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Robert S Seminara, Charan Jeet, Sharmi Biswas, Bushra Kanwal, Waleed Iftikhar, Md Sakibuzzaman, Ian H Rutkofsky
The communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system (CNS) allows for certain peptide hormones to influence neurocognitive function. Ghrelin, also known as the 'hunger hormone,' has the unique ability to enter the CNS and interact with the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) within the hippocampus. Upon interaction with ghrelin, a conformational change in the receptor causes an increase in transcription factors to foster a wide array of physiologic changes in response to caloric deprivation...
September 11, 2018: Curēus
Jenna E Reno, Jacob Thomas, Jennifer Pyrzanowski, Steven Lockhart, Sean T O'Leary, Elizabeth J Campagna, Amanda F Dempsey
There is a critical need for campaigns and interventions to increase rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among U.S. adolescents. Healthcare providers are key stakeholders in parents' HPV vaccine decision-making. The current study presents the evaluation of secondary outcomes in a multi-component communication-based intervention to improve healthcare providers' communication about HPV vaccination. Evaluation was conducted via surveys of providers participating in a 12-month randomized controlled trial...
November 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Vijay Patil, Amit Joshi, Vanita Noronha, Atanu Bhattacharjee, Sachin Dhumal, M V Chandrakanth, Ashay Karpe, Vikas Talreja, Arun Chandrasekharan, Siddharth Turkar, Nikhil Pande, Anant Ramaswamy, Kumar Prabhash
Background: Quality-adjusted time without toxicity (Q-TWiST) and quality of life (QOL) are indicators of benefit provided by different chemotherapy regimens. Methods: This was a prospective study, in which adult head-and-neck (H and N) cancer patients, treated with metronomic chemotherapy were enrolled. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General H and N (FACT-G and H and N) version 4 pro formas were self-administered before the start of chemotherapy and then at 2, 4, and 6 months...
October 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Aihua Peng, Peter Hewitson, Ian Sutherland, Lijuan Chen, Svetlana Ignatova
This paper builds on the fact that high aspect ratio rectilinear tubing columns of the same length and outside dimensions can double column efficiency. It demonstrates that further improvements in efficiency can be made by using rectilinear tubing columns with half the wall thickness thus replacing heavy PTFE with light solvent systems and producing lighter higher capacity columns. Increases in sample loading/throughput of up to 55x are demonstrated by comparing the separation of Honokiol and Magnolol using a Hexane: Ethyl Acetate: Methanol: Water (5:2:5:2) phase system with the new thin wall rectilinear column (56 mL, 30 mL/min, 2...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Connie Kasari, Alexandra Sturm, Wendy Shih
Purpose: This review article introduces research methods for personalization of intervention. Our goals are to review evidence-based practices for improving social communication impairment in children with autism spectrum disorder generally and then how these practices can be systematized in ways that personalize intervention, especially for children who respond slowly to an initial evidence-based practice. Method: The narrative reflects on the current status of modular and targeted interventions on social communication outcomes in the field of autism research...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Ivan Linares, Matyas Hamar, Nazia Selzner, Markus Selzner
In parallel with the pandemic of obesity and diabetes, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has progressively increased. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a subtype of NAFLD has also augmented considerably being currently cirrhosis due to NASH the second indication for liver transplantation in USA. Innovative treatments for NASH have shown promising results in phase-2 studies and are being presently evaluated in phase-3 trials.On the other hand, the high mortality on the liver transplant wait list and the organ shortage has obligated the transplant centres to consider suboptimal grafts, such as steatotic livers for transplantation...
November 9, 2018: Transplantation
Abderrahim Khelif, Mansoor N Saleh, Abdulgabar Salama, Maria do Socorro O Portella, Mei Sheng Duh, Jasmina Ivanova, Kelly Grotzinger, Anuja N Roy, James B Bussel
Patients with persistent/chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) have low platelet counts, increased risk of bleeding and bruising, and often suffer from reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). cITP treatments may either improve HRQoL by increasing platelet counts or decrease it because of side effects. The open-label EXTEND study (June 2006 to July 2015) evaluated long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of eltrombopag (an oral thrombopoietin-receptor-agonist) in adults with cITP who completed a previous eltrombopag ITP trial...
