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Eric B Elbogen, H Ryan Wagner, Mira Brancu, Nathan A Kimbrel, Jennifer C Naylor, Cindy M Swinkels, John A Fairbank
Introduction: In response to a strong focus on suicide prevention for all veterans, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) recently revised policy to provide emergency mental healthcare for veterans who received Other Than Honorable (OTH) discharges from the military. This current study takes a preliminary step toward identifying demographic, historic, military, clinical, and social characteristics of veterans with OTH discharges. Materials and Methods: N = 1,172 Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans were evaluated between 2005 and 2016 in the multi-site VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness, Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC) Study of Post-Deployment Mental Health (PDMH Study)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Renata Ferrari, Ezequiel M Marzinelli, Camila Rezende Ayroza, Alan Jordan, Will F Figueira, Maria Byrne, Hamish A Malcolm, Stefan B Williams, Peter D Steinberg
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are designed to reduce threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning from anthropogenic activities. Assessment of MPAs effectiveness requires synchronous sampling of protected and non-protected areas at multiple spatial and temporal scales. We used an autonomous underwater vehicle to map benthic communities in replicate 'no-take' and 'general-use' (fishing allowed) zones within three MPAs along 7o of latitude. We recorded 92 taxa and 38 morpho-groups across three large MPAs...
2018: PloS One
Yang Xiong, Lin Xu, Xing Yu, Yongdong Yang, Dingyan Zhao, Zhengguo Hu, Chuanhong Li, He Zhao, Lijun Duan, Bingbing Zhang, Sixue Chen, Tao Liu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To compare the mid-term outcomes of hybrid surgery and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for the treatment of contiguous 2-segment cervical degenerative disc diseases. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Hybrid surgery has become one of the most controversial subjects in spine communities, and the comparative studies of hybrid surgery and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in the mid- and long-term follow-up are rarely reported...
March 15, 2018: Spine
S Songül Yalçin, Suzan Yalçin
This study was conducted to assess the blood boron levels (BBL) in prepubertal children in the West and Central Anatolia regions of Turkey and its relationship with chosen anthropometric measurements. A multistage sampling design that combined multicluster (West Anatolia vs. Central Anatolia regions and rural vs. urban residents) and simple random sampling methods were used for the sample selection. BBL was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Cherian K Kandathil, Emily A Spataro, Katri Laimi, Sami P Moubayed, Sam P Most, Mikhail Saltychev
Importance: While functional rhinoplasty has been broadly studied, to our knowledge no systematic review and meta-analysis of lateral wall repair has been done previously. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of repair of the lateral nasal wall in adult patients with nasal airway obstruction. Data Sources: Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Central, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and reference lists were searched for clinical and observational studies...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Jeffrey E Stokes
OBJECTIVES: Social relations can influence well-being throughout the life course. Integration in one's community may serve as a source of social support whereas negative interactions such as day-to-day discrimination can be psychosocial stressors, particularly for neurotic persons. Yet social connectedness may vary in importance across the age range. Individuals trim their social networks in later life to optimize emotional well-being, but older adults may also be at heightened risk of social isolation...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Kenichi Matsushita, Kazumasa Harada, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Takamichi Miyamoto, Kiyoshi Iida, Shuzou Tanimoto, Mayuko Yagawa, Makoto Takei, Yuji Nagatomo, Toru Hosoda, Hideaki Yoshino, Takeshi Yamamoto, Ken Nagao, Morimasa Takayama
The relationship between glycemic control and outcome in patients with heart failure (HF) remains contentious. A recent study showed that patients with HF with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) more frequently had comorbid diabetes relative to other patients. Herein, we examined the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and in-hospital mortality in acute HF patients with reduced, mid-range, and preserved EF. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted on 5205 consecutive patients with acute HF...
March 14, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Michael W Pankhurst, Rebecca L Kelley, Rachel L Sanders, Savana R Woodcock, Dorothy E Oorschot, Nicola J Batchelor
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an ovarian regulator that affects folliculogenesis. AMH inhibits the developmental activation of the dormant primordial follicles and the oocyte within. In more mature follicles, AMH reduces granulosa cell sensitivity to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). We examined the effects of AMH overexpression on the stages of ovarian folliculogenesis, and the development of embryos, with a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human AMH in central nervous system neurons under the control of the mouse Thy1...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Clifford R Jack, Heather J Wiste, Christopher G Schwarz, Val J Lowe, Matthew L Senjem, Prashanthi Vemuri, Stephen D Weigand, Terry M Therneau, Dave S Knopman, Jeffrey L Gunter, David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Kejal Kantarci, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen
Our objective was to compare different whole-brain and region-specific measurements of within-person change on serial tau PET and evaluate its utility for clinical trials. We studied 126 individuals: 59 cognitively unimpaired with normal amyloid, 37 cognitively unimpaired with abnormal amyloid, and 30 cognitively impaired with an amnestic phenotype and abnormal amyloid. All had baseline amyloid PET and two tau PET, MRI, and clinical assessments. We compared the topography across all cortical regions of interest of tau PET accumulation rates and the rates of four different whole-brain or region-specific meta-regions of interest among the three clinical groups...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Frank P Deane, Craig Gonsalvez, Caroline Joyce, Eileen Britt
OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to describe the developmental trajectories of clinical psychology trainees across competency domains over multiple placements. METHOD: Competency reviews of 252 trainees were completed at mid-placement and end-placement for up to four consecutive placements by 143 field supervisors. Competency was measured across multiple domains using the Clinical Psychology Practicum Competencies Rating Scale. RESULTS: There was an overall ascending stepped pattern occurring across all competency domains from early to late placements...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Damon A D'Ambrosio, Anders S Huseth, George G Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Reports of neonicotinoid seed treatment (NST) failure against Frankliniella fusca in the Mid-South and Southeastern United States led to the discovery of widespread resistance in these insect populations. Previous studies of NSTs in other crops have shown the concentration of the insecticide to change over time, which could reduce its efficacy. To understand this relationship in cotton with F. fusca, our study examined how plant age alters the effects of NSTs (imidacloprid, imidacloprid+thiodicarb, thiamethoxam) by examining larval establishment at multiple seedling ages during the period of cotton seedling susceptibility to this insect...
