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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635354/the-effects-of-food-on-opioid-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-and-pharmacological-parameters-a-systematic-review
#1
Robert B Raffa, Robert Colucci, Joseph V Pergolizzi
Opioids remain the standard of care for treating moderate to severe pain resulting from surgery or injury in cases of acute pain, and are recommended for patients who have not responded to nonopioid analgesics. Effective management of pain has an impact on clinical course and often depends on achieving an acceptable balance between opioid efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Common opioid-related adverse events such as nausea and vomiting are associated with an overall lower achievement of effective pain management and patient satisfaction...
June 21, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629343/comparative-effectiveness-research-what-to-do-when-experts-disagree-about-risks
#2
Reidar K Lie, Francis K L Chan, Christine Grady, Vincent H Ng, David Wendler
BACKGROUND: Ethical issues related to comparative effectiveness research, or research that compares existing standards of care, have recently received considerable attention. In this paper we focus on how Ethics Review Committees (ERCs) should evaluate the risks of comparative effectiveness research. MAIN TEXT: We discuss what has been a prominent focus in the debate about comparative effectiveness research, namely that it is justified when "nothing is known" about the comparative effectiveness of the available alternatives...
June 19, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627500/nanowire-based-thermoelectrics
#3
Azhar Ali, Yixi Chen, Venkata Vasiraju, Sreeram Vaddiraju
Research on thermoelectrics has seen a huge resurgence since the early 1990s. The ability of tuning a material's electrical and thermal transport behavior upon nanostructuring has led to this revival. Nevertheless, thermoelectric performances of nanowires and related materials lag far behind those achieved with thin-film superlattices and quantum dot-based materials. This is despite the fact that nanowires offer many distinct advantages in enhancing the thermoelectric performances of materials. The simplicity of the strategy is the first and foremost advantage...
June 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626967/strategy-over-operation-neural-activation-in-subtraction-and-multiplication-during-fact-retrieval-and-procedural-strategy-use-in-children
#4
Brecht Polspoel, Lien Peters, Maaike Vandermosten, Bert De Smedt
Arithmetic development is characterized by strategy shifts between procedural strategy use and fact retrieval. This study is the first to explicitly investigate children's neural activation associated with the use of these different strategies. Participants were 26 typically developing 4th graders (9- to 10-year-olds), who, in a behavioral session, were asked to verbally report on a trial-by-trial basis how they had solved 100 subtraction and multiplication items. These items were subsequently presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625785/cerebral-ischemia-repefusion-injury-from-bench-space-to-bedside
#5
REVIEW
Z Nagy, S Nardai
While stroke research represents the primary interface between circulation and brain research, the hemostasis system also carries a pivotal role in the mechanism of vascular brain injury. The complex interrelated events triggered by the energy crisis have a specific spatial and temporal pattern arching from the initial damage to the final events of brain repair. The complexity of the pathophysiology make it difficult to model this disease, therefore it is challenging to find appropriate therapeutic targets...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624608/obesity-s-impact-on-asthma-extends-to-diagnostic-criteria
#6
Njira Lugogo, Cynthia L Green, Noah Agada, Siyi Zhang, Susanne Meghdadpour, Run Zhou, Siyun Yang, Kevin J Anstrom, Elliot Israel, Richard Martin, Robert F Lemanske, Homer Boushey, Stephen C Lazarus, Stephen I Wasserman, Mario Castro, William Calhoun, Stephen P Peters, Emily DiMango, Vernon Chinchilli, Nikolina Icitovic, Susan Kunselman, Tonya S King, Monica Kraft
BACKGROUND: The use of inflammatory biomarkers to delineate the type of lung inflammation present in asthma is increasingly common. However, the impact of obesity on these markers is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the impact of obesity on conventional markers of inflammation in asthma. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of data from 652 patients previously enrolled in two ACRN trials. We performed linear correlations between biomarkers and logistic regression analysis to determine the predictive value of IgE, blood eosinophils and FeNO in relationship to sputum eosinophils (>2%), as well as to determine if cut points existed that would maximize the sensitivity and specificity for predicting sputum eosinophilia in the three weight groups...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622558/photodynamic-therapy-treatment-of-onychomycosis-with-aluminium-phthalocyanine-chloride-nanoemulsions-a-proof-of-concept-clinical-trial
#7
Luciano Ferreira Morgado, Ana Regina Franchi Trávolo, Luís Alexandre Muehlmann, Paulo Souza Narcizo, Rodrigo Barbosa Nunes, Pedro Alencar Gomes Pereira, Karen Rapp Py-Daniel, Cheng-Shi Jiang, Jinsong Gu, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo, João Paulo Figueiró Longo
