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Timo Vesikari, Sven Arne Silfverdal, Emilia Jordanov, Emmanuel Feroldi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid, ready-to-use hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine when administered in a 2+1 schedule at 3, 5, 11-12 months of age. METHODS: Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, observer-blind, multi-center study. Infants were randomized to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N=275) or a licensed control hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T: N=275), both given in co-administration with Prevenar 13™ (PCV13). Serum was analyzed for immune responses to all vaccine antigens...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Trisha C Parker, Anaam Mohammed, Traci Leong, Shelley Mays, Shabnam Jain, Victoria Churchill, Fatima Ali, Lilly C Immergluck
OBJECTIVE: Rotavirus (RV) is one of the most common diarrheal diseases affecting children less than 5 years of age. RV vaccines have greatly reduced this burden in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine possible disparities and socio-economic differences in RV vaccination rates. DESIGN: Children with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. Stool was tested for presence of rotavirus using an enzyme immunoassay kit. Vaccination records were abstracted from the state immunization registry and healthcare providers to examine complete and incomplete vaccination status...
October 14, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Ousseny Zerbo, Berwick Chan, Kristin Goddard, Ned Lewis, Karin Bok, Nicola P Klein, Roger Baxter
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: We describe the establishment of a dynamic database linking mothers to newborns with the goal of studying vaccine safety in both pregnant women and their children and provide results of a study utilizing this database as a proof of concept. METHODS: All Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) live births and their mothers were eligible for inclusion in the pregnancy database. We used the medical record number (MRN), a unique identifier, to retrieve information about events that occurred during the pregnancy and at delivery and linked this same MRN to newborns for post-partum follow up...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Ranee Seither, Kayla Calhoun, Jenelle Mellerson, Cynthia L Knighton, Erica Street, Vance Dietz, J Michael Underwood
State-mandated vaccination requirements for school entry protect children and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). Each school year, federally funded immunization programs (e.g., states, territories, jurisdictions) collect and report kindergarten vaccination data to CDC. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), and the estimated number of kindergartners with at least one vaccine exemption in 47 states and DC, during the 2015-16 school year...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Vance Dietz
Sustained high coverage with recommended vaccinations among children has kept many vaccine-preventable diseases at low levels in the United States (1). To assess coverage with vaccinations recommended for children by age 2 years in the United States (2), CDC analyzed data collected by the 2015 National Immunization Survey (NIS) for children aged 19-35 months (born January 2012-May 2014). Overall, coverage did not change during 2014-2015. Coverage in 2015 was highest for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Dominique McCarthy, Peter Andrew Windsor, Charissa Harris, Sabrina Lomax, Peter John White
The post-operative effects of three formulations of topical anaesthetic and a cornual nerve block on the sensitivity of scoop dehorning wounds in calves were compared in two trials. In Trial 1, 21 female Holstein dairy calves aged 8 to 24 weeks were randomly allocated to two groups: (1) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a novel topical anaesthetic powder (DTAP, n = 10); and (2) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a novel topical anaesthetic ethanol liquid (DTAE, n = 11). In Trial 2, 18 castrated male and 18 female Hereford beef calves aged 16 to 20 weeks were randomly allocated to four groups: (1) scoop dehorning with a pre-operative cornual nerve block of lignocaine (DCB, n = 9); (2) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of the novel topical anaesthetic ethanol liquid from Trial 1 (DTAE, n = 9); (3) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a topical anaesthetic gel (DTAG, n = 9); and (4) sham dehorning (CON, n = 9)...
