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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214181/-adult-immunisation-general-points-hot-topics-and-perspectives
#1
P Loubet, O Launay
Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209678/prophylactic-antipyretics-for-prevention-of-febrile-seizures-following-vaccination
#2
Nicholas Monfries, Ran D Goldman
Question Parents of a 12-month-old boy are bringing their son in to my family practice clinic for his well-baby visit. As the infant is due for his 12-month vaccine series, the parents are concerned after hearing about the association between certain vaccinations and an increased risk of febrile seizures, and are wondering if they should administer prophylactic antipyretics to decrease the risk of febrile seizure. What vaccinations are associated with increased risk of febrile seizure, and is there evidence supporting prophylactic administration of antipyretics to prevent febrile seizures? Answer Vaccinations associated with increased risk of febrile seizure include the following: the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine; the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; the whole-cell pertussis vaccine; the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; and concomitant administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with either the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine...
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207955/can-an-injured-nerve-be-used-as-a-donor-nerve-for-distal-nerve-transfer-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#3
Chieh-Han John Tzou, Chuieng-Yi Johnny Lu, Tommy Naj-Jen Chang, David Chwei-Chin Chuang
BACKGROUND: Distal nerve transfer has proven efficacy. The purpose of this study was to investigate if an injured nerve can be used as a donor nerve for transfer, and to determine the threshold of injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat's left ulnar-nerves in the axilla with different degrees of injury were selected as the donor nerves for transfer, and the musculocutaneous-nerves the target nerves for being re-innervated. Six rats each served as positive and negative controls: Group A, intact ulnar-nerve transfer; and Group E, the ulnar-nerve was cut but no transfer...
February 16, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188123/the-introduction-of-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-and-oral-polio-vaccine-among-young-infants-in-an-urban-african-community-a-natural-experiment
#4
Søren Wengel Mogensen, Andreas Andersen, Amabelia Rodrigues, Christine S Benn, Peter Aaby
BACKGROUND: We examined the introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in the early 1980s. METHODS: The child population had been followed with 3-monthly nutritional weighing sessions since 1978. From June 1981 DTP and OPV were offered from 3months of age at these sessions. Due to the 3-monthly intervals between sessions, the children were allocated by birthday in a 'natural experiment' to receive vaccinations early or late between 3 and 5months of age...
February 1, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185740/vaccine-adverse-events-in-a-safety-net-healthcare-system-and-a-managed-care-organization
#5
Komal J Narwaney, Kristin Breslin, Colleen A Ross, Jo Ann Shoup, Kris F Wain, Eric S Weintraub, Michael M McNeil, Simon J Hambidge
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine, in a 2013 report, recommended that the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) expand collaborations to include more diversity in the study population. Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO), an established VSD site, partnered with Denver Health (DH), an integrated safety net healthcare system, to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating DH data within the VSD. Prior to incorporating the data, we examined the identification of specific vaccine associated adverse events (VAEs) in these two distinct healthcare systems...
February 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185446/tetanus-vaccines-who-position-paper-%C3%A2-february-2017
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
10, 2017: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183326/the-immune-response-to-6-monthly-versus-annual-standard-dose-inactivated-trivalent-influenza-vaccination-in-older-people-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#7
Barnaby Young, Sapna Sadarangani, Haur Sen Yew, Chee Fu Yung, Yee Sin Leo, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Annelies Wilder-Smith
BACKGROUND: The seasonal influenza vaccine is less effective in older people and a single dose is unlikely to provide the year-round protection necessary for tropical climates which have year-round influenza virus activity. This study aims to assess the effect of a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) booster at 180 days on haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titres for each of the influenza strains present in the administered vaccine in older people aged 65 years or above in Singapore...
