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Shirley V Wang, Abdurrahman Abdurrob, Julia Spoendlin, Edwin Lewis, Sophia R Newcomer, Bruce Fireman, Matthew F Daley, Jason M Glanz, Jonathan Duffy, Eric S Weintraub, Martin Kulldorff
PURPOSE: The need to develop methods for studying the safety of childhood immunization schedules has been recognized by the Institute of Medicine and Department of Health and Human Services. The recommended childhood immunization schedule includes multiple vaccines in a visit. A key concern is safety of concomitant (same day) versus separate day vaccination. This paper addresses a methodological challenge for observational studies using a self-controlled design to investigate the safety of concomitant vaccination...
February 13, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Saskia van der Lee, Lotte H Hendrikx, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Anne-Marie Buisman
Introduction: Pertussis is re-emerging worldwide, despite effective immunization programs for infants and children. Epidemiological studies show a more limited duration of protection against clinical pertussis in adolescents primed with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines during infancy than those who have been primed with whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines. This study aimed to determine whether memory immune responses to aP, diphtheria, and tetanus vaccine antigens following booster vaccinations at 4 and 9 years of age differ between wP- versus aP-primed children...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Anat Amit Aharon, Haim Nehama, Shmuel Rishpon, Orna Baron-Epel
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been an increase in parents who do not comply with recommended routine vaccines. The vaccination coverage rates in Israel are known, but the reasons for not completing immunizations are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of failure to complete the routine vaccinations in time and the reasons among different population groups. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control cohort study, among children born in 2009...
January 2018: Harefuah
Pope Kosalaraksa, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Suwat Benjaponpitak, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Sunate Chuenkitmongkol, Siham B'Chir, Xavier Da Costa, Emmanuel Vidor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term persistence of anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibodies and the response to a HB challenge re-vaccination in children who had received a primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T (Hexaxim™) or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T (Infanrix hexa™). METHODS: Two cohorts of participants who had previously received HB vaccine at birth followed by either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T co-administered with PCV7 at 2, 4, 6 months of age in a randomized, Phase III, observer-blind study in Thailand, were followed up for anti-HBs antibodies (geometric mean concentrations [GMCs] and seroprotection [SP] rate [% of participants with a titer ≥10 mIU/mL]) at 12-18 months of age and 9-10 years of age...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
William A Prescott, Kelsey C Violanti, Nicholas M Fusco
INTRODUCTION: New York state requires day/summer camps to keep immunization records for all enrolled campers and strongly recommends requiring vaccination for all campers and staff. The objective of this study was to characterize immunization requirements/recommendations for children/adolescents enrolled in and staff employed at day/summer camps in New York state. METHODS: An electronic hyperlink to a 9-question survey instrument was distributed via e-mail to 178 day/summer camps located in New York state cities with a population size greater than 100 000 people...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Samantha C Gordon, Diana W Bartenstein, Shahein H Tajmir, Johanna S Song, Elena B Hawryluk
A 3-year-old girl presented with a 7-month history of a waxing and waning left thigh mass associated with pruritus and erythema at the site of two previous DTaP-HepB-IPV vaccinations. Patch testing was positive to aluminum chloride, supporting a diagnosis of vaccine granuloma secondary to aluminum allergy; her symptoms had been well controlled with antihistamines and topical steroids. Injection site granulomas are a benign but potentially bothersome reaction to aluminum-containing immunizations that can be supportively managed, and we encourage strict adherence to the recommended vaccine schedule in this setting...
