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Child question comprehension

Pierre Pratley
Research on the association between women's empowerment and maternal and child health has rapidly expanded. However, questions concerning the measurement and aggregation of quantitative indicators of women's empowerment and their associations with measures of maternal and child health status and healthcare utilization remain unanswered. Major challenges include complexity in measuring progress in several dimensions and the situational, context dependent nature of the empowerment process as it relates to improvements in maternal and child health status and maternal care seeking behaviors...
August 22, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Carole Vuillerot, Mickael Dinomais, Stephane Marret, Stephane Chabrier, Thierry Debillon
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) affects one child in 6-17 100,000-birth term neonates, most of these children will keep long-term motor and cognitive impairment. In 2014, initiated by the French Center for Pediatric Stroke in association with the French Society of Neonatology, a steering committee was created to propose clinical guidelines after NAIS. From all the relevant questions, the importance is given to long-term outcomes after a NAIS with a need for a better description of motor and cognitive outcomes after a NAIS in order to propose a more consensual monitoring for these children to improve their management...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Fleur A Le Marne, Hannah McGinness, Rob Slade, Michael Cardamone, Shirleen Balbir Singh, Anne M Connolly, Ann Me Bye
AIM: To develop and evaluate an online educational package instructing paediatricians and trainees in the diagnosis and management of a first unprovoked seizure in children. METHODS: The E-learning content was created following a comprehensive literature review that referenced current international guidelines. Rigorous consultation with local paediatric neurologists, paediatricians and epilepsy nurses was undertaken. A series of learning modules was created and sequenced to reflect steps needed to achieve optimal diagnosis and management in a real-life situation of a child presenting with a paroxysmal event...
September 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Carla Stecco, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs, Raffaele De Caro
Forensic Clinical Anatomy is a new practical application of the discipline of Clinical Anatomy for ascertaining and evaluating medico-legal questions. In particular, individual anatomy (normal anatomy, anatomical variations, age-, disease- or surgery-related modifications) can acquire significant relevance in various fields of legal medicine such as child abuse, sudden death, medical responsibility and/or liability, personal injury and damage. Anatomical data of forensic interest frequently arise from the correct application of methods of ascertainment; anatomical methods may then be required for further comprehensive analysis...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Erin K Martin, Peter H Silverstone
Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Hannah Pitt, Samantha L Thomas, Amy Bestman, Melissa Stoneham, Mike Daube
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how children and adults recall the content and promotional channels for sports wagering marketing. METHODS: A mixed methods study of 152 parent/child (8-16 years) dyads was conducted at AFL (Australian Football League), NRL (National Rugby League), and soccer sporting sites in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Questions related to the frequency of viewing AFL and NRL matches, sports wagering promotions and perceptions of the normalisation of wagering in sport...
October 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Oshri Wasserzug, Gadi Fishman, Dan Sternbach, Efrat Reindorf-Kfir, Eran Averbuch, Dan M Fliss, Yael Oestreicher-Kedem, Ari Derowe
OBJECTIVE: Informed consent is an important part of the surgical process. Based on our clinical experience, we hypothesized that parents providing consent for their children's tonsillectomy do not comprehend all the information that is given to them by the operating surgeon at the time of a conventional consent process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents whose children were scheduled for tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy and/or tympanostomy tubes insertion were enrolled...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Guy Politzer
For more than 70 years, Piaget's class-inclusion task (given, e.g., five asters and three tulips, the child is asked whether "there are more asters or more flowers") has been the object of experimental investigation. Inclusion is of considerable importance for cognitive science as it is a key concept for logical operations and knowledge representation. It is shown that the question can be characterised by a kind of privative ambiguity which is at the source of the younger children's answer, "more asters". A relevance-theoretic explanation of children's interpretation of the question and of the subsequent responses is expounded...
2016: SpringerPlus
Inge Schalkers, Clair Enthoven, Joske Bunders, Christine Dedding
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Children are not just small adults; they need to be diagnosed and treated in the context of their rapid growth and development. However, in guideline development, children's needs and interests are still overlooked. This study aims (1) to develop a tool that could stimulate guideline developers to take children into account on a more structural basis and (2) to explore how to facilitate children's participation in the process of guideline development. METHODS: The method used was a three-phase multimethod sequential design...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Jochen Schmitt, Katrin Arnold, Diana Druschke, Enno Swart, Xina Grählert, Ulf Maywald, Andreas Fuchs, Andreas Werblow, Maryan Schemken, Jörg Reichert, Mario Rüdiger
BACKGROUND: About 9 % of all children in Germany are born preterm. Despite significant improvements of medical care, preterm infants are at a greater risk to develop short and long term health complications. Negative consequences of preterm birth include neurodevelopmental disabilities, behavioral problems or learning disorders. Most data on effects of prematurity are derived from single or multi-center studies and not population-based. Since some of the long term problems of preterm delivery are associated with a disturbed parent-child interaction originating in the neonatal period, several intervention programs became available aiming to strengthen the early parent-child relationship...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Sarah Warkentin, Laís Amaral Mais, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Susan Carnell, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei
BACKGROUND: Recent national surveys in Brazil have demonstrated a decrease in the consumption of traditional food and a parallel increase in the consumption of ultra-processed food, which has contributed to a rise in obesity prevalence in all age groups. Environmental factors, especially familial factors, have a strong influence on the food intake of preschool children, and this has led to the development of psychometric scales to measure parents' feeding practices. The aim of this study was to test the validity of a translated and adapted Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire in a sample of Brazilian preschool-aged children enrolled in private schools...
