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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158373/revisiting-expectations-in-an-era-of-precision-oncology
#1
Emily J Marchiano, Andrew C Birkeland, Paul L Swiecicki, Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Andrew G Shuman
As we enter an era of precision medicine and targeted therapies in the treatment of metastatic cancer, we face new challenges for patients and providers alike as we establish clear guidelines, regulations, and strategies for implementation. At the crux of this challenge is the fact that patients with advanced cancer may have disproportionate expectations of personal benefit when participating in clinical trials designed to generate generalizable knowledge. Patient and physician goals of treatment may not align, and reconciliation of their disparate perceptions must be addressed...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156930/-benefits-of-soy-in-women-s-health
#2
Carmen Martín Salinas, Ana M López-Sobaler
A great interest has been developed last decades on the role of phytoestrogens as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy. In fact, numerous studies have shown the effects of soy isoflavones on climacteric symptomatology by significantly reducing the frequency and intensity of hot flashes, as well on cardiovascular health. The aim of this paper was to review the last studies, mainly randomized controlled trials, on the effect of isoflavones on climacteric symptoms and their impact on women's quality of life, as well as on other health markers...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156402/effect-of-initiating-drug-treatment-on-the-risk-of-drug-related-poisoning-death-and-acquisitive-crime-among-offending-heroin-users
#3
Matthias Pierce, Sheila M Bird, Matthew Hickman, John Marsden, Graham Dunn, Toby Seddon, Tim Millar
BACKGROUND: A recent Cochrane review of randomised trials identified a lack of evidence for interventions provided to drug-using offenders. We use routine data to address whether contact with treatment services reduces heroin users' likelihood of a future acquisitive offence or drug-related poisoning (DRP) death. METHODS: Heroin-users were identified from probation assessments and linked to drug-treatment, mortality and offending records. The study cohort was selected to ensure that the subject was not: in prison, in treatment or had recently left treatment...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155001/postoperative-pain-following-posterior-iliac-crest-bone-graft-harvesting-in-spine-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#4
Evan D Sheha, Dennis S Meredith, Grant D Shifflett, Benjamin T Bjerke, Sravisht Iyer, Jennifer Shue, Joseph Nguyen, Russel C Huang
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Post-operative pain at the site of bone graft harvest for posterior spine fusion is reported to occur in 6% to 39% of cases. However, the area around the posterior, superior iliac spine is a frequent site of referred pain for many structures. Therefore, many postoperative spine patients may have pain in the vicinity of the posterior iliac crest that may not in fact be caused by bone graft harvesting. The literature may then overestimate the true incidence of postoperative iliac crest pain...
November 14, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152731/decision-making-under-risk-of-gain-in-young-children-and-mangabey-monkeys
#5
James Rivière, Mathilde Stomp, Elisa Augustin, Alban Lemasson, Catherine Blois-Heulin
In contrast to human adults, risk proneness in the gain domain is usually observed in both young children and non-human primates. It is currently unclear what mechanism might be underlying such economic preferences. We investigated decision-making under risk of gain in toddlers and monkeys. The choices of 2.5-year-old children and red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) were examined in a gambling task for food reward in which participants have to choose between two options, a secure option and a risky option...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151784/molecular-targeted-treatment-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-the-cardiovascular-adverse-effects-of-bevacizumab-and-cetuximab
#6
REVIEW
Alexandra Gherman, Călin Căinap, Anne-Marie Constantin, Sînziana Cetean, Simona Sorana Căinap
Novel emerging therapies have changed paradigms in metastatic colorectal cancer. The advantages of molecular targeted treatments, either the anti-angiogenic or the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drugs, reside in the fact that while their specificity for the cancer cell is higher, their toxicity on normal tissues is significantly lower when compared to chemotherapy. But when it comes to their safety, especially from a cardiovascular point of view, they still need to pass the test of time and further prospective studies are needed...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145885/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-melanoma-bridge-napoli-november-30th-3rd-december-2016
#7
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv S Agarwala, Gennaro Ciliberto, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Connie P M Duong, Soldano Ferrone, Silvia C Formenti, Claus Garbe, Ruth Halaban, Samir Khleif, Jason J Luke, Lluis M Mir, Willem W Overwijk, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Paul Sondel, Janis M Taube, Per Thor Straten, David F Stroncek, Jennifer A Wargo, Hassane Zarour, Magdalena Thurin
Major advances have been made in the treatment of cancer with targeted therapy and immunotherapy; several FDA-approved agents with associated improvement of 1-year survival rates became available for stage IV melanoma patients. Before 2010, the 1-year survival were quite low, at 30%; in 2011, the rise to nearly 50% in the setting of treatment with Ipilimumab, and rise to 70% with BRAF inhibitor monotherapy in 2013 was observed. Even more impressive are 1-year survival rates considering combination strategies with both targeted therapy and immunotherapy, now exceeding 80%...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138342/immunotherapy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-facts-and-hopes
#8
Mercedes Iñarrairaegui, Ignacio Melero, Bruno Sangro
Treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the advanced stage remains a great challenge, with very few drugs approved. After decades of failures of immune therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as potentially effective treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the advanced stage. Immune checkpoints, including human cancer, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), are surface proteins expressed in a variety of immune cells, and mostly provide immunosuppressive signals...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137956/pattern-of-relapse-and-dose-received-by-the-recurrent-intraprostatic-nodule-in-low-to-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer-treated-with-single-fraction-19-gy-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy
#9
Lucas C Mendez, Ananth Ravi, Hans Chung, Chia-Lin Tseng, Matt Wronski, Moti Paudel, Merrylee McGuffin, Patrick Cheung, Andrew Loblaw, Gerard Morton
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to investigate the pattern of relapse in patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with 19-Gy high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) and to calculate the dose received by the area of recurrence. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients included in this analysis were treated under a Phase II randomized trial that evaluated the role of 19-Gy HDR-BT monotherapy in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers. Multiparametric prostate MRI and prostate biopsy were performed in patients with suspicious local recurrence...
