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Varicella zoster complications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442812/ramsay-hunt-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#1
Mrinal Gupta
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a rare, severe complication of varicella-zoster virus reactivation in the geniculate ganglion, characterized by hearing loss, pain, and vesicles in the ear or mouth along with ipsilateral facial palsy. Although it is rare, it is more commonly found with immunodeficiency conditions. We report a case of a 35-year-old human immunodeficiency virus positive male, having CD4+ count of 336/μl, who presented with RHS and had vertigo, painful vesicular eruptions on the right ear and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388396/acute-facial-nerve-palsy-with-ipsilateral-soft-palate-ulcers
#2
C Mauprivez, C Comte, M Labrousse, R H Khonsari
Ramsay-Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a rare complication of herpes zoster in which reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection occurs in the geniculate ganglion. Major clinical findings are peripheral facial nerve palsy accompanied by ipsilateral ear pain and erythematous vesicular rash on the external ear (herpes zoster oticus) and in the mouth. Thus, diagnosis of RHS is usually clinical. However, auricular herpetic eruption is not always present, making diagnosis more difficult. This report describes a case of RHS with left facial palsy without skin lesions in 60-year-old woman...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383421/varicella-zoster-virus-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-children-using-a-relatively-short-duration-of-acyclovir-prophylaxis-a-retrospective-study
#3
Seung Beom Han, Seong Koo Kim, Jae Wook Lee, Dong-Gun Lee, Nack-Gyun Chung, Dae Chul Jeong, Bin Cho, Jin-Han Kang
Although acyclovir prophylaxis against varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection for ≥1 year is recommended after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the emergence of acyclovir-resistant viruses and adverse drug effects cannot be ignored. We investigated the cumulative incidence of VZV infection after allogeneic HCT in children receiving a shorter duration of acyclovir prophylaxis than recommended and evaluated the appropriateness of the short duration of acyclovir prophylaxis.Medical records of 217 children who received allogeneic HCT were retrospectively reviewed until a median of 25 months (range = 1-59 months) after HCT...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364009/imaging-findings-in-patients-with-zoster-associated-plexopathy
#4
A S Zubair, C Hunt, J Watson, A Nelson, L K Jones
Herpes zoster is a reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus. Among the complications of herpes zoster is zoster-associated limb paresis. The clinical and imaging features of patients with zoster-associated limb paresis due to plexopathies (zoster-associated plexopathy) have had limited description in the literature. The Mayo Clinic patient data base was searched by diagnostic code for patients diagnosed with herpes zoster between January 1, 1996, and September 30, 2012. Patients who met the inclusion criteria for zoster-associated limb paresis or herpes zoster with MRIs obtained were reviewed...
March 31, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358222/valacyclovir-as-initial-treatment-for-acute-retinal-necrosis-a-pharmacokinetic-modeling-and-simulation-study
#5
Tao Liu, Aabha Jain, Michael Fung, Christopher Vinnard, Vijay Ivaturi
PURPOSE: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a feared complication of infectious retinitis most commonly caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). We performed a pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation study by integrating the existing understanding of physiology with previously published data to evaluate the vitreal penetration of oral valacyclovir for the treatment of ARN, under various dosing scenarios. METHOD: We compared different oral valacyclovir dosing regimens with intravenous acyclovir...
March 30, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356523/orf7-of-varicella-zoster-virus-is-required-for-viral-cytoplasmic-envelopment-in-differentiated-neuronal-cells
#6
Hai-Fei Jiang, Wei Wang, Xuan Jiang, Wen-Bo Zeng, Zhang-Zhou Shen, Yi-Ge Song, Hong Yang, Xi-Juan Liu, Xiao Dong, Jing Zhou, Jin-Yan Sun, Fei-Long Yu, Lin Guo, Tong Cheng, Simon Rayner, Fei Zhao, Hua Zhu, Min-Hua Luo
Although a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine has been used for many years, the neuropathy caused by VZV infection is still a major health concern. ORF7 of VZV has been recognized as a neurotropic gene in vivo, but its neurovirulent role remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ORF7 deletion on VZV replication cycle at virus entry, genome replication, gene expression, capsid assembly and cytoplasmic envelopment, and transcellular transmission in differentiated neural progenitor cells (dNPCs) and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y (dSY5Y) cells...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339574/arm-paralysis-after-routine-childhood-vaccinations-application-of-advanced-molecular-methods-to-the-causality-assessment-of-an-adverse-event-after-immunization
#7
Jana Shaw, Neal A Halsey, Adriana Weinberg, D Scott Schmid, Kirsten St George, William C Weldon, Michael Jordan, Patrick W Bryant, Philip S LaRussa, Deborah Y Bradshaw, Theresa Harrington, Anne Gershon
Post-licensure surveillance for adverse events following immunizations (AEFI) can identify rare complications of vaccinations and rigorous vaccine adverse event causality assessments can help to identify possible causal relationships. We report the development of arm paralysis after varicella vaccination in a 1-year-old child. Paralysis was initially presumed to be due to vOka because of the temporal relationship between vaccination and onset of arm weakness; however, molecular studies identified wild-type varicella zoster virus VZV (WT-VZV) in the CSF, leading the authors to conclude that WT-VZV was the probable cause...
