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Varicella zoster complications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754069/high-resolution-vessel-wall-mri-and-vasculopathy-related-to-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus
#1
Jae W Song, Sam Ojeda, Javier M Romero
Varicella zoster virus is a common viral infection with over 50% of patients over the age of 80 years infected with the virus. Following reactivation, some patients succumb to complications of VZV reactivation with neurologic and optic pathway pathology such as VZV vasculopathy resulting in transient ischemic attacks, strokes, aneurysms, as well as optic neuritis. We show that high resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging can aid in the diagnosis of this condition with circumferential wall thickening and enhancement of the infected vessels...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750672/infusion-of-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-for-the-treatment-of-viral-infections-in-hematopoetic-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#2
Katherine A Baugh, Ifigeneia Tzannou, Ann M Leen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has proven curative for a range of malignant and nonmalignant disorders. However, the clinical success of this therapy is marred by the morbidity associated with viral infections, which are frequent (cytomegalovirus 15.6-28%, adenovirus 3-21%, BK virus 18.5-20.7%) post-transplant. These infections occur as a consequence of transplant conditioning regimens designed to eliminate not only malignant cells but also host immune cells that might interfere with stem cell engraftment...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738266/early-treatment-was-life-saving-in-varicella-pneumonia-of-an-immunocompetent-adult
#3
Neslihan Çelik, Onur Çelik, Onur Ünal
Chickenpox, an infection of childhood with vesicular skin rash, is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Although the infection is rare in adults, it can cause serious complications Varicella pneumonia is the most encountered complication. In this report, a VZV pneumonia case in a previously healthy adult is presented. The patient was treated with early intravenous acyclovir and both clinical and radiographic recovery has been observed.
May 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733991/varicella-zoster-virus-infection-and-osteomyelitis-of-the-skull-a-case-report
#4
Taylor Sommer, Michael Karsy, Meghan J Driscoll, Randy L Jensen
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a common herpesvirus infection that can result in acute varicella/chickenpox as well as delayed activation in herpes zoster/shingles. Ramsay-Hunt syndrome is a rare presentation of VZV reactivation, involving 1% of cases and resulting in lesion formation along the 7th cranial nerve distribution. We report the first case of a patient who presented with acute calvarial osteomyelitis after VZV reactivation and Propionibacterium acnes suprainfection...
May 4, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707592/varicella-pneumonia-case-report-and-review-of-a-potentially-lethal-complication-of-a-common-disease
#5
John T Denny, Zoe M Rocke, Valerie A McRae, Julia E Denny, Christine Hunter Fratzola, Sajjad Ibrar, Joyce Bonitz, James T Tse, Shaul Cohen, Scott J Mellender, Geza K Kiss
Varicella zoster virus causes varicella (chickenpox). It can be reactivated endogenously many years later to cause herpes zoster (shingles). Although varicella is usually a benign disease in healthy children, it resulted in over 11 000 hospitalizations and over 100 deaths every year, in all ages, in the United States. Morbidity was considerably worse in older teenagers and adults. Between 5% and 15% of cases of adult chickenpox will produce some form of pulmonary illness. Progression to pneumonia risk factors include pregnancy, age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and immunosuppression...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707236/subacute-histopathological-features-in-a-case-of-varicella-zoster-virus-myelitis-and-post-herpetic-neuralgia
#6
Pouria Moshayedi, Diana Thomas, Charles R Rinaldo, John J Moossy, Joseph C Maroon, Geoffrey H Murdoch, Ronald L Hamilton, Houman Homayoun
Introduction: Post-herpetic neuralgia is a crippling complication of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation, also known as zoster disease. In rare cases, VZV spreads to the spinal cord and causes myelitis. There is a paucity of data on spinal cord histopathology in the subacute phase of post-herpetic neuralgia and VZV myelitis. Case description: In this report, we present a case of post-herpetic neuralgia in a patient who died 5 weeks after initiation of symptoms...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682449/varicella-zoster-virus-meningitis-with-hypoglycorrhachia-in-a-young-immunocompetent-adult-without-rash-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Nikolaos Spernovasilis, Athanasia Milioni, Ioannis Gialamas, Evangelos Kokorakis, Garufallia Fanti
Overt aseptic meningitis rarely complicates varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation in young and immunocompetent adults. Many of the cases of VZV meningitis are associated with an exanthem. We describe an otherwise healthy 36-year-old adult who had aseptic meningitis without skin rash, caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed lymphocytosis, increased total protein, and low glucose. Diagnosis was made by polymerase chain reaction in CSF. The present case highlights the fact that VZV should be considered as a cause of aseptic meningitis with hypoglycorrhachia in healthy and young individuals, even in the absence of an exanthem...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680914/the-potential-public-health-impact-of-herpes-zoster-vaccination-of-people-aged-%C3%A2-50-years-in-japan-results-of-a-markov-model-analysis
#8
Daisuke Watanabe, Akiko Mizukami, Katsiaryna Holl, Desmond Curran, Desirée Van Oorschot, Lijoy Varghese, Makoto Shiragami
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the public health impact of introducing two herpes zoster (HZ) vaccines into the vaccination programs for the Japanese population aged ≥ 50 years: a single-dose Varicella Vaccine Live (VVL) or a two-dose adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine (RZV). METHODS: A multi-cohort static Markov model was developed to follow age cohorts (50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥ 80 years) over their remaining lifetime. Japan-specific data inputs for the model were obtained from Japanese data sources...