November 11, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134964/a-randomized-trial-comparing-high-definition-colonoscopy-alone-with-high-definition-dye-spraying-and-electronic-virtual-chromoendoscopy-for-detection-of-colonic-neoplastic-lesions-during-ibd-surveillance-colonoscopy
#10
Marietta Iacucci, Gilaad G Kaplan, Remo Panaccione, Oluseyi Akinola, Brendan Cord Lethebe, Mark Lowerison, Yvette Leung, Kerri L Novak, Cynthia H Seow, Stefan Urbanski, Parham Minoo, Xianyong Gui, Subrata Ghosh
OBJECTIVES: Dye spraying chromoendoscopy (DCE) is recommended for the detection of colonic neoplastic lesions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The majority of neoplastic lesions are visible endoscopically and therefore targeted biopsies are appropriate for surveillance colonoscopy. To compare three different techniques for surveillance colonoscopy to detect colonic neoplastic lesions in IBD patients: high definition (HD), (DCE), or virtual chromoendoscopy (VCE) using iSCAN image enhanced colonoscopy...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132834/folic-acid-intake-and-folate-status-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Sara Moazzen, Roya Dolatkhah, Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi, Jabraeel Shaarbafi, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Geertruida H de Bock, Saeed Dastgiri
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To evaluate the controversies among the studies assessing the association between folic acid intake or folate status and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane library and references of related articles were searched from January 2000 to September 2016. Studies on folic acid intake or folate status and colorectal cancer or adenoma risk were included. Full text review was conducted for potentially eligible studies. Quality assessment was performed...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131323/validity-and-usefulness-of-a-single-item-measure-of-patient-reported-bother-from-side-effects-of-cancer-therapy
#12
Timothy P Pearman, Jennifer L Beaumont, Daniel Mroczek, Mary O'Connor, David Cella
BACKGROUND: The improving efficacy of cancer treatment has resulted in an increasing array of treatment-related symptoms and associated burdens imposed on individuals undergoing aggressive treatment of their disease. Often, clinical trials compare therapies that have different types, and severities, of adverse effects. Whether rated by clinicians or patients themselves, it can be difficult to know which side effect profile is more disruptive or bothersome to patients. A simple summary index of bother can help to adjudicate the variability in adverse effects across treatments being compared with each other...
November 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131285/favourable-hypotensive-effect-after-standardised-tomato-extract-treatment-in-hypertensive-subjects-at-high-estimated-cardiovascular-risk-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Beata Krasińska, Angelika Osińska, Aleksandra Krasińska, Maciej Osiński, Piotr Rzymski, Andrzej Tykarski, Zbigniew Krasiński
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases remain a leading global cause of death. Lowering blood pressure (BP) reduces the risk of CV complications, especially stroke and acute coronary events, and it delays the progression of kidney disease. Adequate non-pharmacological treatment improves the effectiveness of the antihypertensive therapy. A Mediterranean diet with high content of vegetables (rich in tomatoes) is associated with a reduced CV risk. AIM: The main objective of the present study was to assess if the addition of standardised extract of tomato (STE) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) to standard antihypertensive therapy can improve blood pressure control in patients with hypertension (HT)...
