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Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388573/amsh-prevents-ros-induced-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-foxo1-mtorc2-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#1
Weina Cao, Meihang Li, Tianjiao Wu, Fei Feng, Tongying Feng, Yang Xu, Chao Sun
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) is an important adenohypophysis polypeptide hormone that regulates body metabolic status. To date, it is well known that the disorder of hypothalamic αMSH secretion is related to many metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type II diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In our study, we focused on the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced adipocyte apoptosis and tried to unveil the role of αMSH in this process and the signal pathway which αMSH acts through...
March 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371026/interaction-and-developmental-activation-of-two-neuroendocrine-systems-that-regulate-light-mediated-skin-pigmentation
#2
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Yi Nong Song, Karen Atkinson-Leadbeater, Jung-Lynn Jonathan Yang, Sarah McFarlane
Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion...
March 30, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350524/an-atf4-atg5-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-regulates-obesity
#3
Yuzhong Xiao, Yalan Deng, Feixiang Yuan, Tingting Xia, Hao Liu, Zhigang Li, Shanghai Chen, Zhixue Liu, Hao Ying, Yi Liu, Qiwei Zhai, Feifan Guo
ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) is an important transcription factor that has many biological functions, while its role in hypothalamic POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin-α) neurons in the regulation of energy homeostasis has not been explored. We recently discovered that mice with an Atf4 deletion specific to POMC neurons (PAKO mice) are lean and have higher energy expenditure. Furthermore, these mice are resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Mechanistically, we found the expression of ATG5 (autophagy-related 5) is upregulated in POMC neurons of PAKO mice, and ATF4 regulates ATG5 expression by binding directly to its promoter...
March 28, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303328/effects-of-palmitoyl-kvk-l-ascorbic-acid-on-skin-wrinkles-and-pigmentation
#4
Hyeong Mi Kim, Hyo Sun An, Jung-Soo Bae, Jung Yun Kim, Chi Ho Choi, Ju Yeon Kim, Joo Hyuck Lim, Joon-Hun Choi, Hyunnam Song, Sung Ho Moon, Young Jun Park, Shin-Jae Chang, Sun Young Choi
Wrinkle formation and abnormal pigmentation are major clinical alterations associated with skin aging. As the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin aging, the anti-wrinkle and depigmentation effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid were evaluated by measuring collagen expression in dermal fibroblast cells and inhibition of melanogenesis in B16F1 cells, respectively. The anti-aging effect of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream was also evaluated against a placebo cream in a clinical trial...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267582/melanocortin-4-receptor-ligands-modulate-energy-homeostasis-through-urocortin-1-neurons-of-the-centrally-projecting-edinger-westphal-nucleus
#5
Nóra Füredi, Ákos Nagy, Alexandra Mikó, Gergely Berta, Tamás Kozicz, Erika Pétervári, Márta Balaskó, Balázs Gaszner
The role of the urocortin 1 (Ucn1) expressing centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal (EWcp) nucleus in energy homeostasis and stress adaptation response has previously been investigated. Morphological and functional studies have proven that orexigenic and anorexigenic peptidergic afferents and receptors for endocrine messengers involved in the energy homeostasis are found in the EWcp. The central role of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in energy homeostasis is well known, however, no data have been published so far on possible crosstalk between melanocortins and EWcp-Ucn1...
March 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266027/risks-of-unregulated-use-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-analogues-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Louis Habbema, Anne Berthe Halk, Martino Neumann, Wilma Bergman
Recently, the unregulated use of untested synthetic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analogues, commonly known as melanotan I and II, appears to have increased. These analogues are primarily used for their tan-stimulating effects. Dermatologists see many patients in their clinic who tan. This review provides an overview of the risks of the unregulated use of these substances. Other topics discussed here include the history and safety of afamelanotide, which is the only α-MSH analogue that is approved for use in a limited number of medical indications...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243712/altered-sucrose-self-administration-following-injection-of-melanocortin-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-into-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#7
Laranci Shanmugarajah, Anna I Dunigan, Kyle J Frantz, Aaron G Roseberry
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) are antagonistic neuropeptides that play an important role in the control of feeding and body weight through their central actions on the melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors. Increasing evidence indicates that αMSH and AgRP can interact with the mesolimbic dopamine system to regulate feeding as well as other behaviors. For example, we have shown previously that injection of melanocortin receptor agonists and antagonists into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) alters both normal home-cage feeding and the intake of sucrose solutions, but it remains unknown whether αMSH and AgRP can also act in the VTA to affect reward-related feeding...
