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acute liver disease

Andrew R Albert, Ronald Valencia, Janet A Smereck
Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury, concurrent with encephalopathy and loss of hepatic synthetic function, in a patient without known pre-existing liver disease. Evaluation of acute liver failure in the emergency department should focus on identification of treatable causes. Acute liver failure from acute hepatitis B infection is a rare but potentially lethal occurrence. Multi-organ dysfunction from acute liver failure may be exacerbated by metabolic and inflammatory reactions associated with acute pancreatitis, which accompanies approximately 5% of cases of acute viral hepatitis...
November 2018: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
N Tsolakos, T N Durrant, T Chessa, S M Suire, D Oxley, S Kulkarni, J Downward, O Perisic, R L Williams, L Stephens, P T Hawkins
Class IA PI3Ks have many roles in health and disease. The rules that govern intersubunit and receptor associations, however, remain unclear. We engineered mouse lines in which individual endogenous class IA PI3K subunits were C-terminally tagged with 17aa that could be biotinylated in vivo. Using these tools we quantified PI3K subunits in streptavidin or PDGFR pull-downs and cell lysates. This revealed that p85α and β bound equivalently to p110α or p110β but p85α bound preferentially to p110δ. p85s were found in molar-excess over p110s in a number of contexts including MEFs (p85β, 20%) and liver (p85α, 30%)...
November 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Junjun Cai, Kai Wang, Tao Han, Huiqing Jiang
Systemic inflammatory responses are associated with the development and progression of liver failure. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), red cell distribution width (RDW), RDW-to platelet ratio (RPR), mean platelet volume (MPV), and MPV-to platelet ratio (MPR) are markers of systemic inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic values of these inflammatory markers in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF)...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bernard Le Foll, Leon French
Due to size and accessibility, most information about the habenula is derived from rodent studies. To better understand the molecular signature of the habenula we characterized the genes that have high expression in the habenula. We compared anatomical expression profiles of three normal adult human brains and four fetal brains. We used gene set enrichment analyses to determine if genes annotated to specific molecular functions, cellular components, and biological processes are enriched in the habenula. We also tested gene sets related to depression and addiction to determine if they uniquely involve the habenula...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Runal John Steve, Fletcher John Gnanadurai, Raghavendran Anantharam, Visalakshi Jeyaseelan, Uday George Zachariah, Ashish Goel, Eapen Eapen Chundamannil, Priya Abraham
Introduction: Acute decompensation of pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD), known as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), is associated with high mortality. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) as a potential cause was studied. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the role of HEV in ACLF patients using an IgM anti-HEV antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), HEV antigen ELISA, and a quantitative HEV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 50 ACLF (cases) as defined by the standard guidelines (APASL, 2014) and 50 patients with stable CLD (controls) from January 2015 to August 2016, after obtaining informed consent...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Hyun-Yong Kim, Jung-Ran Noh, Sung-Je Moon, Dong-Hee Choi, Yong-Hoon Kim, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Hong-Sun Yook, Jin-Pyo An, Won-Keon Oh, Jung Hwan Hwang, Chul-Ho Lee
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of Sicyos angulatus (SA) ethanolic extracts as antioxidants and potential treatments for liver disease. METHODS: To establish a mouse model of liver injury, C57BL/6 male mice were injected via the caudal vein with a single dose of concanavalin A (Con A, 15 mg kg-1 ). SA extracts were administered once by oral gavage 30 min before Con A injection. RESULTS: In vitro studies showed that SA decreased tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
December 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Geneviève André-Fontaine, Laetitia Triger
Dogs are naturally exposed to numerous pathogenic serogroups. Leptospirosis vaccines are claimed to afford a clinical protection restricted to the serogroups of which they are composed. Objectives: Dogs exhibiting liver and kidney injury were suspected of having leptospirosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) results in naive and vaccinated dogs experiencing leptospirosis outcomes. Only MAT-positive animals were included in the study. Methods: Over five years, 3 512 dogs were suspected of having leptospirosis...
November 2018: Heliyon
Kristina Kovacovicova, Marianna Skolnaja, Mihkel Heinmaa, Martin Mistrik, Pille Pata, Illar Pata, Jiri Bartek, Manlio Vinciguerra
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death, which develops in the context of fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by chronic inflammation, in turn due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcohol consumption and/or hepatitis viral infection. An increased number of senescent cells are associated with age-related tissue degeneration during NAFLD-induced HCC, or during chemotherapeutic treatment. Senolytic agents target selectively senescent cells. A combination of the senolytic drugs dasatinib and quercetin (D+Q) reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and alleviated age-associated physical dysfunction in mice...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Kristin Capone, Ruba K Azzam
Wilson's disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to a mutation of the ATP7B gene resulting in impaired hepatic copper excretion and copper accumulation in various tissues. It is associated with the classic triad of cirrhosis, neurological manifestations, and the ocular finding of Kayser-Fleischer rings; however, the clinical presentation can vary greatly from incidental findings of abnormal liver enzymes to acute liver failure necessitating liver transplant...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Sagnik Biswas, Samagra Agarwal, Manish Soneja, Ashutosh Biswas
Wilson's Disease is an inborn error of metabolism associated with accumulation of copper in the body manifesting as hepatic, neurological and behavioural symptoms. Almost 20% patients initially present with behavioural symptoms such as depression, personality changes or even mania. Schizophrenia and catatonia are less common. We describe the case of a 35 year old female with behavioural abnormalities diagnosed as a case of Schizophrenia and started on antipsychotics, which led to further worsening of her primary complaints...
