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Rolf Verleger, Magdalena Keppeler, Jona Sassenhagen, Kamila Śmigasiewicz
The P3b component of human event-related EEG potentials is larger with rare than frequent task-relevant stimuli. In a previous study, this oddball effect was much reduced when stimulus-response (S-R) mappings were still undefined at stimulus presentation (being later provided by response prompts). This reduction may reflect P3b's dependence on transmitted information which might be any relevant information (informational value hypothesis) or, more specifically, information about how to respond (S-R link hypothesis)...
July 20, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Maurizio Fava, Atul R Mahableshwarkar, William Jacobson, Wei Zhong, Richard Se Keefe, Christina Kurre Olsen, Judith Jaeger
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments, such as memory deficits and executive impairment, are common among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and can be captured with objective or subjective assessments. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of the CONNECT study was to assess the degree of overlap between subjective and objective cognitive impairment among MDD patients, and to evaluate associated clinical characteristics. METHODS: The study was conducted from April 2012 to February 2014 and enrolled a total of 602 patients with MDD who reported subjective cognitive impairment...
August 2018: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
W Iris Zhi, Evan Ingram, Susan Qing Li, Patricia Chen, Lauren Piulson, Ting Bao
BACKGROUND: Bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN) is a common and debilitating side effect. Our pilot study demonstrated that acupuncture is safe and can decrease total neuropathic symptoms. However, there is lack of knowledge in which individual BIPN symptoms benefited from acupuncture. PURPOSE: To characterize individual symptoms reduced by acupuncture in patients with BIPN. METHODS: Patients with multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib who developed BIPN grade 2 or above, based on National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE), were enrolled and received 10 acupuncture treatments over 10 weeks...
July 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Jean-Jacques Mourad, Davide Agnoletti, Carlos Labat, Sylvie Gautier, Paolo Salvi, Filippo Valbusa, Olivier Hanon, Olivier Toulza, Patrick Manckoundia, Francesco Fantin, Yves Rolland, Athanase Benetos
BACKGROUND: Several clinical studies have shown that blood pressure (BP) measurements in very old frail individuals are of limited interest due to the fact that several age-related alterations and geriatric syndromes may modify BP. We studied in persons over 80-year old living in nursing homes the combined effects of 3 BP patterns on total mortality and major cardiovascular (CV) events: (i) low pulse pressure amplification (L-PPA) between carotid and brachial artery, (ii) systolic BP (SBP) <130 mm Hg (L-SBP), under >1 antihypertensive drugs, and (iii) changes in SBP between supine and upright position of >20 mm Hg in both directions (hypotension/hypertension, orthostatic SBP [O-SBP])...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Gitanjali V Patel, Eduardo Pascual Van Sant, Bret Taback, Richard Ha
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to report on a study conducted to determine whether the lesions in patients with what is deemed to be low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) selected for two large clinical trials are in fact low-risk lesions. CONCLUSION: A retrospective review was conducted to determine whether the eligibility criteria of the two trials are predictive that DCIS is low risk. More than 20% of lesions are upgraded to invasive carcinoma in patients with low-risk DCIS as defined in two large clinical trials...
July 17, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Lorena Rosca, Viviane Robert-Boire, Jean-François Delisle, Yvan Samson, Sébastien Perreault
BACKGROUND: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGG) represent 30-50% of central nervous system pediatric tumors. Over the last decades, the combination of carboplatin and vincristine (CV) has become the first line of treatment in most centers. In a large clinical trial where the efficacy of CV was compared to another regimen, 19% presented grade III neurotoxicity. Despite the fact that CV therapy is widely used for pediatric patients with LGG, no study has reported detailed neurological adverse events and outcome with this treatment regimen...
