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Graeme A Deuchar, David Brennan, William M Holmes, Martin Shaw, I Mhairi Macrae, Celestine Santosh
The ability to identify metabolically active and potentially salvageable ischaemic penumbra is crucial for improving treatment decisions in acute stroke patients. Our solution involves two complementary novel MRI techniques (Glasgow Oxygen Level Dependant (GOLD) Metabolic Imaging), which when combined with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) based oxygen carrier and hyperoxia can identify penumbra due to dynamic changes related to continued metabolism within this tissue compartment. Our aims were (i) to investigate whether PFC offers similar enhancement of the second technique (Lactate Change) as previously demonstrated for the T2 *OC technique (ii) to demonstrate both GOLD metabolic imaging techniques working concurrently to identify penumbra, following administration of Oxycyte® (O-PFC) with hyperoxia...
2018: Theranostics
Vincent-Philippe Lavallée, Jalila Chagraoui, Tara MacRae, Miriam Marquis, Arnaud Bonnefoy, Jana Krosl, Sébastien Lemieux, Anne Marinier, Caroline Pabst, Georges-Étienne Rivard, Josée Hébert, Guy Sauvageau
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a medical emergency because of associated lethal early bleeding, a condition preventable by prompt diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. The mechanisms underlying the hemostatic anomalies of APL are not completely elucidated. RNA-sequencing-based characterization of APL (n = 30) was performed and compared to that of other acute myeloid leukemia (n = 400) samples and normal promyelocytes. Perturbations in the transcriptome of coagulation and fibrinolysis-related genes in APL extend beyond known culprits and now include Thrombin, Factor X and Urokinase Receptor...
February 23, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Jeffrey Rich, Clifford E Fonner, Jayna Eller, Ivan Berkel, Deborah Nadzam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Chayakrit Krittanawong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Chance Dumaine, Mercedeh Kiaii, Lisa Miller, Louise Moist, Matthew J Oliver, Charmaine E Lok, Swapnil Hiremath, Jennifer M MacRae
Background: One of the mandates of the Canadian Society of Nephrology's (CSN) Vascular Access Working Group (VAWG) is to inform the nephrology community of the current status of vascular access (VA) practice within Canada. To better understand VA practice patterns across Canada, the CSN VAWG conducted a national survey. Objectives: (1) To inform on VA practice patterns, including fistula creation and maintenance, within Canada. (2) To determine the degree of consensus among Canadian clinicians regarding patient suitability for fistula creation and to assess barriers to and facilitators of fistula creation in Canada...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Eleanor Chatburn, Carl Macrae, Jane Carthey, Charles Vincent
BACKGROUND: The Measurement and Monitoring of Safety Framework provides a conceptual model to guide organisations in assessing safety. The Health Foundation funded a large-scale programme to assess the value and impact of applying the Framework in regional and frontline care settings. We explored the experiences and reflections of key participants in the programme. METHODS: The study was conducted in the nine healthcare organisations in England and Scotland testing the Framework (three regional improvement bodies, six frontline settings)...
March 6, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Cara MacRae, Swana Kopalakrishnan, Lena Faust, Michael Klowak, Adrienne Showler, Stefanie A Klowak, Andrea K Boggild
Background: Leprosy is a potentially debilitating disease of the skin and nerves that requires a complex management approach consisting of laboratory monitoring, screening for factors that will adversely affect outcome with corticosteroids, engagement of allied health services, and prolonged follow-up. Given the complexities of leprosy management, a safety tool was developed and implemented in the Tropical Disease Unit at Toronto General Hospital. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of the tool using a retrospective chart review...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Aydan Bulut-Karslioglu, Trisha A Macrae, Juan A Oses-Prieto, Sergio Covarrubias, Michelle Percharde, Gregory Ku, Aaron Diaz, Michael T McManus, Alma L Burlingame, Miguel Ramalho-Santos
A permissive chromatin environment coupled to hypertranscription drives the rapid proliferation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and peri-implantation embryos. We carried out a genome-wide screen to systematically dissect the regulation of the euchromatic state of ESCs. The results revealed that cellular growth pathways, most prominently translation, perpetuate the euchromatic state and hypertranscription of ESCs. Acute inhibition of translation rapidly depletes euchromatic marks in mouse ESCs and blastocysts, concurrent with delocalization of RNA polymerase II and reduction in nascent transcription...
March 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Gail R Wilensky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Vladimir R Babaev, Jiansheng Huang, Lei Ding, Youmin Zhang, James M May, MacRae F Linton
Background: Rictor is an essential component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2), a conserved serine/threonine kinase that may play a role in cell proliferation, survival and innate or adaptive immune responses. Genetic loss of Rictor inactivates mTORC2, which directly activates Akt S473 phosphorylation and promotes pro-survival cell signaling and proliferation. Methods and results: To study the role of mTORC2 signaling in monocytes and macrophages, we generated mice with myeloid lineage-specific Rictor deletion (M Rictor -/- )...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Andrew J MacRae, Megan Mayerle, Eva Hrabeta-Robinson, Robert J Chalkley, Christine Guthrie, A L Burlingame, Melissa Jurica
Prp8 is an essential protein that regulates spliceosome assembly and conformation during pre-mRNA splicing. Recent cryo-EM structures of the spliceosome model Prp8 as scaffolding the spliceosome's catalytic U snRNA components. Using a new amino acid probing strategy, we identified a dynamic region in human Prp8 that is positioned to stabilize the pre-mRNA in the spliceosome active site through interactions with U5 snRNA. Mutagenesis of the identified Prp8 residues in yeast indicates a role in 5' splice site recognition...
