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Diptheria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578303/immunisation-coverage-and-its-determinants-among-children-aged-12-23-months-in-atakumosa-west-district-osun-state-nigeria-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Elizabeth B Adedire, Ikeoluwapo Ajayi, Olufunmilayo I Fawole, Olufemi Ajumobi, Simon Kasasa, Peter Wasswa, Patrick Nguku
BACKGROUND: Routine immunisation (RI) contributes immensely to reduction in mortality from vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) among children. The Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 revealed that only 58 % of children in Osun State had received all recommended vaccines, which is far below World Health Organization (WHO) target of 80 %. We therefore, assessed RI uptake and its determinants among children in Atakumosa-west district of Osun State. METHODS: Atakumosa-west district has an estimated population of 90,525 inhabitants...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510652/interleukin-1%C3%AE-effect-on-the-endogenous-adp-ribosylation-and-phosphorylation-of-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2
#2
Ebru Hacıosmanoğlu, Başak Varol, Bilge Özerman Edis, Muhammet Bektaş
Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) plays an important role in eukaryotic polypeptide chain elongation. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a post-translational modification reaction that catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose group to eEF2 and this causes the inhibition of protein synthesis. Indeed, in the absence of diptheria toxin, endogenous ADP-ribosylation can occur. eEF2 is phosphorylated by eEF2 kinase which prevents binding to ribosomes thus inhibiting its activity. Increase in endogenous ADP-ribosylation level approximately 70-75 % was observed in IL-1β treated HUVECs...
December 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330808/single-dose-denileukin-diftitox-does-not-enhance-vaccine-induced-t-cell-responses-or-effectively-deplete-tregs-in-advanced-melanoma-immune-monitoring-and-clinical-results-of-a-randomized-phase-ii-trial
#3
Jason J Luke, Yuanyuan Zha, Karen Matijevich, Thomas F Gajewski
BACKGROUND: Depletion of CD25(+) Tregs improves anti-tumor immunity in preclinical models. Denileukin diftitox is a recombinant fusion protein of human IL-2 and diptheria toxin fragment that also can kill CD25(+) T cells. Prior clinical trials of denileukin diftitox suggested reduction of FoxP3(+) Tregs and some clinical responses. METHOD: To investigate the immunologic effects of denileukin difitox on vaccine-specific immune responses in melanoma, a randomized clinical trial of single dose denileukin diftitox prior to vaccination versus vaccination alone in subjects with HLA-A2(+) metastatic melanoma was performed...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076378/diversity-of-bacteria-in-ships-ballast-water-as-revealed-by-next-generation-dna-sequencing
#4
Robin Brinkmeyer
The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE...
June 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26192732/cd11b-mononuclear-cells-mitigate-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury-in-neonatal-mice
#5
Laurie C Eldredge, Piper M Treuting, Anne M Manicone, Steven F Ziegler, William C Parks, John K McGuire
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common consequence of life-saving interventions for infants born with immature lungs. Resident tissue myeloid cells regulate lung pathology, but their role in BPD is poorly understood. To determine the role of lung interstitial myeloid cells in neonatal responses to lung injury, we exposed newborn mice to hyperoxia, a neonatal mouse lung injury model with features of human BPD. In newborn mice raised in normoxia, we identified a CD45(+) F4/80(+) CD11b(+), Ly6G(lo-int) CD71(+) population of cells in lungs of neonatal mice present in significantly greater percentages than in adult mice...
February 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25896379/effect-of-media-use-on-mothers-vaccination-of-their-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Minsoo Jung, Leesa Lin, Kasisomayajula Viswanath
While several studies have examined the crucial role that parents' vaccination behaviors play in reducing disease spread and severity among children, few have evaluated the connection between parents' media use and their decision on whether or not to vaccinate their child, specifically in relation to the BCG (Bacillus Calmetter Guerin), DPT (Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus) polio, and measles vaccines. Media channels are a critical source of health information for parents, which is especially true in Sub-Saharan Africa, as there is often a dearth of local healthcare providers...
May 21, 2015: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25894853/influenza-vaccination-as-a-novel-trigger-of-wells-syndrome-in-a-child
#7
Jacqueline K Simpson, Rakesh Patalay, Nicholas Francis, Nerys Roberts
Wells syndrome is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. Precipitants include insect bites, infections, medications, malignancies, and vaccinations. Possible mechanisms include hypersensitivity reactions to antigens. There are four reports in the literature of Wells syndrome precipitated by vaccinations (hepatitis B vaccine, tetanus vaccine, tetanus-diptheria vaccine and triple antigen vaccine). We present a further case of Wells syndrome in a 22-month-old child after influenza vaccine as a novel trigger not previously reported...