November 12, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Jonathan Pugh, Jacinta Tan, Tipu Aziz, Rebecca J Park
Deep Brain Stimulation is currently being investigated as an experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory AN, with an increasing number of case reports and small-scale trials published. Although still at an exploratory and experimental stage, initial results have been promising. Despite the risks associated with an invasive neurosurgical procedure and the long-term implantation of a foreign body, DBS has a number of advantageous features for patients with SE-AN. Stimulation can be fine-tuned to the specific needs of the particular patient, is relatively reversible, and the technique also allows for the crucial issue of investigating and comparing the effects of different neural targets...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Rahul Ganavadiya, B R Chandrashekar, Pallavi Singh, Ruchika Gupta, Poonam Tomar Rana, Shubham Jain
Context: Tobacco and alcohol addiction has emerged as a major public health issue in most of the regions of the world. It has resulted in enormous disability, disease, and death and acquired the dimension of an epidemic. It is estimated that five million preventable deaths occur every year globally, attributable to tobacco use. The number is expected to double by 2020 if death due to tobacco continues to occur at the same rate. Alcohol, on the other hand, contributes to 25% of all deaths in the age group of 20-39 years...
January 2018: Industrial Psychiatry Journal
Moritoki Egi
This review is for Con side of "Pro-Con debate" on the optimal target of blood glucose levels in patients with chronic hyperglycemia (e.g. premorbid HbA1c level > 7%). Currently, international guideline recommended that blood glucose level ≤ 180 mg/dL in critically ill patients irrespective of presence or absence of premorbid diabetes. However, there are several studies to generate the hypothesis that liberal glycemic control (e.g., target blood glucose level 180-250 mg/dL) may be beneficial in critically ill patients with premorbid hyperglycemia...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
Beatrice Drexler, Jakob R Passweg, Alexandar Tzankov, Martin Bigler, Alexandre P A Theocharides, Nathan Cantoni, Peter Keller, Georg Stussi, Axel Ruefer, Rudolf Benz, Geneviève Favre, Pontus Lundberg, Ronny Nienhold, Andrea Fuhrer, Christine Biaggi, Markus G Manz, Mario Bargetzi, Simon Mendez-Ferrer, Radek C Skoda
The β-3 sympathomimetic agonist BRL37344 restored nestin-positive cells within the stem cell niche, and thereby normalized blood counts and improved myelofibrosis in a mouse model of JAK2-V617F positive myeloproliferative neoplasms. We therefore tested the effectiveness of mirabegron, a β-3 sympathomimetic agonist, in a phase II trial including 39 JAK2-V617F positive MPN with a mutant allele burden >20%. Treatment consisted of mirabegron 50 mg daily for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint, reduction of the JAK2-V617F allele burden ≥50%, was not reached in any of the patients...
November 8, 2018: Haematologica
Manoj Pandey, Senniappan Karthikeyan, Deepika Joshi, Mohan Kumar, Mridula Shukla
BACKGROUND: The lymphatic spread from the cancers of the oral cavity follows an orderly progression and involvement of lower nodes without involvement of upper nodes and skip metastasis is rare. Selective neck dissections are increasingly being performed for node-positive patients; however, in node-negative patients the options of wait and watch, prophylactic radiotherapy, and prophylactic elective node dissections are debated. Quality of life and shoulder functions are important to choose the appropriate therapeutic modality...
November 8, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Giorgio Secreto, Alessandro Girombelli, Vittorio Krogh
The aim of this review is to highlight the pivotal role of androgen excess in the development of breast cancer. Available evidence suggests that testosterone controls breast epithelial growth through a balanced interaction between its two active metabolites: cell proliferation is promoted by estradiol while it is inhibited by dihydrotestosterone. A chronic overproduction of testosterone (e.g. ovarian stromal hyperplasia) results in an increased estrogen production and cell proliferation that are no longer counterbalanced by dihydrotestosterone...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Luis Felipe das Chagas E Silva de Carvalho, Marcelo Saito Nogueira
Oral injuries are currently diagnosed by histopathological analysis of biopsy, which is an invasive procedure and does not give immediate results. On the other hand, the Raman spectroscopy technique is a real-time and minimally invasive analytical tool with a notable diagnostic capability. At the current stage, researchers are widely aware of the diagnostic potential of the technique and how it is considered promising for providing biochemical information in real time and without damaging the tissue. The problem originates from a lack of relevant studies and clinical trials that could show the actual use of Raman spectroscopy to help patients...