January 25, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333601/simultaneous-occurrence-of-varicella-zoster-virus-induced-pancreatitis-and-hepatitis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Puneet Chhabra, Priyadarshi Ranjan, Deepak K Bhasin
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal complications are common after renal transplantation, including oral lesions, esophagitis, gastritis, diarrhea, and colon carcinoma. The differential diagnosis is difficult in this scenario because multiple factors such as drugs, infections, and preexisting gastrointestinal disease come into play. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of varicella zoster virus-induced pancreatitis and hepatitis in a renal transplant recipient. The patient underwent renal transplantation 3 years earlier and now presented with severe pain in the epigastrium radiating to his back and had raised serum lipase levels and skin lesions characteristic of varicella...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276305/severe-varicella-in-persons-vaccinated-with-varicella-vaccine-breakthrough-varicella-a-systematic-literature-review
#9
Jessica Leung, Karen R Broder, Mona Marin
Varicella vaccines are highly effective at preventing disease, but varicella may occur among vaccinated persons (termed breakthrough varicella). Breakthrough varicella is generally mild, but severe cases have been reported. The objective of this review is to describe severe breakthrough varicella. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review of articles published during 1974-2016. A total of 34 articles were included in our review: 21 described breakthrough varicella with disseminated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection with other organ involvement in addition to skin (none among two-dose vaccinees); 9 described hospitalized breakthrough varicella without mention of other organ involvement in addition to skin (of which 2 reported 4 two-dose vaccinees); and 4 described both...
April 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268074/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-inactivated-varicella-zoster-virus-vaccine-in-adults-with-hematologic-malignancies-receiving-treatment-with-anti-cd20-monoclonal-antibodies
#10
Janie Parrino, Shelly A McNeil, Steven J Lawrence, Eva Kimby, Marco F Pagnoni, Jon E Stek, Yanli Zhao, Ivan S F Chan, Susan S Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients can experience significant morbidity and occasional mortality from complications associated with herpes zoster (HZ), but live attenuated HZ vaccine is contraindicated for these patients. Inactivated zoster vaccine (ZVIN) is in development for prevention of HZ in immunocompromised patients. However, there are limited data in the literature regarding the effect of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies on vaccine-related cell-mediated immune response. This study evaluated safety and immunogenicity of ZVIN in patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) receiving anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (alone or in combination chemotherapy regimens) and not likely to undergo hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) (n=80)...
March 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264696/a-rare-case-report-of-acyclovir-induced-immune-thrombocytopenia-with-tongue-hematomas-as-the-first-sign-and-a-literature-review
#11
Xiaowei Hong, Xiaoqian Wang, Zhiyong Wang
BACKGROUND: Acyclovir has been widely used to treat infections caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The common adverse effects of this drug include nausea, diarrhea, headache, dizziness and mental changes. The immune thrombocytopenia induced by acyclovir is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old Chinese male who was given acyclovir 5 mg kg(-1) 8 hourly intravenously for treatment of VZV infection developed severe thrombocytopenia with fist sign in oral cavity within 10 days of starting using acyclovir...
March 7, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201953/acute-hiv-1-infection-presenting-with-fulminant-encephalopathy
#12
Eun J Lee, Young H Kim, Jeong Y Lee, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Se Y Park, Tae H Kim
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 directly affects the nervous system, causes distinct neurological symptoms, and indirectly results in opportunistic infections, which include herpes virus simplex (HSV)-1, HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis caused by immunodeficiency. Early HIV-1 invasion of the central nervous system is also possible, and acute encephalopathy is a potentially lethal complication. We encountered a case of fulminant encephalopathy as a primary presentation of acute HIV-1 infection, in which highly active antiretroviral treatment resulted in a full clinical recovery...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197700/-the-alpha-herpesviridae-in-dermatology-varicella-zoster-virus-german-version
#13
REVIEW
L El Hayderi, A Rübben, A F Nikkels
The second part of this publication deals with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and presents an overview of new, rare, and atypical clinical manifestations, including photolocalized varicella, hemorrhagic bullae during varicella, the implication of VZV in immunoglobulin A vasculitis, VZV-related alopecia, ulcerative varicella skin lesions, childhood herpes zoster (HZ), prolonged prodromal pains, recurrent HZ, VZV implication in burning mouth syndrome, verruciform VZV lesions, the significance of satellite lesions during HZ, and late HZ complications, either neurological or internal...
