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Child question comprehension

Thomas Liehr, Isolde Schreyer, Alma Kuechler, Emmanouil Manolakos, Sylke Singer, Andreas Dufke, Kathleen Wilhelm, Tereza Jančušková, Radek Čmejla, Moneeb A K Othman, Ahmed H Al-Rikabi, Kristin Mrasek, Monika Ziegler, Stefanie Kankel, Katharina Kreskowski, Anja Weise
Background: Copy number variants (CNVs) are the genetic bases for microdeletion/ microduplication syndromes (MMSs). Couples with an affected child and desire to have further children are routinely tested for a potential parental origin of a specific CNV either by molecular karyotyping or by two color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), yet. In the latter case a critical region probe (CRP) is combined with a control probe for identification of the chromosome in question. However, CNVs can arise also due to other reasons, like a recombination-event based on a submicroscopic, cryptic inversion in one of the parents...
2018: Molecular Cytogenetics
Barbara Jones, Jennifer Currin-Mcculloch, Wendy Pelletier, Vicki Sardi-Brown, Peter Brown, Lori Wiener
In 2015, an interdisciplinary group of psychosocial experts developed The Standards of Psychosocial Care for Children with Cancer and Their Families. This paper presents data from a national survey of pediatric oncology social workers and their experiences in delivering psychosocial care to children and families. In total, 107 social workers from 81 cancer institutions participated in a 25-item online survey that mirrored the 15 Standards for Psychosocial Care. Both closed and open-ended questions were included...
April 2018: Social Work in Health Care
Pamela Mar, Robert Spears, Jeffrey Reeb, Sarah B Thompson, Paul Myers, Rita V Burke
OBJECTIVE: Eight million American children under the age of 5 attend daycare and more than another 50 million American children are in school or daycare settings. Emergency planning requirements for daycare licensing vary by state. Expert opinions were used to create a disaster preparedness video designed for daycare providers to cover a broad spectrum of scenarios. METHODS: Various stakeholders (17) devised the outline for an educational pre-disaster video for child daycare providers using the Delphi technique...
February 22, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Allison Werner-Lin, Shana L Merrill, Amanda C Brandt
Families often express difficulty to their providers and request guidance regarding the task of communicating with children about potential adult-onset inherited cancer risks. This disclosure is often complicated by the parent's ongoing adjustment to their mutation status, guilt at potential transmission of the mutation to the child, concern over inciting distress in children, and the varied capacities of children in the home to understand genetic information. Providers often do not have adequate resources to support or facilitate disclosure of genetic test results to children...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Elisabeth Santigli, Martin Koller, Barbara Klug
Oral biofilm and its molecular analysis provide a basis for investigating various dental research and clinical questions. Knowledge of biofilm composition leads to a better understanding of cariogenic and periopathogenic mechanisms. Microbial changes taking place in the oral cavity during childhood are of interest for several reasons. The evolution of the child oral microbiota and shifts in its composition need to be analyzed further to understand and possibly prevent the onset of disease. At the same time, advanced knowledge of the natural composition of oral biofilm is needed...
December 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Danica B Liberman, Phung K Pham
OBJECTIVE: To measure parent activation and test for its associations with sociodemographics, clinical factors, and short-term outcomes. METHODS: By convenience sampling, 246 parents of children treated in an emergency department (ED) of a children's hospital completed the Parent-Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM) and answered sociodemographic questions. Clinical information was abstracted from medical records. Phone calls to parents and primary care physician offices were conducted within one-month post-ED visit for information about short-term outcomes...
January 8, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Melissa L Glasser, Rebecca A Williamson, Şeyda Özçalışkan
Children can understand iconic co-speech gestures that characterize entities by age 3 (Stanfield et al. in J Child Lang 40(2):1-10, 2014; e.g., "I'm drinking" [Formula: see text] tilting hand in C-shape to mouth as if holding a glass). In this study, we ask whether children understand co-speech gestures that characterize events as early as they do so for entities, and if so, whether their understanding is influenced by the patterns of gesture production in their native language. We examined this question by studying native English speaking 3- to 4 year-old children and adults as they completed an iconic co-speech gesture comprehension task involving motion events across two studies...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Angela Cooper, Natalie Fecher, Elizabeth K Johnson
How do children represent words? If lexical representations are based on encoding the indexical characteristics of frequently-heard speakers, this predicts that speakers like a child's own mother should be best understood. Alternatively, if they are based on the child's own motor productions, this predicts an own-voice advantage in word recognition. Here, we address this question by presenting 2.5-year-olds with recordings of their own voice, another child's voice, their own mother's voice, and another mother's voice in a child-friendly eye-tracking procedure...
