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Ciclosporin or cyclosporine, dog or canine

Andrew J Rosendale, Megan E Dunlevy, Marshall D McCue, Joshua B Benoit
Ticks are obligatorily hematophagous but spend the majority of their lives off host in an unfed state where they must resist starvation between bouts of blood feeding. Survival during these extended off-host periods is critical to the success of these arthropods as vectors of disease; however, little is known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms of starvation tolerance in ticks. We examined the bioenergetic, transcriptomic, and behavioral changes of female American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, throughout starvation (up to nine-months post blood meal)...
November 18, 2018: Molecular Ecology
A Rizzo, R L Sciorsci
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a thiol-containing essential amino acid, important for the growth of cells and tissues. Several hypotheses exist regarding Hcy toxicity in humans; Hcy is involved in protein structural modifications, oxidative stress, and neurotoxicity induction and is therefore associated with several pathological conditions in humans. In veterinary science, knowledge regarding Hcy has increased recently due to several studies; however, many aspects remain undiscovered. Many details remain unknown regarding the effect of Hcy levels on pregnancy and the optimal management of pathological conditions associated with Hcy levels during pregnancy in various species...
November 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Hiromasa Takahashi, Hitomi Ashikawa, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Toshihiko Murayama
Ceramide kinase (CerK) phosphorylates ceramide to ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), and various roles for the CerK/C1P pathway in the regulation of cellular/biological functions have been demonstrated. CerK is constitutively phosphorylated at several serine (Ser, S) residues, however, the roles of Ser residues, including their phosphorylation, in CerK activity, have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we conducted the present study to investigate this issue. In A549 cells expressing wild-type CerK, a treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) decreased the formation of C1P in a protein kinase C (PKC)-βI/II-mediated manner...
November 15, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Fernanda García-Alvarado, Giulia Govoni, Ricardo de Pascual, Cristina Ruiz-Ruiz, Alicia Muñoz-Montero, Luis Gandía, Antonio M G de Diego, Antonio G García
In the frame of a repositioning programme with cholinergic medicines in clinical use searching for neuroprotective properties, we surprisingly found that spasmolytic antimuscarinics otilonium and pinaverium exhibited neurotoxic effects in neuronal cultures. We decided to characterize such unexpected action in primary cultures of rat embryo cortical neurons. Neurotoxicity was time- and concentration-dependent, exhibiting approximate EC50´s of 5 µM for both drugs. Seven antimuscarinic drugs endowed with a quaternary ammonium, and another 10 drugs with different cholinergic activities, carrying in their molecule a ternary ammonium did not exhibit neurotoxicity...
November 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Kenji Rowel Q Lim, Yusuke Echigoya, Tetsuya Nagata, Mutsuki Kuraoka, Masanori Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu Aoki, Terence Partridge, Rika Maruyama, Shin'ichi Takeda, Toshifumi Yokota
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in DMD, which codes for dystrophin. Because the progressive and irreversible degeneration of muscle occurs from childhood, earlier therapy is required to prevent dystrophic progression. Exon skipping by antisense oligonucleotides called phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs), which restores the DMD reading frame and dystrophin expression, is a promising candidate for use in neonatal patients, yet the potential remains unclear. Here, we investigate the systemic efficacy and safety of early exon skipping in dystrophic dog neonates...
October 19, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Stephan Lessenich, David J Ekerdt, Anne Münch, Catheryn Koss, Angel Yee-Lam Li, Helene H Fung
The paper addresses the problem of cultural proximity in qualitative cross-cultural research on aging, presenting insights into a methodology of systematic 'estrangement'. Based on interdisciplinary research on the social time orientations of elderly people in Germany, Hong Kong, and the US, we discuss the question of how shared identities and taken-for-granted assumptions may bias the findings in comparative aging studies. With Alfred Schütz's phenomenological concept of 'lifeworld' as a methodological device, we focus on the issue of the diverging 'systems of relevance' that each of the national project teams obviously referred to when gathering and interpreting the data...
