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Michael M Petrov, Atanaska Petrova, Irina Stanimirova, Marina Mircheva-Topalova, Lalka Koycheva, Rayna Velcheva, Mariana Stoycheva-Vartigova, Ralitsa Raycheva, Galina Asseva, Petar Petrov, Velichka Kardjeva, Marianna Murdjeva
The aim of this work is to study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella and Shigella at the largest Bulgarian hospital-University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv-for the period 2009-2013. Two hundred ninety strains were in vitro tested for resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was demonstrated by a variety of specialized tests. For comparison, a collection of 28 strains submitted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) "Enteric Infections" at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofia, was also tested for the production of ESBLs...
October 19, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to assess the central pharmacological activity of WAY-100635 in a rat model of scopolamine-induced delirium and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: A delirium rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine and behavioral changes evaluated through open field and elevated plus maze experiments...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
Hugh Simon Lam, Kathy Y Y Chan, Margaret Ip, Kam Tong Leung, Norman W S Lo, Raymond P O Wong, Karen Li, Pak Cheung Ng
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis remains an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Tools to rapidly predict antibiotic resistance in neonatal sepsis would be extremely valuable. OBJECTIVES: To develop quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer/probe sets that can rapidly detect antibiotic resistance genes common to a neonatal unit, and to investigate the feasibility of direct detection of antibiotic resistance genes in whole blood of infants with Gram-negative septicaemia without first isolating the organism...
October 19, 2016: Neonatology
Joshua Kim, Michele Pignatelli, Sangyu Xu, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Susumu Tonegawa
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a site of convergence of negative and positive stimuli and is critical for emotional behaviors and associations. However, the neural substrate for negative and positive behaviors and relationship between negative and positive representations in the basolateral amygdala are unknown. Here we identify two genetically distinct, spatially segregated populations of excitatory neurons in the mouse BLA that participate in valence-specific behaviors and are connected through mutual inhibition...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Tracie A Paine, Nathan Swedlow, Lucien Swetschinski
INTRODUCTION: Decreased sociability is a symptom of psychiatric conditions including autism-spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Both of these conditions are associated with decreases in GABA function, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA); structures that are components of the social brain. Here, we determined if decreasing GABA transmission within either the PFC or the BLA decreases social behavior. METHODS: Rats were implanted with cannulae aimed at either the medial PFC or the BLA and then were tested on up to 4 behavioral tests following bilateral infusions of 0...
October 9, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Mahadi Shahed, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Ying Li
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the role of chronic VNS on decision-making in rat gambling task (RGT). Simultaneous multichannel-recordings offer an ideal setup to test the hypothesis that VNS may induce alterations of in both spike-field-coherence and synchronization of theta oscillations across brain areas in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Arunima Chaudhuri, Xavier Prasanna, Priyanka Agiru, Hirak Chakraborty, Anna Rydström, James C S Ho, Catharina Svanborg, Durba Sengupta, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) forms cytotoxic complexes with oleic acid (OA) that perturbs tumor cell membranes, but molecular determinants of these membrane-interactions remain poorly understood. Here, we aim to obtain molecular insights into the interaction of BLA/BLA-OA complex with model membranes. We characterized the folding state of BLA-OA complex using tryptophan fluorescence and resolved residue-specific interactions of BLA with OA using molecular dynamics simulation. We integrated membrane-binding data using a voltage-sensitive probe and molecular dynamics (MD) to demonstrate the preferential interaction of the BLA-OA complex with negatively charged membranes...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal aversive memories generate a motivational state leading to compulsive drug taking, with plasticity changes in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) being essential in aversive motivational learning. The conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm allows for measuring the negative affective component of drug withdrawal. First, CPA triggers association between negative affective consequences of withdrawal with context (memory consolidation). Afterwards, when the animals are re-exposed to the paired environment, they avoid it due to the association between the context and aversive memories (memory retrieval)...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rui Hu, Hong-Kin Yap, Yik-Hong Fung, Yong Wang, Wing-Lam Cheong, Lok-Yan So, Chui-Shan Tsang, Lawrence Yoon Suk Lee, Warrick Ken Cheung Lo, Jian Yuan, Ning Sun, Yun-Chung Leung, Guoqiang Yang, Kwok-Yin Wong
Fluorescent labeling of biomacromolecules to 'light up' biological events through non-invasive methods is of great importance, but is still challenging in terms of fluorophore properties and the labeling methods used. Herein, we designed and synthesized a biocompatible and conformation sensitive tetraphenylethene derivative EPB with aggregation induced emission (AIE) properties. By introducing EPB into TEM-1 β-lactamase (TEM-1 Bla) through a two-step approach, a conformation-dependent fluorescent sensor EPB104-Bla was genetically engineered, which was applied to monitor the protein-protein interaction (PPI) with β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP)...
October 4, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
M J Skelly, O J Ariwodola, J L Weiner
Inappropriate fear memory formation is symptomatic of many psychopathologies, and delineating the neurobiology of non-pathological fear learning may provide critical insight into treating these disorders. Fear memory formation is associated with decreased inhibitory signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to this decrease. BLA noradrenergic neurotransmission has been implicated in fear memory formation, and distinct adrenoreceptor (AR) subtypes modulate excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in this region...
