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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633281/the-sweet-side-of-the-pathogenic-neisseria-the-role-of-glycan-interactions-in-colonisation-and-disease
#1
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Evgeny A Semchenko, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Glycomics is a rapidly growing field that focuses on the structure and function of carbohydrates (glycans) in biological systems. Glycan interactions play a major role in infectious disease, at all stages of colonisation and disease progression. Neisseria meningitidis, the cause of meningococcal sepsis and meningitis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. N. meningitidis displays a range of surface glycosylations including capsule polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide and O-linked glycoproteins...
June 13, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632300/chemo-bacterial-synthesis-of-a-sialyl-tn-cyclopeptide-vaccine-candidate
#2
Emeline Richard, C Pifferi, M Fiore, Eric Samain, Audrey Le Gouellec, Sébastien Fort, Olivier Renaudet, Bernard Priem
A conjugatable form of the tumour-associated carbohydrate antigen sialyl-Tn (Neu5Ac-alfa-2,6-GalNAc) was efficiently produced in Escherichia coli. Metabolically engineered E. coli strains overexpressing the 6-sialyl-transferase gene of Photobacterium sp. and CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase genes of Neisseria meningitidis were cultivated at high density in presence of GalNAc-alfa-propargyl as the exogeneous acceptor. The target disaccharides, which were produced on the scale of several hundred milligrams, were then conjugated using CuAAC click chemistry to a fully synthetic and immunogenic scaffold with the aim to create a candidate anticancer vaccine...
June 20, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632191/sexually-transmitted-infections-a-novel-screening-strategy-for-improving-women-s-health-in-vulnerable-populations
#3
Elena R Frati, Ester Fasoli, Marianna Martinelli, Daniela Colzani, Silvia Bianchi, Luciana Carnelli, Antonella Amendola, Pierfranco Olivani, Elisabetta Tanzi
BACKGROUND: Migrant women are one of the most vulnerable population to health problems and well-being. This study aimed at implementing a counseling and preventive strategy for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in undocumented migrant women in Milan, Italy. METHODS: Women (ages 18-65) were enrolled at the NAGA Centre (2012-2013) and asked for a urine sample in order to carry out molecular detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng)-DNA...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630293/a-null-model-for-microbial-diversification
#4
Timothy J Straub, Olga Zhaxybayeva
Whether prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) are naturally organized into phenotypically and genetically cohesive units comparable to animal or plant species remains contested, frustrating attempts to estimate how many such units there might be, or to identify the ecological roles they play. Analyses of gene sequences in various closely related prokaryotic groups reveal that sequence diversity is typically organized into distinct clusters, and processes such as periodic selection and extensive recombination are understood to be drivers of cluster formation ("speciation")...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630127/deciphering-function-of-new-gonococcal-vaccine-antigens-using-phenotypic-microarrays
#5
Benjamin I Baarda, Sarah Emerson, Philip J Proteau, Aleksandra E Sikora
The function and extracellular location of cell envelope proteins make them attractive candidates for developing vaccines against bacterial diseases, including challenging, drug-resistant pathogens such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae Proteomics-driven reverse vaccinology delivered multiple gonorrhea vaccine candidates; however, the biological functions of many of them remain to be elucidated. Herein, the functions of six gonorrhea vaccine candidates - NGO2121, NGO1985, NGO2054, NGO2111, NGO1205, and NGO1344 - in cell envelope homeostasis were probed using phenotype microarrays with 1,056 conditions and a ΔbamE mutant (Δngo1780) as a reference of perturbed outer membrane integrity...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629687/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-empiric-treatment-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#6
Kristen Breslin, Lisa Tuchman, Katie L Hayes, Gia Badolato, Monika K Goyal
OBJECTIVE: To determine test characteristics of provider judgment for empiric antibiotic provision to patients undergoing testing for a sexually transmitted infection. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional electronic health record review of all patients aged 13-19 years who had Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing sent from an urban, academic pediatric emergency department in 2012. We abstracted data, including patient demographics, chief complaint, sexually transmitted infection test results, and treatment...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628448/case-control-study-of-risk-factors-for-meningococcal-disease-in-chile
#7
Andrea Olea, Isabel Matute, Claudia González, Iris Delgado, Lucy Poffald, Elena Pedroni, Tania Alfaro, Macarena Hirmas, Manuel Nájera, Ana Gormaz, Darío López, Sergio Loayza, Catterina Ferreccio, Doris Gallegos, Rodrigo Fuentes, Pablo Vial, Ximena Aguilera
An outbreak of meningococcal disease with a case-fatality rate of 30% and caused by predominantly serogroup W of Neisseria meningitidis began in Chile in 2012. This outbreak required a case-control study to assess determinants and risk factors for infection. We identified confirmed cases during January 2012-March 2013 and selected controls by random sampling of the population, matched for age and sex, resulting in 135 case-patients and 618 controls. Sociodemographic variables, habits, and previous illnesses were studied...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626737/high-level-bacterial-contamination-of-secondary-school-students-mobile-phones