July 16, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Elena Rocca
In "The evidence that evidence-based medicine omits", Brendan Clarke and colleagues argue that when establishing causal facts in medicine, evidence of mechanisms ought to be included alongside evidence of correlations. One of the reasons they provide is that correlations can be spurious and generated by unknown confounding variables. A causal mechanism can provide a plausible explanation for the correlation, and the absence of such an explanation is an indication that the correlation is not causal...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Steven E Arnold, Rebecca A Betensky
Conventional parallel group randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are too large, long, expensive and insensitive to clinical change to meet the urgent need for an effective treatment. While providing good evidence for a treatment's benefit, parallel group RCTs in AD must have very large samples and broad measures of change to accommodate the marked heterogeneity of demographics, genetics, symptoms, pathophysiologies, comorbidities and rates of progression. Multi-crossover, placebo-controlled, double-blind RCTs, including those with sample sizes as small as a single subject ("N-of-1"), are robust designs wherein subjects serve as their own controls in repeated blocks of randomly sequenced crossover treatments...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Lucy M De La Cruz, Brian J Czerniecki
BACKGROUND: Although immunotherapy is making rapid inroads as a major treatment method for melanoma, lung, bladder, and hereditary colon cancer, breast cancer (BC) remains one of the tumors yet to experience the cellular immunology explosion despite the fact that heavy lymphocyte responses in breast tumors improve response to therapy and can predict for long-term survival. RESULTS: Immunotherapies in the form of monoclonal antibodies such as trastuzumab and pertuzumab have had an impact on HER2-positive breast cancer (HER2+BC) treatment through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Shohreh Razavy, Marcus Gadau, Shi Ping Zhang, Fu Chun Wang, Sergio Bangrazi, Christine Berle, Tie Li, Wei Hong Li, Christopher Zaslawski
Acupuncture has been broadly applied in the management of many diseases and conditions; however, its mechanism of action has been partially elucidated. Additionally, assessment of psychophysical responses in the acupuncture therapy is not common regarding anxiety disorder studies. Taken together, the therapeutic effect of acupuncture appears when De Qi psychophysical response is experienced following stimulation of the afferent sensory nerves. The present study investigates the level of anxiety perceived at different occasions in acupuncture and mock laser group...
August 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Miranda Laurant, Mieke van der Biezen, Nancy Wijers, Kanokwaroon Watananirun, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Anneke Jah van Vught
BACKGROUND: Current and expected problems such as ageing, increased prevalence of chronic conditions and multi-morbidity, increased emphasis on healthy lifestyle and prevention, and substitution for care from hospitals by care provided in the community encourage countries worldwide to develop new models of primary care delivery. Owing to the fact that many tasks do not necessarily require the knowledge and skills of a doctor, interest in using nurses to expand the capacity of the primary care workforce is increasing...
July 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Edward Riordan, Sarah Robbins, Leticia Deveza, Vicky Duong, Win Min Oo, Anne Wajon, Kim Bennell, Jill Eyles, Ray Jongs, James Linklater, David Hunter
OBJECTIVE: Greater joint laxity and radial subluxation of the thumb metacarpal base have been shown to be risk factors for the development of trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis in an asymptomatic and radiographically normal joint. Despite this, it is unknown whether joint laxity changes with disease progression from mild to severe osteoarthritis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between joint laxity and osteoarthritis severity, using the trapeziometacarpal subluxation ratio as an indicator of joint laxity...
July 12, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
D Barnes, R Rivera, S Gibson, C Craig, J Cragun, B Monk, D Chase
Background: Measuring QoL is essential to the field of gynecologic oncology but there seems to be limited standardized data regarding collecting QoL assessments throughout a patient's cancer treatment especially in non-clinical trial patients. The aim of this study is to explore patient characteristics that may be associated with poor quality of life (QoL) in women with gynecologic cancers at two University of Arizona Cancer Center (UACC) sites. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among English speaking women with gynecologic malignancies at the University of Arizona Cancer Centers in Phoenix and Tucson from April 2012 to July 2015...