December 26, 2017: Cognition
Y Chen, C Xie, Y Zhang, Y Li, S Ehrhardt, C L Thio, K E Nelson, Y Chen, C-S Lin
To determine the knowledge regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and its prevention and treatment among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Guangdong Province, China, an HBV endemic area. An HBV knowledge questionnaire was administered to 900 HCWs from the 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University and 2 rural hospitals in Guangdong Province. The 27 items in the questionnaire fell into 3 sections: HBV MTCT general knowledge, respondents' practices of preventing HBV MTCT and awareness of the resources of preventing HBV MTCT...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Haiquan Huang, Peng Zhou, Stephen Crain
This study investigated 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's comprehension of wh-questions, universal statements and free choice inferences. Previous research has found that Mandarin-speaking children assign a universal interpretation to sentences with a wh-word (e.g., shei 'who') followed by the adverbial quantifier dou 'all' (Zhou in Appl Psycholinguist 36:411-435, 2013). Children also compute free choice inferences in sentences that contain a modal verb in addition to a wh-word and dou (Zhou, in: Nakayama, Su, Huang (eds...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Karen MacKinnon, Lenora Marcellus, Julie Rivers, Carol Gordon, Maureen Ryan, Diane Butcher
BACKGROUND: Although maternal-child care is a pillar of primary health care, there is a global shortage of maternal-child health care providers. Nurse educators experience difficulties providing undergraduate students with maternal-child learning experiences for a number of reasons. Simulation has the potential to complement learning in clinical and classroom settings. Although systematic reviews of simulation are available, no systematic reviews of qualitative evidence related to maternal-child simulation-based learning (SBL) for undergraduate nursing students and/or educators have been located...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Juliet Katoba, Lydia Hangulu, Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care (POC) testing has been shown to help improve healthcare access in resource-limited settings. However, there is paucity of evidence on accessibility of POC testing for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. We propose to conduct a systematic scoping review to map the evidence on POC testing services for PMTCT. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A scoping review framework, proposed by Arksey and O'Malley, will guide the study...
November 4, 2017: BMJ Open
Marleen F Westerveld, Jacqueline M A Roberts
Purpose: This study described the oral narrative comprehension and production skills of verbal preschool-age children on the autism spectrum and investigated correlations between oral narrative ability and norm-referenced language test performance. Method: Twenty-nine preschool-age children (aged 4;0-5;9 years;months) with autism, who obtained an age-equivalent score of at least 36 months on the expressive communication subscale of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005), participated...
October 5, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Narges Moein, Seyyedeh Maryam Khoddami, Mohammad Rahim Shahbodaghi
INTRODUCTION: Cochlear implant prosthesis facilitates spoken language development and speech comprehension in children with severe-profound hearing loss. However, this prosthesis is limited in encoding information about fundamental frequency and pitch that are essentially for recognition of speech prosody. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the perception and production of intonation in cochlear implant children and comparison with normal hearing children. METHOD: This study carried out on 25 cochlear implanted children and 50 children with normal hearing...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Erik Koornneef, Paul Robben, Iain Blair
BACKGROUND: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) government aspires to build a world class health system to improve the quality of healthcare and the health outcomes for its population. To achieve this it has implemented extensive health system reforms in the past 10 years. The nature, extent and success of these reforms has not recently been comprehensively reviewed. In this paper we review the progress and outcomes of health systems reform in the UAE. METHODS: We searched relevant databases and other sources to identify published and unpublished studies and other data available between 01 January 2002 and 31 March 2016...
September 20, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Becky Earhart, Sonja P Brubacher, Martine B Powell, Nina J Westera, Jane Goodman-Delahunty
Ground rules directions are given to children in forensic interviews to explain what is expected of them, and to reduce their tendency to acquiesce to erroneous or incomprehensible questions. Ground rules may also be necessary when children provide testimony in court. Drawing on research conducted for the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, the present study examined the use of ground rules directions delivered in court in 52 trials by 24 presiding judges in three jurisdictions to 57 child complainants (aged 7-17...
December 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Marcie C Goeke-Morey, E Mark Cummings
Most faith traditions, in principle, promote family life and positive parent-child relationships. In recent years, research has moved beyond questions of whether religion supports positive parenting towards addressing more nuanced process-oriented questions, including how, why, and when religion is linked with adaptive or maladaptive parenting. Relations between religion and multiple specific parenting behaviors (e.g., involvement, warmth, authoritative parenting, communication) are identified, including contexts for when and why relations between religion and parenting are adaptive or maladaptive...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Jerica M Berge, Amanda Trofholz, Allan D Tate, Maureen Beebe, Angela Fertig, Michael H Miner, Scott Crow, Kathleen A Culhane-Pera, Shannon Pergament, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
There are disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity for children from low-income and minority households. Mixed-methods studies that examine home environments in an in-depth manner are needed to identify potential mechanisms driving childhood obesity disparities that have not been examined in prior research. The Family Matters study aims to identify risk and protective factors for childhood obesity in low-income and minority households through a two-phased incremental, mixed-methods, and longitudinal approach...
November 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Julian Grant, Lauren Lines, Philip Darbyshire, Yvonne Parry
OBJECTIVES: This scoping review explores the work of nurse practitioners in primary health care settings in developed countries and critiques their contribution to improved health outcomes. DESIGN: A scoping review design was employed and included development of a research question, identification of potentially relevant studies, selection of relevant studies, charting data, collating, summarising and reporting findings. An additional step was added to evaluate the methodological rigor of each study...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Binita D Singh, Dennis W Moore, Brett E Furlonger, Angelika Anderson, Margherita L Busacca, Derek L English
A multiple probe design across skills was used to examine the effects of behaviour skills training (BST) on teaching four reading comprehension skills (predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing) to a 7th grade student with autism. Following baseline, the student received 12 sessions of BST during which each skill was taught to criterion. At each session, data was also collected on the accuracy of oral responses to 10 comprehension questions. BST was associated with clear gains in the participant's performance on each comprehension skill, along with concomitant gains in reading comprehension both on the daily probes and a standardized measure...
October 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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