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Flora Hoodin, Leah LaLonde, Josh Errickson, Kristen Votruba, Rachel Kentor, Erin Gatza, Pavan Reddy, Sung Won Choi
Myeloablative conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) puts patients at greater risk for significant cognitive and quality of life decline compared with recipients of reduced intensity conditioning or autologous HCT. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor, has been shown to have neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in preclinical models of neurological diseases. Thus, within the context of a myeloablative conditioning phase II clinical trial of vorinostat combined with tacrolimus and methotrexate for GVHD prophylaxis, we conducted an ancillary study to evaluate feasibility of assessing associations between Vorinostat and neurocognitive function and quality of life (ClinicalTrials...
September 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Fernanda S Correia-Melo, Gustavo C Leal, Michelle S Carvalho, Ana Paula Jesus-Nunes, Carolina B N Ferreira, Flávia Vieira, Guilherme Magnavita, Lucas A S Vale, Rodrigo P Mello, Carolina Nakahira, Felipe C Argolo, Tanise Cardoso, Cezar D S Souza, Ana Teresa C Fontes, Marcelo B Ferreira, Lucas Araújo-de-Freitas, Marco A Tuena, Mariana V F Echegaray, Diogo E Cavalcanti, Ana C Lucchese, Igor D Bandeira, Manuela Telles, Cássio S Lima, Aline S Sampaio, Samantha S Silva, Roberta F Marback, José A Del-Porto, José Neander Abreu, Luciana M Sarin, Camilla S Paixão, Lucas P Carvalho, Paulo R L Machado, Gustavo Turecki, Acioly L T Lacerda, Lucas C Quarantini
INTRODUCTION: The use of ketamine as an option in the treatment of depressive disorder is growing rapidly, supported by numerous clinical trials attesting its efficacy and safety. Esketamine, the S (+) enantiomer of ketamine, is the most widely used form in the anesthetic environment in some countries, and new studies have shown that it may also be effective in depression and with better tolerability. However, no study so far has directly compared esketamine with racemic ketamine. Here we propose a protocol of a clinical trial to evaluate esketamine as a noninferior medication when compared to ketamine in the treatment of patients with treatment-resistant depression...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Viktoriia Iegorova, Milos Havelka, Martin Psenicka, Taiju Saito
Polyspermy is the most commonly observed cause of embryonic abnormalities in fertilization, often resulting in death. In sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus), however, polyspermic embryos have high survival (similar to a control group) and morphological development is similar to monospermic larvae. Ploidy of these individuals is n/2n mosaic (whereas the normal state for A. ruthenus is a functional diploid). This study was undertaken to test whether sturgeon eggs can be fertilized by several spermatozoa from different species to produce viable offspring from three interspecific parents: A...
September 19, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Tageldin M Othman, Ahmed Mousa, Priscilla W Gikandi, Mohamed AbdelMabod, Ahmed M Abdelrahman
Objective: To investigate and evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical cyclosporine A for treatment of moderate to severe dry eye disease. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study of patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome were recruited. All cases were selected from patients attending the ophthalmic outpatient clinic of Research institute of ophthalmology. Eligible patients were at least 21 years of age with a confirmed diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca with or without Sjogren's syndrome refractory to conventional management...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
Soumya Ranjan Panda, Madhu Jain, Shuchi Jain, Riden Saxena, Smrutismita Hota
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a commonly prevalent endocrinopathy among reproductive age group women, is most often associated with obesity. Increased insulin resistance appears to be the central pathophysiologic mechanism responsible for various complications of PCOS. This makes 'weight loss' as the first-line treatment approach in PCOS. So various trials have tried to compare metformin (an insulin-sensitizing agent) and orlistat (an anti-obesity drug) aiming to achieve weight loss and hence higher ovulation rate for the group of obese PCOS patients...
October 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Yuan Wang, Hernando Ombao, Moo K Chung
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that can negatively affect the visual, audial and motor functions of the human brain. Statistical analysis of neurophysiological recordings, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), facilitates the understanding and diagnosis of epileptic seizures. Standard statistical methods, however, do not account for topological features embedded in EEG signals. In the current study, we propose a persistent homology (PH) procedure to analyze single-trial EEG signals. The procedure denoises signals with a weighted Fourier series (WFS), and tests for topological difference between the denoised signals with a permutation test based on their PH features persistence landscapes (PL)...