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
Loren Rodgers, Lauren Shaw, Raymond Strikas, Beth Hibbs, JoEllen Wolicki, Cristina V Cardemil, Cindy Weinbaum
OBJECTIVE: To quantify vaccinations administered outside minimum and maximum recommended ages and to determine attendant costs of revaccination by analyzing immunization information system (IIS) records. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed deidentified records of doses administered during 2014 to persons aged <18 years within 6 IIS sentinel sites (10% of the US population). We quantified doses administered outside of recommended ages according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices childhood immunization schedule and prescribing information in package inserts, and calculated revaccination costs...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
Anna G C Boef, Fiona R M van der Klis, Guy A M Berbers, Anne-Marie Buisman, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Jeanet M Kemmeren, Arie van der Ende, Hester E de Melker, Nynke Y Rots, Mirjam J Knol
BACKGROUND: If immune responses to vaccination differ between males and females, sex-specific vaccination schedules may be indicated. We systematically reanalysed childhood vaccination studies conducted in The Netherlands for sex-differences in IgG-responses. To assess the impact of potential sex-differences in IgG-responses, we explored sex-differences in vaccine failure/effectiveness and reactogenicity. METHODS: Six studies with IgG-measurements for 1577 children following infant pneumococcal (PCV7/PCV10/PCV13) and/or DTaP-IPV-Hib(-HepB) vaccinations, or the pre-school DTaP-IPV booster were included...
January 8, 2018: Vaccine
Saskia van der Lee, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Anne-Marie Buisman
INTRODUCTION: Duration of protection against pertussis is shorter in adolescents who have been immunized with acellular pertussis (aP) in infancy compared with adolescents who received whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in infancy, which is related to immune responses elicited by these priming vaccines. To better understand differences in vaccine induced immunity, we determined pertussis, diphtheria, and tetanus (DTaP) vaccine antigen-specific IgG subclass responses in wP- and aP-primed children before and after two successive DTaP booster vaccinations...
January 4, 2018: Vaccine
Mehmet Ceyhan, İnci Yıldırım, Hasan Tezer, İlker Devrim, Emmanuel Feroldi
Background/aim: Immunogenicity and safety of a primary series of a fully liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine given at 2, 3, and 4 months of age compared to licensed comparators and a DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster at 15?18 months were evaluated. Materials and methods: This was a Phase III, randomized, open-label trial. Primary series (no hepatitis B [HB] at birth) of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 155) (group 1) or licensed control vaccines (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and standalone HB: N = 155) (group 2) and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster were administered...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Yoonjae Kang
Vaccination is the most effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases in young children (1). Data from the 2016 National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) were used to assess coverage with recommended vaccines (2) among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. Coverage remained ≥90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (91.9%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.1%), ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (90.6%), and ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (90...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Henry H Bernstein, Elisabeth R Seyferth
BACKGROUND: While combination vaccines have contributed to improved vaccine uptake rates in children, studies have documented varied immunogenicity to specific vaccine components. We studied whether varying the amount of tetanus toxoid (TT) in a DTaP and Hib combination vaccine would result in immunogenicity comparable with separate, concurrent administration. METHODS: We evaluated the immunogenicity of Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories (MBL) diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (mDTaP) vaccine combined with tetanus-conjugated MBL Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (mHib) in a single injection (DTaPH)...
October 17, 2017: Vaccine
Chia-Yin Chong, Chee-Fu Yung, Natalie Woon-Hui Tan, Sanchalika Acharyya, Koh-Cheng Thoon
INTRODUCTION: Pertussis causes the highest complication rates and deaths in the infant group. Our study explored risk factors for ICU/high dependency (HD) admissions and intubation/non-invasive ventilation (NIV). METHODS: A retrospective review of pertussis admissions over 10 years from 2007 to 2016 was done at KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore. To understand risk factors for severe pertussis infection, we compared cases requiring ICU/HD care with controls admitted to the general ward...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
Ashley Tippins, Andrew J Leidner, Mehreen Meghani, Aja Griffin, Louisa Helgenberger, Mawuli Nyaku, J Michael Underwood
BACKGROUND: Vaccination coverage is typically measured as the proportion of individuals who have received recommended vaccine doses by the date of assessment. This approach does not provide information about receipt of vaccines by the recommended age, which is critical for ensuring optimal protection from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). OBJECTIVE: To assess vaccination timeliness in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), and the projected impact of suboptimal vaccination in the event of an outbreak...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
Ranee Seither, Kayla Calhoun, Erica J Street, Jenelle Mellerson, Cynthia L Knighton, Ashley Tippins, J Michael Underwood
State and local school vaccination requirements help protect students and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). CDC reports vaccination coverage and exemption data for children attending kindergarten (kindergartners) collected by federally funded immunization programs in the United States.* The typical age range for kindergartners is 4-6 years. Although vaccination requirements vary by state (the District of Columbia [DC] is counted as a state in this report.), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that children in this age range have received, among other vaccinations, 5 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), and 2 doses of varicella vaccine (2)...