February 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241314/retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-suppress-phagolysosome-activation-in-macrophages
#8
Eric Wang, Yoona Choe, Tat Fong Ng, Andrew W Taylor
Purpose: The eye is an immune-privileged microenvironment that has adapted several mechanisms of immune regulation to prevent inflammation. One of these potential mechanisms is retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) altering phagocytosis in macrophages. Methods: The conditioned media of RPE eyecups from eyes of healthy mice and mice with experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) were used to treat primary macrophage phagocytizing pHrodo bacterial bioparticles. In addition, the neuropeptides were depleted from the conditioned media of healthy RPE eyecups and used to treat phagocytizing macrophages...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195947/alpha-msh-induces-vasodilatation-and-exerts-cardioprotection-via-the-heme-oxygenase-pathway-in-rat-hearts
#9
Miklos Vecsernyes, Miklos Szokol, Mariann Bombicz, Daniel Priksz, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Gabor Aron Fulop, Balazs Varga, Bela Juhasz, David Haines, Arpad Tosaki
Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a protein with known capacity for protection against cardiovascular ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The present investigation evaluates the capacity of α-MSH to mitigate I/R effects in an isolated working rat heart model and determine the dependency of these alterations on the activity of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, hsp-32), a heat shock protein that functions as a major antioxidant defense molecule. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for all experiments...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165370/plumbagin-suppresses-%C3%AE-msh-induced-melanogenesis-in-b16f10-mouse-melanoma-cells-by-inhibiting-tyrosinase-activity
#10
Taek-In Oh, Jeong-Mi Yun, Eun-Ji Park, Young-Seon Kim, Yoon-Mi Lee, Ji-Hong Lim
Recent studies have shown that plumbagin has anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antibacterial, and anti-cancer activities; however, it has not yet been shown whether plumbagin suppresses alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanin synthesis to prevent hyperpigmentation. In this study, we demonstrated that plumbagin significantly suppresses α-MSH-stimulated melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. To understand the inhibitory mechanism of plumbagin on melanin synthesis, we performed cellular or cell-free tyrosinase activity assays and analyzed melanogenesis-related gene expression...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103316/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-protects-against-cytokine-induced-barrier-damage-in-caco-2-intestinal-epithelial-monolayers
#11
Judit Váradi, András Harazin, Ferenc Fenyvesi, Katalin Réti-Nagy, Péter Gogolák, György Vámosi, Ildikó Bácskay, Pálma Fehér, Zoltán Ujhelyi, Gábor Vasvári, Eszter Róka, David Haines, Mária A Deli, Miklós Vecsernyés
Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a potent anti-inflammatory peptide with cytoprotective effect in various tissues. The present investigation demonstrates the ability of α-MSH to interact with intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and mitigate inflammatory processes of the epithelial barrier. The protective effect of α-MSH was studied on Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial monolayers, which were disrupted by exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. The barrier integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) and permeability for marker molecules...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995201/effects-of-a-sweetpotato-protein-digest-on-lipid-metabolism-in-mice-administered-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Koji Ishiguro, Rie Kurata, Yoshikazu Shimada, Yoto Sameshima, Takashi Kume
Sweetpotato peptide (SPP) was prepared by enzyme digestion of sweetpotato protein from starch wastewater. Animal experiments assessed the effect of SPP on body weight, abdominal adipose tissue mass, serum lipids and adipocytokines. Body and liver weight and epididymal and mesenteric fat of mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.5% or 5% SPP for 28 days were significantly lower than control mice. Triglyceride and cholesterol in VLDL and LDL and leptin levels were significantly lower in the serum of SPP-administered mice compared to control mice...
December 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924732/the-effect-of-a-hexanoic-acid-linker-insertion-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-tumor-targeting-properties-of-the-melanoma-imaging-agent-99mtc-hynic-cycmsh
#13
Vania Teixeira, Marcelo Fernández, Natalia Oddone, Xiuli Zhang, Fabio Gallazzi, Hugo Cerecetto, Juan Pablo Gambini, Williams Porcal, Pablo Cabral, Thomas P Quinn
BACKGROUND: Lactam cyclized alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analogues exhibit high stability and affinity for the MC1-R receptors over expressed in melanoma cells. Recently, we reported a novel <sup>99m</sup>Tc-HYNIC-cycMSH<sub>4-13</sub> analogue with the HYNIC chelator directly attached to the lactam cyclized ring. OBJECTIVE: In this study we proposed the introduction of a 6-aminohexanoic acid (Ahx) linker between the HYNIC chelator and lactam cyclized peptide cycMSH4-13 to reduce steric hindrance and improve the melanoma targeting and imaging proprieties of the radiolabeled peptide...