September 2018: Annals of Applied Statistics
Wioletta Pietruszewska, Magda Barańska, Jakub Wielgat
Acute infections of the upper respiratory tract and upper gastrointestinal tract (mouth and throat) are still the most common reason for reporting to the general practitioner or ENT specialist. Despite the fact that the most common causative agent of these diseases is a virus, antibiotics are still flavored in about 60-80% of patients who report to the doctor. In consensuses such as EPOS, WHO reports and other local/ / national reports, there is a need to limit antibacterial treatment for and to replace it with symptomatic and anti-inflammatory drugs...
August 31, 2018: Otolaryngologia Polska
Carla Maiara Lopes Cardozo, Aline Carla Inada, Gabriela Marcelino, Priscila Silva Figueiredo, Daniela Granja Arakaki, Priscila Aiko Hiane, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Karine de Cássia Freitas
Obesity, in conjunction with other metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, is a feature of metabolic syndrome which is characterized by a pro-inflammatory state and increased oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidant foods are proposed to prevent and treat these disorders. Medicinal plants are one of the main strategies in this regard. Guavira, a Brazilian Cerrado plant, contains different bioactive compounds with a high antioxidant capacity and without clinical or reproductive toxicity effects...
September 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marie T Krüger, Jan-Helge Klingler, Cordula Jilg, Christine Steiert, Stefan Zschiedrich, Vera Van Velthoven, Sven Gläsker
Background: Hemangioblastomas are associated with elevated hemoglobin (Hb) levels (polyglobulia), which is associated with a higher risk for cerebral stroke, cardiac infarction and pulmonary embolism. The pathomechanism of polyglobulia remains unclear and different theories have been postulated. Among those are elevated serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels caused by secretion of the tumor or associated tumor cyst. Methods: To elucidate the pathomechanism, we systematically investigated the relation between polyglobulia, serum EPO level, size of the solid tumor and associated cyst in hemangioblastomas...
2018: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Masahisa Katsuno, Kentaro Sahashi, Yohei Iguchi, Atsushi Hashizume
Neurodegenerative diseases are disorders that are characterized by a progressive decline of the motor and/or cognitive function caused by a selective loss of neurons within the central nervous system. Recent advancements in the translational research have facilitated extensive insights into the molecular pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Nonetheless, a myriad of compounds that suppressed the disease progression in cellular and animal models did not exhibit efficacy in clinical trials. Perhaps, various biological, medical, and methodological factors could be attributed to unfavorable results of clinical trials of such disease-modifying therapies...
August 2018: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Fred Saad, David Cella, Ethan Basch, Boris A Hadaschik, Paul N Mainwaring, Stéphane Oudard, Julie N Graff, Kelly McQuarrie, Susan Li, Stacie Hudgens, Joe Lawson, Angela Lopez-Gitlitz, Margaret K Yu, Matthew R Smith, Eric J Small
BACKGROUND: In the SPARTAN trial, addition of apalutamide to androgen deprivation therapy, as compared with placebo plus androgen deprivation therapy, significantly improved metastasis-free survival in men with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who were at high risk for development of metastases. We aimed to investigate the effects of apalutamide versus placebo added to androgen deprivation therapy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: SPARTAN is a multicentre, international, randomised, phase 3 trial...
September 10, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Shi Wu Wen, Ruth Rennicks White, Natalie Rybak, Laura M Gaudet, Stephen Robson, William Hague, Donnette Simms-Stewart, Guillermo Carroli, Graeme Smith, William D Fraser, George Wells, Sandra T Davidge, John Kingdom, Doug Coyle, Dean Fergusson, Daniel J Corsi, Josee Champagne, Elham Sabri, Tim Ramsay, Ben Willem J Mol, Martijn A Oudijk, Mark C Walker
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of high dose folic acid supplementation for prevention of pre-eclampsia in women with at least one risk factor: pre-existing hypertension, prepregnancy diabetes (type 1 or 2), twin pregnancy, pre-eclampsia in a previous pregnancy, or body mass index ≥35. DESIGN: Randomised, phase III, double blinded international, multicentre clinical trial. SETTING: 70 obstetrical centres in five countries (Argentina, Australia, Canada, Jamaica, and UK)...
September 12, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Adam F Barnes, Theresa P Yeo, Benjamin Leiby, Abigail Kay, Jordan M Winter
The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in pancreatic cancer (PC) has been reported up to 7 times higher than the general population. Despite repeated studies that show worse quality of life, survival outcomes, and treatment compliance in cancer patients with depression, baseline antidepressant use ranges from 15% to 27%. A meta-analysis of 6 prospective trials specific to PC estimates that 43% of patients with PC experience depression after diagnosis. This is especially alarming in patients with PC, who may experience a prodrome of symptoms including depression and loss of drive...
