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acute liver disease

Céline Hernandez, Peter Huebener, Jean-Philippe Pradere, Daniel J Antoine, Richard A Friedman, Robert F Schwabe
Cell death is a key driver of disease progression and carcinogenesis in chronic liver disease (CLD), highlighted by the well-established clinical correlation between hepatocellular death and risk for the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, hepatocellular death is sufficient to trigger fibrosis and HCC in mice. However, the pathways through which cell death drives CLD progression remain elusive. Here, we tested the hypothesis that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) with key roles in acute liver injury, may link cell death to injury responses and hepatocarcinogenesis in CLD...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Carine Beysen, Marcie Ruddy, Aubrey Stoch, Lori A Mixson, Kim Rosko, Tim Riiff, Scott M Turner, Marc K Hellerstein, Elizabeth J Murphy
Fructose feeding increases hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Little is known, however, about individual variation in susceptibility to fructose stimulation of DNL. In this three-period, cross-over study, seventeen healthy male subjects were enrolled to evaluate the within and between subject variability of acute fructose feeding on hepatic fractional DNL. During each assessment, [1-13 C1 ]-acetate was infused to measure DNL in the fasting state and during fructose feeding...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
A C Jemilohun, O G Adewoye
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare cause of chronic liver disease (CLD). It presents with varied clinical features from acute hepatitis to CLDs like chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholic liver disease, making it difficult to diagnose in the absence of a high index of suspicion and adequate laboratory support. Autoantibody-mediated hepatocyte injury is the major feature of AIH. We present a 44 year old woman with recurrent jaundice, ascites, splenomegaly, coagulopathy, negative chronic viral hepatitis screening, elevated IgG and positive anti-smooth muscle antibody...
December 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
Li Liu, Di Xiao, Jin-Hong Yu, Rui Shen, Meng Wang, Qiang Li
OBJECTIVES: In China, the epidemic pattern of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has changed from waterborne outbreaks to foodborne sporadic cases. However, the clinical course of sporadic acute hepatitis E has not been well defined. METHODS: Consecutive AHE inpatients who were admitted to the Jinan Infectious Disease Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, between January 2003 and December 2014 were evaluated and followed. Demographic data, clinical manifestations, results of laboratory tests,and outcomes were recorded...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Maxime Mallet, Nicolas Weiss, Dominique Thabut, Marika Rudler
Hyperammonemia plays a key role in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and most HE treatments are ammonia-lowering drugs. However, the usefulness of measuring ammonemia in routine practice remains controversial and not recommended systematically even when neurological symptoms are present. First, ammonemia measurement should be carefully performed in order to avoid a falsely elevated result. When performed, a normal ammonemia in a cirrhotic patient with neurological symptoms should lead to reconsider the diagnosis of HE...
March 15, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Hongliang Zhang, Xiaoqin Zou, Qiuyan Huang, Xiaobin Zhong, Zhenguang Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The herbal medicine Kudingcha has a bitter taste and low bioavailability for lipid reduction. To improve the bioavailability and ameliorate the compliance, we prepared Kudingcha nanoparticles and investigated their effect in hyperlipidaemic rats. In addition, the safety and lipid-lowering mechanism of the Kudingcha nanoparticles were examined. METHODS: Kudingcha nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation and spray-drying. Seventy rats were randomly assigned into eight groups: a normal fat diet group (NF), a high-fat group (HF), a spontaneous recovery group (SR), a Kudingcha group (KDC), a blank nanoparticle group (B-N), and a Kudingcha nanoparticle groups (low, medium and high doses)...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Vladimir S Shavva, Alexandra M Bogomolova, Alexander M Efremov, Alexander N Trofimov, Artemy A Nikitin, Anna V Babina, Ekaterina V Nekrasova, Ella B Dizhe, Galina N Oleinikova, Boris V Missyul, Sergey V Orlov
C3 is an acute phase protein, and thus its plasma concentration increases quickly and drastically during the onset of inflammation. Insulin plays a complex role in inflammation. Elevated level of plasma C3 was shown to correlate with heightened fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance and appears to be a risk factor for the cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The main source of plasma C3 is liver. Nothing is known about effects of insulin on C3 gene expression and protein secretion by hepatocytes...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Yu Huang, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Akihiko Soyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Shinichiro Ono, Tomohiko Adachi, Takanobu Hara, Satomi Okada, Takashi Hamada, Susumu Eguchi
BACKGROUND Liver transplantation is indicated for patients with Wilson's disease (WD) who present either with acute liver failure or with end-stage liver disease and severe hepatic insufficiency as the first sign of disease. However, almost all reported cases have been treated with death donor liver transplantation. Here we report the case of a patient with WD associated with fulminant hepatic failure (WD-FHF) who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). CASE REPORT A 17-year-old female was diagnosed with WD-FHF based on high uric copper (10 603 μg/day, normal <100 μg/day), low serum ceruloplasmin (15 mg/dL, normal >20 mg/dL) and Kayser-Fleischer (K-F) corneal ring, and acute liver failure (ALF), acute renal failure (ARF) and grade 2 hepatic encephalopathy (HE)...
March 17, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Keri E Lunsford, Milind Javle, Kirk Heyne, Rachna T Shroff, Reham Abdel-Wahab, Nakul Gupta, Constance M Mobley, Ashish Saharia, David W Victor, Duc T Nguyen, Edward A Graviss, Ahmed O Kaseb, Robert S McFadden, Thomas A Aloia, Claudius Conrad, Xian C Li, Howard P Monsour, A Osama Gaber, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, R Mark Ghobrial
BACKGROUND: At present, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a contraindication for liver transplantation. However, previous studies in this field did not preselect patients on the basis of chemosensitivity or disease trajectory after neoadjuvant therapy. Experience with hilar cholangiocarcinoma has indicated that neoadjuvant therapy followed by liver transplantation in patients without disease progression results in a long-term survival benefit. We aimed to establish the potential efficacy of liver transplantation in patients with biologically responsive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma who have had sustained tumour stability or regression with neoadjuvant therapy...
