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Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152323/new-melanocortin-like-peptide-of-e-coli-can-suppress-inflammation-via-the-mammalian-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1r-possible-endocrine-like-function-for-microbes-of-the-gut
#1
Xiaoling Qiang, Anthony S Liotta, Joseph Shiloach, J C Gutierrez, Haichao Wang, Mahendar Ochani, Kanta Ochani, Huan Yang, Aviva Rabin, Derek LeRoith, Maxine A Lesniak, Markus Böhm, Christian Maaser, Klaus Kannengiesser, Mark Donowitz, Shervin Rabizadeh, Christopher J Czura, Kevin J Tracey, Mark Westlake, Aida Zarfeshani, Syed F Mehdi, Ann Danoff, Xueliang Ge, Suparna Sanyal, Gary J Schwartz, Jesse Roth
E. coli releases a 33 amino acid peptide melanocortin-like peptide of E. coli (MECO-1) that is identical to the C-terminus of the E. coli elongation factor-G (EF-G) and has interesting similarities to two prominent mammalian melanocortin hormones, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Note that MECO-1 lacks HFRW, the common pharmacophore of the known mammalian melanocortin peptides. MECO-1 and the two hormones were equally effective in severely blunting release of cytokines (HMGB1 and TNF) from macrophage-like cells in response to (i) endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or (ii) pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB-1...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099963/activity-of-the-hypothalamic-melanocortin-system-decreases-in-middle-aged-and-increases-in-old-rats
#2
Nóra Füredi, Alexandra Mikó, Balázs Gaszner, Diána Feller, Ildikó Rostás, Judit Tenk, Margit Solymár, Márta Balaskó, Erika Pétervári
Appearance of middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia both in humans and rodents suggests a role for regulatory alterations. Hypothalamic melanocortin agonist, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) produced in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) reduces body weight via inducing hypermetabolism and anorexia mainly through melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Orexigenic ARC-derived agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an inverse agonist on MC4R in the PVN. Previously we demonstrated that characteristic age-related shifts in the catabolic effects of alpha-MSH may contribute both to middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia...
November 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058865/melanocortin-1-receptor-targeting-ultrasmall-silica-nanoparticles-for-dual-modality-human-melanoma-imaging
#3
Feng Chen, Xiuli Zhang, Kai Ma, Brian Madajewski, Miriam Benezra, Li Zhang, Evan Phillips, Melik Ziya Turker, Fabio Gallazzi, Michael Overholtzer, Mohan Pauliah, Mithat Gonen, Pat Zanzonico, Ulrich B Wiesner, Michelle S Bradbury, Thomas Quinn
The poor prognosis associated with malignant melanoma has not changed substantially over the past 30 years. Targeted molecular therapies, such as immunotherapy have shown promise, but suffer from resistance and off-target toxicities, underscoring the need for alternative therapeutic strategies that can be used in combination with existing protocols. Moreover, peptides targeting melanoma-specific markers, like the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), for imaging and therapy exhibit high renal uptake that limits clinical translation...
October 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042315/il-1%C3%AE-reduces-glua1-phosphorylation-and-its-surface-expression-during-memory-reconsolidation-and-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-can-modulate-these-effects
#4
Ivana Machado, Helgi B Schiöth, Mercedes Lasaga, Teresa Scimonelli
Pro-inflammatory cytokines can affect cognitive processes such as learning and memory. Particularly, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) influences hippocampus-dependent memories. We previously reported that administration of IL-1β in dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This effect was reversed by the melanocortin alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Our results also demonstrated that IL-1β produced a significant decrease in glutamate release from dorsal hippocampus synaptosomes after reactivation of the fear memory...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031731/evaluation-of-a-melanocortin-4-receptor-mc4r-agonist-setmelanotide-in-mc4r-deficiency
#5
Tinh-Hai Collet, Béatrice Dubern, Jacek Mokrosinski, Hillori Connors, Julia M Keogh, Edson Mendes de Oliveira, Elana Henning, Christine Poitou-Bernert, Jean-Michel Oppert, Patrick Tounian, Florence Marchelli, Rohia Alili, Johanne Le Beyec, Dominique Pépin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Andrew Gottesdiener, Rebecca Bounds, Shubh Sharma, Cathy Folster, Bart Henderson, Stephen O'Rahilly, Elizabeth Stoner, Keith Gottesdiener, Brandon L Panaro, Roger D Cone, Karine Clément, I Sadaf Farooqi, Lex H T Van der Ploeg
OBJECTIVE: Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides act on neurons expressing the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) to reduce body weight. Setmelanotide is a highly potent MC4R agonist that leads to weight loss in diet-induced obese animals and in obese individuals with complete POMC deficiency. While POMC deficiency is very rare, 1-5% of severely obese individuals harbor heterozygous mutations in MC4R. We sought to assess the efficacy of Setmelanotide in human MC4R deficiency. METHODS: We studied the effects of Setmelanotide on mutant MC4Rs in cells and the weight loss response to Setmelanotide administration in rodent studies and a human clinical trial...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023410/long-term-osmotic-mini-pump-treatment-with-alpha-msh-improves-myocardial-function-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#6
Miklos Szokol, Daniel Priksz, Mariann Bombicz, Balazs Varga, Arpad Kovacs, Gabor Aron Fulop, Tamas Csipo, Aniko Posa, Attila Toth, Zoltan Papp, Zoltan Szilvassy, Bela Juhasz
