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Anti- cytokine therapies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547815/balancing-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-reduce-inflammation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
F A Koopman, M A van Maanen, M J Vervoordeldonk, P P Tak
Imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been observed in many established chronic autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is a prototypic immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID). We recently discovered that autonomic dysfunction precedes and predicts arthritis development in subjects at risk of developing seropositive RA. In addition, RA patients with relatively high vagus nerve tone (higher parasympathetic parameters, measured by heart rate variability) respond better to antirheumatic therapies...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546502/can-we-design-a-better-anti-cytokine-therapy
#2
Marina S Drutskaya, Grigory A Efimov, Andrei A Kruglov, Sergei A Nedospasov
Cytokine neutralization is successfully used for treatment of various autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions. The complex biology of the two well-characterized proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 implicates unavoidable consequences when it comes to their global blockade. Because systemic cytokine ablation may result in unwanted side effects, efforts have been made to develop more specific cytokine inhibitors, which would spare the protective immunoregulatory functions of a given cytokine...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546114/melaleuca-alternifolia-essential-oil-prevents-alterations-to-purinergic-enzymes-and-ameliorates-the-innate-immune-response-in-silver-catfish-infected-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#3
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Pedro H Doleski, Agueda C de Vargas, Marta M M F Duarte, Thiago Duarte, Aline A Boligon, Daniela B R Leal, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Aeromonas hydrophila infection represents a major impediment to the development of aquaculture, leading to important economic losses. Over the last few years, different methods have been used to counteract and minimize the negative effects of this infection, such as the use of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), that possess a bactericide action against A. hydrophila. The purinergic system develops an important role in the inflammatory response, principally due to involvement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the inflammatory process, as well as by the anti-inflammatory properties of adenosine (Ado), a molecule that is controlled by NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzymes...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545778/current-pharmacological-developments-in-2-3-4-5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-tsg
#4
REVIEW
Jingjing Wu, Wenfeng Hu, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Lijuan Tong, Xiangfan Chen, Zhuo Chen, Xiaole Xu, Wenjuan Yao, Wei Zhang, Chao Huang
2,3,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), a resveratrol analog with glucoside, is purified from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine polygonum multiflorum. It has been extensively studied in last decade and known to exert strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and free radical scavenging activities, and therefore has been listed as a potential agent for disease therapies. Recent studies extend well-beyond effects of TSG on the injury of neurons, cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, and report important functions of TSG in a lot of pathophysiological conditions...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544595/severe-cytokine-release-syndrome-in-a-patient-receiving-pd-1-directed-therapy
#5
Seth J Rotz, Daniel Leino, Sara Szabo, Jennifer L Mangino, Brian K Turpin, Joseph G Pressey
Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a phenomenon of immune hyperactivation described in the setting of cellular and bispecific T-cell engaging immunotherapy. Checkpoint blockade using anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1) inhibitors is an approach to antitumor immune system stimulation. A 29-year-old female with alveolar soft part sarcoma developed severe CRS after treatment with anti-PD-1 therapy. CRS was characterized by high fevers, encephalopathy, hypotension, hypoxia, hepatic dysfunction, and evidence of coagulopathy, and resolved after infusion of the interleukin-6 inhibitor tocilizumab and corticosteroids...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543283/targeting-pp2a-and-proteasome-activity-ameliorates-features-of-allergic-airway-disease-in-mice
#6
Prema M Nair, Malcolm R Starkey, Tatt Jhong Haw, Gang Liu, Jay C Horvat, Jonathan C Morris, Nikki M Verrills, Andrew R Clark, Alaina J Ammit, Philip M Hansbro
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an allergic airway disease (AAD) caused by aberrant immune responses to allergens. Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase with anti-inflammatory activity. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) controls many cellular processes, including the initiation of inflammatory responses by protein degradation. We assessed if enhancing PP2A activity with Fingolimod (FTY720) or 2-amino-4-(4-(heptyloxy) phenyl)-2-methylbutan-1-ol (AAL(S) ), or inhibiting proteasome activity with Bortezomib (BORT) could suppress experimental AAD...
May 24, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540751/treatment-of-adult-onset-still-s-disease-up-to-date
#7
Dae Hyun Yoo
Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, and approximately 60-70% of patients may develop a chronic polyphasic form of the disease or a chronic polyarthritis. Due to rarity of disease, treatment of AOSD is not based on controlled study, but on case based experiences. Recently, the application of anti-cytokine therapy based on pathophysiology has resulted in significant progress in the treatment of AOSD. Here, we review current knowledge of the pathogenesis, disease progression, currently available biomarkers of disease activity, standard therapeutic agents, utility of biologic agents, future perspectives for treatment and treatment of macrophage activation syndrome...