The conventional treatment of onychomycosis, a common fungal infection, consists in the use of local and systemic drugs for 4-6 months. This long protocol is often ineffective due to patient compliance, and usually promotes important collateral effects such as liver and kidney failure. As the alternative, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has been used as a noninvasive alternative local treatment for onychomycosis due to the reduction of systemic side effects, fact indicates their use for patients undergoing other systemic treatments...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620884/kinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-patients-with-metastatic-breast-cancer-treated-with-paclitaxel-nab-paclitaxel-or-ixabepilone-calgb-40502-alliance
#8
Shailly Mehrotra, Manish R Sharma, Elizabeth Gray, Kehua Wu, William T Barry, Clifford Hudis, Eric P Winer, Alan P Lyss, Deborah L Toppmeyer, Alvaro Moreno-Aspitia, Thomas E Lad, Mario Valasco, Beth Overmoyer, Hope Rugo, Mark J Ratain, Jogarao V Gobburu
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting toxicity caused by several chemotherapeutic agents. Currently, CIPN is managed by empirical dose modifications at the discretion of the treating physician. The goal of this research is to quantitate the dose-CIPN relationship to inform the optimal strategies for dose modification. Data were obtained from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 40502 trial, a randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel vs. nab-paclitaxel vs. ixabepilone as first-line chemotherapy for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer...
June 15, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617532/the-effect-of-a-natural-standardized-bilberry-extract-mirtoselect%C3%A2-in-dry-eye-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
A Riva, S Togni, F Franceschi, S Kawada, Y Inaba, R Eggenhoffner, L Giacomelli
OBJECTIVE: Dry eye, a chronic disease of lachrymal fluid and corneo-conjunctival epithelium, could significantly impact visual function, affects quality of life and work productivity. Beside several conventional treatments, nutritional supplements based on bilberry extract have been identified as effective contributors to eye health. Here, we aim at investigating the bioavailability of a standardized bilberry extract, its ability to alleviate dry eye symptoms and its antioxidant potential...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617319/pde4-inhibition-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-novel-therapeutic-avenue
#10
REVIEW
Marco Spadaccini, Silvia D'Alessio, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Silvio Danese
BACKGROUND: In the last few decades, a better knowledge of the inflammatory pathways involved in the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has promoted biological therapy as an important tool to treat IBD patients. However, in spite of a wider spectrum of biological drugs, a significant proportion of patients is unaffected by or lose their response to these compounds, along with increased risks of infections and malignancies. For these reasons there is an urgent need to look for new pharmacological targets...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616232/treatment-of-sudden-hearing-loss-using-electro-acupuncture
#11
Ya-Ching Chang, Kwok-Ying Chan
OBJECTIVES: Sudden neurosensory deafness is the second debilitating disease in China. In fact, the current treatment is limited to hearing aids, assistive devices and cochlear implants. However, some patients might not be suitable for surgery or even hearing aids. METHODS: Hereby, we report a pediatric case of sudden sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by otalgia and blocked ear sensation. RESULTS: He firstly failed with conventional treatment but later his hearing symptoms were improved with our electro-acupuncture therapy according to pure tone audiometry findings and clinical responses...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611944/pre-operative-lugol-s-iodine-treatment-in-the-management-of-patients-undergoing-thyroidectomy-for-graves-disease-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Nicholas Hope, Andrew Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a review of the relevant English literature published on the pre-operative use of Lugol's iodine in the management of patients undergoing thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. SEARCH STRATEGY: We reviewed all relevant papers found through Ovid Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and the American Thyroid Association website. Searches were limited to the English language only. EVALUATION METHOD: The critical appraisal tool CASP was used to help analyse the papers...
February 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611661/discovery-and-development-of-calcium-channel-blockers
#13
REVIEW
Théophile Godfraind
In the mid 1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovered by Sidney Ringer who reported this fact in 1883...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610806/heart-failure-in-patients-with-kidney-disease-and-iron-deficiency-the-role-of-iron-therapy
#14
Aleix Cases Amenós, Raquel Ojeda López, José María Portolés Pérez
Chronic kidney disease and anaemia are common in heart failure (HF) and are associated with a worse prognosis in these patients. Iron deficiency is also common in patients with HF and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality, regardless of the presence or absence of anaemia. While the treatment of anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with HF have failed to show a benefit in terms of morbidity and mortality, treatment with IV iron in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency is associated with clinical improvement...
