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acute liver disease

Vadim A Shiryaev, Eugene V Radchenko, Vladimir A Palyulin, Nikolay S Zefirov, Nikolay I Bormotov, Olga A Serova, Larisa N Shishkina, Marat R Baimuratov, Kseniya M Bormasheva, Yulia A Gruzd, Elena A Ivleva, Marina V Leonova, Anton V Lukashenko, Dmitry V Osipov, Vitaliy A Osyanin, Alexander N Reznikov, Vera A Shadrikova, Anastasia E Sibiryakova, Ilya M Tkachenko, Yuri N Klimochkin
The hepatitis C caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an acute and/or chronic liver disease ranging in severity from a mild brief ailment to a serious lifelong illness that affects up to 3% of the world population and imposes significant and increasing social, economic, and humanistic burden. Over the past decade, its treatment was revolutionized by the development and introduction into clinical practice of the direct acting antiviral (DAA) agents targeting the non-structural viral proteins NS3/4A, NS5A, and NS5B...
August 6, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sonja Kroep, Ling-Hsiang Chuang, Alexander Cohen, Pearl Gumbs, Ben van Hout, Manuel Monreal, Stefan N Willich, Anselm Gitt, Rupert Bauersachs, Giancarlo Agnelli
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is often accompanied by co-morbidities, which complicate and confound data interpretation concerning VTE-related mortality, costs and quality of life. We aimed to assess the contribution of co-morbidities to the burden of VTE. The PREFER in VTE registry, across seven European countries, documented and followed acute VTE patients over 12 months. Patients with co-morbidities were grouped in major co-morbidity groups: cancer, cardiovascular (CV) comorbidity (other than VTE), CV risks, venous, renal, liver, respiratory, bone and joint diseases, and lower extremity paralysis...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Maria J Torres, Terence E Ryan, Chien-Te Lin, Tonya N Zeczycki, P Darrell Neufer
Natural- or surgically-induced post-menopausal women are widely prescribed estrogen therapies to alleviate symptoms associated with estrogen loss and to lower the subsequent risk of developing metabolic diseases, including diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the molecular mechanisms by which estrogens modulate metabolism across tissues remain ill-defined. We have previously reported 17β-estradiol (E2) exerts anti-diabetogenic effects in ovariectomized (OVX) mice by protecting mitochondrial and cellular redox function in skeletal muscle...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Pere Ginès, Elsa Solà, Paolo Angeli, Florence Wong, Mitra K Nadim, Patrick Kamath
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a form of kidney function impairment that characteristically occurs in cirrhosis. Recent changes in terminology have led to acute HRS being referred to as acute kidney injury (AKI)-HRS and chronic HRS as chronic kidney disease (CKD)-HRS. AKI-HRS is characterized by a severe impairment of kidney function owing to vasoconstriction of the renal arteries in the absence of substantial abnormalities in kidney histology. Pathogenetic mechanisms involve disturbances in circulatory function due to a marked splanchnic arterial vasodilation, which triggers the activation of vasoconstrictor factors...
September 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Ya-Hong He, Lei Lu, Yu-Fang Wang, Jin-Song Huang, Wei-Qin Zhu, Yan Guo, Chun-Xia Li, Hua-Ming Li
Acute pancreatitis is rarely associated with drugs. Acetaminophen overdose is a well-known cause of hepatic toxicity, but drug-induced pancreatitis is rarely reported, especially after mild overdose. A 32-year-old woman presented with nausea and vomiting for 12 h, but no abdominal pain following an overdose of eight Tylenol tablets containing acetaminophen (325 mg acetaminophen per tablet). Laboratory results on admission showed abnormal amylase and lipase levels but completely normal liver function. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed mild swelling of the pancreas without fluid collection around the pancreas...
September 6, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Siv Meling, Kerstin Skovgaard, Kjetil Bårdsen, Peter Mikael Helweg Heegaard, Martha J Ulvund
BACKGROUND: Incubation period, disease progression, pathology and clinical presentation of classical scrapie in sheep are highly dependent on PRNP genotype, time and route of inoculation and prion strain. Our experimental model with pre-colostrum inoculation of homozygous VRQ lambs has shown to be an effective model with extensive PrPSc dissemination in lymphatic tissue and a short incubation period with severe clinical disease. Serum protein analysis has shown an elevation of acute phase proteins in the clinical stages of this experimental model, and here, we investigate changes in gene expression in whole blood, liver and brain...
