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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737301/vaccine-preventable-admissions-to-an-irish-paediatric-intensive-care
#1
Y Doyle, M Healy, C McMahon, S Crowe
In the Republic of Ireland, the schedule of state-funded immunisation for children is comprehensive and includes diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, pneumococcus, hepatitis B, meningococcus C, haemophilus B, polio, measles, rubella and mumps. Varicella and meningococcal B vaccines are commercially available but are not currently funded by the government. Each of the illnesses preventable by these vaccines can cause substantial morbidity, and rarely mortality, in infants and children. Our PICU continues to see serious illness due to avoidable infection...
May 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733354/selective-silencing-of-hippocampal-parvalbumin-interneurons-induces-development-of-recurrent-spontaneous-limbic-seizures-in-mice
#2
Meinrad Drexel, Roman A Romanov, James Wood, Stefan Weger, Regine Heilbronn, Peer Wulff, Ramon O Tasan, Tibor Harkany, Günther Sperk
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsies and generally associated with malfunctioning of the hippocampal formation. Recently, a preferential loss of parvalbumin (PV) neurons has been observed in the subiculum of TLE patients and in animal models of TLE. To demonstrate a possible causative role of defunct PV neurons in the generation of TLE, we permanently inhibited GABA release selectively from PV neurons of the ventral subiculum by injecting a viral vector expressing tetanus toxin light chain in male mice...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730517/selective-igm-deficiency-clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-17-patients-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#3
Zita Chovancova, Pavlina Kralickova, Alena Pejchalova, Marketa Bloomfield, Jana Nechvatalova, Marcela Vlkova, Jiri Litzman
PURPOSE: Primary selective IgM deficiency (sIgMD) is a primary immunodeficiency with unclear pathogenesis and a low number of published cases. METHODS: We reviewed clinical and laboratory manifestations of 17 sIgMD patients. Serum IgM, IgG, and its subclasses, IgA, IgE, antibodies against tetanus toxoid, pneumococcal polysaccharides and Haemophilus influenzae type b, isohemagglutinins, and T and B lymphocyte subsets, expressions of IgM on B cells and B lymphocyte production of IgM were compared with previously reported case reports and a small series of patients, which included 81 subjects in total...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730326/infectious-diseases-causing-autonomic-dysfunction
#4
REVIEW
Francisco Javier Carod Artal
OBJECTIVES: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase. RESULTS: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Autonomic dysfunction is relatively common in HIV-infected patients and heart rate variability is reduced even in early stages of infection...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725178/different-forms-of-ampa-receptor-mediated-ltp-and-their-correlation-to-the-spatial-working-memory-formation
#5
Derya R Shimshek, Thorsten Bus, Bettina Schupp, Vidar Jensen, Verena Marx, Liliana E Layer, Georg Köhr, Rolf Sprengel
Spatial working memory (SWM) and the classical, tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3/CA1 synapses are dependent on L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPARs) containing GluA1 subunits as demonstrated by knockout mice lacking GluA1. In GluA1 knockout mice LTP and SWM deficits could be partially recovered by transgenic re-installation of full-length GluA1 in principle forebrain neurons. Here we partially restored hippocampal LTP in GluA1-deficient mice by forebrain-specific depletion of the GluA2 gene, by the activation of a hypomorphic GluA2(Q) allele and by transgenic expression of PDZ-site truncated GFP-GluA1(TG)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724741/body-height-and-immune-efficacy-testing-body-stature-as-a-signal-of-biological-quality
#6
Bogusław Pawłowski, Judyta Nowak, Barbara Borkowska, Daria Augustyniak, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
According to the good genes hypothesis and energy allocation theory, human adult body height may reflect biological quality. An important aspect of this quality is immune system functioning (ISF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ISF and body height in healthy people. The ISF was determined by several important innate (total complement and lysozyme activity, neutrophil function) and adaptive immune parameters (lymphocytes, IgA and IgG, and response to the flu vaccine). Overall, 96 males and 97 females were subjected to flu vaccination, and of these, 35 males and 34 females were subjected to tetanus...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724365/leflunomide-is-equally-efficacious-and-safe-compared-to-low-dose-rituximab-in-refractory-rheumatoid-arthritis-given-in-combination-with-methotrexate-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
Harindu Wijesinghe, Priyadharshini Galappatthy, Rajiva de Silva, Suranjith L Seneviratne, Ushagowry Saravanamuttu, Preethi Udagama, Melanie Hart, Peter Kelleher, Upul Senerath, Rohini Fernandopulle, Lilani P Weerasekera, Lalith S Wijayaratne
BACKGROUND: The standard dose of rituximab used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is 1000 mg but recent studies have shown that low dose (500 mg) is also effective. Efficacy of low dose rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refractory to first-line non-biologic Disease Modifying Anti Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs), compared to leflunomide is unknown. In a tertiary care referral setting, we conducted a randomized, double blind controlled clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of low-dose rituximab-methotrexate combination with leflunomide-methotrexate combination...