December 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
Emma L Hall, Stephen Baines, Alexis Bilmont, Bill Oxley
OBJECTIVE: To compare precorrectional and postcorrectional femoral alignment following distal femoral osteotomy using patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D)-printed osteotomy and reduction guides in vivo and ex vivo. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Ten client-owned dogs and matching 3D-printed plastic bone models. METHODS: Distal femoral osteotomy was performed via a standard approach using osteotomy and reduction guides developed with computer-aided design software prior to 3D-printing...
November 17, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Bao Zhang, Guo Liang Zheng, Hai Tao Zhu, Yan Zhao, Zhi Chao Zheng
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal tumors. The biological behaviors of GISTs vary from benign to malignant. GISTs are common in the stomach (55.6%) and small intestine (31.8%), but rarely in the rectum, colon (6%), and other sites (5.5%). Currently, the majority of published reports of primary appendiceal stromal tumors (PASTs) are case reports or case series. METHODS: The PASTs described in this study were identified from a literature review (23 cases) and our center (one case)...
November 16, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Beatriz Vila Nova, Eva Cunha, Nuno Sepúlveda, Manuela Oliveira, Berta São Braz, Luis Tavares, Virgílio Almeida, Solange Gil
BACKGROUND: Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) and Canine Parvovirus (CPV) lead to infections with high mortality rates in dogs. These viruses affect unvaccinated dogs or dogs with incomplete vaccination protocols. Vaccination plays an important role in reducing death rates, preventing clinical cases and controlling the spread of virus However, the efficacy of vaccination might be affected by different factors including vaccine scheduling and the neutralization of the vaccine targets by maternal antibodies...
November 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Hyeon-Jin Kim, Qiang Li, Woo-Jin Song, Hye-Mi Yang, Su-Yeon Kim, Sang-Chul Park, Jin-Ok Ahn, Hwa-Young Youn
BACKGROUND: In the field of diabetes research, many studies on cell therapy have been conducted using mesenchymal stem cells. This research was intended to shed light on the influence of canine adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (cAT-MSC CM) on in vitro insulin resistance models that were induced in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the possible mechanisms involved in the phenomenon. RESULTS: Gene expression levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were used as indicators of insulin resistance...
November 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Zachery Moore, Juliet M Taylor, Peter J Crack
First described clinically in 1906, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and form of dementia worldwide. Despite its prevalence, only five therapies are currently approved for AD, all dealing with the symptoms rather than the underlying causes of the disease. A multitude of experimental evidence has suggested that the once thought inconsequential process of neuroinflammation does, in fact, contribute to the AD pathogenesis. One such central nervous system (CNS) cell type critical to this process are microglia...
November 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Jyotsnarani Pradhan, Chandana Mohanty, Sanjeeb K Sahoo
AIM: This study is aimed to formulate crocetin-loaded lipid Nanoparticles (NPs) and to evaluate its antioxidant properties in a cyclosporine A-mediated toxicity in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells in vitro. MAIN METHODS: Crocetin-loaded NPs were prepared followed by physicochemical characterization. In vitro protective efficacy of crocetin and crocetin loaded NPs was investigated in cyclosporine A-mediated toxicity in HEK-293 cells by assessing free radical scavenging, DNA Nicking, cytotoxicity, intracellular Reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibition, Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMPs) loss and evaluating the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzyme level...
November 13, 2018: Life Sciences
A Gregory Bruce, Serge Barcy, Jeannette Staheli, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Minako Ikoma, Kellie Howard, Timothy M Rose
Macaque RFHV and LCV are close homologs of human KSHV and EBV, respectively. No experimental model of RFHV has been developed due to the lack of a source of culturable infectious virus. Screening of macaques at the Washington National Primate Research Center detected RFHV in saliva of SIV-infected macaques from previous vaccine studies. A pilot experimental infection of two naïve juvenile pig-tailed macaques was initiated by inoculation of saliva from SIV-infected pig-tailed and cynomolgus macaque donors, which contained high levels of DNA (> 106 genomes/ml) of the respective species-specific RFHV strain...