February 14, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197697/the-alpha-herpesviridae-in-dermatology-varicella-zoster-virus
#14
REVIEW
L El Hayderi, A Rübben, A F Nikkels
The second part of this publication deals with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and presents an overview of new, rare, and atypical clinical manifestations, including photolocalized varicella, hemorrhagic bullae during varicella, the implication of VZV in immunoglobulin A vasculitis, VZV-related alopecia, ulcerative varicella skin lesions, childhood herpes zoster (HZ), prolonged prodromal pains, recurrent HZ, VZV implication in burning mouth syndrome, verruciform VZV lesions, the significance of satellite lesions during HZ, and late HZ complications, either neurological or internal...
February 14, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158158/prevention-of-post-herpetic-neuralgia-from-dream-to-reality-a-ten-step-model
#15
Mohamed Younis Makharita
Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful, blistering skin eruption in a dermatomal distribution caused by reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of acute herpes zoster (AHZ).Severe prodrome, greater acute pain and dermatomal injury, and the density of the eruption are the risk factors and predictors for developing PHN. PHN has a substantial effect on the quality of life; many patients develop severe physical, occupational, social, and psychosocial disabilities as a result of the unceasing pain...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149032/unseen-face-of-varicella-zoster-infection-in-adults
#16
Gunchan Paul, Birinder S Paul, Gagandeep Singh
Varicella infection is common in children caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV). VZV is known to cause cerebral arterial vasculopathy and antibody-mediated hypercoagulable state leading to thrombotic complications in children. Such complications in adults are very rare. We report three cases that represent the unseen face of primary varicella infection in adults. Simultaneous involvement of cortical venous sinus thrombosis and deep vein thrombosis leading to clot in right atrium and pulmonary embolism in first case; cortical venous sinus thrombosis in second case; and deep vein thrombosis in third case...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128811/-herpes-zoster-and-post-herpetic-neuralgia-in-the-elderly-particularities-in-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
Ana Isabel García-González, Oscar Rosas-Carrasco
Herpes zoster (HZ) results from the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus latent in the sensory ganglia when cell-mediated immunity is altered. It is a frequent condition in older adults, leading to undesirable adverse outcomes. Aging is its main risk factor and the elderly may have different clinical presentations: zoster sine herpete, and a higher incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia (15%) and ophthalmic herpes (7%). Both HZ and post-herpetic neuralgia may impact the quality of life, functional status, mental health, and social interaction in older adults...
January 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119773/psoas-compartment-block-for-treatment-of-motor-weakness-and-pain-following-herpes-zoster
#18
Sae Young Kim, Dong Gyeong Kim, Yong Min Park, Young Hoon Jeon
Reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus in the sensory ganglion causes herpes zoster (HZ). Its characteristic symptom is a painful rash in the involved dermatome. HZ-induced motor weakness is rare and is usually resolved within one year of the onset, but some patients permanently experience motor dysfunction. Epidural steroid administration, with antiviral therapy, can be effective in treating pain from HZ and preventing postherpetic neuralgia. But an epidural block is contraindicated in patients receiving thromboprophylaxis...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061417/concurrent-hyphema-and-orbital-apex-syndrome-following-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus-in-a-middle-aged-lady
#19
Khairuddin Othman, Li Min Evelyn-Tai, Mohd Noor Raja-Azmi, Muhammed Julieana, Ahmad Tajudin Liza-Sharmini, John Tharakan, Alwi Muhd Besari, Embong Zunaina, Ismail Shatriah
INTRODUCTION: Hyphema and orbital apex syndrome occurring concurrently in a patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus have not been reported previously. We present a case with these unique findings and discuss the pathogenesis of these conditions and their management. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 59-year-old Malay lady with underlying diabetes mellitus presented with manifestations of zoster ophthalmicus in the left eye. Two weeks later, she developed total hyphema, and complete ophthalmoplegia suggestive of orbital apex syndrome...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005810/a-rare-patient-with-orbital-apex-syndrome-anterior-uveitis-and-necrotizing-scleritis-due-to-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus
#20
Erdinc Aydin, Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Seher Saritepe Imre, Feray Koc, Levent Kazanci, Arif Taylan Ozturk
The purpose of this study was to describe a patient of orbital apex syndrome, anterior uveitis, secondary glaucoma, corneal dellen, and necrotizing scleritis following an attack of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, and the placement of a pericardial patch graft. A 64-year-old male patient with blepharoptosis of his right eye and multiple vesicles on the forehead, nose and cheeks, limitation on all gazes, blepharoptosis, and exophthalmia was eventually diagnosed with ophthalmic zona with orbital apex syndrome. After the treatment with systemic antiviral and steroid, there was complete recovery of the unilateral vesicular eruption, ophthalmoplegia, and ptosis at the third month follow-up...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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