2016: PloS One
Kathleen Winter, James D Cherry, Kathleen Harriman
BACKGROUND:  All U.S. women are recommended to receive Tdap vaccine at 27-36 weeks gestation during each pregnancy to reduce the risk of pertussis to their infants. The impact of this strategy on severity of disease among infected infants has not been evaluated. METHODS:  We use a retrospective cohort study design evaluating whether pertussis-infected infants born in 2011-2015 whose mothers received Tdap vaccine during pregnancy had less severe pertussis, resulting in a lower risk of hospitalization or intensive care unit (ICU) admission compared to infants born to unvaccinated mothers...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Rongcheng Li, Kong-Xiong Fang, Mariano Young, Xin Zhou, Zhangjing Chen, John Z Liang, Peter C Giardina, Daniel A Scott
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, Chinese infants were vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) ⩾7days before routine diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); PCV7 administered concomitantly with DTaP (PCV7+DTaP); or DTaP alone. This study examined antibody persistence at a single time point 3years after the last vaccination. METHODS: Children who participated in the prior PCV7 study were eligible to participate. A single blood sample was drawn at enrollment...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
P Plans, D Toledo, M R Sala, N Camps, M Villanova, R Rodríguez, J Alvarez, R Solano, M García-Cenoz, I Barrabeig, P Godoy, S Minguell
Pertussis vaccination with 4-5 doses of acellular vaccines is recommended in Spain to all children at 2 months to 6 years of age. The effectiveness of the acellular pertussis vaccination was assessed in this study by comparing the incidence of secondary pertussis in vaccinated (4-5 doses) and unvaccinated or partially vaccinated (0-3 doses) household contacts 1-9 years old of confirmed cases of pertussis in Spain in 2012-13. Eighty-five percent of contacts had been vaccinated with 4-5 doses of acellular pertussis vaccines...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Anna Taddio, Horace Wong, Ben Welkovics, Angelo L Ilersich, Mara Cole, Morton Goldbach, Moshe Ipp
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the pain caused from fast vs. slow vaccine injections. METHODS: Infants aged 2-6months receiving primary immunizations were randomized to fast (2-4mL/s) or slow (5-10mL/s) injections during routine 0.5mL Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Polio Virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib) injections. Those aged 2 and 4months additionally received 0.5mL Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) injections...
September 7, 2016: Vaccine
Beatriz Valcarcel Salamanca, Maria Elisabeth Hagerup-Jenssen, Elmira Flem
BACKGROUND: To minimise vaccine-associated risk of intussusception following rotavirus vaccination, Norway adopted very strict age limits for initiating and completing the vaccine series at the time rotavirus vaccination was included in the national immunisation programme, October 2014. Although Norway has a high coverage for routine childhood vaccines, these stringent age limits could negatively affect rotavirus coverage. We documented the status and impact of rotavirus vaccination on other infant vaccines during the first year after its introduction...
September 7, 2016: Vaccine
Jin Han Kang, Hoan Jong Lee, Kyung Hyo Kim, Sung Hee Oh, Sung Ho Cha, Jin Lee, Nam Hee Kim, Byung Wook Eun, Chang Hwi Kim, Young Jin Hong, Hyun Hee Kim, Kyung Yil Lee, Yae Jean Kim, Eun Young Cho, Hee Soo Kim, Fabrice Guitton, Esteban Ortiz
Recommended infant vaccination in Korea includes DTaP-IPV and Hib vaccines administered as separate injections. In this randomized, open, controlled study we assessed the non-inferiority of immunogenicity of DTaP-IPV//Hib pentavalent combination vaccine (Pentaxim™) compared with licensed DTaP-IPV and Hib (PRP~T) vaccines. We enrolled 418 healthy Korean infants to receive either separate DTaP-IPV and Hib vaccines (n = 206) or the pentavalent DTaP-IPV//Hib (n = 208) vaccine at 2, 4, 6 months of age. Antibodies to all components were measured before the first vaccination and one month after the third, and safety was assessed after each vaccination including recording of reactions by parents...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Aiden K Varan, Alfonso Rodriguez-Lainz, Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, Qian Li
Healthy People 2020 targets high vaccination coverage among children. Although reductions in coverage disparities by race/ethnicity have been described, data by nativity are limited. The National Immunization Survey is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey that estimates vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months. We assessed coverage among 52,441 children from pooled 2010-2012 data for individual vaccines and the combined 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series (which includes ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine/diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine/diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine, ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, ≥3 or ≥4 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (depending on product type of vaccine; denoted as 3* in the series name), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine, ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine)...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
John Hansen, Julius Timbol, Ned Lewis, Vitali Pool, Michael D Decker, David P Greenberg, Nicola P Klein
BACKGROUND: The combination DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine was licensed in the United States in 2008 for children ages 6weeks through 4years with doses administered at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18months of age. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine routinely administered as part of clinical care to infants at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective study that included all 2-month-old infants vaccinated with either DTaP-IPV/Hib or another DTaP-containing vaccine...