#8
Siiri Kõljalg, Rando Mändar, Tiina Sõber, Tiiu Rööp, Reet Mändar
INTRODUCTION: While contamination of mobile phones in the hospital has been found to be common in several studies, little information about bacterial abundance on phones used in the community is available. Our aim was to quantitatively determine the bacterial contamination of secondary school students' mobile phones. METHODS: Altogether 27 mobile phones were studied. The contact plate method and microbial identification using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer were used for culture studies...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625530/the-emerging-roles-of-sting-in-bacterial-infections
#9
REVIEW
Fabio V Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Sergio C Oliveira, Bernhard Ryffel, V F J Quesniaux
The STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) protein connects microorganism cytosolic sensing with effector functions of the host cell by sensing directly cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), originating from pathogens or from the host upon DNA recognition. Although STING activation favors effective immune responses against viral infections, its role during bacterial diseases is controversial, ranging from protective to detrimental effects for the host. In this review, we summarize important features of the STING activation pathway and recent highlights about the role of STING in bacterial infections by Chlamydia, Listeria, Francisella, Brucella, Shigella, Salmonella, Streptococcus, and Neisseria genera, with a special focus on mycobacteria...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620585/identification-of-a-large-family-of-slam-dependent-surface-lipoproteins-in-gram-negative-bacteria
#10
Yogesh Hooda, Christine C L Lai, Trevor F Moraes
The surfaces of many Gram-negative bacteria are decorated with soluble proteins anchored to the outer membrane via an acylated N-terminus; these proteins are referred to as surface lipoproteins or SLPs. In Neisseria meningitidis, SLPs such as transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) and factor-H binding protein (fHbp) are essential for host colonization and infection because of their essential roles in iron acquisition and immune evasion, respectively. Recently, we identified a family of outer membrane proteins called Slam (Surface lipoprotein assembly modulator) that are essential for surface display of neisserial SLPs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615273/analysis-of-the-potential-for-point-of-care-test-to-enable-individualised-treatment-of-infections-caused-by-antimicrobial-resistant-and-susceptible-strains-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-a-modelling-study
#11
Katy Me Turner, Hannah Christensen, Elisabeth J Adams, David McAdams, Helen Fifer, Anthony McDonnell, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVE: To create a mathematical model to investigate the treatment impact and economic implications of introducing an antimicrobial resistance point-of-care test (AMR POCT) for gonorrhoea as a way of extending the life of current last-line treatments. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: England. POPULATION: Patients accessing sexual health services. INTERVENTIONS: Incremental impact of introducing a hypothetical AMR POCT that could detect susceptibility to previous first-line antibiotics, for example, ciprofloxacin or penicillin, so that patients are given more tailored treatment, compared with the current situation where all patients are given therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609259/clonal-expansion-of-new-penicillin-resistant-clade-of-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-w-clonal-complex-11-australia
#12
Shakeel Mowlaboccus, Keith A Jolley, James E Bray, Stanley Pang, Yung Thin Lee, Jane D Bew, David J Speers, Anthony D Keil, Geoffrey W Coombs, Charlene M Kahler
In Western Australia, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W clonal complex 11 became the predominant cause of invasive meningococcal disease in 2016. We used core-genome analysis to show emergence of a penicillin-resistant clade that had the penA_253 allele. This new penicillin-resistant clade might affect treatment regimens for this disease.
August 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608788/increases-in-the-rate-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-findings-from-the-sexually-transmitted-disease-surveillance-network-2010-2015
#13
Mark R Stenger, Preeti Pathela, Greta Anschuetz, Heidi Bauer, Julieann Simon, Robert Kohn, Christina Schumacher, Elizabeth Torrone
BACKGROUND: Inequalities in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) burden by sexual minority status in the United States are difficult to quantify. Sex of sex partner is not routinely collected for reported cases. Population estimates of men who have sex with men (MSM) necessary to calculate case rates have not been available until recently. For these reasons, trends in reported gonorrhea rates among MSM have not been described across multiple jurisdictions. METHODS: We estimated of the number of MSM cases reported in 6 jurisdictions continuously participating in the STD Surveillance Network 2010-2015 based on interviews with a random sample of cases...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607013/pena-pona-porb1-and-mtrr-mutations-and-molecular-epidemiological-typing-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-cephalosporin
#14
Kayo Osawa, Katsumi Shigemura, Yukie Nukata, Koichi Kitagawa, Fukashi Yamamichi, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Toshiro Shirakawa, Soichi Arakawa, Masato Fujisawa
In recent years, N. gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibilities (DS; MIC > 0.064 mg/L) or resistance to cefixime (CFM) or ceftriaxone (CRO), have been classed as a "superbug" and have spread worldwide, resulting in treatment failures for gonorrhea (1-3).….
