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Anti- inflammatory therapies

P Zhang, T-T Cui, Z-H Zhang, Y-Q Wang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at studying the effect of adjuvant therapy with low-dose vitamin A on the function of T lymphocytes in neonatal pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 60 cases of neonatal pneumonia which were randomly divided in two equal groups. The control group was treated with conventional anti-inflammatory therapy and aerosol inhalation. The experimental group received oral vitamin A soft capsules for 7 days. RESULTS: Pre-treatment levels vitamin A level and vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD) percentage revealed no differences between the two groups...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Şule Apraş Bilgen, Umut Kalyoncu, Abdülsamet Erden, Uğur Canpolat, Levent Kılıç, Ömer Karadağ, Kudret Aytemir, Sedat Kiraz, Ali Akdoğan, İhsan Ertenli
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more prevalent in almost all patients with chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases than in their healthy counterparts. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison with patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 30 patients with PsA, 30 patients with RA, and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this parallel group study...
July 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Gerolamo Bevivino, Giovanni Monteleone
Cytokines represent the key pathophysiologic elements that govern the initiation, progression and, in some circumstances, the resolution of the inflammation occurring in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Areas covered: In this review, we will focus on the main effector and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced in IBD and discuss the results of recent trials in which cytokine-based therapy has been used for treating IBD patients. Expert commentary: The possibility to sample mucosal biopsies from IBD patients and analyze which molecular pathways are prominent during the active phases of the disease and the easy access to various models of experimental colitis have largely advanced our understanding about the role of cytokines in IBD...
July 19, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jessica M Gilbertie, Julie M Long, Alicia G Schubert, Alix K Berglund, Thomas P Schaer, Lauren V Schnabel
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations are being used with moderate success to treat osteoarthritis (OA) in humans and in veterinary species. Such preparations are hindered, however, by being autologous in nature and subject to tremendous patient and processing variability. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in the use of platelet lysate preparations instead of traditional PRP. Platelet lysate preparations are acellular, thereby reducing concerns over immunogenicity, and contain high concentrations of growth factors and cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Marija Vavlukis, Ana Vavlukis
Background: Statins are the hypolipemic treatment of choice for hyperlipidemia with confirmed atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) protective effect, proven even in normolipemic patients. But in rare situations, even with a high-dose treatment regimen, or maximally tolerated statin dose treatment, treatment targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), according to the risk profile of the patient, cannot be achieved. Combination therapy with ezetimibe is an effective treatment choice, as it is one of the few hypolipemic drugs with proven ASCVD protective effect...
2018: Drugs in Context
Handan Sevim, Yusuf Çetin Kocaefe, Mehmet Ali Onur, Duygu Uçkan-Çetinkaya, Özer Aylin Gürpınar
BACKGROUND: Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 2 (FHL2) is the most common familial type of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with immune dysregulation. FHL2 patients have mutations in the perforin gene which cause overactivation and proliferation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Perforin is the key component of the cytolytic granule response function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Perforin dysfunction causes a cytotoxic immune deficiency with a clinical outcome of uncontrolled and continuous immune stimulation response...
July 18, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Matías Hernández, Susana Wicz, Miguel H Santamaría, Ricardo S Corral
BACKGROUND: The anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties of curcumin (Cur), a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, are increasingly considered to have beneficial effects on the progression of Chagas heart disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of oral therapy with Cur on T. cruzi-mediated cardiovasculopathy in acutely infected mice and analyse the in vitro response of parasite-infected human microvascular endothelial cells treated with this phytochemical...
July 16, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Christopher Vannabouathong, Mohit Bhandari, Asheesh Bedi, Vickas Khanna, Patrick Yung, Vijay Shetty, Moin Khan
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommending various nonoperative treatments for patients with knee osteoarthritis remain inconsistent. Much of this controversy relates to what constitutes a clinically important effect. The purposes of the present study were to compare treatment effect sizes from recent meta-analyses evaluating pharmacological or medical device interventions for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis and to further assess the clinical impact that the intra-articular placebo effect may have on intra-articular injection therapies...
July 17, 2018: JBJS Reviews
Yong Tang, Guojun Cao, Xiaobo Min, Tao Wang, Shiran Sun, Xiaolong Du, Weikang Zhang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most common chronic liver disease. NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been widely studied in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Cathepsin B (CTSB) is a ubiquitous cysteine cathepsin, and the role of CTSB in the progression and development of NAFLD has received extensive concern. However, the exact roles of CTSB in the NAFLD development and NLRP3 inflammasome activation are yet to be evaluated. In the present study, we used methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet to establish mice NASH model...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Linda Russi, Michael Scharl, Gerhard Rogler, Luc Biedermann
Background: The TNF-α antagonist golimumab is approved for the treatment of ulcerative colitis but not for Crohn's disease (CD). We herein report a case series of 8 difficult-to-treat patients with severe and refractory CD receiving golimumab as an off-label rescue medication and fourth-line anti-TNF agent in our tertiary referral inflammatory bowel disease center. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical, biochemical, and radiological as well as endoscopic parameters...