April 21, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653205/varicella-zoster-virus-reactivation-in-adult-survivors-of-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-how-do-we-best-protect-our-patients
#9
REVIEW
Catherine J Lee, Bipin N Savani, Per Ljungman
Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) remains a significant public health burden for long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation. Delayed immune reconstitution after transplantation due to immunosuppression, posttransplant therapies, poor engraftment, and graft-versus-host disease leave a large number of patients at risk for herpes zoster (shingles) and its highly morbid complications. Although prophylaxis with acyclovir or valacyclovir has reduced the incidence of VZV reactivation as long as prophylaxis is continued, the incidence of disease in the late posttransplant period or after stopping prophylaxis is greater in the HCT population than the general public...
April 10, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650059/labyrinthitis-ossificans-in-a-cynomolgus-macaque-macaca-fascicularis
#10
Gayathriy Balamayooran, Hannah M Atkins, Christopher T Whitlow, Samuel T Aycock, Michael A Nader, J Mark Cline, David L Caudell
Labyrinthitis is inflammation of the membranous and bony labyrinth of the inner ear. Typical portals of entry includehematogenous spread from the cochlear vasculature, passage of otitis media pathogens through the round window, and mostcommonly, meningogenic spread from the subarachnoid space. The sequela of chronic inner ear inflammation is labyrinthitisossificans, in which inner ear structures are replaced by fibrous and osseous tissues. Labyrinthitis in humans has been reportedconcurrently with infection due to various viruses (for example, varicella-zoster, measles, mumps) and bacteria (for example,Treponema pallidum, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and may be associated with vertebrobasilar ischemia and meningitis...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607919/-rapidly-deteriorated-lobar-intracerebral-hemorrhages-possible-association-of-varicella-zoster-virus-vasculopathy
#11
Jun Takeshita, Eiichi Nomura, Makoto Takemaru, Takahiro Himeno, Yutaka Shimoe, Masaru Kuriyama
A 75-year-old man having dementia and lifestyle related diseases developed a lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (LICH) in the left parietal and a small cerebellar infarction in the left occipital lobe. Many micro bleeds (MB) due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the subcortical areas and multiple vascular stenosis were also found by MRI and MRA. He developed herpes zoster in his buttocks on day 6 of hospitalization and complicated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) meningitis with positive for VZV-DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid...
March 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597335/simian-varicella-virus-infects-enteric-neurons-and-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-integrin-expressing-gut-tropic-t-cells-in-nonhuman-primates
#12
Werner J D Ouwendijk, Suzanne van Veen, Tamana Mehraban, Ravi Mahalingam, Georges M G M Verjans
The pathogenesis of enteric zoster, a rare debilitating complication of reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in the enteric nervous system (ENS), is largely unknown. Infection of monkeys with the closely related Varicellovirus simian varicella virus (SVV) mimics VZV disease in humans. In this study, we determined the applicability of the SVV nonhuman primate model to study Varicellovirus infection of the ENS. We confirmed VZV infection of the gut in latently infected adults and demonstrated that SVV DNA was similarly present in gut of monkeys latently infected with SVV using quantitative real-time PCR...
March 28, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587714/varicella-in-poland-economic-burden-in-children-1-12-years-of-age-in-poland-2010-2015
#13
Jacek Wysocki, Ilona Malecka, Joanna Stryczynska-Kazubska, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Barbara Kuter, Lara J Wolfson
BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccines in preventing varicella and reducing associated morbidity and mortality in real-world have been previously shown. In Poland, VZV vaccination is only mandatory for certain high-risk individuals. Here, we have conducted an evaluation of the clinical and economic burden of varicella in Poland. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective chart review of varicella inpatients and outpatients aged 1-12 years with a primary diagnosis between 2010 and 2015...