December 6, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917799/effect-of-one-unit-blood-donation-on-appetite-related-biomarkers
#14
Husamettin Erdamar, Muzaffer Cakmak
PURPOSE: It is commonly reported that blood donation (BD) leads to an increase in appetite. To investigate this claim, a questionnaire was offered to 306 people who had a history of BD at least once in their life. Following a positive outcome from the questionnaire, we further investigated the impact of BD on appetite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire study consists of a 5-question survey with VAS was performed on 399 volunteers. Later, 108 volunteers were enrolled in a laboratory study...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819350/%C3%AE-msh-and-foxc2-promote-fatty-acid-oxidation-through-c-ebp%C3%AE-negative-transcription-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#15
Lu Gan, Zhenjiang Liu, Yizhe Chen, Dan Luo, Fei Feng, Guannv Liu, Chao Sun
Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and Forkhead box C2 protein (Foxc2) enhance lipolysis in multiple tissues. However, their relationship in adipose fatty acid oxidation (FAO) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that α-MSH and Foxc2 increased palmitate oxidation to CO2 in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). C/EBPβ expression was reduced by α-MSH and Foxc2. FFA level was elevated by α-MSH and pc-Foxc2 treatment along with increased FAO in white and brown adipocytes. The expression of FAO key enzymes, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) were increased in α-MSH and pc-Foxc2 group...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754127/os-25-02-origin-of-neurogenic-hypertension-and-the-sympatho-excitation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#16
Joon Kyungjoon Lim, Benjie Barzel, Sandra Burke
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension affects one third of the population around the world and is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence that the main cause of hypertension is increases sympathetic nerve activity to specific organs. Plasma leptin levels correlate with blood pressure (BP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The central effects of leptin are mediated primarily through the arcuate (ARC) nucleus of the hypothalamus. Both neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) containing neurons ascend from the ARC and terminate in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which are the key centres of energy homeostasis, hemodynamics and sympathetic tone to renal vasculature...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717825/%C3%AE-msh-promotes-preadipocyte-proliferation-by-alleviating-er-stress-induced-leptin-resistance-and-by-activating-notch1-signal-in-mice
#17
Lu Gan, Zhenjiang Liu, Tianjiao Wu, Fei Feng, Chao Sun
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) has an important role in the regulation of body weight and energy expenditure. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of circulating αMSH on preadipocyte proliferation remain elusive. We found αMSH was reduced by high fat diet (HFD) while leptin was elevated in adipose tissue. Leptin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress of adipose tissue were increased in obese mice. αMSH increased leptin sensitivity and alleviated ER stress along with increased p-STAT3 level and reduced SOCS3, GRP78, CHOP, ATF4, p27 and p53 levels...
January 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643054/os-25-02-origin-of-neurogenic-hypertension-and-the-sympatho-excitation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#18
Joon Kyungjoon Lim, Benjie Barzel, Sandra Burke
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension affects one third of the population around the world and is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence that the main cause of hypertension is increases sympathetic nerve activity to specific organs. Plasma leptin levels correlate with blood pressure (BP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The central effects of leptin are mediated primarily through the arcuate (ARC) nucleus of the hypothalamus. Both neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) containing neurons ascend from the ARC and terminate in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which are the key centres of energy homeostasis, hemodynamics and sympathetic tone to renal vasculature...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614713/effects-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-on-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-in-rats-of-different-age-groups
#19
René G Feichtinger, Erika Pétervári, Michaela Zopf, Silvia Vidali, Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, Johannes A Mayr, Barbara Kofler, Márta Balaskó
Hypothalamic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a key catabolic mediator of energy homeostasis. Its anorexigenic and hypermetabolic effects show characteristic age-related alterations that may be part of the mechanism of middle-aged obesity and geriatric anorexia/cachexia seen in humans and other mammals. We aimed to investigate the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism during the course of aging in a rodent model. To determine the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism in muscle, we administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of α-MSH for 7-days to different age-groups of male Wistar rats...
August 26, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508820/-op-7b-01-neurogenic-hypertension-and-the-sympatho-excitation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#20
K Lim, B Barzel, S Burke, G Head
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is closely associated with a greater risk of developing hypertension and strong link exist between bodyweight gain and greater blood pressure (BP). Plasma leptin levels correlate with BP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The central effects of leptin are mediated primarily through the arcuate (ARC) nucleus of the hypothalamus. Dense projections of both Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) containing neurons ascend from the ARC and terminate in several hypothalamic nuclei such as the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which are the key centres of energy homeostasis, hemodynamics and sympathetic tone to brown adipose and renal vasculature...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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