the health effects of overweight and obesity in childhood do not eventuate until into adulthood; therefore, motivation for children to have a healthy diet may be low. This scoping review examined the literature for associations between diet quality in 5-18 year olds and 'school-valued' outcomes including student attendance, academic performance, behaviour at school and mental health. A literature search for studies that assessed dietary intake and at least one 'school-valued' outcome in schoolchildren, in highly developed countries was conducted...
January 13, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086820/primary-prevention-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-through-nutritional-factors-a-systematic-review
#2
Mikel Donazar-Ezcurra, Cristina López-Del Burgo, Maira Bes-Rastrollo
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy, is increasing worldwide, mostly because obesity among women of reproductive age is continuously escalating. GDM is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The aim of this article was to systematically review literature on the effectiveness of nutritional factors before or during pregnancy to prevent GDM. METHODS: We assessed the primary prevention of GDM through nutritional factors, as diet and supplements...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080254/wellness-and-multiple-sclerosis-the-national-ms-society-establishes-a-wellness-research-working-group-and-research-priorities
#3
Robert W Motl, Ellen M Mowry, Dawn M Ehde, Nicholas G LaRocca, Kathy E Smith, Kathleen Costello, Lynne Shinto, Alexander V Ng, Amy B Sullivan, Barbara Giesser, Kevin K McCully, Bo Fernhall, Malachy Bishop, Matthew Plow, Patrizia Casaccia, Nancy D Chiaravalloti
BACKGROUND: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have identified "wellness" and associated behaviors as a high priority based on "social media listening" undertaken by the National MS Society (i.e. the Society). OBJECTIVE: The Society recently convened a group that consisted of researchers with experience in MS and wellness-related research, Society staff members, and an individual with MS for developing recommendations regarding a wellness research agenda. METHOD: The members of the group engaged in focal reviews and discussions involving the state of science within three approaches for promoting wellness in MS, namely diet, exercise, and emotional wellness...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079619/the-importance-and-challenges-of-dietary-intervention-trials-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
James D Lewis, Lindsey Albenberg, Dale Lee, Mario Kratz, Klaus Gottlieb, Walter Reinisch
Inflammatory bowel disease is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental stimuli such as our diet. Diets high in meat and fats and low in fruits and vegetables have been associated with new-onset inflammatory bowel disease. This has triggered interest in using dietary modification as a treatment. The 3 principle models of dietary intervention are supplementation with selected dietary components, exclusion of selected dietary components, or use of dietary formulas in place of a normal diet...
January 10, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079008/walking-a-tightrope-a-perspective-of-resveratrol-effects-on-breast-cancer
#5
Caterina Bartolacci, Cristina Andreani, Augusto Amici, Cristina Marchini
It is an acknowledged fact that health benefits are derived from fruit- and vegetables-enriched diets. In particular, polyphenols, compounds bearing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, are ascribed for most of such beneficial effects. Among them, resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in numerous plant species, and more notably in grapes, has widely piqued the interest of the scientific community by virtue of its anti-aging, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Moreover, evidence claiming resveratrol ability to hinder processes underlying all the three steps of carcinogenesis (tumor initiation, progression and metastasization) has propelled an incredibly massive number of studies aimed at enquiring its eventual clinical potential in the fight against cancer...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078991/vegetable-organosulfur-compounds-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#6
Spyridon A Petropoulos, Francesco Di Gioia, Georgia Ntatsi
BACKGROUND: Trends in modern pharmaceutical science show an increase in demand for new drugs and diet supplements derived from natural products, while during the last decades, great research is conducted regarding the natural compounds and their medicinal and bioactive properties. Organosulfur compounds are present in many plants and their bioactive properties have been used in folk and traditional medicine throughout the centuries. Not until recently, modern science confirmed and revealed the chemical compounds that are responsible for these properties, the chemistry involved in their biosynthesis and the main mechanisms of action...
