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Bethan A Wallbank, Caia S Dominicus, Malgorzata Broncel, Nathalie Legrave, James I MacRae, Henry M Staines, Moritz Treeck
Toxoplasma gondii parasites rapidly exit their host cell when exposed to calcium ionophores. Calcium-dependent protein kinase 3 (TgCDPK3) was previously identified as a key mediator in this process, as TgCDPK3 knockout (∆cdpk3) parasites fail to egress in a timely manner. Phosphoproteomic analysis comparing WT with ∆cdpk3 parasites revealed changes in the TgCDPK3-dependent phosphoproteome that included proteins important for regulating motility, but also metabolic enzymes, indicating that TgCDPK3 controls processes beyond egress...
November 6, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Karim Roder, Anatoli Kabakov, Karni S Moshal, Kevin R Murphy, An Xie, Samuel Dudley, Nilüfer N Turan, Yichun Lu, Calum A MacRae, Gideon Koren
The QT interval is an important diagnostic feature on surface electrocardiograms because it reflects the duration of the ventricular action potential. A previous genome-wide association study has reported a significant linkage between a SNP approximately 11.7 kb downstream of the gene encoding the RING finger ubiquitin ligase rififylin (RFFL) and variability in the QT interval. This, along with results in animal studies, suggests that RFFL may have effects on cardiac repolarization. Here, we sought to determine the role of RFFL in cardiac electrophysiology...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lindsay Stark, Ilana Seff, Khudejha Asghar, Danielle Roth, Theresita Bakamore, Mairi MacRae, Cecile Fanton D'Andon, Kathryn L Falb
Introduction: Parenting programmes are increasingly popular for reducing children's exposure to interpersonal violence in low/middle-income countries, but there is limited evidence on their effectiveness. We investigated the incremental impact of adding a caregiver component to a life skills programme for adolescent girls, assessing girls' exposure to violence (sexual and others) and caregivers' gender attitudes and parenting behaviours. Methods: In this two-arm, single-blinded, cluster randomised controlled trial, we recruited 869 adolescent girls aged 10-14 and 764 caregivers in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Manjari Kiran, Ajay Chatrath, Xiwei Tang, Daniel Macrae Keenan, Anindya Dutta
Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (together known as lower grade gliomas, WHO grade II and III) develop in the supporting glial cells of brain and are the most common types of primary brain tumor. Despite a better prognosis for lower grade gliomas, 70% of patients undergo high-grade transformation within 10 years, stressing the importance of better prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are gaining attention as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We have developed a computational model, UVA8, for prognosis of lower grade gliomas by combining lncRNA expression, Cox regression, and L1-LASSO penalization...
November 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Eelco Franz, Ovidiu Rotariu, Bruno S Lopes, Marion MacRae, James L Bono, Chad Laing, Victor Gannon, Robert Söderlund, Angela H A M van Hoek, Ingrid Friesema, Nigel P French, Tessy George, Patrick J Biggs, Patricia Jaros, Marta Rivas, Isabel Chinen, Josefina Campos, Cecilia Jernberg, Kari Gobius, Glen E Mellor, P Scott Chandry, Francisco Perez-Reche, Ken J Forbes, Norval J C Strachan
Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherchia coli O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen which causes numerous food and waterborne disease outbreaks. It is globally distributed but its origin and temporal sequence of geographical spread is unknown. Methods: We analysed Whole Genome Sequencing data of 757 isolates from 4 continents and performed a pan genome analysis to identify the core genome and from this extracted single nucleotide polymorphisms. Timed phylogeographic analysis was performed on a subset of the isolates to investigate it's worldwide spread...
October 29, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Julien Feghaly, Patrick Zakka, Barry London, Calum A MacRae, Marwan M Refaat
Background Atrial fibrillation ( AF ) is a common arrhythmia seen in clinical practice. Occasionally, no common risk factors are present in patients with this arrhythmia. This suggests the potential underlying role of genetic factors associated with predisposition to developing AF . Methods and Results We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature through large online libraries, including PubMed. Many different potassium and sodium channel mutations have been discussed in their relation to AF . There have also been non-ion channel mutations that have been linked to AF ...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Mark A Jenkins, Driss Ait Ouakrim, Alex Boussioutas, John L Hopper, Hooi C Ee, Jon D Emery, Finlay A Macrae, Albert Chetcuti, Laura Wuellner, D James B St John
Screening is an effective means for colorectal cancer prevention and early detection. Family history is strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk. We describe the rationale, evidence and recommendations for colorectal cancer screening by family history for people without a genetic syndrome, as reported in the 2017 revised Australian guidelines. Main recommendations: Based on 10-year risks of colorectal cancer, people at near average risk due to no or weak family history (category 1) are recommended screening by immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) every 2 years from age 50 to 74 years...