The present investigation evaluates the cardiovascular effects of the anorexigenic mediator alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Osmotic mini pumps delivering MSH or vehicle, for 6 weeks, were surgically implanted in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. Serum parameters, blood pressure, and weight gain were monitored along with oral glucose tolerance (OGTT). Echocardiography was conducted and, following sacrifice, the effects of treatment on ischemia/reperfusion cardiac injury were assessed using the isolated working heart method...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936166/nucleus-accumbens-mc4-r-stimulation-reduces-food-and-ethanol-intake-in-adult-rats-regardless-of-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-during-adolescence
#7
Francisca Carvajal, José M Lerma-Cabrera, Manuel Alcaraz-Iborra, Montserrat Navarro, Todd E Thiele, Inmaculada Cubero
The melanocortin (MC) system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R) stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in hypothalamic and limbic areas...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831862/prunus-mume-extract-exerts-antioxidant-activities-and-suppressive-effect-of-melanogenesis-under-the-stimulation-by-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-in-b16-f10-melanoma-cells
#8
KyungBae Pi, KiBeom Lee
In the current study, we examined the antioxidant and skin-whitening properties of Prunus mume extract (PME). The ability of PME to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was investigated in vitro. At a concentration of 1000 μg/mL, PME neutralized >45% free radical activity. Cell viability assessment with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed that at concentrations <1500 μg/mL, PME does not exert cytotoxic effects on murine B16 melanoma (B16) cells...
October 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782535/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-induced-anorexia-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica-likely-involves-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-and-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#9
Taylor Lear, Lingbin Liu, Madison O'Donnell, Betty R McConn, D Michael Denbow, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) reduces food intake in birds and mammals. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of α-MSH on food and water intake, and hypothalamic c-Fos immunoreactivity and appetite-associated factor mRNA in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species that has not undergone the same artificial selection for growth-related traits as the chicken. At 7days post-hatch, 3-h-fasted quail were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected into the lateral ventricle with 0 (vehicle), 0...
October 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695326/anti-melanogenic-effect-of-gomisin-n-from-schisandra-chinensis-turcz-baillon-schisandraceae-in-melanoma-cells
#10
JungNo Lee, Hwa Sun Ryu, Jae-Moon Kim, Tae-Hwa Jung, Sung-Min Park, Yong-Moon Lee
Overproduction and accumulation of melanin in the skin can lead to pigmentation disorders, such as freckles and melasma. Many researchers are studying the regulation of melanogenesis in the skin with the aim of developing whitening cosmetics. In this study, bioactivity-guided separation of the hexane fraction of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baillon extract yielded five major compounds, β-chamigrenal, α-ylangenol, gomisin N, gomisin A, and schisandrin. The structures were identified by using (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy and comparing the spectral data with published data...
July 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673563/the-role-of-oligomenorrhea-in-melasma
#11
Marjan Mahjour, Arash Khoushabi, Zohre Feyzabadi
Melasma is a facial hyperpigmentation in the upper lips, cheeks, forehead and chin. It is mostly seen in women. Melasma treatments include topical methods that are not only costly, but also temporary. Melasma recurs shortly after cessation of the treatment. Considering the relationship between melasma and elevated estrogen levels in patients with oligomenorrhea, systemic anti-estrogen therapies are not used for melasma. In this study, by searching in the scientific databases such as Scopus, Pubmed and the authentic books of traditional medicine such as the Canon of medicine, melasma treatment was evaluated based on oligomenorrhea systemic therapy...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625749/preclinical-evaluation-of-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1-r-specific-68-ga-and-44-sc-labeled-dota-napamide-in-melanoma-imaging
#12
Gábor Nagy, Noémi Dénes, Adrienn Kis, Judit P Szabó, Ervin Berényi, Ildikó Garai, Péter Bai, István Hajdu, Dezső Szikra, György Trencsényi
PURPOSE: Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) enhances melanogenesis in melanoma malignum by binding to melanocortin-1 receptors (MC1-R). Earlier studies demonstrated that alpha-MSH analog NAPamide molecule specifically binds to MC1-R receptor. Radiolabeled NAPamide is a promising radiotracer for the non-invasive detection of melanin producing melanoma tumors by Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this present study the MC1-R selectivity of the newly developed Sc-44-labeled DOTA-NAPamide was investigated in vitro and in vivo using melanoma tumors...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584573/inhibitory-effect-of-gastrodia-elata-blume-extract-on-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-induced-melanogenesis-in-murine-b16f10-melanoma
#13
Eugene Shim, Eunju Song, Kyoung Sook Choi, Hyuk-Joon Choi, Jinah Hwang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB), a traditional herbal medicine, has been used to treat a wide range of neurological disorders (e.g., paralysis and stroke) and skin problems (e.g., atopic dermatitis and eczema) in oriental medicine. This study was designed to investigate whether GEB extract inhibits melanogenesis activity in murine B16F10 melanoma. MATERIALS/METHOD: Murine B16F10 cells were treated with 0-5 mg/mL of GEB extract or 400 µg/mL arbutin (a positive control) for 72 h after treatment with/without 200 nM alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) for 24 h...