May 25, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539704/comparison-of-antidiabetic-medications-during-the-treatment-of-atherosclerosis-in-t2dm-patients
#8
Xiaojie Liu, Tao Mei, Wei Chen, Shandong Ye
Type 2 diabetes is often associated with arterial atherosclerosis in large blood vessels. We set out to elucidate whether commonly used antidiabetic drugs metformin, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone will reduce atherosclerosis in T2DM patients. We enrolled 176 individuals with type 2 diabetes, which were divided into four treatment groups according to different oral drugs: metformin alone, sitagliptin alone, pioglitazone alone, or combination of metformin and sitagliptin. We assessed changes in glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, cytokine released, and carotid artery intima-media thickness as the readout for improvement in atherosclerosis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538872/melanoma-tumor-microenvironment-and-new-treatments
#9
Mara Huffenbaecher Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro Francisco Giavina-Bianchi, Cyro Festa
In the recent past years, many discoveries in the tumor microenvironment have led to changes in the management of melanoma and it is rising up hopes, specially, to those in advanced stages. FDA approved seven new drugs from 2011 to 2014. They are: Vemurafenib, Dabrafenib and Trametinib, kinases inhibitors used for patients that have BRAFV600E mutation; Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA4), Pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) and Nivolumab (anti-PD-1), monoclonal antibodies that stimulate the immune system; and Peginterferon alfa-2b, an anti-proliferative cytokine used as adjuvant therapy...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537216/regulation-of-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-in-infectious-and-inflammatory-disease-implications-for-biologics-small-molecule-drug-interactions
#10
Pankajini Mallick, Guncha Taneja, Bhagavatula Moorthy, Romi Ghose
Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are primarily down-regulated during infectious and inflammatory diseases, leading to disruption in the metabolism of small molecule drugs (smds), which are increasingly being prescribed therapeutically in combination with biologics for a number of chronic diseases. The biologics may exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effect, which may in turn affect the expression/activity of DMEs. Thus, patients with infectious/inflammatory diseases undergoing biologic/smd treatment can have complex changes in DMEs due to combined effects of the disease and treatment...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536567/the-repurposing-of-anti-psychotic-drugs-quetiapine-and-olanzapine-as-anti-cryptococcus-drugs
#11
Adepemi O Ogundeji, Carolina H Pohl, Olihile M Sebolai
The management of cryptococcal infections is often difficult. This can, in part, be attributed to the fungistatic nature of fluconazole, which may result in cells disseminating to give rise to pathogen-emergent psychosis following brain inflammation. This chance at treatment failure has necessitated the current study wherein the antimicrobial quality of anti-psychotic drugs viz. quetiapine and olanzapine, was assessed. The response of test strains toward quetiapine or olanzapine alone and in combined therapy with fluconazole or amphotericn B was measured...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536351/oncolytic-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-as-a-viro-immunotherapy-defeating-cancer-with-a-hammer-and-anvil
#12
REVIEW
Michael Karl Melzer, Arturo Lopez-Martinez, Jennifer Altomonte
Oncolytic viruses have gained much attention in recent years, due, not only to their ability to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells, but to their potential to stimulate antitumor immune responses directed against the tumor. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a negative-strand RNA virus, is under intense development as an oncolytic virus due to a variety of favorable properties, including its rapid replication kinetics, inherent tumor specificity, and its potential to elicit a broad range of immunomodulatory responses to break immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment...