2016: BMC Public Health
Sherine R Tambyraja, Mary Beth Schmitt, Kelly Farquharson, Laura M Justice
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggest a positive relationship between the home literacy environment (HLE) and children's language and literacy skills, yet very little research has focused on the HLE of children with language impairment (LI). Children with LI are at risk for reading difficulties; thus, understanding the nature and frequency of their home literacy interactions is warranted. AIMS: To identify unique HLE profiles within a large sample of children with LI, and to determine relevant caregiver- and child-specific factors that predict children's profile membership...
July 10, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Priti Bhansali, Anne Washofsky, Evan Romrell, Sarah Birch, Jeffrey C Winer, Wendy Hoffner
OBJECTIVES: Hospital discharge marks an important transition in care from the inpatient team to the family and primary care provider. Parents must know the hospital course and discharge plan to care for their child at home and provide background for future providers. Our study aimed to determine parental knowledge of key aspects of their child's hospital course and discharge plan and to identify markers of increased risk for incomplete or incorrect knowledge among participants. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive prospective cohort study of parents within 24 hours of hospital discharge...
August 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
John Kjøbli, Henrik Daae Zachrisson, Gunnar Bjørnebekk
Children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional (CU) traits are at risk for multiple problems. Outcome research and mediation analyses testing for mechanisms of change in CU traits have been limited. We examined whether parent training-in a short-term (Brief Parent Training; BPT) or a comprehensive format (Parent Management Training, Oregon Model; PMTO)-or child-directed social skills training (Individual Social Skills Training [ISST]) produced positive effects on CU traits. In mediation models we tested parenting practices as mechanisms of change for CU traits...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Angie Boehmer, Carolyn M Audet, Meridith Blevins, Usman I Gebi, C William Wester, Sten H Vermund, Muktar H Aliyu
BACKGROUND: High mother-to-child HIV transmission rates in Nigeria are coupled with a critical shortage of trained health personnel, dearth of infrastructure, and low levels of male involvement in HIV care. This study evaluated maternal and provider satisfaction with services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission within the context of an implementation science cluster-randomized trial that included task shifting to lower-cadre workers, male engagement, point-of-care CD4 cell counts, and integrated mother-infant care...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Lisa Hartling, Kassi Shave, Denise Thomson, Ricardo M Fernandes, Aireen Wingert, Katrina Williams
BACKGROUND: Cochrane Child Health maintains a register of child-relevant Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) to provide a comprehensive source of high-quality evidence. However, a large number of SRs are published outside of The Cochrane Collaboration (Cochrane), impacting the comprehensiveness of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). We surveyed authors who published child-relevant SRs with Cochrane and elsewhere in the medical literature to (1) understand their experiences in preparing and publishing SRs and (2) identify factors influencing choice of publication venue...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Jae-Hyun Kim, Elaine Ballard, Clare M McCann
PURPOSE: This study investigated whether parents were reliable in judging their bilingual children's speech and whether parent-rated measure of children's speech could be used as a tool for a universal speech screen to identify children with speech sound disorder (SSD). METHOD: Single word samples from 33 Korean-English bilingual (KEB) pre-school children were analysed for percentage of consonants correct (PCC). Their parents completed the Intelligibility in Context Scale and a similarly constructed scale devised by Stertzbach and Gildersleeve-Neumann...
April 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Erikson Felipe Furtado, Sarah Teófilo de Sá Roriz
This paper aimed to examine prenatal alcohol exposure and neuropsychological parameters and its relationship to impulsivity and inattention. Longitudinal prospective case-control cohort study starting with the risk drinking assessment of 449 third-trimester pregnant women, and a follow-up phase with 56 mother-child pairs (28 alcohol-exposed versus 28 non-exposed), with 11-12 years old children. The cohort study was followed up for 11 years. Quantity-frequency structured questions as well as AUDIT and T-ACE questionnaires were used to assess maternal alcohol consumption...
May 7, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
P Hofer, L-M Brandau, E Mützel
CLINICAL ISSUE: The prevention and clinical diagnostics of maltreatment of children and adolescents represents a great challenge to all medical disciplines concerned; therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration is indispensable. DIAGNOSTICS: Medicolegal experts require specific radiological examination methods for the differentiation between accidental and non-accidental injuries, depending on the corresponding point in question. In addition, a clear and structured radiological appraisal of the findings is necessary...
May 2016: Der Radiologe
Rachel S Gross, Alan L Mendelsohn, Michelle B Gross, Roberta Scheinmann, Mary Jo Messito
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a child obesity prevention intervention, beginning in pregnancy, on infant feeding practices in low-income Hispanic families. STUDY DESIGN: The Starting Early randomized controlled trial enrolled pregnant women at a third trimester visit. Women (n = 533) were randomly allocated to a standard care control group or an intervention group participating in prenatal and postpartum individual nutrition/breastfeeding counseling and subsequent nutrition and parenting support groups coordinated with well-child visits...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
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