2018: PloS One
Harish Kumar Tiwari, Abi Tamim Vanak, Mark O'Dea, Ian Duncan Robertson
The lack of awareness regarding rabies amongst rural primary care health staff and their adverse practices towards the management of dog-bite wounds is a major contributor to the high incidence of rabies infection and subsequent human mortality in India. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was carried out involving 54 nursing and non-nursing staff working in 18 rural Primary Health centres and sub-centres around Baramati town of Pune district in Western India. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess factors that influenced knowledge of rabies and practices towards management of dog-bite related wounds...
2018: PloS One
Laurent P Guiot, Reunan P Guillou, Loïc M Déjardin
OBJECTIVE: To describe and prospectively report outcomes associated with a novel minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique for the treatment of humeral fractures in dogs and cats. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical case series. ANIMALS: Eleven dogs and 4 cats with traumatic nonarticular humeral fractures. METHODS: Dogs and cats that presented with traumatic humeral fractures were enrolled in the study...
November 16, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Aki Otomo, Ameet Singh, Alexander Valverde, Hugues Beaufrere, Victoria Mrotz, Jessica Kilkenny, Alex Zur Linden
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare outcome in dogs that underwent single-incision laparoscopic-assisted intestinal surgery (SILAIS) and open laparotomy (OL) for simple foreign body removal. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: Twenty-eight client-owned dogs that underwent SILAIS (n = 13) or OL (n = 15). METHODS: Foreign body removal via SILAIS was performed with a commercially available single-port device...
November 16, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Liran Levin, Horia Barbu, Sivge Kurgan, Raluca Monica Comăneanu, Daniel Referendaru, Adi Lorean
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of 0.2% delmopinol mouth rinse in maintenance of peri-implant tissue health and prevention or inhibition of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four weeks following tooth extraction, eight titanium dental implants, were placed in six dogs' mandibles. Three dogs were assigned to the test or placebo mouth rinse. Eight weeks following implant installation (T2) ligature was placed to induce peri-implant disease...
November 15, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Önder Gürlek, Şule Sönmez, Pelin Güneri, Nejat Nizam
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to introduce a novel soft tissue thickness measurement method using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to compare the new method with ultrasonic device applications and transgingival probing measurements. METHODS: Twenty-five participants (12 female, 13 male, age range, 25-51 years) were included the study. Soft tissue thickness in lateral incisor, canine, premolar, and molar regions were measured using transgingival probing (group T), ultrasonic device (group U), and CBCT scan measurements (group C)...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
A Bauer, S Hadji Rasouliha, M T Brunner, V Jagannathan, I Bucher, J Bannoehr, K Varjonen, R Bond, K Bergvall, M M Welle, P Roosje, T Leeb
Major characteristics of coat variation in dogs can be explained by variants in only a few genes. Until now, only one missense variant in the KRT71 gene, p.Arg151Trp, has been reported to cause curly hair in dogs. However, this variant does not explain the curly coat in all breeds as the mutant 151 Trp allele, for example, is absent in Curly Coated Retrievers. We sequenced the genome of a Curly Coated Retriever at 22× coverage and searched for variants in the KRT71 gene. Only one protein-changing variant was present in a homozygous state in the Curly Coated Retriever and absent or present in a heterozygous state in 221 control dogs from different dog breeds...
November 15, 2018: Animal Genetics
Brittany Canady, Ashley Sansone
Previous research has indicated that companion animal ownership may confer health benefits; however, no studies have considered how companion animal ownership impacts key health decisions. The purpose of the current studies was to examine the extent to which animal-related factors influence health care decision making, specifically, owners' willingness to proceed with necessary medical treatments. In Study 1, a sample of 162 companion animal owners was recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to complete an online survey which included measures of social support, quality of relationship with the companion animal and two vignettes describing needed hospitalization...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
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