November 2017: Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
Bombi Lee, Insop Shim, Hyejung Lee
Neuroinflammation is deliberated a major factor in various neurodegenerative diseases. Gypenosides (GPS) have pharmacological properties with multiple beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and protective properties. In the present study, whether GPS could improve cognitive dysfunction and chronic inflammation caused by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the hippocampus was investigated. Effects of GPS on inflammatory factors in the hippocampus and the downstream mechanisms of these effects were also examined...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Martial Caillaud, Benjamin Chantemargue, Laurence Richard, Laetitia Vignaud, Frédéric Favreau, Pierre-Antoine Faye, Philippe Vignoles, Franck Sturtz, Patrick Trouillas, Jean-Michel Vallat, Alexis Desmoulière, Fabrice Billet
Traumatic injuries to peripheral nerves are frequent, however, specific pharmacological treatments are currently lacking. Curcumin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties but high oral doses are required for therapeutic use, particularly due to its low bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of local and continuous treatment using low curcumin doses on functional recovery and nerve regeneration after rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC). Curcumin was administered by osmotic pumps with a catheter delivering the drug at the injury site (0...
July 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Anil Kumar Rana, Damanpreet Singh
Cerebral stroke is a leading cause of early death and physical disability in adults throughout the world. Oxidative stress and inflammation plays an important role in the pathological process associated with the stroke. The available reperfusion therapy itself enhances the oxidative stress by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from the neurons, as well as non-neuronal cells, thus further worsens the condition. Excessive ROS and RNS production contributes to the brain injury during or after the stroke by activating inflammatory processes...
July 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Khadijah Zai, Masato Hirota, Takahiro Yamada, Narumi Ishihara, Takeshi Mori, Akihiro Kishimura, Koichiro Suzuki, Koji Hase, Yoshiki Katayama
The active form of vitamin D3 , 1,25(OH)2 D3 has been found to exert multiple effects on the suppression of progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D3 has been gathering attention as a therapy for IBD. However, the clinical trials conducted to date revealed that a relatively high dosage of vitamin D3 was required to see a significant therapeutic effect. Thus, effective formulation and delivery of vitamin D3 to colonic inflammatory lesions will be required. Herein we describe the preparation of a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) for the encapsulation of 1,25(OH)2 D3 for colonic delivery via oral administration...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Ntobeko A B Ntusi, Jane M Francis, Emily Sever, Alexander Liu, Stefan K Piechnik, Vanessa M Ferreira, Paul M Matthews, Matthew D Robson, Paul B Wordsworth, Stefan Neubauer, Theodoros D Karamitsos
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are common disorders associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the contribution of cytokine-induced inflammation to impaired cardiovascular function in these conditions remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of anti-TNF therapy on myocardial and vascular function, myocardial tissue characteristics and perfusion in inflammatory arthropathy and systemic rheumatic disease (IASRD) patients, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)...
June 25, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Dengying Wu, ShanShan Jin, Zeng Lin, Rong Chen, Tianlong Pan, Xiaodiao Kang, Huasong Huang, Cong Lin, Jun Pan
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease for which currently no anti-inflammatory therapy is available. Sauchinone (SAU), a key bioactive compound derived from Saururus chinensis, which has shown remarkable anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of SAU on OA progression, mouse chondrocytes were pretreated with SAU and subsequently stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β. We found that SAU reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6...
July 13, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Kristen E Dostie, Amy V Thees, Michael A Lynes
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of disorders characterized by chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. It is a multifactorial disease associated with immune-cell mediated oxidative damage to the intestinal mucosa. There is no cure for IBD, but anti-cytokine therapy can limit target inflammation and disease progression. Unfortunately, many patients are nonresponsive or develop resistance to anti-cytokine therapy over time creating a need for new therapeutic agents. Metallothionein (MT) is a small, highly conserved stress response protein that has been shown to modulate the immune response as a pro-inflammatory agent, regulate divalent heavy metal homeostasis, and act as a reactive metabolite scavenger...
July 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Y Wang, Y Gu, K Fang, K Mao, J Dou, H Fan, C Zhou, H Wang
Ulcerative colitis is a type of chronic inflammation present in the intestines for which the aetiology is not yet clear. The current therapies for ulcerative colitis cannot be considered to be long-term management strategies due to their significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to identify an alternative therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis. The present study focused on the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus CGMCC 7282 and Clostridium butyricum CGMCC 7281...
July 17, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Sailesh Kotecha, Hege Clemm, Thomas Halvorsen, Sarah J Kotecha
BACKGROUND: Preterm-born survivors have increased respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function, but the nature of bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for BHR in preterm-born survivors including those with and without chronic lung disease in infancy (CLD) comparing results to term-born subjects. METHODS: We searched eight databases up to December 2016. Included articles compared BHR in preterm-born and term-born subjects...
July 17, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Paolo Spagnolo, Argyris Tzouvelekis, Francesco Bonella
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common form of fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, is an inexorably progressive disease with a 5-year survival of ~20%. In the last decade, our understanding of disease pathobiology has increased significantly and this has inevitably impacted on the approach to treatment. Indeed, the paradigm shift from a chronic inflammatory disorder to a primarily fibrotic one coupled with a more precise disease definition and redefined diagnostic criteria have resulted in a massive increase in the number of clinical trials evaluating novel candidate drugs...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
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