March 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Elisabeth Schreuders, Barbara R Braams, Neeltje E Blankenstein, Jiska S Peper, Berna Güroğlu, Eveline A Crone
It was examined how ventral striatum responses to rewards develop across adolescence and early adulthood and how individual differences in state- and trait-level reward sensitivity are related to these changes. Participants (aged 8-29 years) were tested across three waves separated by 2 years (693 functional MRI scans) in an accelerated longitudinal design. The results confirmed an adolescent peak in reward-related ventral striatum, specifically nucleus accumbens, activity. In early to mid-adolescence, increases in reward activation were related to trait-level reward drive...
March 13, 2018: Child Development
Mackenzie Haines, Sarah K McKinley-Barnard, Thomas L Andre, Josh J Gann, Paul S Hwang, Darryn S Willoughby
This study sought to determine if the differences in serum estradiol we have previously observed to occur during the mid-follicular (MF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the female menstrual cycle could be attributed to estrogen-induced receptor activation and subsequent effects on myogenic-related genes which may otherwise impact muscle regeneration in response to eccentric exercise. Twenty-two physically-active females (20.9 ± 1.4 years, 63.5 ± 9.0 kg, 1.65 ± 0.08 m) underwent an eccentric exercise bout of the knee extensors during the MF and ML phases of their 28-day menstrual cycle...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Tiina Särkinen, Sören Kottner, Wolfgang Stuppy, Farah Ahmed, Sandra Knapp
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fossils provide minimum age estimates for extant lineages. Here we critically evaluate Cantisolanum daturoides Reid & Chandler and two other early putative seed fossils of Solanaceae, an economically important plant family in the Asteridae. METHODS: Three earliest seed fossil taxa of Solanaceae from the London Clay Formation (Cantisolanum daturoides) and the Poole and Branksome Sand Formations (Solanum arnense Chandler and Solanispermum reniforme Chandler) were studied using x-ray microcomputed tomography (MCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Lidija Kocbek, Mateja Rakuša
PURPOSE: A common trunk of the posterior intercostal arteries originating from the descending thoracic aorta is normally an anatomical variation. A search through the literature disclosed the frequencies of common trunks variations among population, but no information relates to particular topic of simultaneous multiple common trunks of the PIA present in individuals. METHODS: A total of 396 intercostal spaces were dissected in 44 cadavers from the vertebral body to the mid-axillary line to observe a common trunk of the paired posterior intercostal artery at the level from T2 to T11 intercostal space...
March 12, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Galen P Dively, P Dilip Venugopal, Dick Bean, Joanne Whalen, Kristian Holmstrom, Thomas P Kuhar, Hélène B Doughty, Terry Patton, William Cissel, William D Hutchison
Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976-2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Baoxi Wang, Peter A Rice, Xiao-Hong Su
Azithromycin resistance (AZM-R) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as a clinical and public health challenge. We determined molecular characteristics of recent AZM-R Nanjing gonococcal isolates and tracked the emergence of AZM-R isolates in eastern Chinese cities in recent years. 384 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nanjing collected from 2013 to 2014 were tested for susceptibility to AZM and six additional antibiotics; all AZM-R strains were characterized genetically for resistance determinants by sequencing and were genotyped using N...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Tetsuo Kiso, Ai Moriyama, Masako Furutani, Ritsuko Matsuda, Yukiko Funatsu
Dysfunction of the monoamine systems in the nervous system is associated with the clinical symptoms of fibromyalgia. Reserpine-induced myalgia (RIM) rats are a putative model of fibromyalgia in which muscle pressure thresholds and monoamine content is reduced in the brain and spinal cord. We examined the effects of pregabalin and duloxetine, drugs approved for fibromyalgia treatment, on the levels of extracellular neurotransmitters in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in RIM rats using microdialysis. Male SD rats were used for all experiments...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
William D S Killgore, Haley C Kent, Sara A Knight, Anna Alkozei
Humans demonstrate a circadian rhythm of melatonin production that closely tracks the daily light/dark cycle, with profound increases in circulating levels during the night-time and nearly nonexistent levels during daylight hours. Although melatonin is known to play a role in preparing the brain and body for sleep, its effects on cognition and brain function are not well understood. We hypothesized that declines in morning melatonin would be associated with increased functional activation within cortical regions involved in alertness, attention, and executive function...
March 9, 2018: Neuroreport
Wenyu Lv, Shuangjiang Li, Zhengang Zhao, Yanbiao Liao, Yijian Li, Mao Chen, Yuan Feng
Prior studies have proposed the unfavourable roles of diabetes mellitus (DM) in surgical populations. For patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation, the prognostic value of DM remains controversial. This review summarizes the effects of DM on short-term, mid-term and long-term prognosis in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We searched the PubMed database to identify eligible articles. The odds ratio and hazard ratio with the corresponding 95% confidence interval were adopted for synthesizing short-term and medium- to long-term survival outcomes, respectively...
March 8, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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