November 13, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128787/enhancing-handwashing-frequency-and-technique-of-primary-caregivers-in-harare-zimbabwe-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-using-behavioral-and-microbial-outcomes
#14
Max N D Friedrich, Andreas Kappler, Hans-Joachim Mosler
RATIONALE: Consistent hand hygiene prevents diarrheal and respiratory diseases, but it is often not practiced. The disease burden is highest in low-income settings, which need effective interventions to promote domestic handwashing. To date, most handwashing campaigns have focused on promoting frequent handwashing at key times, whereas specifically promoting handwashing techniques proven to be effective in removing microbes has been confined to healthcare settings. METHODS: We used a cluster-randomized, factorial, controlled trial to test the effects of two handwashing interventions on the behavior of primary caregivers in Harare, Zimbabwe...
November 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126891/early-real-world-experience-with-direct-oral-anticoagulants-in-the-treatment-of-intermediate-high-risk-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#15
Sónia Martins Santos, Susana Cunha, Rui Baptista, Sílvia Monteiro, Pedro Monteiro, Francisco Gonçalves, Mariano Pêgo
INTRODUCTION: Intermediate-high risk pulmonary embolism (IHR-PE) has a poor prognosis, but is under-represented in trials of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). We aimed to assess whether the administration of DOACs was equivalent to the conventional (CONV) treatment of low-molecular weight heparin bridged with warfarin for treating IHR-PE. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including 59 consecutive patients admitted with IHR-PE and followed for up to three months after discharge...
November 7, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125828/comprehensive-analysis-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-fibroblasts-by-rna-sequencing-reveals-altered-levels-of-protein-synthesis-factors-and-solute-carriers
#16
Jill Sergesketter Napierala, Yanjie Li, Yue Lu, Kevin Lin, Lauren A Hauser, David R Lynch, Marek Napierala
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease usually caused by large homozygous expansions of GAA repeat sequences in intron 1 of the frataxin (FXN) gene. FRDA patients homozygous for GAA expansions have low FXN mRNA and protein levels when compared with heterozygous carriers or healthy controls. Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein involved in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, and many FRDA phenotypes result from deficiencies in cellular metabolism due to lowered expression of FXN Presently, there is no effective treatment for FRDA, and biomarkers to measure therapeutic trial outcomes and/or to gauge disease progression are lacking...
November 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122516/placenta-derived-plx-pad-mesenchymal-like-stromal-cells-are-efficacious-in-rescuing-blood-flow-in-hind-limb-ischemia-mouse-model-by-a-dose-and-site-dependent-mechanism-of-action
#17
Efrat Zahavi-Goldstein, Michal Blumenfeld, Dana Fuchs-Telem, Lena Pinzur, Shy Rubin, Zami Aberman, Noa Sher, Racheli Ofir
BACKGROUND: In peripheral artery disease (PAD), blockage of the blood supply to the limbs, most frequently the legs, leads to impaired blood flow and tissue ischemia. Pluristem's PLX-PAD cells are placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal-like cells currently in clinical trials for the treatment of peripheral artery diseases. METHODS: In this work, the hind limb ischemia (HLI) mouse model was utilized to study the efficacy and mechanism of action of PLX-PAD cells. ELISA assays were performed to characterize and quantitate PLX-PAD secretions in vitro...
November 6, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119934/direct-acting-antivirals-for-hiv-hcv-co-infected-individuals-as-good-as-it-gets
#18
Giuseppe Bruno, Annalisa Saracino
Although HIV/HCV co-infected individuals were historically considered a "difficult to treat" population in the era of Interferon (IFN)-based anti-HCV treatment, the introduction of direct-acting antivirals, characterized by excellent efficacy and good safety profile, has widely revolutionized the HCV treatment scenario. Recent real life studies reported excellent sustained virological response rates in HIV/HCV co-infected subjects, thus confirming data obtained in randomized clinical trials. However, certain issues have recently emerged in this population...
November 8, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119384/tributyltin-advancing-the-science-on-assessing-endocrine-disruption-with-an-unconventional-endocrine-disrupting-compound
#19
Laurent Lagadic, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Ron Biever, Patrick D Guiney, Natalie Karouna-Renier, Tamar Schwarz, James P Meador
Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated-interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA...
November 9, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116691/hyperbaric-oxygen-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke-following-cardiac-surgery-a-retrospective-observational-trial
#20
Viktoria Heide-Marie Weixler, Ameli Elisabeth Yates, Markus Puchinger, Birgit Zirngast, Prisca Pondorfer, Beatrice Ratzenhofer-Komenda, Andrea Amegah-Sakotnik, Freyja-Maria Smolle-Juettner, Otto Dapunt
BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO₂) involves breathing 100% oxygen under elevated ambient pressure in a hyperbaric chamber, thereby dissolving oxygen in the plasma. This results in an increase of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO₂). Though well established in experimental studies, HBO₂ treatment for ischemic stroke is still under discussion. METHODS: From 2002-2014 HBO₂ (2.2 bar, 90 minutes one/day; average number per patient: 4.7) was applied in 49 consecutive patients (32 males, 17 females, mean age: 68...
2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
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