February 27, 2018: RNA
Lauren Parks Golding, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Joshua A Hirsch, Gregory N Nicola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
A B Friedman, S J Brown, P Bampton, M L Barclay, A Chung, F A Macrae, J McKenzie, J Reynolds, P R Gibson, S B Hanauer, M P Sparrow
BACKGROUND: Thiopurine hypermethylation towards 6-methylmercaptopurine (6MMP) instead of 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6TGN) is associated with inefficacy in patients with IBD. Allopurinol reverses such hypermethylation. AIMS: To prospectively determine efficacy of allopurinol-thiopurine combination and to compare 2 doses of allopurinol. DESIGN: In a multicentre, double-blind trial, patients with clinically active or steroid-dependent IBD and thiopurine shunting were randomised to 50 or 100 mg/d allopurinol and 25% of their screening thiopurine dose, which was subsequently optimised, aiming for 6TGN of 260-500 pmol/8x108 RBCs...
February 21, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Marie Lorans, Eryn Dow, Finlay A Macrae, Ingrid M Winship, Daniel D Buchanan
Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most common cancers, is a major public health issue globally, especially in Westernized countries. Up to 35% of CRCs are thought to be due to heritable factors, but currently only 5% to 10% of CRCs are attributable to high-risk mutations in known CRC susceptibility genes, predominantly the mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) and adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC; familial adenomatous polyposis). In this era of precision medicine, high-risk mutation carriers, when identified, can be offered various risk management options that prevent cancers and improve survival, including risk-reducing medication, screening for early detection, and surgery...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Jie-Bin Lew, D James, B St John, Finlay A Macrae, Jon D Emery, Hooi C Ee, Mark A Jenkins, Emily He, Paul Grogan, Michael Caruana, Diana Sarfati, Marjolein Je Greuter, Veerle Mh Coupé, Karen Canfell
The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) will fully roll-out 2-yearly screening using immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test (iFOBT) in people aged 50-74 years by 2020. In this study, we aimed to estimate the comparative health benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness of screening with iFOBT, versus other potential alternative or adjunctive technologies. A comprehensive validated microsimulation model, Policy1-Bowel, was used to simulate a total of 13 screening approaches involving use of iFOBT, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, computed tomographic colonography (CTC), faecal DNA (fDNA) and plasma DNA (pDNA), in people aged 50-74 years...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Braid A MacRae, Simon Annaheim, Christina M Spengler, René M Rossi
Background: Skin temperature ( T skin ) is commonly measured using T skin sensors affixed directly to the skin surface, although the influence of setup variables on the measured outcome requires clarification. Objectives: The two distinct objectives of this systematic review were (1) to examine measurements from contact T skin sensors considering equilibrium temperature and temperature disturbance, sensor attachments, pressure, environmental temperature, and sensor type, and (2) to characterise the contact T skin sensors used, conditions of use, and subsequent reporting in studies investigating sports, exercise, and other physical activity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
William M Oldham, Rudolf K Oliveira, Rui-Sheng Wang, Alexander R Opotowsky, David M Rubins, Jon Hainer, Bradley M Wertheim, George A Alba, Gaurav Choudhary, Adrienn Tornyos, Calum A MacRae, Joseph Loscalzo, Jane A Leopold, Aaron Waxman, Horst Olschewski, Gabor Kovacs, David M Systrom, Bradley A Maron
<u>Rationale:</u> Current methods assessing clinical risk due to exercise intolerance in cardiopulmonary disease patients rely on a small subset of traditional variables. Alternative strategies incorporating the spectrum of factors underlying prognosis in at-risk patients may be useful clinically, but are lacking. <u>Objective:</u> Use unbiased analyses to identify variables that correspond to clinical risk in patients with exercise intolerance. <u>Methods and Results:</u> Data from 738 consecutive patients referred for invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (iCPET) at a single center (2011-2015) were analyzed retrospectively (derivation cohort)...
February 5, 2018: Circulation Research
Sara N Goldhaber-Fiebert, Carl Macrae
How can teams manage critical events more effectively? There are commonly gaps in performance during perioperative crises, and emergency manuals are recently available tools that can improve team performance under stress, via multiple mechanisms. This article examines how the principles of implementation science and quality improvement were applied by multiple teams in the development, testing, and systematic implementations of emergency manuals in perioperative care. The core principles of implementation have relevance for future patient safety innovations perioperatively and beyond, and the concepts of emergency manuals and interprofessional teamwork are applicable for diverse fields throughout health care...
March 2018: Anesthesiology Clinics
Janina M Plach, Merrin L Macrae, Genevieve A Ali, Richard R Brunke, Michael C English, Gabrielle Ferguson, W Vito Lam, Tatianna M Lozier, Kevin McKague, Ivan P O'Halloran, Gilian Opolko, Christopher J Van Esbroeck
Phosphorus (P) mobilization in agricultural landscapes is regulated by both hydrologic (transport) and biogeochemical (supply) processes interacting within soils; however, the dominance of these controls can vary spatially and temporally. In this study, we analyzed a 5-yr dataset of stormflow events across nine agricultural fields in the lower Great Lakes region of Ontario, Canada, to determine if edge-of-field surface runoff and tile drainage losses (total and dissolved reactive P) were limited by transport mechanisms or P supply...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Michael Marron-Stearns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of AHIMA
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