July 2015: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25507244/diphtheria-outbreak-in-thailand-2012-seroprevalence-of-diphtheria-antibodies-among-thai-adults-and-its-implications-for-immunization-programs
#8
Nasamon Wanlapakorn, Pornsak Yoocharoen, Piyanit Tharmaphornpilas, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Yong Poovorawan
An age distribution shift in diphtheria cases during a 2012 outbreak in northeastern of Thailand suggests adults are increasingly at risk for infection in Thailand. Data regarding immunity against diphtheria among the adult Thai population is limited. We review a 2012 diphtheria outbreak in Thailand and conducted a nationwide seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults in order to inform immunization programs. A total of 41 confirmed cases, 6 probable cases and 101 carriers of diphtheria were reported from northeastern and upper southern Thailand...
September 2014: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25417516/diphtheria-outbreak-in-thailand-2012-seroprevalence-of-diphtheria-antibodies-among-thai-adults-and-its-implications-for-immunization-programs
#9
Nasamon Wanlapakorn, Pornsak Yoocharoen, Piyanit Tharmaphornpilas, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Yong Poovorawan
An age distribution shift in diphtheria cases during a 2012 outbreak in northeastern of Thailand suggests adults are increasingly at risk for infection in Thailand. Data regarding immunity against diphtheria among the adult Thai population is limited. We review a 2012 diphtheria outbreak in Thailand and conducted a nationwide seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults in order to inform immunization programs. A total of 41 confirmed cases, 6 probable cases and 101 carriers of diphtheria were reported from northeastern and upper southern Thailand...
September 2014: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25328628/determinants-of-routine-immunization-coverage-in-bungudu-zamfara-state-northern-nigeria-may-2010
#10
Saheed Gidado, Patrick Nguku, Oladayo Biya, Ndadilnasiya Endie Waziri, Abdulaziz Mohammed, Peter Nsubuga, Henry Akpan, Akin Oyemakinde, Abdulsalami Nasidi, Idris Suleman, Emmanuel Abanida, Yusuf Musa, Kabir Sabitu
INTRODUCTION: Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months...
2014: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24814558/social-inequalities-in-vaccination-uptake-among-children-aged-0-59-months-living-in-madagascar-an-analysis-of-demographic-and-health-survey-data-from-2008-to-2009
#11
S Clouston, R Kidman, T Palermo
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in vaccination can reduce the ability and efficiency of global efforts to reduce the burden of disease. Vaccination is particularly critical because the poorest children are often at the greatest risk of contracting preventable infectious diseases, and unvaccinated children may be clustered geographically, jeopardizing herd immunity. Without herd immunity, these children are at even greater risk of contracting disease and social inequalities in associated morbidity and mortality are amplified...
June 12, 2014: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24791022/protecting-newborns-by-immunizing-family-members-in-a-hospital-based-vaccine-clinic-a-successful-tdap-cocooning-program-during-the-2010-california-pertussis-epidemic
#12
Elizabeth Rosenblum, Sarah McBane, Wendy Wang, Mark Sawyer
OBJECTIVE: Infants are at greatest risk for mortality from pertussis infection. Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended a cocooning strategy of vaccinating all close contacts of infants with tetanus, diptheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine to reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis. Difficulties in establishing a complete cocoon have been reported in the literature. We determined whether families of newborns could be fully immunized against pertussis, thereby providing a complete cocoon of protection...
May 2014: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24717202/economic-evaluation-of-japanese-encephalitis-vaccination-programme-in-uttar-pradesh-india-a-cost-benefit-study
#13
Kaushal Singh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major cause of child mortality and disability in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The disease is vaccine preventable since 1941. Yet no major vaccination was available for public health intervention. After a massive breakout in 2005, the government launched vaccination programme in 11 most endemic districts and is planning to incorporate the vaccine in routine immunization with DPT (Diptheria, pertussis and tatanus) booster dose. The paper aims to estimate discounted net benefits and internal rate of return (IRR) to evaluate the economic feasibility for elimination of JE by utilizing available secondary information...