January 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078982/phytochemicals-a-novel-and-prominent-source-of-anti-cancer-drugs-against-colorectal-cancer
#7
Ravikiran Mahadevappa, Hang Fai Kwok
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignant disease whose incidence and mortality rates are greatly influenced by environmental factors. Under-treatment of CRC such as a poor diagnostic evaluation, less aggressive surgery, less intensive chemotherapy results in metastasizing of the primary tumor cells and recurrence of cancer. Prolonged chemotherapy treatment against cancer is hazardous to the patients, which also limits its use in cancer therapy. Current research in developing a novel anti-cancer agent, direct towards finding a better anti-metastatic and an anti-invasive drug with reduced side effects...
January 12, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078821/collateral-fattening-when-a-deficit-in-lean-body-mass-drives-overeating
#8
EDITORIAL
Abdul G Dulloo
In his last review entitled "Some Adventures in Body Composition," Gilbert Forbes reminded us that "lean body mass and body fat are in a sense companions." To what extent the lean body mass (or fat-free mass) component in this companionship impacts on energy intake is rarely a topic for discussion, amid a dominant adipocentric view of appetite control. Yet an analysis of the few human studies that have investigated the relationships between objectively measured food intake and body composition reveals a potentially important role for both an increase and a decrease in fat-free mass in the drive to eat...
January 11, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078565/the-influence-of-sodium-on-pathophysiology-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Jacek Zostawa, Jowita Adamczyk, Paweł Sowa, Monika Adamczyk-Sowa
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, and is an important cause of disability in young adults. In genetically susceptible individuals, several environmental factors may play a partial role in the pathogenesis of MS. Some studies suggests that high-salt diet (>5 g/day) may contribute to the MS and other autoimmune disease development through the induction of pathogenic Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines in both humans and mice. However, the precise mechanisms of pro-inflammatory effect of sodium chloride intake are not yet explained...
January 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078381/celiac-disease-a-clinical-review
#10
Badr Al-Bawardy, D Chamil Codipilly, Alberto Rubio-Tapia, David H Bruining, Stephanie L Hansel, Joseph A Murray
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory enteropathy triggered by gluten exposure in genetically susceptible individuals. It has a high prevalence approaching 1% of the US population. A high index of suspicion is warranted to diagnose CD as frequently patients present with extraintestinal or atypical manifestations. CD is diagnosed by a combination of serum serologies and duodenal biopsies. The majority of patients will respond to a lifelong gluten-free diet which is the cornerstone of therapy...
January 12, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077199/legume-consumption-and-cvd-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Stefano Marventano, Maria Izquierdo Pulido, Claudia Sánchez-González, Justyna Godos, Attilio Speciani, Fabio Galvano, Giuseppe Grosso
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies exploring the association between dietary legume consumption and CVD risk, including CHD and stroke. DESIGN: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to December 2015. A meta-analysis of the highest v. lowest (reference) category of dietary legume consumption was performed through random-effects models. RESULTS: Fourteen studies conducted on eleven cohorts and accounting for a total of 367 000 individuals and 18 475 cases of CVD (7451 CHD and 6336 stroke cases) were considered for the analyses...
February 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076613/the-role-of-dietary-fatty-acid-intake-in-inflammatory-gene-expression-a-critical-review
#12
Daniela Mayumi Rocha, Josefina Bressan, Helen Hermana Hermsdorff
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diet is an important modifiable factor involved in obesity-induced inflammation. We reviewed clinical trials that assessed the effect of consumption of different fatty acids on the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines, adipokines, chemokines and transcription factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review study conducted at a research center. METHODS: This was a review on the effect of fat intake on inflammatory gene expression in humans...
January 5, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076509/animal-models-of-obesity-in-rodents-an-integrative-review
#13
Melina Ribeiro Fernandes, Nayara Vieira de Lima, Karoline Silva Rezende, Isabela Caroline Marques Santos, Iandara Schettert Silva, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães
PURPOSE: To perform an integrative review of the main animal disease models in rodents used for obesity. METHODS: Research was conducted in the CAPES Portal database using the following keywords "obesity animal models, diet and rodents", published between the years 2010 to 2016. We found 108 articles, of which 19 were selected and analyzed in full for this study. RESULTS: Larger part of publications occurred in the last 6 years, the rats (n = 10) were used in the same proportion mice (n = 10)...