February 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182850/conjugate-vaccines-from-bacterial-antigens-by-squaric-acid-chemistry-a-closer-look
#8
Peng Xu, Meagan Kelly, Willie F Vann, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan, Paul Kovac
Using O-SP-core (O-SPcNH2) polysaccharide, isolated from Vibrio cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and related synthetic substances, a detailed study of factors that affect conjugation of bacterial polysaccharides to protein carriers by squaric acid chemistry to form conjugate vaccines has been carried out. Several processes previously unrecognized, which take place during the squarate labelling of the O-SPcNH2 and subsequent conjugation of the squarate (O-SPcNH-SqOMe) formed, have been identified. The efficiency of conjugation at pH 8...
February 9, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179484/increasing-tdap-coverage-among-postpartum-women-a-quality-improvement-intervention
#9
Henry H Bernstein, Mikhaela Monty, Patriot Yang, Amy Cohen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Infants are at greatest risk for severe disease and death from pertussis; most acquire it from household contacts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis, adsorbed (Tdap) vaccination for infant caregivers, especially postpartum women who did not receive it during pregnancy. Our objective was to increase the percentage of women receiving Tdap vaccine before postpartum discharge...
February 8, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179412/sharpening-host-defenses-during-infection-proteases-cut-to-the-chase
#10
Natalie C Marshall, B Brett Finlay, Christopher M Overall
The human immune system consists of an intricate network of tightly controlled pathways, where proteases are essential regulators and executioners at multiple levels. Invading microbial pathogens also encode proteases that have evolved to manipulate and dysregulate host proteins including host proteases during the course of disease. The identification of pathogen proteases as well as their substrates and mechanisms of action have empowered significant developments in therapeutics for infectious diseases. Yet for many pathogens, there remains a great deal to be discovered...
February 8, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178973/mortality-from-tetanus-between-1990-and-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#11
Hmwe H Kyu, John Everett Mumford, Jeffrey D Stanaway, Ryan M Barber, Jamie R Hancock, Theo Vos, Christopher J L Murray, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Although preventable, tetanus still claims tens of thousands of deaths each year. The patterns and distribution of mortality from tetanus have not been well characterized. We identified the global, regional, and national levels and trends of mortality from neonatal and non-neonatal tetanus based on the results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. METHODS: Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies and mortality surveillance data covering 12,534 site-years from 1980 to 2014 were used...
February 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178054/safety-of-tetanus-diphtheria-and-pertussis-vaccination-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#12
Mark McMillan, Michelle Clarke, Adriana Parrella, Deshayne B Fell, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Helen S Marshall
OBJECTIVE: To assess antenatal, birth, and infant outcomes for pregnant women, fetuses, and infants after antenatal vaccination with any antigen present in combination pertussis vaccines. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Library, and World Health Organization (inception to May 5, 2016). METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting outcomes for pregnant women, their fetus, or infant after antenatal exposure to either monovalent or combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) or inactivated polio vaccines were considered for inclusion...
February 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174628/misleading-bilateral-blink-reflex-loss-in-a-severe-tetanus-case
#13
Bernhard Neumann, Wilhelm Schulte-Mattler, Kornelius Fuchs, Ruth Zellner, Sandra Boy, Klemens Angstwurm
Tetanus is rare and often forgotten in the diagnostic workup. The diagnosis is mainly based on typical clinical symptoms, because of missing sensitive paraclinical test. As described in our case, a missing bilateral blink reflex may occur in severe tetanus, which should not lead to the rejection of the diagnosis.
February 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168170/tetanus-diphtheria-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-for-adults-an-update
#14
REVIEW
Hyo-Jin Lee, Jung-Hyun Choi
Although tetanus and diphtheria have become rare in developed countries, pertussis is still endemic in some developed countries. These are vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination for adults is important to prevent the outbreak of disease. Strategies for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccines vary from country to country. Each country needs to monitor consistently epidemiology of the diseases and changes vaccination policies accordingly. Recent studies showed that tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine for adults is effective and safe to prevent pertussis disease in infants...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167517/the-need-to-optimize-adolescent-immunization
#15
Henry H Bernstein, Joseph A Bocchini
The adolescent period heralds the pediatric patient's transition into adulthood. It is a time of dynamic development during which effective preventive care measures can promote safe behaviors and the development of lifelong health habits. One of the foundations of preventive adolescent health care is timely vaccination, and every visit can be viewed as an opportunity to update and complete an adolescent's immunizations.In the past decade, the adolescent immunization schedule has expanded to include 2 doses of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, absorbed vaccine, 2 or 3 doses of human papillomavirus vaccine, depending on the child's age, and an annual influenza vaccine...