October 5, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Michael J Duncan, Neil D Clarke, Martin Cox, Mike Smith
In many sport and exercise situations, cognitive performance is required under conditions of high physiological load and high cognitive anxiety. However, few studies have assessed all these components in situ. The current study sought to address this issue. Fourteen adults (9 males, 5 females) completed 2 incremental exercise trials (perceived competition or perceived practice) in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive performance, via a test of visual discrimination, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), blood lactate (Bla), and anxiety scores, was recorded at rest, 70% [Formula: see text] and 90% [Formula: see text]...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Ashika Singh-Moodley, Olga Perovic
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a concern in South Africa and worldwide. It is therefore important that these organisms be accurately identified for infection prevention control purposes. METHOD: In this study 1193 suspected CREs from 46 laboratories from seven provinces in South Africa were assessed to confirm the prevalence of carbapenemase genes from our referral diagnostic isolates for the period 2012 to 2015. We compared the antimicrobial susceptibility testing method used in the reference laboratory to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which is used as the gold standard...
October 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Luis R Jacinto, João J Cerqueira, Nuno Sousa
Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC) circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM). Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and prelimbic (PrL) mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Anamariela Tijerino Ayala, Hilda María Bolaños Acuña, María Teresa Acuña Calvo, José Luis Vargas Morales, Elena Campos Chacón
Plasmid-mediated AmpC are enzymes belonging to the group of β-lactamases and encoded by bla AmpC genes. Of these enzymes, those known as type CMY-2 are the most frequently reported worldwide. Detection of enterobacteria that produce CMY-2-type plasmid-mediated AmpC is clinically important since the use of β-lactam antibiotics can result in treatment failure. It is also important from a public health standpoint owing to the capacity for conjugative plasmid transfer to other enterobacteria, both within the community and in nosocomial environments...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
L Gayani Tillekeratne, Dhammika Vidanagama, Rashmi Tippalagama, Rashmi Lewkebandara, Maria Joyce, Bradly P Nicholson, Ajith Nagahawatte, Champica K Bodinayake, Aruna Dharshan De Silva, Christopher W Woods
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are increasingly reported as pathogens in urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, in Sri Lanka, the clinical and molecular epidemiology of ESBL-PE implicated in UTIs has not been well described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted prospective, laboratory-based surveillance from October to December 2013 at a tertiary care hospital in southern Sri Lanka and enrolled patients ≥1 year of age with clinically relevant UTIs due to ESBL-PE...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Soumaya Moustafa Hijazi, Mohamad Anwar Fawzi, Faten Moustafa Ali, Khaled Hussein Abd El Galil
INTRODUCTION: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) infections are a growing threat to children, and the treatment of these infections becomes more and more challenging. A huge reservoir for ESBLs in the community is the fecal flora of children. This study investigates the rectal colonization, associated risk factors, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular characterization of ESBL-PE in Lebanese community infants. METHODOLOGY: A total of 117 rectal swabs were taken from healthy infants between 1 and 12 months of age...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Swagatha Ghosh, Chi-Li Yu, Daniel J Ferraro, Sai Sudha, Samir Kumar Pal, Wayne F Schaefer, David T Gibson, S Ramaswamy
The walleye (Sander vitreus) is a golden yellow fish that inhabits the Northern American lakes. The recent sightings of the blue walleye and the correlation of its sighting to possible increased UV radiation have been proposed earlier. The underlying molecular basis of its adaptation to increased UV radiation is the presence of a protein (Sandercyanin)-ligand complex in the mucus of walleyes. Degradation of heme by UV radiation results in the formation of Biliverdin IXα (BLA), the chromophore bound to Sandercyanin...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dah-Chin Yan, Fen-Fang Chung, Syh-Jae Lin, Gwo-Hwa Wan
This study examined seasonal changes in indoor Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 (Der p 1)/Blattella germanica 1 (Bla g 1) antigen concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic and atopic nonasthmatic children. Possible associations between environmental allergen exposure and levels of exhaled breath indices were also evaluated.A total of 38 atopic children were recruited for this cross-sectional study: 22 were asthmatic and 16 were nonasthmatic. Home visits were conducted for indoor air and dust sampling each season...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Laura Vinué, David C Hooper
To study the viability of a gyrA S83 stop mutation found in an Escherichia coli J53 ciprofloxacin-resistant strain (J53 CipR27), a pBR322 derivative was constructed with a UAG mutation in the bla gene knocking out ampicillin resistance. Ampicillin resistance was restored, suggesting that the strain contains tRNA suppressor activity able to suppress the UAG codon gyrA and allow viability. The method was applied to 22 unique clinical E. coli isolates, and all were found to have low-level suppressor activity.
September 27, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Daniela Jones-Dias, Vera Manageiro, Eugénia Ferreira, Paula Barreiro, Luís Vieira, Inês B Moura, Manuela Caniça
The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria throughout the food chain constitutes a public health concern. To understand the contribution of fresh produce in shaping antibiotic resistance bacteria and integron prevalence in the food chain, 333 antibiotic resistance Gram negative isolates were collected from organic and conventionally produced fruits (pears, apples, and strawberries) and vegetables (lettuces, tomatoes, and carrots). Although low levels of resistance have been detected, the bacterial genera identified in the assessed fresh produce are often described not only as environmental, but mostly as commensals and opportunistic pathogens...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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