July 29, 2016: Vaccine
Emmanuel Vidor, Benoit Soubeyrand
INTRODUCTION: The manufacture of DTP-backboned combination vaccines is complex, and vaccine quality is evaluated by both batch composition and conformance of manufacturing history. Since their first availability, both the manufacturing regulations for DTP combination vaccines and their demand have evolved significantly. This has resulted in a constant need to modify manufacturing and quality control processes. AREAS COVERED: Regulations that govern the manufacture of complex vaccines can be inconsistent between countries and need to be aligned with the regulatory requirements that apply in all countries of distribution...
June 27, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Jonathan Duffy, Eric Weintraub, Simon J Hambidge, Lisa A Jackson, Elyse O Kharbanda, Nicola P Klein, Grace M Lee, S Michael Marcy, Cynthia C Nakasato, Allison Naleway, Saad B Omer, Claudia Vellozzi, Frank DeStefano
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An increased risk of febrile seizure (FS) was identified with concomitant administration of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) 13-valent during the 2010-2011 influenza season. Our objective was to determine whether concomitant administration of IIV3 with other vaccines affects the FS risk. METHODS: We examined the risk of FS 0 to 1 day postvaccination for all routinely recommended vaccines among children aged 6 through 23 months during a period encompassing 5 influenza seasons (2006-2007 through 2010-2011)...
July 2016: Pediatrics
M A Alghilan, L J Windsor, J Palasuk, G H Yassen
AIM: To investigate the attachment and proliferation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) on dentine treated with various endodontic regeneration protocols. METHODOLOGY: Standardized dentine samples were irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (1.5% NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (17% EDTA) and randomized into four treatment groups and two control groups. The treatment groups were treated with a clinically used concentration of triple antibiotic paste (TAP), double antibiotic paste (DAP), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ) or diluted TAP in a methylcellulose system (DTAP) for 1 week...
June 8, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Patrick G Holt, Tom Snelling, Olivia J White, Peter D Sly, Nicholas DeKlerk, Jonathan Carapetis, Anita Van Den Biggelaar, Nicholas Wood, Peter McIntyre, Michael Gold
BACKGROUND: Several previous studies have highlighted the strong Th2-polarising and IgE-promoting activity of the DTaP vaccine, but there is no evidence that this has pathological consequences and accordingly there is no current interest amongst vaccine developers in reformulating DTaP to attenuate these properties. In light of an apparent resurgence in pertussis in many countries, and emerging evidence from other areas of paediatric immunology of IgE-mediated interference with host defence mechanisms, this issue requires more detailed clarification...
July 29, 2016: Vaccine
Takehiro Togashi, Nodoka Mitsuya, Osamu Kogawara, Shuji Sumino, Yohei Takanami, Kayoko Sugizaki
BACKGROUND: Broad use of monovalent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines based on the capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP), has significantly reduced invasive Hib disease burden in children worldwide, particularly in children aged <1year. In Japan, PRP conjugated to tetanus toxoid (PRP-T) vaccine has been widely used since the initiation of public funding programs followed by a routine vaccination designation in 2013. METHODS: We compared the immunogenicity and safety of PRP conjugated to a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant (PRP-CRM197) vaccine with the PRP-T vaccine when administered subcutaneously to healthy Japanese children in a phase III study...
August 31, 2016: Vaccine
Lucy Breakwell, Patsy Kelso, Christine Finley, Susan Schoenfeld, Brant Goode, Lara K Misegades, Stacey W Martin, Anna M Acosta
BACKGROUND: In the United States, the proportion of Bordetella pertussis isolates lacking pertactin, a component of acellular pertussis vaccines, increased from 14% in 2010 to 85% in 2012. The impact on vaccine effectiveness (VE) is unknown. METHODS: We conducted 2 matched case-control evaluations in Vermont to assess VE of the 5-dose diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) series among 4- to 10-year-olds, and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) among 11- to 19-year-olds...
May 2016: Pediatrics
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