March 13, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Bastian Ramms, Philip L S M Gordts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a key player in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism and strongly associated with elevated plasma triglyceride levels. Several new studies added important insights on apoC-III and its physiological function confirming its promise as a valid therapeutic target. RECENT FINDINGS: APOC3 is expressed in liver and intestine and regulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) catabolism and anabolism. The transcriptional regulation in both organs requires different regulatory elements...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Yuehong Li, Binbin Li, Wei Wang, Jiaxuan Lv
The aim of the present study was to analyze the risk factors for new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients who have received a liver transplant. A total of 190 patients who underwent liver transplantation between March 2001 and January 2015 were followed up, and analyzed retrospectively. Sex, age, primary disease, preoperative laboratory findings (hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine and glomerular filtration rate), surgical approach, blood loss during the surgery and transfusion volume, postoperative complications, and the average levels of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) (from liver transplantation to the onset of CKD) were analyzed...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kazuaki Tokodai, Shigehito Miyagi, Chikashi Nakanishi, Yasuyuki Hara, Wataru Nakanishi, Koji Miyazawa, Kenji Shimizu, Keigo Murakami, Hironobu Sasano, Masafumi Goto, Michiaki Unno, Takashi Kamei
The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of post-transplant DSA as a predictor of liver fibrosis during long-term follow-up after pediatric LT. We evaluated the histological findings in 18 LT recipients who underwent liver biopsy after DSA screening. Liver fibrosis was scored based on the METAVIR fibrosis staging. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on histological findings, and clinical characteristics among patients with liver fibrosis were assessed. Of 18 patients, 7 were included in the fibrosis group...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tiong Y Lim, Enoka Gonsalkorala, Mary D Cannon, Stella Gabeta, Leonie Penna, Nigel D Heaton, Michael A Heneghan
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) is a successful treatment for both acute liver failure and end-stage liver disease. The number of women of reproductive age undergoing LT is increasing. Pregnancy outcomes are favourable but there is still a lack of prognostic markers. We aimed to identify factors predictive of adverse pregnancy outcomes in LT recipients. METHODS: An analysis of all pregnancies occurring in LT recipients from 1989-2016 at King's College Hospital was performed...
March 14, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
There is bidirectional communication between the immune system and the gut microbiome, however the precise mechanisms regulating this crosstalk are not well understood. Microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) within the gut, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that produces a quick and robust activation of the immune system, may be one way by which these interactions occur. Endogenous levels of LPS in the gut are low enough that they do not usually cause disease, although, in times of increased LPS loads, they may be capable of increasing vulnerability of the gut to pathogenic bacteria...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
S M Dehghani, I Shahramian, M Afshari, M Bahmanyar, M Ataollahi, A Sargazi
Background: Acute cellular rejection (ACR), a reversible process, can affect the graft survival. Objective: To evaluate the relation between ACR and clinical factors in recipients of allograft liver transplantation. Methods: 47 recipients of liver were consecutively enrolled in a retrospective study. Their information were retrieved from their medical records and analyzed. Results: Of the 47 recipients, 38 (81%) experienced acute rejection during 24 months of the transplantation...
2018: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Jejo D Koola, Sharon E Davis, Omar Al-Nimri, Sharidan K Parr, Daniel Fabbri, Bradley A Malin, Samuel B Ho, Michael E Matheny
OBJECTIVE: Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) is a devastating form of acute kidney injury (AKI) in advanced liver disease patients with high morbidity and mortality, but phenotyping algorithms have not yet been developed using large electronic health record (EHR) databases. We evaluated and compared multiple phenotyping methods to achieve an accurate algorithm for HRS identification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national retrospective cohort of patients with cirrhosis and AKI admitted to 124 Veterans Affairs hospitals was assembled from electronic health record data collected from 2005 to 2013...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Jan Miechowiecki, Waltraud Stainer, Gertraud Wallner, Herwig Tuppy, Walter Aichinger, Wolfgang Prammer, Andreas Kirchgatterer
INTRODUCTION:  Immunosuppressive therapy is today's standard treatment of patients with moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The risk for opportunistic infections is increased due to this therapy and is a concern in the management of patient with IBD undergoing such a treatment. CASE REPORT:  In this paper, we describe a case of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a 35-year-old male patient with Crohn's disease being in remission while receiving azathioprine therapy...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Eleni Theocharidou, Michael A Heneghan
Autoimmune hepatitis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of loss of immunological tolerance to hepatic autoantigens that can be precipitated by environmental triggers. The clinical manifestation is usually insidious but can be also acute with liver failure. The diagnosis is made on the basis of antibody positivity, elevated immunoglobulin G levels and interface hepatitis on liver histology. Induction of remission is achieved with high-dose steroids in the majority of cases, and maintenance of remission with azathioprine...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Avinoam Nevler, Yaniv Berger, Avital Rabinovitz, Oded Zmora, Moshe Shabtai, Danny Rosin, Mordechai Gutman
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most common indications for emergency abdominal surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the management of acute appendicitis. METHODS: Consecutive emergency department patients referred for a surgical consult for suspected AA were prospectively enrolled in the study. Data regarding demographic, clinical and laboratory results were recorded...
March 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
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