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Calum A MacRae
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Tavvs M Alves, Roger D Moon, Ian V MacRae, Robert L Koch
BACKGROUND: Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a significant insect pest of soybean in North America. Accurate estimation of A. glycines densities requires costly, time-intensive weekly counts of adults and nymphs on plants. Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to assess the potential for spectral-based remote sensing to more efficiently quantify cumulative aphid-days (CADs) using soybean canopy reflectance. RESULTS: Narrow-band wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range were associated with CAD, but those in the visible spectral range were not associated with CAD...
September 6, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jie-Bin Lew, D James B St John, Finlay A Macrae, Jon D Emery, Hooi C Ee, Mark A Jenkins, Emily He, Paul Grogan, Michael Caruana, Marjolein Je Greuter, Veerle M H Coupe, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program(NBCSP) is rolling out 2-yearly immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test screening in people 50-74 years. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness of extending the NBCSP to younger and/or older ages. METHODS: A comprehensive validated microsimulation model, Policy1-Bowel, was used to simulate the fully rolled-out NBCSP and alternative strategies assuming screening starts at 45 or 40 years and/or ceases at 79 or 84 years given three scenarios:(i) perfect adherence(100%), (ii) high adherence(60%), and (ii) low adherence(40%, as currently achieved)...
September 6, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Stacey L Valentine, Melania M Bembea, Jennifer A Muszynski, Jill M Cholette, Allan Doctor, Phillip C Spinella, Marie E Steiner, Marisa Tucci, Nabil E Hassan, Robert I Parker, Jacques Lacroix, Andrew Argent, Jeffrey L Carson, Kenneth E Remy, Pierre Demaret, Guillaume Emeriaud, Martin C J Kneyber, Nina Guzzetta, Mark W Hall, Duncan Macrae, Oliver Karam, Robert T Russell, Paul A Stricker, Adam M Vogel, Robert C Tasker, Alexis F Turgeon, Steven M Schwartz, Ariane Willems, Cassandra D Josephson, Naomi L C Luban, Leslie E Lehmann, Simon J Stanworth, Nicole D Zantek, Timothy E Bunchman, Ira M Cheifetz, James D Fortenberry, Meghan Delaney, Leo van de Watering, Karen A Robinson, Sara Malone, Katherine M Steffen, Scot T Bateman
OBJECTIVES: To date, there are no published guidelines to direct RBC transfusion decision-making specifically for critically ill children. We present the recommendations from the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. DESIGN: Consensus conference series of multidisciplinary, international experts in RBC transfusion management of critically ill children. SETTING: Not applicable. INTERVENTION: None...
September 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Douglas W Lundy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
David D M Nicholl, Patrick J Hanly, Ann A Zalucky, Michelle C Mann, Jennifer M MacRae, Marc J Poulin, George B Handley, Darlene Y Sola, Sofia B Ahmed
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The effect of OSA treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the cardiovascular response to a stressor is unknown. We sought to determine the effect of CPAP therapy on heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial stiffness, at baseline, in response to, and recovery from a physiological stressor, Angiotensin II (AngII), in humans with OSA. METHODS: Twenty-five incident healthy subjects (32% female; 49 ± 2 years) with moderate-severe OSA and nocturnal hypoxia were studied in high-salt balance, a state of maximal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) suppression, before CPAP, and after 4 weeks of effective CPAP therapy (usage > 4 h/night) in a second identical study day...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Jennifer A Muszynski, Nina A Guzzetta, Mark W Hall, Duncan Macrae, Stacey L Valentine, Scot T Bateman, Philip C Spinella
OBJECTIVES: To present the recommendations and supporting literature for RBC transfusions in critically ill children with nonhemorrhagic shock developed by the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. DESIGN: Consensus conference series of international, multidisciplinary experts in RBC transfusion management of critically ill children. METHODS: The panel of 38 experts developed evidence-based, and when evidence was lacking, expert-based clinical recommendations as well as research priorities for RBC transfusions in critically ill children...