June 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575455/adolescent-alcohol-exposure-induced-changes-in-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-and-neuropeptide-y-pathways-via-histone-acetylation-in-the-brain-during-adulthood
#14
Dadasaheb M Kokare, Evan J Kyzar, Huaibo Zhang, Amul J Sakharkar, Subhash C Pandey
Background: Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure causes long-lasting alterations in brain epigenetic mechanisms. Melanocortin and neuropeptide Y signaling interact and are affected by ethanol exposure in the brain. Here, the persistent effects of adolescent intermittent ethanol on alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, melanocortin 4 receptor, and neuropeptide Y expression and their regulation by histone acetylation mechanisms were investigated in adulthood. Methods: Male rats were exposed to adolescent intermittent ethanol (2 g/kg, i...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524047/oestrogen-and-progesterone-receptors-in-melanoma-and-nevi-an-immunohistochemical-study
#15
Emi Dika, Pier Alessandro Fanti, Sabina Vaccari, Elisa Capizzi, Alessio Degiovanni, Agnese Gobbi, Bianca Maria Piraccini, Simone Ribero, Carlotta Baraldi, Giulia Maria Ravaioli, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Annalisa Patrizi
The effect of hormonal stimulation and fertility treatments, on the development of malignant melanoma (MM) remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) in MM and nevi after hormonal stimulation. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed utilizing antibodies specifically directed against ERα and PR in MM and atypical nevi specimens from patients: (1) diagnosed during pregnancy, (2) diagnosed in the six months following delivery, or (3) who had undergone repetitive cycles of hormonal stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the year that preceded MM diagnosis...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514752/%C3%AE-msh-inhibits-adipose-inflammation-via-reducing-foxos-transcription-and-blocking-akt-jnk-pathway-in-mice
#16
Guannv Liu, Meihang Li, Muhammad Saeed, Yatao Xu, Qian Ren, Chao Sun
Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) abates inflammation in multiple tissues, while Forkhead box proteins O (FoxOs) stimulate inflammatory cascade. However, the relationship between αMSH and FoxOs in adipose inflammation remains unclear. In this study, we used LPS-induced inflammation model, attempted to interpret the function of αMSH in inflammation and the interactions with FoxOs. Results indicated that upon inflammatory situation, the secretion of αMSH and the expression of its receptor MC5R were greatly decreased, but FoxOs expressions were elevated...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494100/paracrine-regulation-of-melanogenesis
#17
REVIEW
X H Yuan, Z H Jin
Melanocytes are generally characterized by the basic ability of melanin synthesis and transfer to adjacent keratinocytes to constitute individual skin phenotype and provide epidermal protection from various stimuli, such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, through a complex process called melanogenesis, which can be regulated by autocrine or paracrine factors. Recent evidences have revealed the paracrine effects of keratinocytes on melanogenesis by secreting cytokines, including alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and endothelin-1...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473259/the-central-effects-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh-in-chicks-involve-changes-in-gene-expression-of-neuropeptide-y-and-other-factors-in-distinct-hypothalamic-nuclei
#18
Meghan S Delp, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a satiety-inducing factor in birds and mammals although central mechanisms mediating its effects on appetite in birds are poorly understood. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine effects of centrally-injected α-MSH on c-Fos and gene expression in chick appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei. At 4days post-hatch, 3h-fasted chicks were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 0 (vehicle) or 0.12nmol α-MSH and 1h later, hypothalamus samples were collected for measuring c-Fos immunoreactivity and mRNA abundance of appetite-associated factors in hypothalamic nuclei...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388573/%C3%AE-msh-prevents-ros-induced-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-foxo1-mtorc2-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#19
Weina Cao, Meihang Li, Tianjiao Wu, Fei Feng, Tongying Feng, Yang Xu, Chao Sun
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) is an important adenohypophysis polypeptide hormone that regulates body metabolic status. To date, it is well known that the disorder of hypothalamic αMSH secretion is related to many metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type II diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In our study, we focused on the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced adipocyte apoptosis and tried to unveil the role of αMSH in this process and the signal pathway which αMSH acts through...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371026/interaction-and-developmental-activation-of-two-neuroendocrine-systems-that-regulate-light-mediated-skin-pigmentation
#20
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Yi N Song, Karen Atkinson-Leadbeater, Jung-Lynn J Yang, Sarah McFarlane
Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion...
July 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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