June 10, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603881/early-palliative-care-for-adults-with-advanced-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Markus W Haun, Stephanie Estel, Gerta Rücker, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Matthias Villalobos, Michael Thomas, Mechthild Hartmann
BACKGROUND: Incurable cancer, which often constitutes an enormous challenge for patients, their families, and medical professionals, profoundly affects the patient's physical and psychosocial well-being. In standard cancer care, palliative measures generally are initiated when it is evident that disease-modifying treatments have been unsuccessful, no treatments can be offered, or death is anticipated. In contrast, early palliative care is initiated much earlier in the disease trajectory and closer to the diagnosis of incurable cancer...
June 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601920/human-dignity-as-a-basis-for-providing-post-trial-access-to-healthcare-for-research-participants-a-south-african-perspective
#16
Pamela Andanda, Jane Wathuta
This paper discusses the need to focus on the dignity of human participants as a legal and ethical basis for providing post-trial access to healthcare. Debate about post-trial benefits has mostly focused on access to products or interventions proven to be effective in clinical trials. However, such access may be modelled on a broad fair benefits framework that emphasises both collateral benefits and interventional products of research, instead of prescribed post-trial access alone (Legal and ethical regulation of biomedical research in developing countries p...
June 10, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600844/pain-in-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neurotoxicity
#17
REVIEW
Paola Marmiroli, Arianna Scuteri, David R Cornblath, Guido Cavaletti
Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neurotoxicity (CIPN) is a potentially dose-limiting side effect of the treatment of several cancers. CIPN is predominantly or exclusively sensory, and it is frequently associated with unpleasant symptoms, overall referred to as "pain". However, given the markedly different clinical presentation and course of CIPN depending on the antineoplastic drug used, the broad term "pain" in the specific context of CIPN needs to be reconsidered and refined. In fact, a precise identification of the features of CIPN has relevant implication in the design of rational-based clinical trials and in the selection of possible active drugs...
June 10, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600010/hemicraniectomy-for-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-facts-and-controversies
#18
REVIEW
Aman Gupta, Mithun G Sattur, Rami James N Aoun, Chandan Krishna, Patrick B Bolton, Brian W Chong, Bart M Demaerschalk, Mark K Lyons, Jamal McClendon, Naresh Patel, Ayan Sen, Kristin Swanson, Richard S Zimmerman, Bernard R Bendok
Malignant large artery stroke is associated with high mortality of 70% to 80% with best medical management. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a highly effective tool in reducing mortality. Convincing evidence has accumulated from several randomized trials, in addition to multiple retrospective studies, that demonstrate not only survival benefit but also improved functional outcome with DC in appropriately selected patients. This article explores in detail the evidence for DC, nuances regarding patient selection, and applicability of DC for supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage and posterior fossa ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke...
July 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599618/hiv-coinfected-patients-respond-worse-to-direct-acting-antiviral-based-therapy-against-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-real-life-than-hcv-monoinfected-individuals-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Karin Neukam, Luis E Morano-Amado, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, María Mancebo, Rafael Granados, Francisco Téllez, Antonio Collado, María J Ríos, Ignacio de Los Santos-Gil, Sergio Reus-Bañuls, Francisco Vera-Méndez, Paloma Geijo-Martínez, Marta Montero-Alonso, Marta Suárez-Santamaría, Juan A Pineda
OBJECTIVE: HIV/HCV-coinfected patients and hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfected subjects are thought to respond equally to direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based therapy despite the lack of data derived from clinical trials. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of HIV coinfection on the response to DAA-based treatment against HCV infection in the clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective multicohort study, patients who initiated DAA-based therapy at the Infectious Disease Units of 33 hospitals throughout Spain were included...
May 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599338/-effects-of-a-phone-based-follow-up-care-after-inpatient-rehabilitation-for-breast-cancer-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
H G Hass, F Muthny, J Stepien, J Lerch, C von der Marwitz, R Schröck, D Berger, J Tripp
Background Benefit and long-term effects of rehabilitation and psychoeducational interventions after cancer therapy are still controversial discussed. Aim of the study was to evaluate feasibility and effects of a telephone-based follow-up intervention after oncological rehabilitation. Methods 172 breast cancer patients (age 27-54 years) were randomized after inpatient rehabilitation to a telephone-based intervention (phone calls every 4 weeks over 6 months) or control group. Patients were evaluated by standardized questionnaire (e...
June 2017: Die Rehabilitation
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