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604556/immunologic-response-elicited-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-a-neugcgm3-based-vaccine-as-adjuvant-therapy
#15
Anet Valdes-Zayas, Zuyen Gonzalez, Vladimir Mulens, Aliz M Vega, Kirenia Perez, Patricia Lorenzo-Luaces, Maria C Rubio, Anabely Estevez, Idelmis Curbelo, Luis E Fernandez, Tania Crombet, Zaima Mazorra
This study aimed to investigate the immunogenicity of a cancer vaccine consisting of the NeuGcGM3 ganglioside combined with the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitides to form very small size particles. The vaccine is administered together with Montanide ISA51, as adjuvant treatment for breast cancer patients. After surgical resection and standard first-line chemo/radiotherapy, breast cancer patients in stage II-III were enrolled in a phase III clinical trial and allocated into 2 strata, according to the number of positive lymph nodes [stratum I (0-3); stratum II (≥4)]...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604481/comparative-evaluation-of-2-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-for-the-detection-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-at-extragenital-sites
#16
Claire C Bristow, Mark R McGrath, Adam C Cohen, Laura J Anderson, Kristie K Gordon, Jeffrey D Klausner
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are frequently asymptomatic, requiring highly accurate diagnostic tests and proper management to prevent further transmission. We compared two nucleic acid tests, Xpert® CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) point-of-care platform and at an offsite clinical laboratory with Aptima Combo 2® (Hologic, Inc., San Diego, CA) assay, for the detection of extragenital infection in patients at an STI clinic in Hollywood, CA.We calculated concordance between the two assays and used the exact binomial method to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each specimen type and pathogen...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601086/burden-and-characteristics-of-hiv-infection-among-female-sex-workers-in-kampala-uganda-a-respondent-driven-sampling-survey
#17
Wolfgang Hladik, Andrew L Baughman, David Serwadda, Jordan W Tappero, Rachel Kwezi, Namakula D Nakato, Joseph Barker
BACKGROUND: Sex workers in Uganda are at significant risk for HIV infection. We characterized the HIV epidemic among Kampala female sex workers (FSW). METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling to sample FSW aged 15+ years who reported having sold sex to men in the preceding 30 days; collected data through audio-computer assisted self-interviews, and tested blood, vaginal and rectal swabs for HIV, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and trichomonas vaginalis...
June 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596392/fourteen-draft-genome-sequences-for-the-first-reported-cases-of-azithromycin-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-ireland
#18
Micheál Mac Aogáin, Nicholas Fennelly, Anne Walsh, Yvonne Lynagh, Michaël Bekaert, Brendan Lawlor, Paul Walsh, Brian Kelly, Thomas R Rogers, Brendan Crowley
Here, we report the draft genome assemblies of 14 azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates, representing the first such strains identified in Ireland. Among these isolates are the first reported highly resistant strains (MIC >256 mg/liter), which both belonged to the ST1580 sequence type.
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593133/the-hfq-regulon-of-neisseria%C3%A2-meningitidis
#19
Robert A G Huis In 't Veld, Gertjan Kramer, Arie van der Ende, Dave Speijer, Yvonne Pannekoek
The conserved RNA-binding protein, Hfq, has multiple regulatory roles within the prokaryotic cell, including promoting stable duplex formation between small RNAs and mRNAs, and thus hfq deletion mutants have pleiotropic phenotypes. Previous proteome and transcriptome studies of Neisseria meningitidis have generated limited insight into differential gene expression due to Hfq loss. In this study, reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with data-independent alternate scanning mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) was utilized for rapid high-resolution quantitative proteomic analysis to further elucidate the differentially expressed proteome of a meningococcal hfq deletion mutant...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592578/bacterial-meningitis-in-finland-1995-2014-a-population-based-observational-study
#20
Aleksandra Polkowska, Maija Toropainen, Jukka Ollgren, Outi Lyytikäinen, J Pekka Nuorti
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its epidemiological characteristics, however, are changing due to new vaccines and secular trends. Conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10-valent) were introduced in 1986 and 2010 in Finland. We assessed the disease burden and long-term trends of five common causes of bacterial meningitis in a population-based observational study. METHODS: A case was defined as isolation of S...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
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