November 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Thomas H Miller, Matteo D Gallidabino, James I MacRae, Christer Hogstrand, Nicolas R Bury, Leon P Barron, Jason R Snape, Stewart F Owen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Frouke Hermens, Marius Golubickis, C Neil Macrae
Past studies examining how people judge faces for trustworthiness and dominance have suggested that they use particular facial features (e.g. mouth features for trustworthiness, eyebrow and cheek features for dominance ratings) to complete the task. Here, we examine whether eye movements during the task reflect the importance of these features. We here compared eye movements for trustworthiness and dominance ratings of face images under three stimulus configurations: Small images (mimicking large viewing distances), large images (mimicking face to face viewing), and a moving window condition (removing extrafoveal information)...
2018: PeerJ
Ana Filipa Guedes, Filomena A Carvalho, Marco M Domingues, Fraser L Macrae, Helen R McPherson, Aliaa Sabban, Ivo C Martins, Cédric Duval, Nuno C Santos, Robert As Ariëns
AIM: γ' fibrinogen has been associated with thrombosis. Here the interactions between γ'γ' or γAγA fibrinogen and red blood cells (RBCs), and their role on fibrin clot properties were studied. MATERIALS & METHODS: Atomic Force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopy, rheological, electron and confocal microscopy, and computational approaches were conducted for both fibrinogen variants. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: AFM shows that the recombinant human (rh)γ'γ' fibrinogen increases the binding force and the frequency of the binding to RBCs compared with rhγAγA, promoting cell aggregation...
October 2018: Nanomedicine
Uchechukwu K A Sampson, Elizabeth A McGlynn, Jonathan B Perlin, Mark E Frisse, Sharon B Arnold, Edward J Benz, Troyen Brennan, Peter Briss, Melinda J Beeuwkes Buntin, Sundeep Khosla, Ron G King, Richard Kuntz, Harry Leider, Shari M Ling, Jim Macrae, Richard Murray, Eric Thrailkill, Carrie Wager, Debbie Witchey, Harry R Jacobson
There is a growing gap between available science and evidence and the ability of service providers to deliver high-quality care in a cost-effective way to the entire population. We believe that the chasm between knowledge and action is due to a lack of concerted effort among all organizations that deliver health care services across the life span of patients. Broad participation is needed and necessitates a far more explicit and concerted public-private partnership focused on large-scale transformation. In this context, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a panel made up of leaders of corporate health care entities, including academic health centers, and government agency representatives to inform contemporary strategic partnerships with health care companies...
October 6, 2018: Global Heart
Louise Fets, Paul C Driscoll, Fiona Grimm, Aakriti Jain, Patrícia M Nunes, Michalis Gounis, Ginevra Doglioni, George Papageorgiou, Timothy J Ragan, Sebastien Campos, Mariana Silva Dos Santos, James I MacRae, Nicola O'Reilly, Alan J Wright, Cyril H Benes, Kevin D Courtney, David House, Dimitrios Anastasiou
α-Ketoglutarate (αKG) is a key node in many important metabolic pathways. The αKG analog N-oxalylglycine (NOG) and its cell-permeable prodrug dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) are extensively used to inhibit αKG-dependent dioxygenases. However, whether NOG interference with other αKG-dependent processes contributes to its mode of action remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in aqueous solutions, DMOG is rapidly hydrolyzed, yielding methyloxalylglycine (MOG). MOG elicits cytotoxicity in a manner that depends on its transport by monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) and is associated with decreased glutamine-derived tricarboxylic acid-cycle flux, suppressed mitochondrial respiration and decreased ATP production...