September 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Nathan M Rowarth, Thomas H MacRae
Embryos of the crustacean, Artemia franciscana , develop either ovoviviparously or oviparously, respectively yielding swimming larvae (nauplii) or encysted gastrulae (cysts). Nauplii molt several times and become adults whereas cysts enter diapause, a state of dormancy characterized by exceptionally low metabolism and high stress tolerance. Synthesis of molecular chaperones such as the J-domain proteins, ArHsp40 and ArHsp40-2 occurs during embryo development and post-diapause growth of A. franciscana and they influence development and stress tolerance...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
QiPing Feng, Wei-Qi Wei, Cecilia P Chung, Rebecca T Levinson, Alexandra C Sundermann, Jonathan D Mosley, Lisa Bastarache, Jane F Ferguson, Nancy J Cox, Dan M Roden, Joshua C Denny, MacRae F Linton, Digna R Velez Edwards, C Michael Stein
BACKGROUND: Observations from statin clinical trials and from Mendelian randomization studies suggest that low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the findings from statin clinical trials and genetic studies, there is little direct evidence implicating low LDL-C concentrations in increased risk of T2DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used de-identified electronic health records (EHRs) at Vanderbilt University Medical Center to compare the risk of T2DM in a cross-sectional study among individuals with very low (≤60 mg/dl, N = 8,943) and normal (90-130 mg/dl, N = 71,343) LDL-C levels calculated using the Friedewald formula...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Alireza Haghighi, Joel B Krier, Agnes Toth-Petroczy, Christopher A Cassa, Natasha Y Frank, Nikkola Carmichael, Elizabeth Fieg, Andrew Bjonnes, Anwoy Mohanty, Lauren C Briere, Sharyn Lincoln, Stephanie Lucia, Vandana A Gupta, Onuralp Söylemez, Sheila Sutti, Kameron Kooshesh, Haiyan Qiu, Christopher J Fay, Victoria Perroni, Jamie Valerius, Meredith Hanna, Alexander Frank, Jodie Ouahed, Scott B Snapper, Angeliki Pantazi, Sameer S Chopra, Ignaty Leshchiner, Nathan O Stitziel, Anna Feldweg, Michael Mannstadt, Joseph Loscalzo, David A Sweetser, Eric Liao, Joan M Stoler, Catherine B Nowak, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, Ophir D Klein, Hazel Perry, Nikolaos A Patsopoulos, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Wolfram Goessling, Robert C Green, Christine E Seidman, Calum A MacRae, Shamil R Sunyaev, Richard L Maas, Dana Vuzman
Despite major progress in defining the genetic basis of Mendelian disorders, the molecular etiology of many cases remains unknown. Patients with these undiagnosed disorders often have complex presentations and require treatment by multiple health care specialists. Here, we describe an integrated clinical diagnostic and research program using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing (WES/WGS) for Mendelian disease gene discovery. This program employs specific case ascertainment parameters, a WES/WGS computational analysis pipeline that is optimized for Mendelian disease gene discovery with variant callers tuned to specific inheritance modes, an interdisciplinary crowdsourcing strategy for genomic sequence analysis, matchmaking for additional cases, and integration of the findings regarding gene causality with the clinical management plan...
2018: NPJ Genomic Medicine
Ryan M Allen, Shilin Zhao, Marisol A Ramirez Solano, Wanying Zhu, Danielle L Michell, Yuhuan Wang, Yu Shyr, Praveen Sethupathy, MacRae F Linton, Gregory A Graf, Quanhu Sheng, Kasey C Vickers
To comprehensively study extracellular small RNAs (sRNA) by sequencing (sRNA-seq), we developed a novel pipeline to overcome current limitations in analysis entitled, "Tools for Integrative Genome analysis of Extracellular sRNAs (TIGER)". To demonstrate the power of this tool, sRNA-seq was performed on mouse lipoproteins, bile, urine and livers. A key advance for the TIGER pipeline is the ability to analyse both host and non-host sRNAs at genomic, parent RNA and individual fragment levels. TIGER was able to identify approximately 60% of sRNAs on lipoproteins and >85% of sRNAs in liver, bile and urine, a significant advance compared to existing software...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Vinay K Rathi, Ralph Metson, Mark A Varvares, Matthew R Naunheim, Stacey T Gray
The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) of 2015 established value-based reimbursement as the new norm in health care. As part of this shift, public and private insurers have adopted bundled payments in an effort to improve quality and control cost. Arkansas recently implemented an otolaryngology-specific bundled payment, which reimburses episodes of care involving adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. In this mandatory model, otolaryngologists have the potential for shared savings or losses based on spending relative to risk-adjusted historical benchmarks and performance on quality metrics...