October 2018: Pancreas
Miklós Udvardy
Preparative and clinical transfusiology and transfusion, a majestic part of clinical medicine saved the life of hundred millions. However, bloodborne or transmitted infections became a serious issue in France in the 1980s, when many haemophiliacs were infected by HIV or hepatitis C virus by receiving plazma FactorVIII concentrates. This resulted in a quick and powerful development of screening as well as pathogen-inactivating methods, which reduced pathogen contamination and transmission to minimal levels. Times and pathogens are continously and rather quickly changing, so during the last decade many - not only egzotic - new pathogens and diseases were recognised, and some of them (e...
September 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Jan Baxa, Jiří Ferda
Computed tomography (CT) is currently an imaging method with a very wide use in acute and chronic diagnostics. Technological development of the method has gradually enabled a good view of the coronary flow in a noninvasive way. The article summarizes the current possibilities of coronary CT angiography, a proven method for the detection of coronary atherosclerosis. Its main advantage is particularly a simplicity and a design safety and potentially a high availability. An ever-increasing number of clinical trials has been validating the possible relevance of CT angiography in a variety of clinical situations and it is highly probable to expect a widening of the spectrum of indications, particularly in a group of patients with a higher pretest probability of coronary artery disease...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Peta-Lee Sacks, Richard J Harvey, Janet Rimmer, Richard M Gallagher, Raymond Sacks
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disorder of the nose and sinuses. Since fungi were postulated as a potential cause of CRS in the late 1990s, there has been increasing controversy about the use of both topical and systemic antifungal agents in its management. Although interaction between the immune system and fungus has been demonstrated in CRS, this does not necessarily imply that fungi are the cause of CRS or that antifungals will be effective its management...
September 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Heriberto Medina-Franco, Lorelí Mejía-Fernández
Ovarian cancer, which is mostly diagnosed in advanced stages, is a disease with high mortality among women. Until now, no screening strategies have been accepted and are currently under study because although they help in the diagnosis at early stages, they do not increase survival. The gold standard treatment for advanced ovarian cancer is based on primary debulking surgery (PDS) follow by adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Recently, treatment alternatives have been proposed: neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with interval debulking surgery (IDS)...
June 29, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Edwin Nemoto, Ridwan Lin, Ken Uchino, Julia Billigen, Nicholas Bircher, Syed Zaidi, Vivek Reddy, Mouhammad Jumma, Hiroto Kuwabara, Donald Sashin, Fernando Boada, Yue-Fang Chang, Nirav Vora, Maxim Hammer, Tudor Jovin, Lori Massaro, Tongsheng Zhang, Keisuke Matsumoto, H Yonas
The superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass (STA-MCA) bypass surgery developed by Donaghy and Yarsagil in 1967 provided relief for patients with acute stroke and large vessel occlusive vascular disease. Early reports showed low morbidity and good outcomes. However, a large clinical trial in 1985 reported a failure of extracranial-intracranial (EC/IC) bypass to show benefit in reducing the risk of stroke compared to best medical treatment. Problems with the study included cross overs to surgery from best medical treatment, patients unwilling to be randomized and chose EC/IC surgery, and loss of patients to follow-up...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Steven Lockhart, Amanda F Dempsey, Jennifer Pyrzanowski, Sean T O'Leary, Juliana G Barnard
OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and completion rates remain far below the Healthy People 2020 goal, suggesting that additional tools and training may be needed to help medical staff provide a quality recommendation. As part of a larger pragmatic trial, we conducted a qualitative study to understand how a multifaceted communication intervention used by medical staff with HPV vaccine-hesitant parents can improve HPV vaccination rates in the primary care setting...
September 2018: Academic Pediatrics
C J Wijburg, C T J Michels, J R Oddens, J P C Grutters, J A Witjes, M M Rovers
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the cost-effectiveness of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is not yet proven, and open radical (ORC) cystectomy is recommended as the standard of care in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer, the use of RARC is still increasing. The objective of the current ongoing comparative effectiveness trial therefore is to study the (cost-)effectiveness of RARC compared to ORC, both in terms of objective (complication rates, oncological outcomes) and patient-reported (health-related quality of life) outcome measures...
September 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
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