February 6, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166935/toxicoses-of-the-ruminant-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Gene A Niles
This article discusses the etiology, mechanism of action, clinical signs, and diagnostic tests used to identify toxic agents that affect the nervous system of ruminants. The article is not intended to be an exhaustive review of each agent, but a reference for establishing a differential diagnosis when toxic agents are suspected as the cause of central nervous system disease in ruminants. The initial focus of the article is on agents that cause brain lesions consistent with polioencephalomalacia. Other neurotoxic disease agents include bovine bonkers, urea, organophosphate, organochlorine, cyanobacteria, zinc, aluminum, phosphide, metaldehyde, strychnine, botulism, tetanus, clostridium perfringens, and poisonous plants...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166783/active-surveillance-study-of-adverse-events-following-immunisation-of-children-in-the-czech-republic
#17
Jana Danova, Aneta Kocourkova, Alexander M Celko
BACKGROUND: Despite the undisputed public health benefits of routine vaccination, adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) remain a concern. As most adverse events are mild, they may be under-reported; this may underlie the wide range of AEFI rates reported in the literature. We investigated the rates of AEFI related to routine vaccination of children 0-10 years old in the Czech Republic. METHODS: The study reviewed patients' records in a sample of 49 paediatric GP practices covering all 12 administrative regions of the Czech Republic between 2011 and 2013...
February 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165878/vaccinations-in-migrants-and-refugees-a-challenge-for-european-health-systems-a-systematic-review-of-current-scientific-evidence
#18
Daniele Mipatrini, Paola Stefanelli, Santino Severoni, Giovanni Rezza
The decline of immunization rates in countries of origin of migrants and refugees, along with risky conditions during the journey to Europe, may threaten migrants' health. We performed a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to assess the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases, and vaccination coverage among migrants and refugees in Europe. To this end, Medline and Cochrane databases were considered. After the screening and the selection process, 58 papers were included in the review. We focused on the following vaccine-preventable diseases: hepatitis B, measles, rubella, mumps, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, diphtheria, meningitis, and varicella...
February 6, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164065/localized-tetanus-in-an-adult-patient-case-report
#19
Mohamed Amirali Gulamhussein, Yueyang Li, Abhijit Guha
INTRODUCTION: Tetanus is a severe and potentially fatal infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. Of all the cases described in literature, generalized tetanus is by far the most common presentation, but it may also present as neonatal tetanus, cephalic tetanus, and localized tetanus, the latter two being much rarer. In this case report, we present the rare form of this disease, i.e., localized tetanus in an adult male with a history of minimal trauma as well as a late, unusual mode of presentation...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152332/antibody-persistence-up-to-five-years-after-vaccination-with-a-quadrivalent-meningococcal-acwy-tetanus-toxoid-conjugate-vaccine-in-adolescents
#20
Beatriz P Quiambao, Ashish Bavdekar, Anand Prakash Dubey, Hemant Jain, Devayani Kolhe, Véronique Bianco, Jacqueline M Miller, Marie Van der Wielen
Long-term protection against meningococcal disease relies on antibody persistence after vaccination. We report antibody persistence up to 5 years after vaccination in adolescents who received a single dose of either meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT, Pfizer) or MenACWY polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS, GSK Vaccines) at the age of 11-17 years in the randomized controlled primary study NCT00464815. In this phase III, open, controlled, multi-center persistence follow-up study conducted in India and the Philippines (NCT00974363), antibody persistence was evaluated by a serum bactericidal antibody assay using rabbit complement (rSBA) yearly, up to year 5 after vaccination...
February 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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