December 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076319/impact-of-nutrition-on-pollutant-toxicity-an-update-with-new-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#14
Jessie B Hoffman, Michael C Petriello, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental pollutants is a global health problem and is associated with the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrition can both positively and negatively modulate the toxic effects of pollutant exposure. Diets high in proinflammatory fats, such as linoleic acid, can exacerbate pollutant toxicity, whereas diets rich in bioactive and anti-inflammatory food components, including omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, can attenuate toxicant-associated inflammation...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075460/roles-of-oncogenes-and-tumor-suppressor-genes-in-osteoclastogenesis-review
#15
Akari Minami, Mako Ogino, Noriko Nakano, Mayuko Ichimura, Atsuko Nakanishi, Toshiyuki Murai, Yasuko Kitagishi, Satoru Matsuda
Osteoporosis is a bone disease that poses a tremendous burden to health care. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) have been a major focus of this research field. RANKL signaling not only activates a variety of downstream signaling pathways required for osteoclast development, but crosstalk with other signaling pathways also adjusts bone homeostasis both in normal physiology and in bone disease. Consequently, novel drugs specifically targeting RANK-RANKL and their signaling pathways in osteoclasts are expected to revolutionize the treatment of various bone diseases such as osteoporosis...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075340/bioactive-nutrients-and-nutrigenomics-in-age-related-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Tania Rescigno, Luigina Micolucci, Mario F Tecce, Anna Capasso
The increased life expectancy and the expansion of the elderly population are stimulating research into aging. Aging may be viewed as a multifactorial process that results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, which include lifestyle. Human molecular processes are influenced by physiological pathways as well as exogenous factors, which include the diet. Dietary components have substantive effects on metabolic health; for instance, bioactive molecules capable of selectively modulating specific metabolic pathways affect the development/progression of cardiovascular and neoplastic disease...
January 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074888/a-review-of-the-carbohydrate-insulin-model-of-obesity
#17
REVIEW
K D Hall
The carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity theorizes that diets high in carbohydrate are particularly fattening due to their propensity to elevate insulin secretion. Insulin directs the partitioning of energy toward storage as fat in adipose tissue and away from oxidation by metabolically active tissues and purportedly results in a perceived state of cellular internal starvation. In response, hunger and appetite increases and metabolism is suppressed, thereby promoting the positive energy balance associated with the development of obesity...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074747/liraglutide-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonist-for-chronic-weight-management
#18
Kendra R Manigault, Maria Miller Thurston
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight loss. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE from 2000 to 2016. The following key terms were used alone or in combination: glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, liraglutide, obesity, overweight, and weight loss. Additional supporting literature was identified utilizing the reference lists of the preceding articles. STUDY SELECTION: Analyzed studies were published in English and investigated use of liraglutide and its impact on weight loss...
December 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072591/osteoporosis-fracture-epidemiology-update-2016
#19
Jane A Cauley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on osteoporosis epidemiology. The focus is on fractures because fractures are the most important clinical consequence of osteoporosis. Studies published over the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these new findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Important research in 2015-2016 include analyses of screening and rescreening in younger women and older men, risk factors for hip fractures in older men, obesity and weight loss/gain, and risk of fracture...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071785/bioactive-polyphenols-and-cardiovascular-disease-chemical-antagonists-pharmacological-agents-or-xenobiotics-that-drive-an-adaptive-response
#20
REVIEW
Katarzyna Goszcz, Garry G Duthie, Derek Stewart, Stephen J Leslie, Ian L Megson
Polyphenols are widely regarded to have a wide range of health-promoting qualities, including in the sphere of cardiovascular disease. Historically, the benefits have been linked to their well-recognised powerful antioxidant activity. However, the concept that the beneficial effects are attributable to direct antioxidant activity in vivo does not pay sufficient heed to the fact that polyphenols degrade rapidly, are poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolised, resulting in very low bioavailability. This review explores alternative mechanisms by which polyphenols, or their metabolites, exert biological activity via mechanisms that can be activated by physiologically relevant concentrations...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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