October 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Domenico Martinelli, Chiara Azzari, Paolo Bonanni, Susanna Esposito, Elisabetta Franco, Giancarlo Icardi, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Rosa Prato
In Italy, Hib conjugate vaccine was introduced for infants in 1999 and included in the DTaP-HBV-IPV-Hib combination in 2001, with an uptake of 83.4% in 2002, >90% by 2005, and >95% by 2011. We estimated the impact of Hib vaccination on hospitalizations for H. influenzae invasive disease in children <5years. Age-specific hospitalization rates and hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs) with 95%CI during 2001-2013 were calculated performing time-series analysis. The number of cases reported to the national surveillance of invasive bacterial diseases was compared to the number of hospitalizations between 2007-2013...
October 5, 2017: Vaccine
Zhaojun Mo, Yi Mo, Mingqiang Li, Junhui Tao, Xu Yang, Jilian Kong, Dingkai Wei, Botao Fu, Xueyan Liao, Jianli Chu, Yuanzheng Qiu, Darcy A Hille, Micki Nelson, Susan S Kaplan
BACKGROUND: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial was conducted in healthy Chinese infants to assess the efficacy and safety of a pentavalent live human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq™, RV5) against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). METHODS: 4040 participants aged 6-12weeks were enrolled and randomly assigned to either 3 oral doses of RV5 (n=2020) or placebo (n=2020), administered ∼4weeks apart. The participants also received OPV and DTaP in a concomitant or staggered fashion...
September 18, 2017: Vaccine
Shauna O'Donnell, Eve Dubé, Bruce Tapiero, Arnaud Gagneur, Margaret K Doll, Caroline Quach
BACKGROUND: Under-immunization refers to a state of sub-optimal protection against vaccine preventable diseases. Vaccine coverage for age may not capture intentional or non-intentional spacing of vaccines in the recommended provincial immunization guidelines. We aimed to identify factors associated with coverage and under-immunization and to determine the number of days during which children were under-immunized during their first 24months of life. METHODS: Secondary analysis of children ≤3years recruited through active surveillance for gastroenteritis from three Quebec pediatric emergency departments from 2012 to 2014...
September 4, 2017: Vaccine
Susanne M A J Tielemans, Hester E de Melker, Susan J M Hahné, Anna G C Boef, Fiona R M van der Klis, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Marianne A B van der Sande, Mirjam J Knol
Objectives  To investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has positive non-specific effects in a high income setting and to compare rates of hospital admissions for infections between children aged ≤2 years who received live MMR vaccine and those who received an inactivated vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) as their most recent vaccination. Design  Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting  In the Netherlands, DTaP-IPV-Hib+pneumococcal vaccination (PCV) is recommended at ages 2, 3, 4, and 11 months and MMR + meningococcal C (MenC) vaccination at age 14 months...
August 30, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Satoko Ohfuji, Kenji Okada, Takashi Nakano, Hiroaki Ito, Megumi Hara, Haruo Kuroki, Yoshio Hirota
When using a case-control study design to examine vaccine effectiveness, both the selection of control subjects and the consideration of potential confounders must be the important issues to ensure accurate results. In this report, we described our experience from a case-control study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids (DTaP vaccine). Newly diagnosed pertussis cases and age- and sex-matched friend-controls were enrolled, and the history of DTaP vaccination was compared between groups...
August 24, 2017: Vaccine
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