July 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723479/infectious-complications-of-circumcision-and-their-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
CONTEXT: A growing body of evidence supports the health benefits of circumcision, but the occurrence of infectious complications is of concern. OBJECTIVE: To review literature presenting past data and studies of infectious complications of circumcision and their prevention. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was conducted of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Turning Research into Practice, PubMed, and Medline databases from their inception through June 25, 2015...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720318/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-newly-developed-tri-component-diphtheria-tetanus-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccine-in-a-murine-model
#9
Dong Ho Huh, Seung Beom Han, Hye Jo Shin, Dong Ho Ahn, Gi Sub Choi, Kyu Ri Kang, Bo Ram Kim, Jin Han Kang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Although assessing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines via murine model studies faces limitations, preliminary assessments have been achieved by evaluating respiratory challenge and humoral and cellular immunity. METHODS: We performed a long-term intranasal respiratory challenge with reference and clinically isolated strains of Bordetella pertussis. Simultaneously, we assessed humoral and cellular immunity for evaluating the immunogenicity of a newly developed tri-component diphtheria-tetanus-aP (DTaP) vaccine...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720089/analysis-of-the-association-between-millennium-development-goals-4-5-and-the-physician-workforce-across-international-economic-strata
#10
Christopher P Morley, Dongliang Wang, Emily M Mader, Kyle P Plante, Lindsey N Kingston, Azadeh Rabiei
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5...
July 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719500/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-latin-america
#11
Pío López, Adriano Arguedas Mohs, Arturo Abdelnour Vásquez, Maria Consuelo-Miranda, Emmanuel Feroldi, Fernando Noriega, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Betzana Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. METHODS: Infants (N=1375) received HB vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of three batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4-6 months of age, co-administered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months)...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718247/public-private-partnership-and-utilization-of-maternal-and-child-health-services-in-district-abbottabad-pakistan
#12
Ayesha Imtiaz, Ghulam Farooq, Zia Ul Haq, Ashfaq Ahmed, Saeed Anwar
BACKGROUND: Public Private Partnership has been experimented as an approach in Pakistan in 2005 and in eighteen districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa including Abbottabad in 2011, to improve delivery of maternal and child health services. This study was conducted to assess the utilization of maternal and child health services before and after implementation of Public Private Partnership in district Abbottabad. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in district Abbottabad from July to December 2014...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718235/quality-assessment-of-focused-antenatal-care-service-delivery-in-tertiary-care-health-facility
#13
Farah Ashraf, Inayat Hussain Thaver, Faisal Imtiaz, Adil Ayub
BACKGROUND: Regardless of high maternal deaths in Pakistan, only 37% of pregnant women make four or more antenatal care visits during pregnancy. This proportion has further been diverged between urban and rural. About 62% of women visit clinics for WHO recommended sets of antenatal care (ANC) check-ups in urban as compared to 26% women in rural areas. This study was conducted with the aim to assess quality of Focused ANC service delivery in terms of examination, screening, treatment, counselling and to determine variation in service delivery with provider's clinical qualification and expertise...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704435/generation-of-an-artificial-human-b-cell-line-test-system-using-transpo-mabtm-technology-to-evaluate-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-novel-antigen-specific-fusion-proteins
#14
Diana Klose, Mira Woitok, Judith Niesen, Roger R Beerli, Ulf Grawunder, Rainer Fischer, Stefan Barth, Rolf Fendel, Thomas Nachreiner