November 7, 2018: Analyst
Paula M S Leite, Andreza R C Mendonça, Leonardo Y S Maciel, Maurício L Poderoso-Neto, Carla C A Araujo, Hilda C J Góis, Jérsica H S Souza, Josimari M DeSantana
Chronic nonspecific low back pain is common and one of the most disabling conditions in the world. There is moderate evidence that chronic low back pain patients present altered functional connectivity in areas related to pain processing. Quantitative sensory testing is a way of clinical measure of these alterations. Although there is not enough evidence, there are some reports that electroacupuncture is supposedly more effective in relieving pain than acupuncture because the addition of electric current could optimize the effects of traditional technique...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Stefano Rivella
Beta-thalassemia is inherited genetic disorder characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis (IE), leading to anemia and abnormal iron metabolism. IE is as an abnormal expansion of the number of erythroid progenitor cells with unproductive synthesis of enucleated erythrocytes, leading to anemia and hypoxia. Anemic patients affected by beta-thalassemia (BT) suffer from iron overload, even in the absence of chronic blood transfusion, suggesting the presence of one or more erythroid factors with the ability to modulate iron metabolism and dietary iron absorption...
November 6, 2018: Blood
Yuki Katagiri, Patrick W Serruys, Taku Asano, Yosuke Miyazaki, Ply Chichareon, Rodrigo Modolo, Kuniaki Takahashi, Norihiro Kogame, Joanna J Wykrzykowska, Jan J Piek, Yoshinobu Onuma
Absorb bioresorbable scaffold (BRS), the most studied device among all BRS, suffered a major setback following the negative results of the ABSORB trials. However, approximately 34 BRSs from 22 companies are currently under development. The potential device specific factors related to increased event rate in Absorb were: 1) weaker mechanical properties, 2) larger strut thickness (less embedment and larger protrusion) and width (larger footprint) predisposing to underexpansion / protrusion of strut, eventually resulting in increased thrombogenicity, and 3) longer bioresorption time combined with failure of encapsulation of struts before dismantling process ensues...
November 6, 2018: EuroIntervention
Rouvier Al-Monajjed, Christian Arsov, Peter Albers
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in industrialized countries. The annual incidence rate in Germany is about 60,000. Every year, 13,000 men die of this disease. Nevertheless, the 10-year survival rate is relatively favorable compared to other carcinomas.Prostate cancer screening is discussed controversially both nationally and internationally. This is due to the fact that the determination of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for tumor detection beginning in the 1980s led to over-diagnosis of clinically insignificant prostate cancer and consequently to over-therapy-usually by radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy...
November 5, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Richard F Riedel, Robin L Jones, Antoine Italiano, Chet Bohac, Juliette C Thompson, Kerstin Mueller, Zaeem Khan, Seth M Pollack, Brian A Van Tine
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive malignancy which accounts for approximately 5⁻10% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. SS has pathologic and genomic characteristics that define it as a distinct subtype of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). STS subtypes continue to be recognized as distinct entities with specific characteristics, including differential chemo-sensitivity. The objective of this study was to conduct a descriptive review of current data on survival outcomes of systemic anti-cancer therapy specific to SS...
November 1, 2018: Cancers
Steven J Kamper
Despite the fact that a randomized controlled trial (RCT), by definition, can't exist without one, the control group is the forgotten stepchild of the RCT. The nature of the control group in part determines the research question that the RCT answers, and only by understanding the precise question can the results be sensibly interpreted. Given that RCTs always measure relative effectiveness of the treatment and control interventions, it is important that interpretation reflects this. That means that conclusions that a treatment is effective should always state, "compared to the control intervention...
November 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
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