November 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
A Jack-Waugh, L Ritchie, R MacRae
Increasing numbers of people with dementia are living longer with a higher likelihood of requiring hospital care for physical conditions including falls, infections and stroke (Boaden, 2016). However, the literature is replete with descriptions of poor care and hospital care experiences that have fallen well below the expectations of people with dementia, their families and friends. Although poor care is unacceptable, it is unsurprising given that dementia education for health and social care professionals is often inadequate and inconsistent...
September 29, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Lyon Mascarenhas, Susan Shanley, Gillian Mitchell, Amanda B Spurdle, Finlay Macrae, Nicholas Pachter, Daniel D Buchanan, Robyn L Ward, Stephen Fox, Elaine Duxbury, Rebecca Driessen, Alex Boussioutas
AIM & METHODS: An electronic survey of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia accredited pathology services was conducted to assess Lynch syndrome tumor screening practices and to identify barriers and capabilities to screen newly diagnosed colorectal and endometrial tumors in Australia. RESULTS: Australia lacks a national policy for universal mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) testing of incident colorectal and endometrial tumors cases. Routine Lynch syndrome tumor screening program for colorectal and/or endometrial tumors was applied by 95% (37/39) of laboratories...
October 7, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Sara B Seidelmann, Elena Feofanova, Bing Yu, Nora Franceschini, Brian Claggett, Mikko Kuokkanen, Hannu Puolijoki, Tapani Ebeling, Markus Perola, Veikko Salomaa, Amil Shah, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin, Calum A MacRae, Susan Cheng, Eric Boerwinkle, Scott D Solomon
BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the SGLT1 (sodium/glucose co-transporter-1) gene result in a rare glucose/galactose malabsorption disorder and neonatal death if untreated. In the general population, variants related to intestinal glucose absorption remain uncharacterized. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to identify functional SGLT1 gene variants and characterize their clinical consequences. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants enrolled from 4 U...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Steffi Fritsche, Charleson Poovaiah, Elspeth MacRae, Glenn Thorlby
New Zealand (NZ) is a small country with an export-led economy with above 90% of primary production exported. Plant-based primary commodities derived from the pastoral, horticultural and forestry sectors account for around half of the export earnings. Productivity is characterized by a history of innovation and the early adoption of advanced technologies. Gene editing has the potential to revolutionize breeding programmes, particularly in NZ. Here, perennials such as tree crops and forestry species are key components of the primary production value chain but are challenging for conventional breeding and only recently domesticated...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kavishwar B Wagholikar, Christina M Fischer, Alyssa Goodson, Christopher D Herrick, Martin Rees, Eloy Toscano, Calum A MacRae, Benjamin M Scirica, Akshay S Desai, Shawn N Murphy
Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular outcomes. It is used clinically to determine the indication for several therapeutic interventions. LVEF is most commonly derived using in-line tools and some manual assessment by cardiologists from standardized echocardiographic views. LVEF is typically documented in free-text reports, and variation in LVEF documentation pose a challenge for the extraction and utilization of LVEF in computer-based clinical workflows...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Aminul Haque, Genevieve Ali, Merrin Macrae, Pascal Badiou, David Lobb
While wetlands are known as long-term storages or sinks for contaminants, not all are equally effective at trapping phosphorus (P). The prevalence of P-sink behavior in prairie pothole wetlands remains unclear, especially across gradients of human disturbance. The objectives of the current study were three-fold: (1) characterize the spatiotemporal variability of wetland hydrology and wetland water P concentration across a range of prairie potholes; (2) establish the propensity of different pothole wetlands to act as sources or sinks of P; and (3) assess the potential controls of climatic conditions, landscape characteristics, wetland soil physiochemical properties and local hydrology on source versus sink dynamics...
December 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
R D Bruce Fraser, David A D Parry
The X-ray diffraction patterns of quill and hair, as well as other trichocyte keratin appendages, contain meridional reflections that can be indexed on an axial repeat of 470 Å. Unusually, however, many of the expected orders are not observed. A possible explanation, proposed by Fraser and MacRae (1983), was that the intermediate filaments (IF) that constitute the fibrillar component of the filament/matrix texture consist of 4-chain protofilaments arranged on a surface lattice subject to a helical dislocation...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Clifford M Sales, Paul W White, Jill Rathbun, Karen Woo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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