September 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Vinicius Danieli Scarioti, Lucia Tabim de Oliveira, Anye Caroline Mattiello, Nayara Dos Santos Gomes
A 16-year-old female patient previously diagnosed with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) presented with acute bilateral pneumonia, upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by ruptured esophageal varices, ascites, and lower limb edema. She required intensive care and an endoscopic procedure to treat the gastrointestinal bleeding. The analysis of the differential diagnosis for chronic liver disease indicated she had a spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Ultrasound-guided biopsy revealed the patient had cirrhosis, as characteristically seen in individuals with ARPKD...
September 6, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Evren Hizal, Aydincan Akdur, Fuat Buyuklu, Levent Naci Ozluoglu, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to define the otorhinolaryngologic manifestations and clinical characteristics of patients who received kidney or liver transplants at a university hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients who received a kidney or liver transplant between 2000 and 2013 and who were referred or applied to the ear, nose, and throat clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Otorhinolaryngologic complaints, signs, examination findings, and diagnoses of patients were noted...
September 4, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Shu Kwun Lui, Alyssa Krasinskas, Rushikesh Shah, Jessica M Tracht
Sickle cell disease has a wide range of hepatic manifestations, with acute intrahepatic cholestasis being one of the rarest and most fatal, often resulting in acute fulminant hepatic failure. Liver transplantation is an emerging but rarely utilized treatment for hepatic failure in the setting of sickle cell disease. Few such cases have been reported in the literature, with little emphasis on histopathologic correlation. We report a case of acute intrahepatic cholestasis in a patient with sickle cell disease who underwent orthotropic liver transplantation and describe novel correlating histopathologic features...
September 10, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Xing-Feng Zheng, Xiao-Yan Hu, Bing Ma, He Fang, Fang Zhang, Yan-Fei Mao, Feng-Yong Yang, Shi-Chu Xiao, Zhao-Fan Xia
Interleukin (IL) -35 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine which exerts various beneficial effects on autoimmune diseases. However, whether IL-35 plays a role in endotoxin induced hepatitis demands clarification. This study aims to reveal the effect and mechanism of IL-35 on endotoxin induced liver injury. Acute hepatic injury was induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN, 400 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 μg/kg) administration in mice. IL-35 treatment ameliorated D-GalN/LPS induced liver injury in a dose dependent manner as shown by histological examination, ALT determination and Caspase-3 activity assay...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Zohair Ahmed, Umair Ahmed, Saqib Walayat, Jinma Ren, Daniel K Martin, Harsha Moole, Sean Koppe, Sherri Yong, Sonu Dhillon
Background and aims: Many patients with liver disease come to medical attention once they have advanced cirrhosis or acute decompensation. Most often, patients are screened for liver disease via liver function tests (LFTs). There is very limited published data evaluating laboratory values with biopsy-proven stages of hepatic fibrosis. We set out to evaluate whether any correlation exists between routine LFTs and stages of hepatic fibrosis. Methods: A large retrospective observational study on 771 liver biopsies was conducted for evaluating the stage of fibrosis with AST, ALT, INR, BUN, creatinine, platelets, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and albumin...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Yanning Liu, Guohua Lou, Aichun Li, Tianbao Zhang, Jinjin Qi, Dan Ye, Min Zheng, Zhi Chen
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosome administration has been considered as a novel cell-free therapy for liver diseases through cell-cell communication. This study was aimed to determine the effects and mechanisms of AMSC-derived exosomes (AMSC-Exo) for acute liver failure (ALF) treatment. METHODS: AMSC-Exo were intravenously administrated into the mice immediately after lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine (LPS/GalN)-exposure and their effects were evaluated by liver histological and serum biochemical analysis...
September 6, 2018: EBioMedicine
B Vincenzi, A Russo, A Terenzio, A Galvano, D Santini, F Vorini, R Antonelli-Incalzi, U Vespasiani-Gentilucci, G Tonini
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains the most common cause of acute liver failure in the Western world. Chemotherapy is one of the major class of drugs most frequently associated with idiosyncratic DILI. For this reason, patients who receive chemotherapy require careful assessment of liver function prior to treatment to determine which drugs may not be appropriate and which drug doses should be modified. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is an endogenous agent derived from methionine. Its supplementation is effective in the treatment of liver disease, in particular intrahepatic cholestasis (IHC)...
October 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Vivian Paulino Figueiredo, Evandro Saraiva Lopes Junior, Laís Roquete Lopes, Natalia Figueirôa Simões, Arlete Rita Penitente, Eduardo Bearzoti, Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira, Richard Schulz, André Talvani
The high fat diet (HFD) can trigger metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Trypanosoma cruzi infection induces progressive inflammatory manifestations capable to affect the structure and the function of important organs such as the heart and liver. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of a HFD on the immune response and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities during acute infection with the T. cruzi strain VL-10. The VL-10 strain has cardiac tropism and causes myocarditis in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with either: (i) regular diet (Reg) or (ii) HFD for 8 weeks, after which mice in each group were infected with T...