August 21, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Fareed Kamar, Robert R Quinn, Matthew J Oliver, Andrea K Viecelli, Swapnil Hiremath, Jennifer MacRae, Lisa Miller, Peter Blake, Louise Moist, Amit X Garg, Ngan N Lam, Rameez Kabani, Alix Clarke, Ping Liu, Brenda Gillespie, Pietro Ravani
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Fistulas are the preferred form of hemodialysis access; however, many fistulas fail to mature into usable accesses after creation. Data for outcomes after placement of a second fistula are limited. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: People who initiated hemodialysis therapy in any of 5 Canadian dialysis programs (2004-2012) and had at least 1 hemodialysis fistula placed. PREDICTOR: Second versus initial fistula; receipt of 2 versus 1 fistula; second versus first fistula in recipients of 2 fistulas...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Amy Jennings, Emily Gascoigne, Alastair Macrae, Elizabeth Burrough, James Patrick Crilly
Ovine pestiviruses have the potential to reduce productivity in the British sheep flock. However, their prevalence and impact are currently poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate the exposure to pestiviruses in adult breeding ewe stock. Blood samples collected for metabolic profiling before lambing were tested using an ELISA that detected antibodies raised to both bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Border disease virus. A group of 15 animals were tested per flock. A total of 34 farms were tested, of which 13 had at least one seropositive animal...
August 18, 2018: Veterinary Record
Thomas H Miller, Matteo D Gallidabino, James R MacRae, Stewart F Owen, Nicolas R Bury, Leon P Barron
The application of machine learning has recently gained interest from ecotoxicological fields for its ability to model and predict chemical and/or biological processes, such as the prediction of bioconcentration. However, comparison of different models and the prediction of bioconcentration in invertebrates has not been previously evaluated. A comparison of 24 linear and machine learning models is presented herein for the prediction of bioconcentration in fish and important factors that influenced accumulation identified...
August 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mary Dillon, Louisa Flander, Daniel D Buchanan, Finlay A Macrae, Jon D Emery, Ingrid M Winship, Alex Boussioutas, Graham G Giles, John L Hopper, Mark A Jenkins, Driss Ait Ouakrim
BACKGROUND: The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) was introduced in 2006. When fully implemented, the programme will invite people aged 50 to 74 to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) every 2 years. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To investigate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening occurring outside of the NBCSP, we classified participants (n = 2,480) in the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) into 3 risk categories (average, moderately increased, and potentially high) based on CRC family history and assessed their screening practices according to national guidelines...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Douglas W Lundy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Luca F R Gebert, Ian J MacRae
Since their serendipitous discovery in nematodes, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of biological processes in animals. These small RNAs form complex networks that regulate cell differentiation, development and homeostasis. Deregulation of miRNA function is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, particularly cancer. Recent discoveries have expanded our understanding of the control of miRNA function. Here, we review the mechanisms that modulate miRNA activity, stability and cellular localization through alternative processing and maturation, sequence editing, post-translational modifications of Argonaute proteins, viral factors, transport from the cytoplasm and regulation of miRNA-target interactions...
August 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Deborah Teasley
The US health care system has an unequal distribution of physician supply, is poorly accessible in some areas, and has wide disparities in patient health status. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was intended to address these issues by providing affordable health insurance coverage, Medicaid expansion, and care delivery system redesign (particularly through physician payment reform). As part of payment reform, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) went into effect in January 2017...
August 2018: FP Essentials
Manuel Lillo-Crespo, Jorge Riquelme, Rhoda Macrae, Wilson De Abreu, Elizabeth Hanson, Iva Holmerova, Mª José Cabañero, Rosario Ferrer, Debbie Tolson
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of robust research concerning the care experiences of peoplewith advanced dementia within Europe. It is essential to understand these experiences if weare to address care inequalities and create impactful dementia policies to improve servicesthat support individuals and enable family caring. OBJECTIVES: To identify the strengths and weaknesses in daily life perceived by people with dementia and family caring across Europe by exemplifying experiences and the range of typical care settings for advanced dementia care in seven partner countries...
2018: Global Health Action
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