March 2014: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24579247/a-forgotten-disease-in-a-returning-traveler-from-thailand
#14
M Depypere, J Verhaegen, I Derdelinckx, W Meersseman
Cutaneous diphteria is a forgotten disease. We must consider this in our differential diagnosis, not only when a patient presents with a cutaneous ulcer and has travelled to tropical areas, but also in patients who subsist in low socio-economic conditions, especially in homeless people and people with a history of alcohol or drug abuse. Vigilance for this forgotten disease is warranted because most physicians in developed countries have never seen one case. In an era of increasing globalisation, we might see more cases in the future...
September 2013: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24383653/corynebacterium-diphtheriae-and-the-returned-tropical-traveler
#15
Meryta L A May, Rodney J McDougall, Jennifer M Robson
BACKGROUND: In Western countries, nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae is known to cause skin and soft tissue infections (SSIs), upper respiratory tract infections, and occasionally invasive disease. Its role as a skin pathogen in returned travelers from tropical destinations where the organism is endemic is often forgotten. A retrospective analysis of a large Australian private pathology laboratory's experience with C. diphtheriae was performed to identify how frequently overseas travel was associated with C...
January 2014: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23787559/hexavalent-ipv-based-combination-vaccines-for-public-sector-markets-of-low-resource-countries
#16
REVIEW
Kutub Mahmood, Sonia Pelkowski, Deborah Atherly, Robert D Sitrin, John J Donnelly
In anticipation of the successful eradication of wild polio virus, alternative vaccination strategies for public-sector markets of low-resource countries are extremely important, but are still under development. Following polio eradication, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) would be the only polio vaccine available, and would be needed for early childhood immunization for several years, as maintenance of herd immunity will be important for sustaining polio eradication. Low-cost combination vaccines containing IPV could provide reliable and continuous immunization in the post-polio eradication period...
September 2013: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23728640/vaccines-for-women-to-prevent-neonatal-tetanus
#17
REVIEW
Vittorio Demicheli, Antonella Barale, Alessandro Rivetti
BACKGROUND: Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. It occurs in newborn infants born to mothers who do not have sufficient circulating antibodies to protect the infant passively, by transplacental transfer. Prevention may be possible by the vaccination of pregnant or non-pregnant women, or both, with tetanus toxoid, and the provision of clean delivery services. Tetanus toxoid consists of a formaldehyde-treated toxin which stimulates the production of antitoxin...
2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23707167/pakistan-s-expanded-programme-on-immunization-an-overview-in-the-context-of-polio-eradication-and-strategies-for-improving-coverage
#18
REVIEW
Aatekah Owais, Asif Raza Khowaja, Syed Asad Ali, Anita K M Zaidi
Since its inception in 1978, Pakistan's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) has contributed significantly towards child health and survival in Pakistan. However, the WHO-estimated immunization coverage of 88% for 3 doses of Diptheria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccine in Pakistan is likely an over-estimate. Many goals, such as polio, measles and neonatal tetanus elimination have not been met. Pakistan reported more cases of poliomyelits in 2011 than any other country globally, threatening the Global Polio Eradication Initiative...
July 18, 2013: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23694833/association-of-postpartum-maternal-tetanus-toxoid-reduced-diphtheria-toxoid-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccine-administration-and-timeliness-of-infant-immunization
#19
Ishminder Kaur, Krissa J George, Carolina Pena-Ricardo, Barbara A Kelly, Barbara Watson
A retrospective cohort study was conducted on infants of mothers delivering at an inner-city hospital in October 2009 where postpartum maternal tetanus toxoid, reduced diptheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination had been initiated in May 2008. We compared mothers and infants in a Tdap intervention group discharged July 2008 (n=250) with a pre-Tdap control group discharged July 2007 (n=238). Postpartum maternal Tdap impacted positively timeliness of early infant immunization.
November 2013: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23631465/john-fothergill-a-biographical-sketch-and-his-contributions-to-neurology
#20
J M S Pearce
John Fothergill was a remarkable but largely forgotten physician, plant collector, and philanthropist, born of Quaker parents in Yorkshire. This article summarizes the legacy of his work on trigeminal neuralgia and migrainous "sick headaches," and his seminal studies on angina, scarlatina, and diptheria. He became hugely influential and fostered both education and many medical careers in Britain and America.
2013: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
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