March 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582832/progressive-outer-retinal-necrosis-after-rituximab-and-cyclophosphamide-therapy
#14
Mohit Dogra, Priya Bajgai, Ashok Kumar, Aman Sharma
We report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in a patient of microscopic polyangitis (MPA), being treated with immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide and rituximab. Her aqueous tap was positive for Varicella Zoster virus and she was treated with oral and intravitreal antivirals, along with discontinuation of one of the immunosuppressive agents, i.e. rituximab, which might have led to reactivation of the virus causing necrotizing retinitis lesions. Rituximab and cyclophosphamide are extremely potent drugs, which are necessary to manage immunological disorders such as MPA...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572070/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-agents-targeting-lymphoid-or-myeloid-cells-surface-antigens-ii-cd22-cd30-cd33-cd38-cd40-slamf
#15
REVIEW
Lubos Drgona, Carlota Gudiol, Simone Lanini, Bernd Salzberger, Giuseppe Ippolito, Małgorzata Mikulska
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting CD22, CD30, CD33, CD38, CD40, SLAMF-7 and CCR4 and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565203/management-of-herpes-zoster-shingles-during-pregnancy
#16
Khalea Hayward, Abigail Cline, Angela Stephens, Linda Street
An infection with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster (HZ). Although rare, the development of HZ does occur during pregnancy. Maternal HZ does not result in increased foetal mortality, and the passage of VZV to the foetus rarely occurs. However, HZ does increase maternal morbidity. Upon infection with HZ, patients typically present with a viral prodrome preceding the appearance of the characteristic zoster rash. HZ is usually diagnosed clinically by the zoster rash, but can also be confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516900/epidemiology-treatment-and-prevention-of-herpes-zoster-a-comprehensive-review
#17
REVIEW
Elsam Koshy, Lu Mengting, Hanasha Kumar, Wu Jianbo
Herpes zoster is a major health burden that can affect individuals of any age. It is seen more commonly among individuals aged ≥50 years, those with immunocompromised status, and those on immunosuppressant drugs. It is caused by a reactivation of varicella zoster virus infection. Cell-mediated immunity plays a role in this reactivation. Fever, pain, and itch are common symptoms before the onset of rash. Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most common complication associated with herpes zoster. Risk factors and complications associated with herpes zoster depend on the age, immune status, and the time of initializing treatment...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506558/fatal-visceral-disseminated-varicella-zoster-infection-during-initial-remission-induction-therapy-in-a-patient-with-lupus-nephritis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-possible-association-with-mycophenolate-mofetil-and-high-dose-glucocorticoid-therapy-a-case-report
#18
Masato Habuka, Yoko Wada, Yoichi Kurosawa, Suguru Yamamoto, Yusuke Tani, Riuko Ohashi, Yoichi Ajioka, Masaaki Nakano, Ichiei Narita
BACKGROUND: Visceral disseminated varicella zoster viral (VZV) infection is a rare but severe complication with a high mortality rate in immunosuppressed individuals, and an increased susceptibility to VZV has been reported in kidney transplant recipients who are treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). In Japan, MMF is currently approved for patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and data to indicate its optimal dosage are still insufficient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old Japanese woman with rheumatoid arthritis was diagnosed as having systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and LN class III (A/C)...
March 5, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503961/shingles-as-the-underlying-cause-of-orbital-myositis-in-an-adolescent-a-case-report
#19
Christopher D Conrady, Richard M Feist, Alison Crum
Purpose: Orbital myositis is characterized by pain with eye movements, gaze restriction, diplopia, and enlargement of extraocular muscles on imaging. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an extremely rare cause of the disease in the elderly and has never been reported in a patient younger than forty-five years old such as the adolescent described herein. We present this case to raise awareness of an entity that will likely become more prevalent due to current vaccine strategies. Observation: We present the case of a 13-year-old girl with VZV-associated orbital myositis and meningitis that had a quick and complete recovery following IV acyclovir and oral steroids...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469780/non-dermatomal-varicella-zoster-skin-infection-disseminated-cutaneous-herpes-zoster-without-dermatome-in-an-immunosuppressed-woman
#20
Lindsay P Osborn, Philip R Cohen
Disseminated herpes zoster is defined as the presence of more than 20 lesions outside the dermatome. This unusual presentation is more common in immunosuppressed patients. Complications such as hepatitis, encephalitis, and pneumonitis are more likely in individuals with disseminated varicella zoster virus infection.A 63-year-old woman being treated for breast cancer developed multiple pustules and vesicles days after starting doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Ten individual lesions appeared on her chest, abdomen, back, and leg...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
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