November 13, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Yoenten Phuentshok, Kezang Dorji, Tandin Zangpo, Silas A Davidson, Ratree Takhampunya, Tenzinla Tenzinla, Chencho Dorjee, Roger S Morris, Peter D Jolly, Sithar Dorjee, Joanna S McKenzie
Rodents are well-known reservoirs and vectors of many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, but little is known about their role in zoonotic disease transmission in Bhutan. In this study, a cross-sectional investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens in rodents was performed in Chukha district, Bhutan, where a high incidence of scrub typhus and cases of acute undifferentiated febrile illness had been reported in people during the preceding 4-6 months. Twelve rodents were trapped alive using wire-mesh traps...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Fei Huang
Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) catalyze lysine acetylation, a reversible protein modification implicated in a wide variety of disease states. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) comprise a KAT sub-class that acetylate specific lysines in histones, hence playing an important role in the regulation of chromatin organization and function. HATs are critical regulators of signaling in many diseases, including cancer. KAT6A (also known as monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein, MOZ) and KAT6B (also known as MORF and QKF) belong to the MYST family of HATs, that comprise KAT5-KAT8...
December 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Lili Gao, Zhenya Zhang, Peng Zhang, Minghua Yu, Tao Yang
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in embryonic development. It becomes reactivated in many types of acute and chronic liver injuries. Hh signaling is required for liver regeneration, regulates capillarisation, controls the fates of hepatic stellate cells, promotes liver fibrosis and liver cancers. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of canonical Hh signaling pathway in adult liver. This help to understand the pathogenesis of liver diseases and find out the new effective targeted therapeutic strategies for liver diseases treatments...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yue-Meng Wan, Yu-Hua Li, Zhi-Yuan Xu, Hua-Mei Wu, Xi-Nan Wu, Ying Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) can be caused by reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (HBV-ACLF). It's unclear whether HBV genotypes affect the clinical and therapeutical outcomes of patients with HBV-ACLF. This study was to investigate the short-term antiviral response and overall survival in HBV-ACLF patients treated by tenofovir or entecavir. METHODS: Seventy-three consecutive patients with HBV-ACLF were stratified into genotype B group (n = 33) and C group (n = 40)...
November 12, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Tadatoshi Tanino, Toru Bando, Yuna Okada, Yukie Nojiri, Kanako Hashimoto, Yukari Ueda, Eiichi Sakurai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mast cell-mediated allergic diseases are a significant global health problem. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by acute type 1 allergies greatly suppresses hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism. A recent in vitro study demonstrated that repeated FcεRI-mediated activation intrinsically modulates mast cell function. We investigated the effect of ovalbumin (OVA) challenges on CYP activity and NO production under real immune responses. METHODS: After repeated sensitization with OVA once a week, serum nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) and total plasma immunoglobulin E concentrations were measured using commercially available kits...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Charles D Calenda, Jan Petrasek, Aditya Ambade, Karen Kodys, Luciano Adorini, Gyongyi Szabo
Bile acids (BAs) activate various dedicated receptors, including the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5). The FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) is licensed for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis and has shown promising results in NASH patients, whereas TGR5 agonists target inflammation and metabolism. We hypothesized that FXR and/or TGR5 agonists may be therapeutic in early alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in mice, in which hepatic inflammation plays a major role...
November 2018: Hepatology Communications
Aya Ugamura, Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Nobuhito Taniki, Keisuke Ojiro, Taizo Hibi, Masahiro Shinoda, Hideaki Obara, Yohei Masugi, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Morikawa, Shingo Usui, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Yuko Kitagawa, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
A prognostic system for acute liver failure (ALF) with a higher predictive value is urgently needed. The role of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in ALF has not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that serologic fibrosis markers, which reflect ECM remodeling, are predictive of ALF outcome at first presentation. This observational study included 110 patients with acute liver dysfunction, of which 73 had non-acetaminophen-associated ALF (NAA-ALF). We evaluated serum levels of hyaluronic acid, 7S domain of type IV collagen (4COL7S), and Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2-binding protein at first presentation to a tertiary center...
November 2018: Hepatology Communications
Raghuraman C Srinivasan, Kristina Kannisto, Stephen C Strom, Roberto Gramignoli
Placenta is a non-controversial and promising source of cells for the treatment of several liver diseases. We previously reported that transplanted human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, resulting in correction of mouse models of metabolic liver disease or acute hepatic failure. As part of preclinical safety studies, we investigated the distribution of hAECs using two routes of administration to efficiently deliver hAECs to the liver. Optical imaging is commonly used because it can provide fast, high-throughput, whole-body imaging, thus DiR-labeled hAECs were injected into immunodeficient mice, via the spleen or the tail vein...
November 5, 2018: Cytotherapy
Julia C Iezzoni
Histochemistry has an important, continuing role in the current assessment of hepatic biopsies and resection specimens. The evaluation of connective tissue elements in the liver can be accomplished with such methods as the Masson trichrome, Snook reticulin, Vierhoff van Gieson, orcein, and Victoria blue stains. The results contribute to the diagnosis of acute and chronic hepatitis, submassive necrosis, venous outflow obstruction, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Fat stains done on frozen sections of liver tissue are routinely performed in the evaluation of donor liver allograft biopsies...
October 16, 2018: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
J S Lee, J M Kim, K S Kim, G-S Choi, J-W Joh, S-K Lee
PURPOSE: Incisional hernia is a complication following abdominal operation. Patients undergoing liver transplantation have a high risk of developing incisional hernia because of immunosuppression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate incisional hernia after liver transplantation and to identify risk factors for hernia formation in those patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1044 adult patients with more than 2 years of follow-up in patients who underwent liver transplantation from January 2000 to December 2015...
November 8, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
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