September 6, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Jin Dong Kim, Eun Ju Cho, Choonghyun Ahn, Sue K Park, Jong Young Choi, Han Chu Lee, Do Young Kim, Moon Seok Choi, Hee Jung Wang, In Hee Kim, Jong Eun Yeon, Yeon Seok Seo, Won Young Tak, Moon Young Kim, Heon Ju Lee, Yun Soo Kim, Dae Won Jun, Joo Hyun Sohn, So Young Kwon, Sang Hoon Park, Jeong Heo, Sook-Hyang Jeong, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Nobuaki Nakayama, Satoshi Mochida, Akio Ido, Hirohito Tsubouchi, Hazime Takikawa, Shalimar, Subrat Kumar Acharya, William Bernal, John O'Grady, Yoon Jun Kim
Acute liver failure (ALF) caused by hepatitis A is a rare but fatal disease. Here, we developed a model to predict outcome in patients with ALF caused by hepatitis A. The derivation set consisted of 294 patients diagnosed with hepatitis A-related ALF from Korea, and a validation set of 56 patients from Japan, India, and United Kingdom. Using multivariate proportional hazard model, a risk-prediction model (ALFA score) comprised of age, international normalized ratio, bilirubin, ammonia, creatinine, and hemoglobin levels acquired on the day of ALF diagnosis was developed...
September 8, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Fernando Bessone, Melisa Dirchwolf, María Agustina Rodil, María Valeria Razori, Marcelo G Roma
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease, since it is strongly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome pandemics. NAFLD may affect drug disposal and has common pathophysiological mechanisms with drug-induced liver injury (DILI); this may predispose to hepatoxicity induced by certain drugs that share these pathophysiological mechanisms. In addition, drugs may trigger fatty liver and inflammation per se by mimicking NAFLD pathophysiological mechanisms...
September 7, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jiangnan Hu, Shengwei Huang, Lu Zhu, Weijie Huang, Yiping Zhao, Kunlin Jin, Qichuan ZhuGe
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA approved thrombolytic drug for acute ischemic stroke but concerns regarding its limitations remain. Here, we developed a new strategy by incorporating tPA into porous magnetic iron oxide (Fe3 O4 )-microrods (tPA-MRs) for targeted thrombolytic therapy in ischemic stroke induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. We showed that intra-arterial injection of tPA-MRs could target the cerebral blood clot in vivo under the guidance of an external magnet, where tPA was subsequently released at the site of embolism...
September 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Celina Gonçalves, Ana Cipriano, Fábio Videira Santos, Miguel Abreu, Josefina Méndez, Rui Sarmento E Castro
Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in healthy adults is usually asymptomatic or causes a mild mononucleosis syndrome, while severe infections are rare in immunocompetent patients and poorly documented. When described, gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous systems are the most frequent sites of severe CMV infection. Lung disease can occur, but it's rare. Clinical case: A 29 years old man presenting with a 2-weeks history of fever, headache, malaise, dry non-productive cough and thoracic pleuritic pain, without improvement after one-week therapy with levofloxacin...
2018: IDCases
Laura K Schoch, Kenneth R Cooke, Nina D Wagner-Johnston, Ivana Gojo, Lode J Swinnen, Philip Imus, Ephraim J Fuchs, Mark Levis, Richard F Ambinder, Richard J Jones, Douglas E Gladstone
Published reports suggest that immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) before allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) may increase the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), immune-related adverse events, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM); this led to the US Food and Drug Administration issuing a "Warning and Precaution" regarding the potential for life-threatening immune-mediated complications associated with alloBMT after nivolumab and pembrolizumab. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 14 consecutive patients who received ICIs as their final salvage therapy before T-cell-replete alloBMT using reduced-intensity conditioning...
September 11, 2018: Blood Advances
Yijin Wang, Shan Wang, Jian Wu, Yiyun Jiang, Haiying Zhang, Shujuan Li, Hongyang Liu, Changshuang Yang, Haijun Tang, Naizhou Guo, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Lai Wei, Qiuwei Pan, Jingmin Zhao
Neurological manifestations are potentially associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Europe, mainly attributed to genotype (GT) 3 HEV infection. In this study, we determined the frequency and causal relationship of HEV in patients with non-traumatic neurological disorders in China, where GT4 HEV is prevalent. 1117 consecutive patients diagnosed with neurological illnesses in a hospital of eastern China and 1475 healthy controls who took routine examination in the same hospital were tested for HEV by serology and molecular methods...
September 3, 2018: EBioMedicine
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