February 10, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534148/levothyroxine-monotherapy-versus-levothyroxine-and-selenium-combination-therapy-in-chronic-lymphocytic-thyroiditis
#13
L Yu, L Zhou, E Xu, Y Bi, X Hu, X Pei, G Jin
PURPOSE: New strategies are needed for prevention and treatment of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). This study aimed to assess whether combination of levothyroxine treatment and selenium (Se) supplementation results in improved therapeutic effects in CLT compared with levothyroxine monotherapy. METHODS: An open-label, randomized controlled study was performed in 60 CLT patients assigned to two groups. Levothyroxine group (LT) patients (n = 24) received levothyroxine alone for 3 months; meanwhile, the combination (LTSS) group (n = 36) was administered levothyroxine with selenium yeast capsule...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533774/the-role-of-ifn-%C3%AE-during-the-course-of-sepsis-progression-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#14
REVIEW
Gorjana Rackov, Rahman Shokri, Melchor Álvarez De Mon, Carlos Martínez-A, Dimitrios Balomenos
Sepsis is a complex biphasic syndrome characterized by both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune states. Whereas early sepsis mortality is caused by an acute, deleterious pro-inflammatory response, the second sepsis phase is governed by acute immunosuppression, which predisposes patients to long-term risk for life-threatening secondary infections. Despite extensive basic research and clinical trials, there is to date no specific therapy for sepsis, and mortality rates are on the rise. Although IFN-β is one of the most-studied cytokines, its diverse effects are not fully understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529928/the-probiotic-compound-vsl-3-modulates-mucosal-peripheral-and-systemic-immunity-following-murine-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment
#15
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529481/topical-ophthalmic-formulation-of-trichostatin-a-and-surr9-c84a-for-quick-recovery-post-alkali-burn-of-corneal-haze
#16
Kislay Roy, Chun Hei Antonio Cheung, Rupinder K Kanwar, Rajat Sandhir, Jagat R Kanwar
Alkali burn injury is a true ocular emergency of the conjunctiva and cornea that requires immediate precision. Lack of an immediate therapy can lead to a substantial damage in the ocular surface and anterior segment further causing visual impairment and disfigurement. We explored the regenerative capability of dominant negative survivin protein (SurR9-C84A) and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin-A (TSA) in vivo, in a rat alkali burn model. A topical insult in rat eyes with NaOH led to degradation of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528702/detailed-characterization-of-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-from-a-large-cohort-of-aml-patients-demonstrates-a-definitive-link-to-treatment-outcomes
#17
Rafael Diaz de la Guardia, Belen Lopez-Millan, Jessie R Lavoie, Clara Bueno, Julio Castaño, Maite Gómez-Casares, Susana Vives, Laura Palomo, Manel Juan, Julio Delgado, Maria L Blanco, Josep Nomdedeu, Alberto Chaparro, Jose Luis Fuster, Eduardo Anguita, Michael Rosu-Myles, Pablo Menéndez
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are key components of the hematopoietic niche thought to have a direct role in leukemia pathogenesis. BM-MSCs from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been poorly characterized due to disease heterogeneity. We report a functional, genetic, and immunological characterization of BM-MSC cultures from 46 AML patients, stratified by molecular/cytogenetics into low-risk (LR), intermediate-risk (IR), and high-risk (HR) subgroups. Stable MSC cultures were successfully established and characterized from 40 of 46 AML patients irrespective of the risk subgroup...
May 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526927/sodium-thiosulphate-attenuates-brain-inflammation-induced-by-systemic-lipopolysaccharide-administration-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#18
Gonzalo Acero, Miryam Nava Catorce, Ricardo González-Mendoza, Marco Antonio Meraz-Rodríguez, Luis Fernando Hernández-Zimbron, Roberto González-Salinas, Goar Gevorkian
It has been demonstrated that peripheral infections accompanied by neuroinflammation may modify brain development or affect normal brain aging and represent major risk factors for the development of neurological disorders. A wide range of synthetic and natural compounds with anti-inflammatory properties have been evaluated in animal models of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration as an adjuvant therapeutic strategy. In the present study we have demonstrated for the first time that sodium thiosulphate (STS), a known antidote approved for treatment of certain medical conditions, is capable of reducing brain inflammation caused by systemic LPS administration...
May 19, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526681/adoptive-transfer-of-phosphoantigen-specific-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subset-attenuates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-nonhuman-primates
#19
Arwa Qaqish, Dan Huang, Crystal Y Chen, Zhuoran Zhang, Richard Wang, Shengpu Li, Enzhuoa Yang, Yang Lu, Michelle H Larsen, William R Jacobs, Lixia Qian, James Frencher, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
The dominant Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset recognizes phosphoantigen and exists only in humans and nonhuman primates. Despite the discovery of γδ T cells >30 y ago, a proof-of-concept study has not been done to prove the principle that the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset is protective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other infections. In this study, we used an adoptive cell-transfer strategy to define the protective role of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in a primate tuberculosis (TB) model. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells for adoptive transfer displayed central/effector memory and mounted effector functions, including the production of anti-M...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521720/the-role-of-il-27-and-its-receptor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-aids-and-anti-viral-immune-response
#20
Yu-Huang Zheng, Shui-Ling Xiao, Bo He, Yan He, Hua-Ying Zhou, Zi Chen, Mei He, Hong-Yan Wang, Yi-He Lin, Jing Cao
BACKGROUND: Cytokines have been widely demonstrated to involve in the pathogenesis of AIDS and the mechanisms of antiretroviral therapy. Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a new member of the IL-12 cytokine family and has been shown to interfere HIV-1 virus replication with controversial findings. This study is to investigate the dynamic changes in plasma IL-27 level and cell surface IL-27 receptor expression in HIV/AIDS patients who underwent HAART. METHODS: Whole blood was collected from 34 HIV-positive/AIDS patients 0, 6, and 12 months after initiation of HAART and 27 healthy subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
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