The antigen-specific targeting of autoreactive B cells via their unique B cell receptors (BCRs) is a novel and promising alternative to the systemic suppression of humoral immunity. We generated and characterized cytolytic fusion proteins based on an existing immunotoxin comprising tetanus toxoid fragment C (TTC) as the targeting component and the modified Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA') as the cytotoxic component. The immunotoxin was reconfigured to replace ETA' with either the granzyme B mutant R201K or MAPTau as human effector domains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701327/tetanus-neurotoxin-conformational-plasticity-as-an-adaptive-strategy
#15
Mauricio Montal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700661/highly-sensitive-sandwich-immunoassay-and-immunochromatographic-test-for-the-detection-of-clostridial-epsilon-toxin-in-complex-matrices
#16
Cécile Féraudet-Tarisse, Christelle Mazuet, Serge Pauillac, Maren Krüger, Caroline Lacroux, Michel R Popoff, Brigitte G Dorner, Olivier Andréoletti, Marc Plaisance, Hervé Volland, Stéphanie Simon
Epsilon toxin is one of the four major toxins of Clostridium perfringens. It is the third most potent clostridial toxin after botulinum and tetanus toxins and is thus considered as a potential biological weapon classified as category B by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In the case of a bioterrorist attack, there will be a need for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection method to monitor food and water contamination by this toxin, and for a simple human diagnostic test. We have produced and characterized five monoclonal antibodies against common epitopes of epsilon toxin and prototoxin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696824/age-appropriate-versus-up-to-date-coverage-of-routine-childhood-vaccinations-among-young-children-in-israel
#17
Chen Stein-Zamir, Avi Israeli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Routine childhood vaccinations schedules recommend that children receive the vaccine doses at specific ages. Vaccination coverage data are conventionally reported by the up-to-date method. We aimed to assess vaccination timeliness by the age-appropriate method and compare to the up-to-date vaccination coverage. METHODS: Assessment of age-appropriate and up-to-date vaccination coverage among children born in Israel in 2009 and followed to age 48 months (national representative sample, n = 3892)...
July 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696200/vaccination-coverage-among-adults-aged-65-and-over-united-states-2015
#18
Tina Norris, Anjel Vahratian, Robin A Cohen
Data from the National Health Interview Survey ? Among adults aged 65 and over, more than two-thirds had an influenza vaccine in the past 12 months (69.0%). ? More than one in two adults aged 65 and over had a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years (56.9%). ? More than 6 of 10 adults aged 65 and over had ever had a pneumococcal vaccine (63.6%), while a little more than one-third had ever had a shingles vaccine (34.2%). ? Among adults aged 65 and over, vaccination coverage was highest for non-Hispanic white adults compared with non- Hispanic black and Hispanic adults...
June 2017: NCHS Data Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686396/-recommendations-for-the-vaccination-of-pregnant-women-a-booster-injection
#19
Yolanda Mueller, Christiane Sigrid Eberhardt, Alessandro Diana, Begoña Martinez De Tejada
For several decades we have avoided the immunisation of pregnant women, with the only exception being that of the tetanus vaccination in the absence of a previous basic immunisation. Nowadays, it is strongly advised to give several vaccines specifically during pregnancy : maternal immunisations against pertussis and influenza have been shown to prevent complications in both the foetus and the newborn as well as the woman during pregnancy and after delivery. This article aims to review these recommendations, their rationale and to address potential concerns that are often raised by physicians and patients...
October 12, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679488/toward-a-new-kind-of-vaccine-a-logical-extension-of-the-symmetrical-immune-network-theory
#20
Reginald Gorczynski, Geoffrey Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The symmetrical immune network theory, developed in 1975, is based on the existence of specific T cell factors and hypothesizes that normal IgG immune responses comprise the production of 2 kinds of antibodies, namely antigen-specific antibodies and anti-idiotypic antibodies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to confirm the existence of specific T cells factors and to show that immunization of C3H mice with BL/6 skin or using nominal antigen for immunization (Tetanus Toxoid) induced production of antigen-specific (anti-BL/6 or antitetanus) antibodies plus anti-idiotypic antibodies (C3H anti-anti-C3H)...
July 5, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
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