2018: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Ting Bao, Andrew D Seidman, Lauren Piulson, Emily Vertosick, Xi Chen, Andrew J Vickers, Victoria S Blinder, Wanqing I Zhi, Qing Li, Linda T Vahdat, Maura N Dickler, Mark E Robson, Jun J Mao
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and potentially dose-limiting side-effect of neurotoxic chemotherapy for cancer patients. We evaluated the preliminary efficacy of acupuncture in preventing worsening CIPN in patients receiving paclitaxel. METHODS: In this phase IIA single-arm clinical trial, we screened stage I-III breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant/adjuvant weekly paclitaxel for development of CIPN. The primary objective was to assess acupuncture's efficacy in preventing the escalation of National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE), version 4...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Adam J Kingeter, Karthik Raghunathan, Sibyl H Munson, David K Hayashida, Xuan Zhang, Sloka Iyengar, Martin Bunke, Andrew D Shaw
PURPOSE: Albumin is widely used during and after on-pump cardiac surgery, although it is unclear whether this therapy improves clinical outcomes. METHODS: This observational study utilized the Cerner Health Facts® database (a large HIPAA-compliant clinical-administrative database maintained by Cerner Inc., USA) to identify a cohort of 6,188 adults that underwent on-pump cardiac surgery for valve and/or coronary artery procedures between January 2001 and March 2013...
July 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Claire Howard, Fiona J Rowe
AIM: To provide a systematic overview of the factors that influence how a person adapts to visual field loss following stroke. METHOD: A systematic review was undertaken (data search period 1861-2016) inclusive of systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, cohort studies, observational studies, and case controlled studies. Studies including adult subjects with hemifield visual field loss, which occured as a direct consequence of stroke, were included...
July 13, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Giulia Iapadre, Ganna Balagura, Luca Zagaroli, Pasquale Striano, Alberto Verrotti
Selecting the most appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) or combination of drugs for each patient and identifying the most suitable therapeutic regimen for their needs is increasingly challenging, especially among pediatric populations. In fact, the pharmacokinetics of several drugs vary widely in children with epilepsy because of age-related factors, which can influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the pharmacological agent. In addition, individual factors, such as seizure type, associated comorbidities, individual pharmacokinetics, and potential drug interactions, may contribute to large fluctuations in serum drug concentrations and, therefore, clinical response...
July 12, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Jennifer L Moss, Jeanne Murphy, Virginia L Filiaci, Lari B Wenzel, Lori Minasian, Sarah M Temkin
PURPOSE: Social determinants may influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among women with ovarian cancer, potentially creating disparities in clinical outcomes. We investigated the relationship between HRQOL and social determinants of health, including travel distance to access cancer care and health insurance type, among women participating in a randomized trial of primary adjuvant treatment for advanced ovarian cancer. METHODS: The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovarian (FACT-O) questionnaire captured HRQOL (physical well-being, functional well-being, ovarian-specific, and trial outcome index [TOI]) prior to chemotherapy (baseline), during the trial, and 84 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy for women with advanced epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer...
July 12, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Manish K Singh, Fauzia Jamal, Amit K Dubey, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Pushpanjali, Chayanika Bordoloi, S Narayan, V N R Das, K Pandey, P Das, Shubhankar K Singh
The shift of macrophage and T-cell repertoires towards proinflammatory cytokine signalling ensures the generation of host-protective machinery that is otherwise compromised in cases of the intracellular Leishmania parasite. Different groups have attempted to restore host protective immunity. These vaccine candidates showed good responses and protective effects in murine models, but they generally failed during human trials. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 97 kDa recombinant nucleoporin-93 of Leishmania donovani (rLd-NUP93) on mononuclear cells in healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients and on THP-1 cell lines...
July 9, 2018: Cytokine
Anthony Bateman, Peter Fonagy
This article reports a delayed-treatment randomized controlled trial of a mentalization-based intervention for families or significant others living with or supporting a person with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In all, 56 family members/significant others living with/supporting people with a diagnosis of BPD were randomized either to immediate mentalization-based Families and Carers Training and Support, a supportive and skills-based program consisting of five 1.5- to 2-hr evening meetings, delivered by trained family members, or to delayed intervention...
July 12, 2018: Personality Disorders
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